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Old and New Terms from

the Dawnbreakers and their Equivalents


in Today’s English

• accede v 1: submit or yield to another's wish or opinion


• accord VT: allow to have; "grant a privilege"
• act as a result of fear or anxiety. Dismay is the least specific: Plummeting
stock prices dismayed speculators.
• Adduce: To cite as an example or means of proof in an argument; to advance
evidence for adjure n. An earnest, solemn appeal; to command solemnly
under or as if under oath or penalty of a curse : to urge or advise earnestly
• Adhirbayjan = Azerbaijan is located in Southwest Asia. Azerbaijan gained its
independence from the old Soviet Union in 1991.
• Adjure: 1 : to command solemnly under or as if under oath or penalty of a
curse 2 : to urge or advise earnestly
• Fervor: Great warmth and intensity of emotion; intense emotion or feeling
• Advent 1 : the period beginning four Sundays before Christmas and observed
by some Christians as a season of prayer and fasting 2 a : the coming of
Christ at the Incarnation b : second coming 3 not capitalized : a coming into
being or use <the advent of spring> <the advent of pasteurization> <the
advent of personal computers
• afflict. To inflict grievous physical or mental suffering on.
• All-pervasive= extensive
• Furtive: a : done by stealth : surreptitious b : expressive of stealth : sly <had a
furtive look about him> 2: obtained underhandedly : stolen — fur·tive·ly adverb
— fur·tive·ness noun

• Allusion: Date: 1548 1 : an implied or indirect reference especially in
literature; also : the use of such references 2 : the act of alluding to or
hinting at something. More: Definition: An allusion is a reference, within a
literary work, to another work of fiction, a film, a piece of art, or even a real
event. An allusion serves as a kind of shorthand, drawing on this outside work
to provide greater context or meaning to the situation being written about.
While allusions can be an economical way of communicating with the reader,
they risk alienating readers who do not recognize these references. Strong
fiction (or poetry for that matter) will use allusions so that the fiction works
on both levels. Readers who get the allusions gain a richer understanding of
the work, but those who don't can still follow the story and be entertained or
enlightened by it. I often think of allusions as a kind of hypertext, linking the
reader to another tradition or literary history. I can also think of poems, like
"The Wasteland" (see below), in which the poet was practically sampling
other works, the way DJs sample other songs. However, allusions can also be
quite subtle. For instance, Shakespeare's influence on literature in English is
so strong that we often make allusions to his plays without being aware of it.
Also Known As: reference Examples: T.S. Eliot's "The Wasteland," relies
heavily on allusions; for those without a strong classical education, it can be a
challenging poem.
• Appall implies a sense of helplessness caused by an awareness of the
enormity of something: "for as this appalling ocean surrounds the verdant
land" Herman Melville.
• appalling adj. Causing consternation or dismay; frightful:
• ascendancy . Superiority or decisive advantage; domination:
• ascendancy dominance: the state that exists when one person or group has
power over another; Superiority or decisive advantage; domination
• calumniate to Make false statements about a person, intending to hurt their
reputation, is to calumniate
• clamor n. A loud outcry; a hubbub. A vehement expression of discontent or
protest: ,loud and persistent outcry from many people; "he ignored the
clamor of the crowd"
• confines a bounded scope; "he stayed within the confines of the city"
• Consternation: alarm: fear resulting from the awareness of danger;
Amazement or horror that confounds the faculties
• Confound: A DESTROY b : BAFFLE, FRUSTRATE <conferences…are not for accomplishment
but to confound knavish tricks — J. K. Galbraith> 3 a : to put to shame : DISCOMFIT <a
performance that confounded the critics> b : REFUTE <sought to confound his arguments>
4: DAMN 5: to throw (a person) into confusion or perplexity 6 a : to fail to discern
differences between : mix up b : to increase the confusion of
• contemptuously without respect; in a disdainful manner; "she spoke of him
contemptuously
• Daunt suggests an abatement of courage: "captains courageous, whom death
could not daunt" Anonymous ballad.
• deem: keep in mind or convey as a conviction or view; "take for granted";
"view as important"; to have an opinion
• Denunciation: The act or an instance of denouncing, especially a public
condemnation or censure. The act of accusing another of a crime before a.
• deplore To feel or express strong disapproval of; condemn: “Somehow we
had to master events, not simply
• disconcerted discombobulated: having self-possession upset; thrown into
confusion;
• dismay: tr.v. dis·mayed, dis·may·ing, dis·mays 1. To destroy the courage or
resolution of by exciting dread or apprehension. 2. To cause to lose
enthusiasm; disillusion: was dismayed to learn that her favorite dancer used
drugs. 3. To upset or alarm. n.A sudden or complete loss of courage in the
face of trouble or danger. Synonyms: dismay, appall, daunt, horrify, shake
These verbs mean to deprive a person of courage or the power to
• distress: suffering, misery, agony mean the state of being in great trouble.
• Emissaries –spies
• Exhorted: Date: 15th century; transitive verb : to incite by argument or
advice : urge strongly <exhorting voters to do the right thing>intransitive
verb : to give warnings or advice : make urgent appeals;
• Expostulating: to reason earnestly with a person for purposes of dissuasion or
remonstrance
• Extol: To elevate by praise; to eulogize; to praise; to magnify;
• forbearance patience: good-natured tolerance of delay or incompetence
• haughty disdainful: having or showing arrogant superiority to and disdain of
those one views as unworthy;
• hold in high esteem: hold-in-high-regard , to prize; to regard with respect;
to think well of.
• Homily 1-A discourse or sermon read or pronounced to an audience; a serious
discourse. Or 2-A serious or tedious exhortation in private on some moral
point, or on the conduct of life
• Horrify implies dread, shock, or revulsion: The citizens were horrified by the
possibility of nuclear war.
To shake is to dismay profoundly: "A little swift brutality shook him to the
very soul" John Galsworthy.
• ignominy n. , pl. -ies . Great personal dishonor or humiliation. Shameful or
disgraceful action, conduct, or character.
• illuminating :. shedding light on subject: informative and enlightening, often
by revealing or emphasizing facts that were previously obscure .
• Imprecation (n.) The act of imprecating, or invoking evil upon any one; a
prayer that a curse
• induce To lead or move, as to a course of action, by influence or persuasion.
• INSOLENT impudent: marked by casual disrespect; "a flip answer to serious
question"; "the student was kept in for impudent behavior
• lamentation: A cry of sorrow and grief lament, plaint, wail 2-The passionate
and demonstrative activity of expressing grief
• longing n. A strong persistent yearning or desire, especially one that cannot
be fulfilled. longingly long ' ingly adv.
• Lowmindedness. The quality of being low-minded; meanness; baseness
• Mischief: :a specific injury or damage attributed to a particular agent 2:a
cause or source of harm, evil, or irritation; especially :a person who causes
mischief3 a:action that annoys or irritates b:the quality or state of being
mischievous
• Penalize To punish an individual or team-by means of a penalty
• perfidious treacherous. See synonyms at faithless . perfidiously perfid ' iously.
Tending to betray
• perforce by necessity; by force of circumstance
• Perils: Date: 13th century 1 : exposure to the risk of being injured,
destroyed, or lost : danger <fire put the city in peril> 2 : something that
imperils : risk <lessen the perils of the streets>
• pernicious adj. Tending to cause death or serious injury; deadly: a pernicious
virus. Causing great harm; destructive: pernicious rumors
• perspicacity: shrewdness: intelligence manifested by being astute (as in
business dealings) Acuteness of perception, discernment, or understanding.
• prodigality 1. Extravagant wastefulness. 2. Profuse generosity. 3. Extreme
abundance; lavishness.
• profligate ( ) adj. Given over to dissipation; dissolute. Recklessly wasteful;
wildly extravagant.
• profligate ( ) adj. Given over to dissipation; dissolute. Recklessly wasteful;
wildly extravagant
• rebuff: to reject or criticize sharply : snub— rebuff noun
• rebuke To criticize or reprove sharply; reprimand. See synonyms at
admonish, criticism and censure
• Rebuke: 1 a : to criticize sharply : reprimand b : to serve as a rebuke to
• Recoil: 1. To spring back, as upon firing. 2. To shrink back, as in fear or
repugnance. 3. To fall back; return:
• reconnoitering: scouting: exploring in order to gain information; "scouting in
enemy territory is very dangerous"; To make a preliminary inspection of,
especially in order to gather military information.
• secluded adj. Removed or remote from others; solitary. Screened from view;
sequestered.
• self-possessed: collected: in full control of your faculties;
• sojourn a temporary stay or to temporarily stay (e.g., as a guest)
• temerity - Unreasonable contempt of danger; extreme venturesomeness;
rashness;
• tumult n. The din and commotion of a great crowd. A disorderly commotion or
disturbance. A tempestuous uprising; a riot.
• Undaunted: courageously resolute especially in the face of danger or difficulty
: not discouraged
• unfrequented lonely(a): remote or secluded;
• unsuitability noun The condition of being improper: improperness ,
impropriety
• usurp assume: seize and take control without authority and possibly with
force; take as one's right or possession;
• vehement adj 1: marked by extreme intensity of emotions or convictions;
inclined to react violently; fervid;
• venerable impressive by reason of age; "a venerable sage with white hair and
beard"
• Virulence extreme harmfulness of a bacteria or germ
• vouchsafe v 1: grant in a condescending manner 2: promise or agree
condescendingly, as a special favor.
• Wretched 1. Very miserable; sunk in, or accompanied by, deep affliction or
distress, as from want, anxiety, or grief; calamitous; woeful; very afflicting.
adj 1: of very poor quality or condition; 2: characterized by physical misery
3: very unhappy; full of misery; pathetic, piteous, pitiable, pitiful, poor,
• Zeal: Date: 14th century: eagerness and ardent interest in pursuit of
something fervor<her zeal to succeed strained her relationships>synonyms
see passion

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