You are on page 1of 285

# AP Chemistry

Thermochemistry
2017-12-21

www.njctl.org

https://njctl.org/video/?v=ShssNwI4WPo
Click on a topic to go to that section

## · The Nature of Energy

· State Functions
· Enthalpy
· Measuring Enthalpy Changes: Calorimetry
· Energy Associated with Changes of State
· Enthalpies of Reaction
· Hess's Law
· Enthalpies of Formation
· Energy in Foods and Fuels

## · Problem Solving Questions

The Nature of Energy

Table of
https://njctl.org/video/?v=ShssNwI4WPo Contents
Pr
es
en
at
Thermochemistry

## We know chemical and physical processes release and absorb

energy. We use these thermochemical principles to design air
conditioners and refrigerators as well as foot warmers that allow us
to stay comfortable as we "go big" on the hill!
A Review of Energy from Physics
Potential Energy is the energy that objects have due to their
position.
Gravitational Potential Energy
GPE = mgh

EPE = 1/2 kx2

## Electric Potential Energy

UE = (kQ1Q2)/r
A Review of Energy from Physics

## Kinetic Energy is the energy that an object has by

virtue of its motion:

KE = 1/2 mv2

## Work is defined by the formula

W = Fdparallel
A Review of Energy from Physics

## The total energy of An outside force can change

an isolated system is the energy of a system by
constant (E0) doing work on it (Ef)

work

## Algebraically, these two statements combine to become:

E0 + W = E f
Since Ef - Eo = ∆E, this can also be written as

∆E = W
Units of Energy
The SI unit of energy is the Joule (J).

1 cal = 4.184 J

## The energy of food is measured in Calories (C).

[note the capital "C"]

## 1 Calorie = 1000 calories = 4184 Joules

1 A reaction produces 3.8 cal of energy. How many joules
of energy is produced?

A 16 J

B 3.8 J

C 1.1 J

D 0.91 J

E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=Zb4gBd9zcfY
1 A reaction produces 3.8 cal of energy. How many joules
of energy is produced?

A 16 J

B 3.8 J

C 1.1 J A
D 0.91 J

E I need help.
[This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=Zb4gBd9zcfY
2 A reaction uses 235 J of energy. How many calories
have been burned?

A 983 cal

B 983 Cal

C 56.2 cal

D 56.2 Cal

E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=eEWc9S3LgcM
2 A reaction uses 235 J of energy. How many calories
have been burned?

A 983 cal

B 983 Cal

C
C 56.2 cal

D 56.2 Cal

## E I need help. [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=eEWc9S3LgcM
3 A 20 ounce coke contains 240 Calories. How many
kilojoules of energy are present in a 20 ounce Coke?

A 1.0 x 103 kJ

B 1.0 kJ

C 57 kJ

D 0.057 kJ

E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=4slbTy2bLqA
3 A 20 ounce coke contains 240 Calories. How many
kilojoules of energy are present in a 20 ounce Coke?

A 1.0 x 103 kJ

B 1.0 kJ

C 57 kJ A

D 0.057 kJ

E I need help.
[This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=4slbTy2bLqA
Energy & Heat
From last year (if you had the physics class), we know that ∆E = W.

## This year, we extend that by adding another way to change

the energy of a system; by the flow of Heat (q).

## When two objects of different temperature are in contact, heat flow

results in an increase of the energy of the cooler object and an
identical decrease of the energy of the hotter object.

T = 20℃ A B T = 10℃

heat flow

∆E = w + q

## *Note, we use a lower case "w" in chemistry.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=P6FqxT4tER8
The First Law of Thermodynamics
∆E = w + q
Energy is neither created nor destroyed.

## In other words, the total energy of the universe is a constant;

if the system loses energy, it must be gained by the surroundings,
and vice versa.
Initial Final
E0
Internal energy, E

Internal energy, E
state state E
Energy
E < E0 lost to
E > E0
∆E < 0 (-) surroundings
∆E > 0 (+)
Energy gained
Final Initial from
state state surroundings
E E0
E of system decreases E of system increases
E of surroundings increases E of surroundings decreases
System and Surroundings
When considering energy changes, we need to focus on a well-
defined, limited part of the universe. The portion we focus on is
called the system and everything else is called the
surroundings.
Consider the following reaction occurring within a metal cylinder
2H2(g) + O2(g) --> 2H2O(g)

Surroundings
The system includes the reactants and
products (here, the hydrogen, oxygen
and water molecules).
system
The surroundings are everything
else (here, the cylinder and piston).
Changes in Internal Energy

## If ∆E > 0, E final >E initial

H2(g) + 1/2 O2 (g)
The system absorbed energy
from the surroundings.
Internal energy, E

∆E < 0 ∆E >0
(negative) (positive)
If ∆E < 0, Efinal < Einitial
The system released energy
to the surroundings.
H2O(l)
4 Ten grams of table salt are dissolved in water in a 250 mL
beaker. Which of the following is/are component(s) of the
system?

A NaCl

B water

C Na+ and Cl-

## D All of the above

E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=8-_kyFX1EqE
4 Ten grams of table salt are dissolved in water in a 250 mL
beaker. Which of the following is/are component(s) of the
system?

A NaCl

B water

D
C Na+ and Cl-

## E I need help. [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=8-_kyFX1EqE
5 When a strong acid is added to a flask containing water
the flask becomes warm to the touch. This is because...

## B the system absorbed heat from the surroundings

C the system released heat to the surroundings

## D the surroundings released heat to the system

E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=N6vQARXwdFw
5 When a strong acid is added to a flask containing water
the flask becomes warm to the touch. This is because...

## B the system absorbed heat from the surroundings

C
C the system released heat to the surroundings

## E I need help. [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=N6vQARXwdFw
6 When a strong acid is added to a flask containing water
the flask becomes warm to the touch. Which correctly
describes the change in energy relative to both the
system and surroundings?

## A ∆Esys is positive and ∆Esur is negative

B ∆Esys is positive and ∆Esur is positive

## D ∆Esys is negative and ∆Esur is negative

E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=H-2irjkmHfk
6 When a strong acid is added to a flask containing water
the flask becomes warm to the touch. Which correctly
describes the change in energy relative to both the
system and surroundings?

## B ∆Esys is positive and C

∆Esur is positive

## D ∆Esys is negative and ∆Esur is negative

[This object is a pull tab]

E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=H-2irjkmHfk
Changes in Internal Energy

System
When energy is exchanged
between the system and the
Heat q > 0
surroundings, it is
exchanged as either heat (q)
Surroundings or work (w) or both.

∆E = q + w
Work w > 0

∆E>0

https://njctl.org/video/?v=9X8Dgs6ELrE
q, w, ∆E, and Their Signs

## q + system gains heat

- system loses heat

## w + work done on system

- work done by system

## ∆E + net gain of energy by system

- net loss of energy by system
7 The ∆E of a system that gains 50 kJ of heat and
performs 24 kJ of work on the surroundings is
________ kJ.

A -74

B +26

C -26
D +74
E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=OWsDuvXCqmc
7 The ∆E of a system that gains 50 kJ of heat and
performs 24 kJ of work on the surroundings is
________ kJ.

A -74

B +26

C -26 B

D +74
E I need help.
[This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=OWsDuvXCqmc
8 The ∆E of a system that releases 120 J of heat
and does 40 J of work on the surroundings is
________ J.

A -160

B -80
C +80
D +160
E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=JrDTFTRi0n8
8 The ∆E of a system that releases 120 J of heat
and does 40 J of work on the surroundings is
________ J.

A
-160
B -80 A
C +80
D +160
E I need help.
[This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=JrDTFTRi0n8
9 The ∆E of a system that absorbs 120 J of heat and
does 120 J of work on the surroundings is
________ J.

A -240

B -120
C 0
D +120

E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=g0C9fjdQ_pQ
9 The ∆E of a system that absorbs 120 J of heat and
does 120 J of work on the surroundings is
________ J.

A -240
B -120 C
C 0
D +120
[This object is a pull tab]

E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=g0C9fjdQ_pQ
10 The ∆E of a system that absorbs 12,000 J of heat,
and that has 12,000 J of work done on it by the
surroundings is _______ J.

A -24,000
B -12,000

C 0
D +24,000

E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=sEWOuTFyLXg
10 The ∆E of a system that absorbs 12,000 J of heat,
and that has 12,000 J of work done on it by the
surroundings is _______ J.

A -24,000
B -12,000

D
C 0
D +24,000
E I need help.
[This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=sEWOuTFyLXg
Exchange of Heat between
System and Surroundings
When heat is absorbed by the Surroundings
system from the surroundings,
the process is endothermic. System
endothermic
Surroundings

System Heat -q

## +q Heat When heat is released by the

system into the surroundings, the
process is exothermic.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=FAbDoVLw-ho
11 The reaction that occurs inside a foot warmer packet is
endothermic?

A True

B False

C I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=UMFgovMtPCw
11 The reaction that occurs inside a foot warmer packet is
endothermic?

A True

B False

B
C I need help.

## [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=UMFgovMtPCw
12 What will happen when a hot rock is put into
cold water?

## A the water and rock will both

gain energy

B the water and rock will both lose
energy
C the rock will gain energy and the water will
lose energy
D the rock will lose energy and the water will
gain energy
E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=18-wnW3Rldk
12 What will happen when a hot rock is put into
cold water?

## A the water and rock will both

gain energy
B the water and rock will both lose
energy D
C the rock will gain energy and the water will
lose energy
D the rock will lose energy and the water will
gain energy [This object is a pull tab]

E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=18-wnW3Rldk
13 If you put a hot rock in cold water, and your
system is the rock, the process is _______.

A exothermic
B endothermic

## C neither, there is no net change of energy

D it depends on the exact temperatures

E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=9zrq4LX8JHk
13 If you put a hot rock in cold water, and your
system is the rock, the process is _______.

A exothermic
B endothermic

A temperatures
E I need help.

## [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=9zrq4LX8JHk
14 If you put a hot rock in cold water, and your
system is the water, the process is _______.

A exothermic
B endothermic
C neither, there is no net change of energy

D it depends on the exact temperatures
E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=jM_anhWRsZA
14 If you put a hot rock in cold water, and your
system is the water, the process is _______.

A exothermic
B endothermic
C neither, there is no net change of energy

B
D it depends on the exact temperatures
E I need help.

## [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=jM_anhWRsZA
15 If you put an ice cube in water, and your system
is the ice, the process is _______.

A exothermic
B endothermic
C neither, there is no net change of energy

D it depends on the exact
temperatures
E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=fXYnN1bZRhU
15 If you put an ice cube in water, and your system
is the ice, the process is _______.

A exothermic
B endothermic
C neither, there is no net change of energy

B
temperatures
E I need help.

## [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=fXYnN1bZRhU
16 If you put an ice cube in water, and your system
is the water, the process is _______.

A exothermic
B endothermic
C neither, there is no net change of energy

D it depends on the exact
temperatures
E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=KncNG5aV6Gs
16 If you put an ice cube in water, and your system
is the water, the process is _______.

A exothermic
B endothermic
C neither, there is no net change of energy

A
temperatures
E I need help.

## [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=KncNG5aV6Gs
17 When NaOH dissolves in water, the temperature of the
solution increases. This reaction is________.

A endothermic
B exothermic
C I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=Noo8mOIJiVE
17 When NaOH dissolves in water, the temperature of the
solution increases. This reaction is________.

A endothermic
B exothermic
C I need help.

## [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=Noo8mOIJiVE
18 When NH 4Cl dissolves in water the temperature of the
solution drops. This reaction is _____.

A exothermic
B endothermic
C I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=j5wYEPAaJSc
18 When NH 4Cl dissolves in water the temperature of the
solution drops. This reaction is _____.

A exothermic
B endothermic
C I need help.

## [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=j5wYEPAaJSc
19 Water droplets evaporating from the skin surface will
make you feel cold. This process is _____.
A exothermic for water
B exothermic for skin

C endothermic for water
D B and C
E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=jFxelmRyaQQ
19 Water droplets evaporating from the skin surface will
make you feel cold. This process is _____.
A exothermic for water
B exothermic for skin
C endothermic for water
D
D B and C
E I need help.

## [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=jFxelmRyaQQ
State Functions

Table of
Contents
https://njctl.org/video/?v=N7rgLR1gXUA
State Functions
The internal energy of a system is independent of the path by
which the system achieved that state.

## Below, the water could have reached room temperature from

either direction...it makes no difference to the final energy of
the system if it reached its final temperature by heating up or
cooling down.

50 g 50 g 50 g
100 ºC 25 ºC 0 ºC

Cooling Heating
State Functions

## It depends only on the present state of the system, not

on the path by which the system arrived at that state.

## ∆E depends only on Einitial and Efinal

State Functions
Understanding thermodynamics enables us to harness
energy flow for useful purposes.
For instance, whether the
battery is shorted out or is
discharged by running the fan,
its ∆E is the same.

## But q and w are different in the

two cases. If the battery shorts A B
out, all of the energy is lost as
heat, whereas if it is used to Charged battery
run the fan, some energy is
used to do work
Heat Energy
Heat
∆E lost by
q and w are NOT state A B Work battery
functions.
Discharged battery
Work Done by a Gas
When a gas expands it does
work on its surroundings: Initial state Final state

## work (w) = force x distance P= F/A P= F/A

force = pressure x area
and distance = ∆h

w=Fxd
∆V ∆h
w = P x A x ∆h

but A x ∆h = ∆V, so
h
w = -P x ∆V
the negative sign is necessary
because work and ∆V have opposite
signs (see next two slides) A = cross sectional area
Work Done By a Gas
Initial state Final state
If a gas expands,
and does work on its
P= F/A P= F/A
surroundings, the energy
of the gas decreases, this is
considered negative work.

## (-) work is done by system

∆V ∆h
w = - P x (+∆V)

∆V is positive and so w is h
negative this makes sense

## A = cross sectional area

Work Done By a Gas
Initial state Final state

## If the surroundings P= F/A P= F/A

compress a gas,
decreasing its volume, this
increases the energy of
the gas, it is considered
∆V ∆h
positive work.
(+) work is done on system h
W = - P x (-∆V)

## note that ∆V is negative so

w is positive this makes
sense A = cross sectional area
Work Done by a Gas
We can measure the work done by a gas if the reaction is
done in a vessel fitted with a piston.

## HCl Solution HCl Solution + Zinc

Zn +2 HCl ZnCl2 + H2
Work Done by a Gas

Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2

## Hydrogen gas released during the reaction will expand and do

work against the surroundings

## What is the work done by the gas, if 2.5 L of gas is formed at a

constant external pressure of 1 atm?

## For a gas at a constant pressure:

w = - P∆V
w = - 1 atm x 2.5 L
w = - 2.5 L.atm
This makes sense as energy flows out of the system
Enthalpy

Table of
https://njctl.org/video/?v=t23n1hx2qOs
Contents
Enthalpy
The word "enthalpy" is derived from the Greek noun "enthalpos"
which means heating, and very often enthalpy is called the heat
of reaction.

## So far we have discussed the internal energy of a system.

Enthalpy is defined as:
H = E + PV
Where E is internal energy, V is volume and P is pressure

## As for internal energy, it is not possible

to measure enthalpy, H, directly.
Only the change in enthalpy (∆H) can be measured.

∆H = ∆E + ∆(PV)

## But what is enthalpy?

What is Enthalpy?
Enthalpy measurements are made under conditions of constant
pressure when the only work that can be done is by expansion
or compression w = -P∆V. Let's compare the equations for ∆E
and ∆H:

∆H = ∆E + P∆V (1)
∆E = qp - P∆V (2) (rearrange qp = ∆E + P∆V) (3)
Equations 1 and 3 are identical, therefore
∆H = qp

## So at constant pressure, the change in enthalpy (heat of

reaction) is the heat lost or gained by a system as a reaction
occurs

**
Enthalpy

H = E + PV

## It is impossible to measure enthalpy, H, directly.

Only the change in enthalpy (∆H) can be measured.

∆H = ∆E + ∆(PV)
Enthalpy
If a process takes place at constant pressure, and the only
work allowed is from a volume change the, enthalpy change
for a system is the energy flow as heat (qp)

∆H = ∆E + ∆(PV)
∆H = ∆E + P∆V (pressure is constant and volume changes)
∆H = (q + w) - w (where ∆E= q + w and w = -P∆V)
∆H = qp (at constant pressure)
At constant pressure only, the change in enthalpy of a system is
the heat lost or gained by the system as a reaction occurs

Also note that ∆H is different from ∆E only by the work done. For
systems in which no gases are produced, ∆H and ∆E are the
same.
Intensive and Extensive Properties
Very often in chemistry we classify properties of matter as
intensive or extensive:

Intensive Properties are those that do not change with the quantity
of a substance. Colour, hardness, density, freezing point and boiling
point and temperature are all examples.
If I have a 2 L beaker of water and I remove 5 mL, the
temperature of 5 mL of water will be the same as the bulk water.

## Extensive Properties are those that do change with the quantity of

substance. Mass and volume are examples.
Simply put, there is an obvious difference between 1 kg and 2 kg
of sugar or 500 mL and 1L of water.
Intensive and extensive properties can also be applied to
thermochemistry.
Working with Enthalpy
Changes for Reactions
Enthalpy is an extensive property its value depends on the
quantity of the substance that reacts.

## Combustion of 16 grams of CH4 ∆H = -891 kJ

Combustion of 32 grams of CH4 ∆H = (2 x -891) = -1782 kJ

## Burning frozen methane!

Working with Enthalpy
Changes for Reactions

## ∆H for a reaction in the forward direction is equal in size,

but opposite in sign, to ∆H for the reverse reaction.

## 2H2O(g) + CO2(g) --> CH4(g) + 2O2(g) ∆H = +891 kJ

Working with Enthalpy
Changes for Reactions

## ∆H for a reaction depends on the state of the products

and the state of the reactants

## CH4(g) + 2O2(g) --> CO2(g) + 2H2O(l) ∆H = -979 kJ

20 When 114 grams of gasoline is burned in oxygen ∆H is
equal to -5,330 kJ. What is the ∆H for the combustion of
57.0 grams of gasoline?

A +5330 kJ

B +2670 kJ

C -5330 kJ

D -2670 kJ

E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=UHH1Z--SprQ
20 When 114 grams of gasoline is burned in oxygen ∆H is
equal to -5,330 kJ. What is the ∆H for the combustion of
57.0 grams of gasoline?

A +5330 kJ

B +2670 kJ D

C -5330 kJ

D -2670 kJ
[This object is a pull tab]

E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=UHH1Z--SprQ
Endothermic and Exothermic Processes
and Changes in Enthalpy

## A process is endothermic A process is exothermic

when ∆H is positive. when ∆H is negative.

Surroundings Surroundings
System System

+q Heat Heat -q

∆H>0 ∆H<0
Endothermic Exothermic

https://njctl.org/video/?v=0eAoYn2NA7w
21 The reaction A + B --> C is endothermic. ∆H for this
reaction is +50 J. What is the ∆H for the reaction
C --> A + B?

A Cannot be determined

B +50 J
C - 50 J
D -100 J
E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=Vo-zdEY3yOA
21 The reaction A + B --> C is endothermic. ∆H for this
reaction is +50 J. What is the ∆H for the reaction
C --> A + B?

A Cannot be determined
B +50 J
C - 50 J C
D -100 J
E I need help.

## [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=Vo-zdEY3yOA
22 The reaction A + B --> C is exothermic. The ∆H for this
reaction is -150 J. What is the ∆H for the reaction
C --> A + B?
A +150 J
B 0J

C -150 J
D this reaction will not happen
E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=YyU-R66xM3I
22 The reaction A + B --> C is exothermic. The ∆H for this
reaction is -150 J. What is the ∆H for the reaction
C --> A + B?
A +150 J
B 0J

C -150 J
A
D this reaction will not happen
E I need help.

## [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=YyU-R66xM3I
23 Dissolving NaOH in water will increase the
temperature of the solution. This reaction is _____

A exothermic
B endothermic

D isothermal
E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=Emc6VrxNPUg
23 Dissolving NaOH in water will increase the
temperature of the solution. This reaction is _____

A exothermic
B endothermic

D isothermal
E I need help.
[This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=Emc6VrxNPUg
24 For ammonium nitrate dissolving in water
NH 3NO3 --> NH 4+ (aq) + NO 3- (aq)
∆H = +25.69 kJ/mol. Is the reaction exothermic?
A Yes.

B No.

C I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=gb1_TR6z78A
24 For ammonium nitrate dissolving in water
NH 3NO3 --> NH 4+ (aq) + NO 3- (aq)
∆H = +25.69 kJ/mol. Is the reaction exothermic?

B No.
B
C I need help.

## [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=gb1_TR6z78A
Measuring Enthalpy
Changes: Calorimetry

Table of
https://njctl.org/video/?v=aFc9hh_YEpE
Contents
Measuring Enthalpy Changes: Calorimetry
An important property of reactions is that they can generate
heat or absorb heat depending on the reaction. Now we will
learn how to measure the heat produced or absorbed by
reactions that occur in solution.

We will make use of the fact that the energy flow as heat
from a reaction is a measure of enthalpy change of the
system

∆H = qp
The subscript p means the process is occurring at constant
pressure. You may not always see the subscript but it is implied
when we are speaking of enthalpy.
Heat Capacity and Specific Heat Capacity

## Heat Capacity (J/K or J/ ℃)

Is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of a substance by 1K (or 1 ºC). When a substance is
heated the energy required will depend on the amount of
substance.

## Specific Heat Capacity (c) (J/g.K or J/g.℃)

Is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of a substance by 1K (1 ºC). No matter how
much of a given substance you take to measure its specific
heat capacity, you will always get the same value.
25 Heat capacity is an example of an

A Intensive property

B Extensive property

C I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=buV3d6Ow9xE
25 Heat capacity is an example of an

A Intensive property

B Extensive property

C I need help. B

## [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=buV3d6Ow9xE
26 Specific heat is an example of an

A Intensive property

B Extensive property

C I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=RDOUPeu9CYI
26 Specific heat is an example of an

A Intensive property

B Extensive property

A
C I need help.

## [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=RDOUPeu9CYI
Specific Heat Capacity (c)

## heat transferred (q)

Specific heat capacity =
mass x temperature change

q
c= J/g.K or J/g.℃
m x ∆T
or q = m x c x ∆T
Please note that specific heat capacity has the same value no
matter if the units are in Kelvin or ºC. This is because the size
on the unit is the same.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=55QzRG4wqlg
27 The specific heat of marble is 0.858 J/g.K
How much heat (in J) is required to raise the
temperature of 20.0 g of marble from 22 °C to 45 °C?
A 390 J
B 770 J
C 0.75 J

D 0.99 J
E I need help.

q = m x c x ∆T

https://njctl.org/video/?v=EuKQqp2yH-I
27 The specific heat of marble is 0.858 J/g.K
How much heat (in J) is required to raise the
temperature of 20.0 g of marble from 22 °C to 45 °C?
A 390 J
B 770 J
C 0.75 J

D 0.99 J
A
E I need help.

q = m x c x ∆T
[This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=EuKQqp2yH-I
28 A 26.0 g sample of wood (c = 1.674 J/g.K) absorbs
200. J of heat. The temperature of the sample
increases from 20.0 °C to ______°C.
A 0.23
B 20.2
C 4.59

D 24.6
E I need help.

q = m x c x ∆T

https://njctl.org/video/?v=c90d5-_TS8o
28 A 26.0 g sample of wood (c = 1.674 J/g.K) absorbs
200. J of heat. The temperature of the sample
increases from 20.0 °C to ______°C.
A 0.23
B 20.2
C 4.59

D 24.6 D

E I need help.

q = m x c x ∆T
[This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=c90d5-_TS8o
29 A sample of silver (c = 0.236 J/g.K) absorbs 8.00 x 102 J
of heat. The temperature of the sample increases from
50.0 °C to 80.0°C. What is the mass of the sample?

A 113 g
B 42.0 g

C 5.60 x 103 g
D 68.0 g
E I need help.

q = mc∆T

https://njctl.org/video/?v=D06ewFgjeXc
29 A sample of silver (c = 0.236 J/g.K) absorbs 8.00 x 102 J
of heat. The temperature of the sample increases from
50.0 °C to 80.0°C. What is the mass of the sample?

A 113 g
B 42.0 g

C 5.60 x 103 g
A
D 68.0 g
E I need help.

## q = mc∆T [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=D06ewFgjeXc
Constant Pressure Calorimetry

## thermometer Many chemical reactions happen

in aqueous solutions.
stirrer
The apparatus to the left is a
calorimeter.
insulated cover

How could you use it to measure
the heat change for a chemical
reaction in an aqueous solution?

styrofoam cup

sparknotes.com

https://njctl.org/video/?v=pNsDvcyjik8
Constant Pressure Calorimetry

## thermometer Many chemical reactions happen

By carrying out in aqueousinsolutions.
a reaction
stirrer
aqueous solution in a simple
calorimeter like The
this apparatus to the left is a
one, the heat
calorimeter.
change for a system can be
insulated cover

## indirectly determined. The heat

How could
change of the solution you use it to measure
in the
calorimeter will the
have heat
thechange
same for a chemical
magnitude as for reaction in an aqueous
the system, but the solution?
opposite sign. So if the heat change
in the surroundings is + 300 J the
heat change in the
styrofoam cupsystem is - 300 J
[This object is a pull tab]

sparknotes.com

https://njctl.org/video/?v=pNsDvcyjik8
Constant Pressure Calorimetry
Because the specific heat for water
is known (4.184 J/g.K), we can
thermometer measure ∆H for the reaction by
measuring the heat change in the
stirrer
surroundings using the following
equation:
insulated cover ∆H = q = mc∆T (at constant pressure)

## Note that ∆T = Tfinal - Tinitial

for an exothermic reaction ∆T is +
for an endothermic reaction ∆T is -
styrofoam cup The heat change in the
surroundings has the same magnitude
as for the system, but has the
sparknotes.com
opposite sign to that of the system.
Constant Pressure Calorimetry
Example: A student determines the enthalpy change when ammonium
chloride (NH4Cl) dissolves in water by measuring out 20.00 grams of
ammonium chloride and adding it to 500.0 grams of water in a
styrofoam cup. Tinitial is 16.1 ℃. The temperature decreases to 13.2 ℃
(Tfinal ). What is the enthalpy change for the dissolution of ammonium
chloride? (* note the masses of water and NH4Cl were summed)

## 1. Find the enthalpy change in the surroundings using:

∆H = m x c x ∆T
= (500.0 + 20.00)* g x -2.9 ºC x 4.184 J = -6,300 J (2 sig figs)
g℃

## Note that heat was lost from the surroundings

The temperature change was: Tfinal - Tinitial = -2.9 º C
Constant Pressure Calorimetry

Example continued:

## 2. Since heat is lost from the surroundings (solution) an equal amount of

heat is gained by the system ( NH4Cl dissolving).
∆H for dissolving NH4Cl = +6,300 J

## Note: this is an endothermic reaction and we mentally kept track of heat

flow to assign the sign with respect to the system at the end.
30 In a calorimetry experiment a student dissolved 3.0 g of
urea in 50.0 g of water. What is the mass of the solution?

A 3.0 g

B 50.0 g

C 47.0 g

D 53.0 g

E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=S-Q8QNyq4hU
30 In a calorimetry experiment a student dissolved 3.0 g of
urea in 50.0 g of water. What is the mass of the solution?

A 3.0 g

B 50.0 g D
C 47.0 g

D 53.0 g
[This object is a pull tab]
E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=S-Q8QNyq4hU
31 In a calorimetry experiment a student dissolved 3.0 g of
urea in 50.0 g of water. The initial temperature of water
was 22.0 º C and the final temperature of the solution
was 19.1 ºC. If the specific heat capacity of water is
4.184 J/g.ºC, what is the enthalpy change (J) in the
surroundings for dissolving urea?
A - 640 J

B + 610 J

C + 640 J

D - 610 J

E I need help
https://njctl.org/video/?v=F2BfWyVqS8w
31 In a calorimetry experiment a student dissolved 3.0 g of
urea in 50.0 g of water. The initial temperature of water
was 22.0 º C and the final temperature of the solution
was 19.1 ºC. If the specific heat capacity of water is
4.184 J/g.ºC, what is the enthalpy change (J) in the
surroundings for dissolving urea?
A - 640 J

A
B + 610 J

C + 640 J

## D - 610 J [This object is a pull tab]

E I need help
https://njctl.org/video/?v=F2BfWyVqS8w
32 In a calorimetry experiment a student dissolved 3.0 g of
urea in 50.0 g of water. The initial temperature of water
was 22.0 º C and the final temperature of the solution
was 19.1 ºC. If the specific heat capacity of water is
4.184 J/g.ºC, what is the enthalpy change (J) for the
system (dissolving urea)?

A - 640 J

B + 640 J

C + 610 J

D - 610 J

E I need help
https://njctl.org/video/?v=VVx4St3ca9s
32 In a calorimetry experiment a student dissolved 3.0 g of
urea in 50.0 g of water. The initial temperature of water
was 22.0 º C and the final temperature of the solution
was 19.1 ºC. If the specific heat capacity of water is
4.184 J/g.ºC, what is the enthalpy change (J) for the
system (dissolving urea)?

A - 640 J B

B + 640 J

C + 610 J
[This object is a pull tab]

D - 610 J

E I need help
https://njctl.org/video/?v=VVx4St3ca9s
33 When 5.0 g of urea was dissolved in 50.0 g of water the
temperature drop was 5.2 ºC. If you dissolved 2.5 g of
urea in the same volume of water, what would you expect
the temperature drop to be?

A 5.2 ºC

B Greater than 5.2 ºC

## C Less than 5.2 ºC

D 2.9 ºC

E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=TolOd6qyidc
33 When 5.0 g of urea was dissolved in 50.0 g of water the
temperature drop was 5.2 ºC. If you dissolved 2.5 g of
urea in the same volume of water, what would you expect
the temperature drop to be?

A 5.2 ºC

ºC

## C Less than 5.2 ºC

D 2.9 ºC
[This object is a pull tab]

E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=TolOd6qyidc
34 50.0 mL of 1M HCl and 50.0 mL of 1M NaOH both at the
same initial temperature were mixed in a calorimeter. The
temperature increased by 6.90 ºC. If the mass of the final
solution was 100.0 g and the specific heat capacity of the
solution was 4.184 J/g.ºC, calculate the enthalpy change
of the system in kJ.
A + 2890 kJ

B - 2890 kJ

C + 2.89 kJ

D - 2.89 kJ

E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=beM5s0AEW-Y
34 50.0 mL of 1M HCl and 50.0 mL of 1M NaOH both at the
same initial temperature were mixed in a calorimeter. The
temperature increased by 6.90 ºC. If the mass of the final
solution was 100.0 g and the specific heat capacity of the
solution was 4.184 J/g.ºC, calculate the enthalpy change
of the system in kJ.
A + 2890 kJ

B - 2890 kJ
D
C + 2.89 kJ

D - 2.89 kJ
[This object is a pull tab]
E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=beM5s0AEW-Y
35 An 11.0 g sample of calcium chloride was dissolved in
125 g of water with both substances at 25 ºC. Calculate
the final temperature of the solution assuming no heat
loss. Assume the specific heat capacity of the solution
and water are the same at 4.184 J/g.ºC. The enthalpy
change for dissolving 11.0 g of CaCl2 is given below. Hint:
what is the enthalpy change in the surroundings?
CaCl2(s) Ca2+ (aq) + 2Cl- (aq) ∆H = - 8078 J

A -39 º C
B 14 º C
C 39 ºC
D 25 ºC
E I need help
https://njctl.org/video/?v=tevSSugppfE
35 An 11.0 g sample of calcium chloride was dissolved in
125 g of water with both substances at 25 ºC. Calculate
the final temperature of the solution assuming no heat
loss. Assume the specific heat capacity of the solution
and water are the same at 4.184 J/g.ºC. The enthalpy
change for dissolving 11.0 g of CaCl2 is given below. Hint:
what is the enthalpy change in the surroundings?
CaCl2(s) Ca2+ (aq) + 2Cl- (aq) ∆H = - 8078 J

A -39 º C C
B 14 º C
C 39 ºC
D 25 ºC [This object is a pull tab]

E I need help
https://njctl.org/video/?v=tevSSugppfE
36 In a calorimeter, 50.0 mL volume; AgNO3 and HCl, both
0.100 M were mixed. A precipitate was formed. The initial
solutions were both at 22.60 ºC and the final temperature
of the solution was 23.40 ºC. Calculate the enthalpy
change (J) for the formation of the precipitate
(system). The specific heat capacity of water is 4.184 J/
g.ºC and the total mass of the solution was 100. g.

Ag+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) AgCl (s)
A 167 J

B 335 J

C -167 J

D -335 J

E I need help
https://njctl.org/video/?v=wxauGiIH6a8
36 In a calorimeter, 50.0 mL volume; AgNO3 and HCl, both
0.100 M were mixed. A precipitate was formed. The initial
solutions were both at 22.60 ºC and the final temperature
of the solution was 23.40 ºC. Calculate the enthalpy
change (J) for the formation of the precipitate
(system). The specific heat capacity of water is 4.184 J/
g.ºC and the total mass of the solution was 100. g.

A 167 J

B 335 J

## C -167 J [This object is a pull tab]

D -335 J

E I need help
https://njctl.org/video/?v=wxauGiIH6a8
Calculating Enthalpy Changes
per gram or per mol of Substance
Very often when doing calorimetry work, we want to calculate an
enthalpy change per g or per mole of substance dissolving,
reacting or precipitating. To do this, divide the enthalpy change of
the system (J) by the amount of reactant

## Example: For instance, when 50.0 mL of 1M HCl and 50.0 mL of 1M

NaOH are mixed there is an enthalpy change of 2890 J. What is that
per mol of reactants? First, find out how many mols of reactants are
reacting.
Molarity (M) = mol/L M x L = mols

## 1M HCl (or Na0H) x 0.050L = 0.05 mols acid or base

Enthalpy change in J/mol for acid/base neutralization is
2890J/0.05 mol = 57800 J/mol or 57.8 kJ/mol

https://njctl.org/video/?v=xL6qy0WBjpY
37 10.5 g of potassium bromide was added to 125 g of water
in a calorimeter. The initial temperature of the water was
24.2 ºC. The final temperature of the solution was
21.1 ºC. Calculate the enthalpy change for dissolving
potassium bromide (system) in J/g of potassium
bromide. (specific heat capacity of the solution is
4.184 J/g.ºC)

A -167 J/g

B -1670 J/g
C + 1670 J/g
D 167 J/g
E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=R8R3ue8DrpU
37 10.5 g of potassium bromide was added to 125 g of water
in a calorimeter. The initial temperature of the water was
24.2 ºC. The final temperature of the solution was
21.1 ºC. Calculate the enthalpy change for dissolving
potassium bromide (system) in J/g of potassium
bromide. (specific heat capacity of the solution is
4.184 J/g.ºC)

A -167 J/g

D
B -1670 J/g
C + 1670 J/g
D 167 J/g
[This object is a pull tab]
E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=R8R3ue8DrpU
38 When 50.0 mL volumes of AgN03 and HCl both at 0.100
M are mixed, a precipitate is formed. The enthalpy
change for the reaction is - 334 J. Calculate the
enthalpy change in J/mol of AgCl formed. Note that
the mols of reactants are the same and using
stoichiometry, the mols of product will be the same as
the reactants.

Ag+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) AgCl (s)
A - 66.8 kJ/mol

B - 6.68 kJ/mol

C - 133 kJ/mol
D - 13.3 kJ/mol
E I need help
https://njctl.org/video/?v=7eJCP1Ldvmg
38 When 50.0 mL volumes of AgN03 and HCl both at 0.100
M are mixed, a precipitate is formed. The enthalpy
change for the reaction is - 334 J. Calculate the
enthalpy change in J/mol of AgCl formed. Note that
the mols of reactants are the same and using
stoichiometry, the mols of product will be the same as
the reactants.

A
A - 66.8 kJ/mol

B - 6.68 kJ/mol

## C - 133 kJ/mol [This object is a pull tab]

D - 13.3 kJ/mol
E I need help
https://njctl.org/video/?v=7eJCP1Ldvmg
Bomb Calorimetry
Thermometer
Ignition wires
Reactions can be carried
out in a sealed “bomb
calorimeter” such as this
one.

## The heat absorbed (or

released) by the water Water
and the calorimeter is a Oxygen
very good approximation atmosphere
of the magnitude of
enthalpy change for the Sample
reaction.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=5ChAOcUhaOY
Bomb Calorimetry (Constant Volume)
Because the volume in the Thermometer
bomb calorimeter is Ignition wires
constant, no work (P ∆V) is
done and what is measured
is really the change in
internal energy, ∆E not ∆H.
(For most reactions, the
difference is very small) Water Oxygen
atmosphere
∆E = q v
Sample
qv = ∆T x heat capacity of
the calorimeter*
*The heat capacity of the calorimeter is
* heat capacity has units of the energy required to raise the water
J/K or J/ºC and parts of calorimeter by 1º C or 1K
39 The reaction below takes place in a bomb calorimeter. The
initial temperature of the calorimeter was 12.20 ºC and the
heat capacity of the calorimeter was 34.0 J/ ºC , what is the
enthalpy change of the reaction (system) if the temperature
of the water/calorimeter increased to15.60 ºC?

## 4Fe(s) + 3O2(g) --> 2Fe2O3(s)

A +530 J
B +116 J
C 0J
D -116 J
E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=ra8HqsGtyow
39 The reaction below takes place in a bomb calorimeter. The
initial temperature of the calorimeter was 12.20 ºC and the
heat capacity of the calorimeter was 34.0 J/ ºC , what is the
enthalpy change of the reaction (system) if the temperature
of the water/calorimeter increased to15.60 ºC?

## 4Fe(s) + 3O2(g) --> 2Fe2O3(s)

D
A +530 J
B +116 J
C 0J
D -116 J [This object is a pull tab]

E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=ra8HqsGtyow
40 The energy of combustion of octane was determined by
placing a 0.5269 g sample of octane in a bomb
calorimeter with a heat capacity of 11.3 kJ/ºC The octane
was ignited and the increase in the temperature of the
calorimeter was 2.25 ºC. What was the heat released to
the surroundings in kJ?

A +5.95 kJ

B + 25.5 kJ

C -5.95 kJ

D - 25.5 kJ

E I need help
https://njctl.org/video/?v=TomBPUqwvYQ
40 The energy of combustion of octane was determined by
placing a 0.5269 g sample of octane in a bomb
calorimeter with a heat capacity of 11.3 kJ/ºC The octane
was ignited and the increase in the temperature of the
calorimeter was 2.25 ºC. What was the heat released to
the surroundings in kJ?

A +5.95 kJ

B + 25.5 kJ B

C -5.95 kJ

D - 25.5 kJ
[This object is a pull tab]

E I need help
https://njctl.org/video/?v=TomBPUqwvYQ
41 You discover a metal meteorite. To identify the metal you
determine its specific heat capacity. A 164.6 g sample of
metal is heated to 90 ºC and then placed in 300. grams
of water in a styrofoam cup, Tinitial is 10.0 ºC. After the
metal is added, the water temperature rises to 11.3 ºC.

Identify the metal. Hint: calculate the energy released
to the the surroundings as the metal cools from 90 ºC
to 11.3 ºC! Then what do you do?

## Metal Specific Heat (J/g ºC)

A Cu 0.386
B Au 0.126
C Al 0.900
D I need help.
https://njctl.org/video/?v=NJod8sg9IEI
41 You discover a metal meteorite. To identify the metal you
determine its specific heat capacity. A 164.6 g sample of
metal is heated to 90 ºC and then placed in 300. grams
of water in a styrofoam cup, Tinitial is 10.0 ºC. After the
metal is added, the water temperature rises to 11.3 ºC.
B
Identify the metal. Hint: calculate the energy released
to the the surroundings as the metal cools from 90 ºC
to 11.3 ºC! Then what do you do?

## Metal[This object is a pull tab]

Specific Heat (J/g ºC)
A Cu 0.386
B Au 0.126
C Al 0.900
D I need help.
https://njctl.org/video/?v=NJod8sg9IEI
42 The heat capacity of a bomb calorimeter was determined
by burning 6.79 g of methane. The enthalpy change for
this process (system) was -340 kJ. Calculate the heat
capacity of the calorimeter (in units of kJ/ºC). if the
temperature of the calorimeter increased by 10.8 ºC

A +31.5 kJ/ºC

B -31.5 kJ/ºC

C 0.628 kJ/ºC

D -0.628 kJ/ºC

E +0.628 kJ/ºC

https://njctl.org/video/?v=0YpFkP-K7CQ
42 The heat capacity of a bomb calorimeter was determined
by burning 6.79 g of methane. The enthalpy change for
this process (system) was -340 kJ. Calculate the heat
capacity of the calorimeter (in units of kJ/ºC). if the
temperature of the calorimeter increased by 10.8 ºC

A +31.5 kJ/ºC

B -31.5 kJ/ºC
A
C 0.628 kJ/ºC

D -0.628 kJ/ºC
[This object is a pull tab]

E +0.628 kJ/ºC

https://njctl.org/video/?v=0YpFkP-K7CQ
Energy Changes Associated
with Changes of State

Table of
Contents
https://njctl.org/video/?v=nOkLenaw0uE
Energy Changes Associated with
Changes of State

## Chemical and physical changes are usually accompanied by

changes in energy. Recall the following terms:

1.When energy is put into the system, the process is called
_____________. The sign of the energy change with respect to
the system is ___________.

## 2.When energy is released by the system, the process is called

_____________. The sign of the energy change with respect to the
system is _________ .
Energy Changes Associated with
Changes of State

1. endothermic
Chemical and physical changes are usually accompanied by
and
changes in energy. Recall thepositive
following terms:

2. exothermic
1.When energy is put into the system, the process is called
and negative
_____________. The sign of the energy change with respect to
the system is ___________.

## 2.When energy is released by the system, the process is called

[This object is a pull tab]
_____________. The sign of the energy change with respect to the
system is _________ .
Phase Changes

Gas

Vaporization Condensation
Energy of system

Sublimation Deposition

Liquid
Melting Freezing

Solid
Energy Changes Associated with
Changes of State
Assign processes as either endo- or exothermic

## Energy is taken into the system Energy is released from the

from the surroundings (∆H > 0) system to surroundings (∆H < 0)

## boiling or evaporating a liquid freezing a liquid

condensing a gas melting a solid
deposition of a gas sublimation of a solid
Please move answer tab down to view, do not move across table
Energy Changes Associated with
Changes of State
Assign processes as either endo- or exothermic

## Endothermic: melting a solid,

Energy is taken into the system
boiling Energy is released
or evaporating a liquid, from the

## (∆H > 0) system

from the surroundingssublimation to surroundings (∆H < 0)
of a solid
Exothermic: freezing a liquid,
condensing or depositing a gas

## [This object is a pull tab]

boiling or evaporating a liquid freezing a liquid
condensing a gas melting a solid
deposition of a gas sublimation of a solid
Please move answer tab down to view, do not move across table
43 Which of the following is/are exothermic?
I. boiling
II. melting
III. freezing

A I only

B I and II only

C III only

D I, II and III

E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=BZUMLgia12c
43 Which of the following is/are exothermic?
I. boiling
II. melting
III. freezing

A I only

B I and II only C

C III only

D I, II and III
[This object is a pull tab]

E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=BZUMLgia12c
Energy Changes Associated with
Changes of State (endothermic changes)
The heat of fusion (∆H ) is the energy required (endothermic
fus

## process) to change a solid at its melting point to a liquid.

Heat of fusion(H2O) = 6.01 kJ/mol
The heat of vaporization (∆H ) is defined as the energy
vap

required (endothermic process) to change a liquid at its
boiling point to a gas.
Heat of vaporization(H2O) = 40.7 kJ/mol
Class Question: Why is the heat of vaporization much
higher than the heat of fusion for a substance?

https://njctl.org/video/?v=JkJDwUmVMJI
Energy Changes Associated with
Changes of State (endothermic changes)
The heat of fusion (∆H ) is the energy required (endothermic
fus

## process) to change a solid at its melting point to a liquid.

Heat of fusion(H2O) = 6.01 kJ/mol
To change phase from a solid to liquid,
The heat of vaporization (∆Hvap
strong bonds ) isreplaced
are definedwith
as weaker
the energy

required (endothermic
attractiveprocess) to change
forces between a liquid
particles. The at its
boiling point to a energy
gas. change is small. When a liquid
Heat of changes
vaporization(H
to a gas,2O) = 40.7 kJ/mol
essentially all
attractive
Class Question: Whyforces
is theare broken.
heat The
of vaporization much
energy change is large.
higher than the heat of fusion for a substance?

## [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=JkJDwUmVMJI
Energy Changes Associated with
Changes of State (exothermic processes)
Conversely the energy released (exothermic process) as a
liquid at its freezing point changes to a solid is the same amount.
Heat of fusion (H2O) = 6.01 kJ/mol
Conversely the energy released (exothermic process) as a
gas at its condensation point liquifies is also the same.

## So why don't the values have a negative sign? Because when

we say the word "released," it implies a negative sign.
If you were asked for the enthalpy change the negative sign
would be included in the answer.
Energy Changes Associated with
Changes of State
Heat of fusion and vaporization kJ/mol
80 Heat of fusion
Heat of vaporization

40
58

29 41
10 24

5 7 6 23
Butane

Mercury
Diethyl

Water
ether
44 The heat of vaporization for butane is 24 kJ/mol.
How much energy is required to vaporize 2 mol of
butane?
A 2 kJ

B 12 kJ

C 22 kJ

D 48 kJ

E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=hwo0H05p1lQ
44 The heat of vaporization for butane is 24 kJ/mol.
How much energy is required to vaporize 2 mol of
butane?
A 2 kJ

B 12 kJ

D
C 22 kJ

D 48 kJ

E I need help.
[This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=hwo0H05p1lQ
45 The heat of vaporization for butane is 24 kJ/mol. How
much energy is required to vaporize 0.33 mol of
butane?

A 8.0 kJ

B 12 kJ

C 16 kJ

D 72 kJ

E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=BIalUiti99o
45 The heat of vaporization for butane is 24 kJ/mol. How
much energy is required to vaporize 0.33 mol of
butane?

A 8.0 kJ

B 12 kJ A

C 16 kJ

D 72 kJ
[This object is a pull tab]
E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=BIalUiti99o
46 How much energy is needed to melt 0.50 mol of
water?

A 41 kJ Heat of Heat of
B 3 kJ fusion vaporization

C 6 kJ for H2 O (s) for H2 O (l)
D 21 kJ
E I need help. 6 kJ/mol 41 kJ/mol

https://njctl.org/video/?v=D4nh4JQg_No
46 How much energy is needed to melt 0.50 mol of
water?

A 41 kJ Heat of Heat of
B 3 kJ fusion vaporization

## C 6 kJ forBH2 O (s) for H2 O (l)

D 21 kJ
E I need help. 6 kJ/mol 41 kJ/mol

## [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=D4nh4JQg_No
How much energy is released when 3.00 mol of
47 water freezes?

A 2 kJ Heat of
Heat of fusion
6 kJ vaporization
B for H2 O (s)
for H2 O (l)
C 18 kJ
D 123 kJ 6 kJ/mol 41 kJ/mol
E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=SS7PMjvX89k
How much energy is released when 3.00 mol of
47 water freezes?

A 2 kJ Heat of
Heat of fusion
6 kJ vaporization
B for H2 O (s)
for H2 O (l)
C 18 kJ
D 123 kJ 6 kJ/mol 41 kJ/mol
E I need help.

## [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=SS7PMjvX89k
48 How much energy is released as 10.0 mol of liquid Hg
forms a solid?

A 2.3 kJ Heat of
580 kJ Heat of fusion
B vaporization
23 kJ for Hg (s)
C for Hg (l)

D 230 kJ
23 kJ/mol 58 kJ/mol
E I need
help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=EsLzSWuRPNA
48 How much energy is released as 10.0 mol of liquid Hg
forms a solid?

A 2.3 kJ Heat of
580 kJ Heat of fusion
B vaporization
23 kJ for Hg (s)
C for Hg (l)

D 230 kJ
23 kJ/mol
D 58 kJ/mol
E I need
help.

## [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=EsLzSWuRPNA
How much energy is released as 2.0 mol Hg (g)
49 liquifies ?

A 23 kJ Heat of
Heat of fusion
vaporization
B 46 kJ for Hg (s)
for Hg (l)
C 116 kJ
23 kJ/mol 58 kJ/mol
D 29 kJ

E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=gnABy2wBbJM
How much energy is released as 2.0 mol Hg (g)
49 liquifies ?

A 23 kJ Heat of
Heat of fusion
vaporization
B 46 kJ for Hg (s)
for Hg (l)
C 116 kJ
23 kJ/mol 58 kJ/mol
D 29 kJ

E I need help. C

## [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=gnABy2wBbJM
50 What is the enthalpy change as 0.500 moles of liquid
mercury solidifies?

A +11.5 kJ/mol
Heat of Heat of
B - 11.5 kJ/mol fusion vaporization

for Hg (s) for Hg (l)
C -23 kJ/mol
23 kJ/mol 58 kJ/mol
D + 23 kJ/mol

E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=cFkvDrgIYV0
50 What is the enthalpy change as 0.500 moles of liquid
mercury solidifies?

A +11.5 kJ/mol
Heat of Heat of
B - 11.5 kJ/mol fusion vaporization

## for Hg B(s) for Hg (l)

C -23 kJ/mol
23 kJ/mol 58 kJ/mol
D + 23 kJ/mol

## E I need help [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=cFkvDrgIYV0
Energy Changes Associated with
Changes of State - Heating Curve
F
This graph is called 125
a heating curve Water vapor
D
100
E
It illustrates
Temperature (0C)
75
Liquid water and vapor
how temperature (vaporization)
changes over time
as constant heat is 50 Liquid water
applied to a pure
solid substance. 25
Throughout these B C
processes the energy 0 Ice and liquid water (melting)
of the system goes up Ice
so the enthalpy change is -25
(each division corresponds to 4 kJ)
https://njctl.org/video/?v=hCvhzPMJEUM
Energy Changes Associated with
Changes of State - Heating Curve
From A to B, ice is F
125
heating up from
Water vapor
-25o C to 0o C D
100
Temperature (0C) 75
Liquid water and vapor
q= mc∆T (vaporization)
∆T = q/mc 50 Liquid water
so the slope of
25
the line
B C
from A to B is 0 Ice and liquid water (melting)
given by 1/mc Ice
-25
(c is the specific heat
capacity of ice) (each division corresponds to 4 kJ)
Energy Changes Associated with
Changes of State - Heating Curve
F
From B to C, 125
ice is melting Water vapor
D
100
E

Temperature (0C)
The added heat is Liquid water and vapor
75
breaking the hydrogen (vaporization)
bonds of the solid,
so the temperature is 50 Liquid water
constant.
25
The slope is zero B C
0 Ice and liquid water (melting)
because there is no Ice
increase in kinetic -25
energy of the particles.
(each division corresponds to 4 kJ)
Energy Changes Associated with
Changes of State
From C to D,
liquid water is F
125
heating up from Water vapor
0 ºC to 100 ºC D
100
E
Temperature (0C)
Once again, the 75
Liquid water and vapor
slope is 1/(mc). (vaporization)
50 Liquid water
But "c" is different
for all the phases 25
of a substance, so B C
the slope is 0 Ice and liquid water (melting)
different for solid, Ice
-25
liquid and
gaseous H2 O. A Heat added
(each division corresponds to 4 kJ)
Energy Changes Associated with
Changes of State - Heating Curve
From D to E, liquid F
125
water is boiling to Water vapor
become water vapor D
100
E
Temperature (0C)
Liquid water and vapor
breaking the IM forces (vaporization)
of the liquid, so the 50 Liquid water
temperature is
constant. 25
B C
The slope is zero from 0 Ice and liqui d water (melting)
D-E because there is Ice
no increase in kinetic -25
energy of the particles. A Heat added
(each division corresponds to 4 kJ)
Energy Changes Associated with
Changes of State - Heating Curve
From E to F water F
vapor, steam, is 125
heating up from Water vapor
D
100 ºC to 125 ºC 100
E
Temperature (0C) Liquid water and vapor
Once again, the 75
(vaporization)
slope is 1/(mc).
But "c" is different 50 Liquid water
for all the phases
of a substance, 25
so the slope is B C
different for solid,
0 Ice and liquid water (melting)
Ice
liquid and gaseous -25
(each division corresponds to 4 kJ)
Energy Changes Associated with
Changes of State - Cooling Curve
· F-E steam is cooling 125 F
· E steam begins to Water vapor
condense D
100
· D vapor completely E

Temperature (0C)
converted to water Liquid water and vapor
75
· D-C water cools (vaporization)
· C water begins to
freeze 50 Liquid water
· B water is completely
frozen 25
· B-A ice temperature B C
· drops to - 25 ºC 0 Ice and liquid water (melting)
Ice
Throughout these -25
processes the energy
of the system goes down A Heat lost
so the enthalpy change is (each division corresponds to 4 kJ)
negative
Energy Changes Associated with
Changes of State
1
Recall that the slope of a line =
as a substance is heated mc
where m = mass and c = specific heat capacity of the substance
A
This graph shows B

Temperature (ºC)
change in temperature D
for 1 gram of 4 different
substances

51 Which substance has the lowest specific heat capacity?

A A A
B B B

Temperature (ºC)
C
C C D
D D

E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=HZEnDZyEAPQ
51 Which substance has the lowest specific heat capacity?

A A A
B B B

Temperature (ºC)
C
C C D
D D

E I need help. A

## [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=HZEnDZyEAPQ
52 Which substance requires the highest amount of heat
A A A
B B B

Temperature (ºC)
C

C C
D
D D
E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=V0ayX5JXnjQ
52 Which substance requires the highest amount of heat
A A A
B B B

Temperature (ºC)
C
C C
DD
D D
E I need help.

## [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=V0ayX5JXnjQ
53 Which segment(s) contain solid sodium chloride?
A AB only C AB, BC and CD
B AB and BC D BC, CD and DE
E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=uvoZbBLelTY
53 Which segment(s) contain solid sodium chloride?
A AB only C AB, BC and CD
B AB and BC D BC, CD and DE
E I need help.

## [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=uvoZbBLelTY
54 Which segment(s) contain liquid sodium chloride?
A AB only C AB, BC and CD
B AB and BC D BC, CD and DE
E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=bX0zaSnMU8E
54 Which segment(s) contain liquid sodium chloride?
A AB only C AB, BC and CD
B AB and BC D BC, CD and DE
E I need help.

## [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=bX0zaSnMU8E
55 What is the melting point (in oC) of sodium chloride?

A 0 oC
B 801 oC
C 1465 oC

D Not shown
E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=fe8jSE6U2kk
55 What is the melting point (in oC) of sodium chloride?

A 0 oC
B 801 oC
C 1465 oC

B
D Not shown
E I need help.

## [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=fe8jSE6U2kk
56 What is the freezing point (in oC) of sodium chloride?

A 0 oC
B 801 oC
C 1465 oC

D Not shown
E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=pHv3R9u8nis
56 What is the freezing point (in oC) of sodium chloride?

A 0 oC
B 801 oC
C 1465 oC

D Not shown B

E I need help.

## [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=pHv3R9u8nis
57 Which is greater: the specific heat capacity of solid
NaCl, or the specific heat capacity of molten (liquid)
NaCl?

A solid
B liquid

C They are equal.
D Cannot be
determined.
E I need help.

https://njctl.org/video/?v=FfZFjD_zuf0
57 Which is greater: the specific heat capacity of solid
NaCl, or the specific heat capacity of molten (liquid)
NaCl?

A solid
B liquid

## C They are equal.

B
D Cannot be
determined.
E I need help.
[This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=FfZFjD_zuf0
Features of a Heating Curve

F
125
Segments Segments Water vapor
AB, CD, EF BC & DE D
100
E

Temperature (0C)
75 Liquid water and vapor
slope = nonzero slope = 0 (vaporization)
T increasing ∆T = 0 50 Liquid water
KE increasing KE constant
PE constant PE increasing 25
B C
0 Ice and liquid water (melting)
apply
apply Ice
∆Hfus or -25
q = mc∆T
(each division corresponds to 4 kJ)

https://njctl.org/video/?v=vLFmWdiINOA
Energy Changes Associated with
Changes of State
Recall that any given substance has a different value for its
specific heat capacity as a solid, as a liquid and as a gas.

## Additionally, melting one mole of a substance ( ∆Hfus) and

vaporizing one mole of the same substance ( ∆Hvap ) require
different amounts of energy.

## Heat of fusion (∆Hfus) of water

6.01 kJ/mol or 334 J/g
at 0℃

## Heat of vaporization (∆Hvap) of

40.7 kJ/mol or 2260 J/g
water at 100℃
Calculating Energy Changes from a
Heating Curve
Sample Problem: Calculate the enthalpy change (in kJ) for
converting 10.0 g of ice at -15.0°C to water at 25.0°C.

## It is a good idea to sketch out the segments first on a graph.

Calculating Energy Changes from a
Heating Curve
Sample Problem: Calculate the enthalpy change (in kJ) for
converting 10.0 g of ice at -15.0°C to water at 25.0°C.

Segment 1
Warming the ice 20
from -15.0°C up
to the substance's
MP which is 0°C. Temperature (C)
10

## Here we are dealing

with heating up the 0
system directly. The 6 12 24
-4
enthalpy change should
be positive.
-14
Time (s)
Calculating Energy Changes from a
Heating Curve
Sample Problem: Calculate the enthalpy change (in kJ) for
converting 10.0 g of ice at -15.0°C to water at 25. °C.

Segment 2
Melting the ice 20
at 0°C. Temperature (C)

10

## Check: energy input is 0

needed to melt ice 6 12 24
-4
this will be an
endothermic process
-14
Time (s)
Calculating Energy Changes from a
Heating Curve
Sample Problem: Calculate the enthalpy change (in kJ) for
converting 10.0 g of ice at -15.0°C to water at 25.0°C.

Segment 3
Warming the liquid
20
from 0°C to 25°C.

Temperature (C)
Check: heating water 10
requires energy input
this will be an
endothermic process 0
6 12 24
-4

-14
Time (s)
Calculating Energy Changes from a
Heating Curve
Sample Problem: Calculate the enthalpy change (in kJ) for
converting 10.0 g of ice at -15.0°C to water at 25.0°C.
We are now ready to apply either
qp or ∆Hfus or ∆Hvap as necessary
Segment 1
Warming the ice from -15.0°C up to the
substance's Melting Point which is 0°C.
q1 = mc∆T
q1 = (10.0g) (2.06 J/g.oC) (0 - (-15.0)oC)
q1 = 309 J
q1 = 0.309 kJ
Again we are determining the enthalpy change of the system directly
temperature change is (Tfinal - Tinitial )
The enthalpy change is +, correct, this is an endothermic
process
Calculating Energy Changes from a
Heating Curve
Sample Problem: Calculate the enthalpy change (in kJ) for
converting 10.0 g of ice at -15.0°C to water at 25.0°C.

Segment 2
Melting the ice at 0 °C.
q2 = (∆Hfus ) (# moles)
q2 = (6.01 kJ/mol) [(10.0 g)/ 18.0 g/mol)]
q2 = 3.34 kJ
or
q2 = 334 J/g x 10 g = 3340 J = 3.34 kJ

## We know this process is endothermic, the enthalpy change is

positive - this makes sense
Calculating Energy Changes from a
Heating Curve
Sample Problem: Calculate the enthalpy change (in kJ) for
converting 10.0 g of ice at -15.0°C to water at 25.0°C.

Segment 3
Warming the water from 0°C to 25.0°C.

q3 = mc∆T
q3 = (10.0 g) (4.184 J/g.oC) (25.0 o C - 0 o C )
q3 = 1046 J
q3 = 1.05 kJ (3 sig figs)

## Again we are determining the enthalpy change of the system directly

temperature change is (Tfinal - Tinitial) )
The enthalpy change is +, correct this is an endothermic process
Calculating Energy Changes from a
Heating Curve
Sample Problem: Calculate the enthalpy change (in kJ) for
converting 10.0 g of ice at -15.0°C to water at 25.0°C.

## Now, we add the heat changes for all 3 segments.

First, make sure that all quantities are in kilojoules.

Total ∆H = (q 1 + q 2 + q 3) kJ
∆H = (0.309 + 3.34 + 1.05) kJ
∆H = 4.70 kJ
58 Calculate the enthalpy change in J of converting 75.0 g
of ice at -11.0 ℃ to liquid water at 22.0℃.

## A 98,600 J Specific heat of ice 2.06 J/g-℃

Specific heat of water 4.184 J/g-℃
B 33,700 J
Specific heat of
2.02 J/g-℃
steam

C -33,700 J
Heat of fusion (∆Hfus) 6.01 kJ/mol or
D 26,500 J of water at 0℃ 334 J/g

## E I need help Heat of vaporization

(∆Hvap) of water at 40.7 kJ/mol or
2260 J/g
100℃

https://njctl.org/video/?v=zF5JMj29wcM
58 Calculate the enthalpy change in J of converting 75.0 g
of ice at -11.0 ℃ to liquid water at 22.0℃.

## A 98,600 J Specific heat of ice 2.06 J/g-℃

Specific heat of water 4.184 J/g-℃
B 33,700 J
Specific heat of
2.02 J/g-℃
steam

C -33,700 J B
Heat of fusion (∆Hfus) 6.01 kJ/mol or
D 26,500 J of water at 0℃ 334 J/g

## E I need help Heat of vaporization

(∆Hvap) of[Thiswater
object is aat
pull tab]
40.7 kJ/mol or
2260 J/g
100℃

https://njctl.org/video/?v=zF5JMj29wcM

q1 =mcΔt

## q1 = (75.0 g)(2.06J/g.℃)(0℃ -11.0℃)

q1= 1700 J
q2= 334 J/g x 75.0 g = 25100 J
q3= mcΔt

## q3 = (75.0 g)(4.184 J/g-℃) ( 22.0℃ - 0℃)

q3 = 6900 J
q = q 1 + q2 + q3
q = 1700 + 25100+ 6900
q = 33700 J
59 What is the heat released in kJ as 35.5 g of water is
cooled from 120. ºC to its boiling point of 100. ºC

A + 3.0 kJ

B - 3.0 kJ

C -1.4 kJ

D 1.4 kJ

E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=Nn9vfZV3f04
59 What is the heat released in kJ as 35.5 g of water is
cooled from 120. ºC to its boiling point of 100. ºC

A + 3.0 kJ

B - 3.0 kJ

D
C -1.4 kJ

D 1.4 kJ

## E I need help [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=Nn9vfZV3f04
60 What is the enthalpy change as 35.5 g of water vapor
at its boiling point is completely converted to liquid. Give

A 80.2 kJ

B -80.2 kJ
C 1,430 kJ

D -1,430 kJ

E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=79y6-NGjml0
60 What is the enthalpy change as 35.5 g of water vapor
at its boiling point is completely converted to liquid. Give

A 80.2 kJ

B -80.2 kJ B
C 1,430 kJ

D -1,430 kJ
[This object is a pull tab]
E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=79y6-NGjml0
61 What is the enthalpy change as 35.5 g of liquid water is
cooled from its boiling point of 100 ºC to 75 ºC. Give the

A - 3700 J

B +3700 J

C - 1800 J

D + 1800 J

E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=IPJ761p74yQ
61 What is the enthalpy change as 35.5 g of liquid water is
cooled from its boiling point of 100 ºC to 75 ºC. Give the

B +3700 J A
C - 1800 J

D + 1800 J
[This object is a pull tab]

E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=IPJ761p74yQ
62 What is the energy released in kJ, as 35.5 g of liquid
water at its freezing point of 0 ºC is completely converted
to ice at the same temperature.

A -213 kJ

B 213 kJ

C 11.9 kJ

D -11.9 kJ

E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=_0Xmnzzq9uU
62 What is the energy released in kJ, as 35.5 g of liquid
water at its freezing point of 0 ºC is completely converted
to ice at the same temperature.

B 213 kJ
C
C 11.9 kJ

D -11.9 kJ
[This object is a pull tab]
E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=_0Xmnzzq9uU
63 What is the enthalpy change in J as 2.5 mol of ice is
reduced in temperature from -2.50 ºC to -5.50 ºC.

A + 280 J

B - 280 J

C 560 J

D -560 J

E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=1P1IU-1bP4A
63 What is the enthalpy change in J as 2.5 mol of ice is
reduced in temperature from -2.50 ºC to -5.50 ºC.

A + 280 J
B - 280 J B
C 560 J

D -560 J
[This object is a pull tab]

E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=1P1IU-1bP4A
64 Calculate the enthalpy change in J of converting 25 g of
water vapor at 110 ℃ to liquid water at 50.℃.
Specific heat of ice 2.06 J/g-℃
A +63,000 J
Specific heat of water 4.184 J/g-℃
B -63,000 J

Specific heat of
2.02 J/g-℃
steam
C -58,000 J Heat of fusion (∆Hfus) 6.01 kJ/mol or
of water at 0℃ 334J/g
D +58,000 J

E I need help
Heat of vaporization
(∆Hvap) of water at 40.7 kJ/mol or
2260 J/g
100℃

https://njctl.org/video/?v=hfxgrnEx0Cg
64 Calculate the enthalpy change in J of converting 25 g of
water vapor at 110 ℃ to liquid water at 50.℃.
Specific heat of ice 2.06 J/g-℃
A +63,000 J
Specific heat of water 4.184 J/g-℃
B -63,000 J
Specific heat of
B 2.02 J/g-℃
steam
C -58,000 J Heat of fusion (∆Hfus) 6.01 kJ/mol or
of water at 0℃ 334J/g
D +58,000 J
[This object is a pull tab]
E I need help
Heat of vaporization
(∆Hvap) of water at 40.7 kJ/mol or
2260 J/g
100℃

https://njctl.org/video/?v=hfxgrnEx0Cg

q1 =mcΔt

## q1 = (25 g)(2.02J/g-℃)(100℃- 110℃)

q1= -510 J
q2= 2260J/g x 25 g = -57000 J
q3= mcΔt

## q3 = (25 g)(4.18J/g-℃) ( 50℃ - 100℃)

q3 = -5200 J
q = q 1 + q2 + q3
q = -510 + (-57000) + (-5200)
q = -63,000 J
65 Calculate the enthalpy change in kJ of converting 31.8
g of ice at 0.0 ºC to water vapor at 140.0℃.
Specific heat of ice 2.06 J/g-℃
A 88.4 kJ
Specific heat of water 4.184 J/g-℃

B 98.4 kJ Specific heat of
2.02 J/g-℃
steam
C -98.4 kJ
Heat of fusion (∆Hfus) 6.01 kJ/mol or
of water at 0℃ 334 J/g
D - 88.4 kJ

E I need help.
Heat of vaporization
(∆Hvap) of water at 40.7 kJ/mol or
2260J/g
100℃

https://njctl.org/video/?v=jBsnIJdYWUQ
65 Calculate the enthalpy change in kJ of converting 31.8
g of ice at 0.0 ºC to water vapor at 140.0℃.
Specific heat of ice 2.06 J/g-℃
A 88.4 kJ
Answer Specific heat of water 4.184 J/g-℃
B 98.4 kJ Specific heat ofB
2.02 J/g-℃
steam
C -98.4 kJ
Heat of fusion (∆Hfus) 6.01 kJ/mol or
of water at 0℃ 334 J/g
D - 88.4 kJ
[This object is a pull tab]

E I need help.
Heat of vaporization
(∆Hvap) of water at 40.7 kJ/mol or
2260J/g
100℃

https://njctl.org/video/?v=jBsnIJdYWUQ
q1= 334 J/g x 31.8 g = 10600 J
q2 =mcΔt

## q2 = (31.8 g)(4.184J/g-℃)(100.0℃- 0.0℃)

q2= 13300J
q3 = (2260J/g x 31.8 g)
q3 = 71900 J
q4= mcΔt

## q4 = (31.8 g)(2.02J/g-℃) ( 140℃ - 100℃)

q4 = 2600 J
q = q 1 + q2 + q3 + q 4
q = 10600 + 13300 + 71900+2600
q = 98.4 kJ (3 sig figs)
Enthalpies of Reaction

Table of
Contents
https://njctl.org/video/?v=Ww2f2GRbK5A
Enthalpies of Reaction
Here we summarize what we have previously discussed about
enthalpy changes for reactions:
· Enthalpy (in kJ)* is an extensive property and depends on the
quantities of reactants and products

## · ∆H for a reaction depends on the state of the products and

the state of the reactants

## *Note that enthalpy change in kJ/mol is an intensive property. This

means that for a given reactant in a reaction, regardless of the
amount of reactant is used, the enthalpy change in kJ/mol will be the
same.
Enthalpy (in kJ) is an Extensive Property
Consider the combustion of 1 mol of methane:
The enthalpy change for this reaction is -891 kJ

methane?

∆H = -1782 kJ

## The magnitude of ∆H is directly proportional to the quantities of

reactants and products. If the coefficients are multiplied by an
integer, ∆H is multiplied by that same integer.
If a Reaction is Reversed, the
Sign of ∆H is also Reversed

## H2(g) + 1/2 O2 (g)

The enthalpy change for the
combustion of 1 mol of
hydrogen is - 285.8 kJ
∆H < 0 ∆H >0
Enthalpy

## (negative) (positive) The enthalpy change for the

decomposition of water is the
reverse of this + 285.8 kJ

H2O(l)
Enthalpy Changes Depend on the
States of Matter
Consider the combustion of methane:

## The enthalpy change for the second reaction is more exothermic

than the first...
Because we have studied phase changes, we know why...
When water is converted from a gas to a liquid, energy is released.
Hess's Law

Table of
Contents
https://njctl.org/video/?v=e1cfDgBXgAo
Hess's Law

## Now we will go on to study another feature of enthalpy.

Enthalpy is a state function.
This means that the enthalpy change in going from some initial set
of reactants to a particular set of products is the same no matter
what route was taken to get from the reactants to the products.
We will illustrate this with an example.
The Enthalpy Change for the
Combustion of Hydrogen
Consider the combustion of hydrogen gas to give liquid water

## H2 (g) + 1/2 O2 (g) H20 (l) ∆H = - 285.8 kJ (1)

This reaction can be thought of as happening in two steps:
Step 1 is the combustion of hydrogen to give water vapor (H20 g)
Step 2 is the condensation of water vapor to give liquid water (H20 l)

## H20 (g) H20 (l) ∆H = - 44.0 kJ (3)

If we add reactions (2) and (3) we have reaction (1) (note that H20
(g) cancels out). If we add the enthalpy changes, the enthalpy
change is the same as for reaction (1): -285.8 kJ
Hess's Law Continued
In summary, we have shown that we can sum reaction
equations to get a new reaction. When we do this, the enthalpy
change for the new reaction is the sum of the enthalpy changes
for the individual reactions.
Another way to express Hess's Law is that for a reaction "A", that is
the sum of two or more reactions, the enthalpy change for reaction
"A" is the sum of the individual enthalpy changes.

## Hess's Law is an outcome of the Conservation of Energy Law.

It works even if an overall reaction does not occur by way of the
individual reactions.
Another Example of the Use of
Hess's Law
We have discussed obtaining enthalpy changes for reactions using
calorimetry. For many other reactions this cannot be done. See the
reaction below. Fortunately, using Hess's Law we can calculate
enthalpy changes for such reactions.

## Consider the enthalpy change for the conversion of graphite to

diamond. Graphite and diamond are different forms of carbon

C graphite C diamond ∆H =?

## The enthalpy change for converting graphite to diamond is difficult

to measure because in reality it cannot occur ... otherwise we
could all be rich. However, we do know the enthalpy changes for
the combustion of graphite and diamond ...
Enthalpy Change for Converting
Graphite to Diamond
What we want C graphite (s) C diamond (s) ∆H =?

What we have

## How do we get there: take reaction (1) as is, and reverse

reaction (2) then add. Try this for yourself first before going on.

## Note that even though the conversion of graphite to diamond

cannot occur through these reactions, we can still manipulate them
to determine the unknown enthalpy change
Enthalpy Change for Converting
Graphite to Diamond
C graphite (s) + O2 (g) CO2 (g) ∆H = -394 kJ (1)

## CO2 (g) C diamond (s) + O2 (g) ∆H = + 396 kJ (3)

Adding reactions 1 and 3 (we note that O2 (g) and CO2(g) cancel on
either side) and we have the reaction we need:
C graphite(s) C diamond(s) ∆H =?

## The enthalpy change for the reaction is (1) + (3)

= -394 kJ + 396 kJ
∆H= 2 kJ
Standard Enthalpies of Formation
We have seen that Hess's Law can be used to calculate enthalpy
changes for reactions, especially those that cannot be determined by
calorimetry or that cannot actually occur. However, manipulating
equations in this manner is cumbersome. But, it is very valuable
in chemistry to be able to calculate ∆H values.

## There is another method of calculating enthalpy changes for

reactions. Using Standard Enthalpies of Formation.
This method uses the principles of Hess's Law.
We will focus on this method next.
66 The combustion of carbon to form carbon dioxide is
shown below. ∆H for this reaction is -394 kJ/mol carbon.
What is the enthalpy change for the combustion of 2 mol
of carbon? Write a balanced equation for this reaction.

## C(s) + O2(g) CO2 (g) ∆ H = - 394 kJ/mol carbon

A + 394 kJ
B - 788 kJ
C + 788 kJ
D - 197 kJ
E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=dBzlV9a1Fh0
66 The combustion of carbon to form carbon dioxide is
shown below. ∆H for this reaction is -394 kJ/mol carbon.
What is the enthalpy change for the combustion of 2 mol
of carbon? Write a balanced equation for this reaction.

## C(s) + O2(g) Answer CO2 (g) ∆ H = - 394 kJ/mol carbon

A + 394 kJ B
B - 788 kJ 2C+2O2--> 2CO2
C + 788 kJ
D - 197 kJ [This object is a pull tab]

E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=dBzlV9a1Fh0
67 The equation for the combustion of carbon monoxide is
given below. The enthalpy change is -283 kJ/mol of
carbon monoxide. What is the enthalpy change for the
reverse equation doubled. Write the equation.

## CO(g) + 1/2O2 (g) CO2(g) ∆H = - 283 kJ/mol CO

A + 566 kJ

B - 566 kJ
C + 141 kJ
D -141 kJ
E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=rBJ6D04xjXc
67 The equation for the combustion of carbon monoxide is
given below. The enthalpy change is -283 kJ/mol of
carbon monoxide. What is the enthalpy change for the
reverse equation doubled. Write the equation.

## CO(g) + 1/2O2 (g) CO2(g) ∆H = - 283 kJ/mol CO

A + 566 kJ

B - 566 kJ A
C + 141 kJ 2CO2--> 2CO+O2
D -141 kJ
E I need help [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=rBJ6D04xjXc
68 The enthalpy of combustion of carbon to form carbon
dioxide and the enthalpy of combustion of carbon
monoxide are given below. Use the data to calculate ∆H
for the combustion of carbon to carbon monoxide in kJ.
C(s) + O2(g) CO2 (g) ∆ H = - 394 kJ/mol carbon

## CO(g) +1/2 O2(g) CO2 (g) ∆ H = - 283 kJ/mol CO

2C(s) + O2(g) 2CO(g) ∆ H = ? kJ
A +505 kJ
B -505 kJ
C +222 kJ
D -222 kJ
E I need help
https://njctl.org/video/?v=0payUr_2ris
68 The enthalpy of combustion of carbon to form carbon
dioxide and the enthalpy of combustion of carbon
monoxide are given below. Use the data to calculate ∆H
for the combustion of carbon to carbon monoxide in kJ.
C(s) + O2(g) CO2 (g) ∆ H = - 394 kJ/mol carbon

## CO(g) +1/2 O2(g) CO2 (g) ∆ H = - 283 kJ/mol CO

D
2C(s) + O2(g) 2CO(g) ∆ H = ? kJ
A +505 kJ
B -505 kJ
C +222 kJ [This object is a pull tab]

D -222 kJ
E I need help
https://njctl.org/video/?v=0payUr_2ris
69 You are given the equation and the enthalpy change for
the combustion of methane below. For the second
reaction what is the enthalpy change?
CH4(g) + 2O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H20(g) ∆H= - 802 kJ

## 1/2CH4(g) + O2(g) 1/2CO2(g) + 1H20(g) ∆H= ? kJ

A -1604 kJ
B +1604 kJ
C -401 kJ
D + 401 kJ
E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=aqDA0vH-45c
69 You are given the equation and the enthalpy change for
the combustion of methane below. For the second
reaction what is the enthalpy change?
CH4(g) + 2O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H20(g) ∆H= - 802 kJ

## 1/2CH4(g) + O2(g) 1/2CO2(g) + 1H20(g) ∆H= ? kJ

C
A -1604 kJ
B +1604 kJ
C -401 kJ
[This object is a pull tab]
D + 401 kJ
E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=aqDA0vH-45c
70 You are given the enthalpy change for the conversion of
liquid water to water vapor (g). What is the enthalpy
change when 1 mole of water vapor is converted to 1
mole of liquid water? What is the correct equation for
this change of state?
H20 (l) H20 (g) ∆H = +44 kJ

A +44 kJ; the reaction is the same as above
B -44 kJ; the reaction is reverse of the one above
C -44 kJ; the reaction is the same as above
D +44 kJ; the reaction is the reverse of the one above
E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=FXYgSzjcwWU
70 You are given the enthalpy change for the conversion of
liquid water to water vapor (g). What is the enthalpy
change when 1 mole of water vapor is converted to 1
mole of liquid water? What is the correct equation for
this change of state?
H20 (l) H20 (g) ∆H = +44 kJ

## A +44 kJ; the reaction is the same as above

B
B -44 kJ; the reaction is reverse of the one above
C -44 kJ; the reaction is H
H20(g) --> the same as above
20(l)

## D +44 kJ; the reaction is the reverse of the one above

[This object is a pull tab]

E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=FXYgSzjcwWU
71 You are asked to calculate the enthalpy change for the
first reaction, using the information given for the lower
two reactions. Hint: use Hess's Law.

## 1/2CH4(g) + O2(g) 1/2CO2(g) + 1H20(l) ∆H= ? kJ

1CH4(g) + 2O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H20(g) ∆H= - 802 kJ

## H20 (l) H20 (g) ∆H = +44 kJ

A - 846 kJ
B - 758 kJ
C -445 kJ
D -358 kJ
E I need help
https://njctl.org/video/?v=iV-_OX8D6M4
71 You are asked to calculate the enthalpy change for the
first reaction, using the information given for the lower
two reactions. Hint: use Hess's Law.

## 1CH4(g) + 2O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H20(g) ∆H= - 802 kJ

C
H20 (l) H20 (g) ∆H = +44 kJ
A - 846 kJ
B - 758 kJ
[This object is a pull tab]
C -445 kJ
D -358 kJ
E I need help
https://njctl.org/video/?v=iV-_OX8D6M4
Enthalpies of Formation

Table of
Contents
https://njctl.org/video/?v=wMfyeyOc8hM
Standard Enthalpies of Formation
Definitions
The standard enthalpy of formation has the symbol ∆Hfº

## It is defined as: the change in enthalpy that

accompanies the formation of 1 mole of a compound
from its elements with all substances in their standard
states. The degree symbol º indicates that a process
has been carried out under standard state conditions.

## The standard enthalpy of formation symbol is

pronounced "delta H formation nought"

## What are standard state conditions?

Standard Enthalpies of Formation
Standard State Conditions
Thermodynamic functions often depend on concentration (or
pressure) and so we must have the same reference states to
properly compare thermodynamic values.
Standard State for a Compound
· Standard State for a gas is 1 atm
· For a pure liquid or solid, standard state is the liquid or solid
· For a substance in a solution, standard state is 1mol/L
· Standard temperature is 25 ºC (or 298 K)
Standard State for an Element
· Is the form in which the element exists at 1 atm and 25 ºC
· For example, standard state for H2 is a gas and for sodium is a
solid at 1 atm and 25 ºC (or 298 K)
Standard Enthalpies of Formation
Important Characteristics
Consider the formation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The equation is
written as follows:
1/2 N2(g) + O2 (g) NO2 (g) ∆Hfº = 34 kJ/mol

## Equations are written so that 1 mole of product is formed and

the product is in its standard state. The elements at 1 atm and
25 ºC are gases in their standard states
Consider the formation of water from the elements hydrogen and
oxygen:
H2 (g) + 1/2 O2 (g) H20 (l) ∆Hfº = -285.8 kJ/mol

## 1 mole of water is formed at 1 atm and 25 ºC. Under these

conditions it is a liquid. Hydrogen and oxygen are gases under
these conditions.
Standard Enthalpies of Formation
are Found in Tables - Examples
CH4(g) ∆Hfº (kJ/mol)
CH4(g) -75
C02(g) -394
H2O(l) -286
O2(g) 0*
CH3OH(l) -239
NaOH(aq) -470
HCl(aq) -167
NaCl(aq) -407
HNO3(aq) -167
The importance of tabulated ∆Hfº values is that standard enthalpy
changes for many reactions can be calculated from these tables.
*Note that the standard enthalpies of formation of all elements are
0 kJ/mol under standard state conditions
Using Standard Enthalpies of Formation
to Calculate Standard Enthalpy Changes for
Reactions
The standard enthalpy change for a given reaction can be
calculated by subtracting the enthalpies of formation of reactants
from the enthalpies of formation of products

## The symbol Σ (sigma) means to take the sum of enthalpies of

formation of products or the sum of the enthalpies of formation of
reactants
Where np and nr represent the moles of each product and reactant,
respectively
Let's do an example
** Using Standard Enthalpies of Formation
to Calculate Enthalpy Changes for
Reactions
The standard enthalpy change for a given reaction can be
calculated by subtracting the enthalpies of formation of reactants
from the enthalpies of formation of products
We will not do a thorough proof of this statement here. But, the
approach is as follows:
· Write equations that convert reactants to their constituent
elements. This is the opposite of enthalpy change of formation,
∆Hfº. Then sum these values for the reactants.
· For the products, write equations that form products from their
constituent elements. This is the enthalpy change of formation.
Sum the values for the products.
· The enthalpy change for the reaction is:
∆Hº reaction = Σ np ∆Hfº (products) - Σ nr ∆Hfº (reactants)
Using Standard Enthalpies of Formation
to Calculate Enthalpy Changes for
Reactions
Exp 1: Calculate the standard enthalpy change for the combustion
of methane. The balanced equation is:
Standard Enthalpies
of Formation at 25 ºC

## CH4 (g) - 75 kJ/mol

CH4(g) + 2O2(g) --> CO2(g) + 2H2O(l)
CO2 (g) - 394 kJ/mol
Reactants Products
H20 (l) - 286 kJ/mol
O2 (g) 0 kJ/mol
∆Hº reaction = Σ np ∆Hfº (products) - Σ nr ∆Hfº (reactants)
∆Hº reaction = Σ 1x (-394 kJ) + 2x(-286 kJ) - Σ 1x (-75 kJ) + 2x0 kJ
∆Hº reaction = - 891 kJ (units are left as kJ because if kJ/mol is
used; you have to specify which reactant or product)
Using Standard Enthalpies of Formation
to Calculate Enthalpy Changes for
Reactions
Exp 2: Calculate the standard enthalpy change for the thermite
reaction. The reaction is given below
Standard Enthalpies
of Formation at 25 ºC
Al 0 kJ/mol
2Al(s) + Fe203(s) Al203(s) + 2Fe(s) Fe 0 kJ/mol
Reactants Products Fe203 - 826 kJ/mol
Al203 -1676 kJ/mol

## ∆Hº reaction = Σ 1x(-1676) + 2x0 kJ/mol - Σ 1x(-826 kJ/mol + 2x0 kJ/mol)

∆Hº reaction = -850. kJ (see previous note)
72 Methanol (CH3OH) has been used as a fuel for race cars.
In an engine methanol is burned with oxygen to form
carbon dioxide and water Give the coefficients for the
balanced equation.

## aCH3OH(l) + bO2(g) cCO2(g) + dH20(l)

A a= 1; b= 2; c= 1; d=3
B a= 2; b= 2; c= 2; d=4
C a= 1; b= 2; c= 1; d=3
D a= 2; b= 3; c= 2 d=4
E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=5KMC6QiIHzU
72 Methanol (CH3OH) has been used as a fuel for race cars.
In an engine methanol is burned with oxygen to form
carbon dioxide and water Give the coefficients for the
balanced equation.

## aCH3OH(l) + bO2(g) cCO2(g) + dH20(l)

D
A a= 1; b= 2; c= 1; d=3
B a= 2; b= 2; c= 2; d=4
C a= 1; b= 2; c= 1; d=3
[This object is a pull tab]

D a= 2; b= 3; c= 2 d=4
E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=5KMC6QiIHzU
73 Using the standard enthalpies of formation provided,
calculate the standard enthalpy of combustion of
methanol in kJ, by referring to the below equation.

## 2CH3OH(l) + 3O2(g) 2CO2(g) + 4H20(l)

A -1.45 x 103 kJ Standard Enthalpies of
Formation at 25ºC
B -657 kJ CH3OH(l) -239 kJ/mol
O2(g) 0 kJ/mol
C -1.93 x 103 kJ
CO2(g) -394 kJ/mol
D +1.45 x 103 kJ H20(l) -286 kJ/mol

E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=RWTzUSs9sig
73 Using the standard enthalpies of formation provided,
calculate the standard enthalpy of combustion of
methanol in kJ, by referring to the below equation.

2CH3OH(l) + 3O2(g)

AStandard Enthalpies of
A -1.45 x 103 kJ
Formation at 25ºC
B -657 kJ CH3OH(l) -239 kJ/mol
O2(g) 0 kJ/mol
C -1.93 x 103 kJ
CO2(g) -394 kJ/mol
D +1.45 x 103 kJ H20(l) -286 kJ/mol
[This object is a pull tab]

E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=RWTzUSs9sig
74 Calculate the standard heat of neutralization as 1 mol of
hydrochloric acid reacts with 1 mol of sodium hydroxide.
The equation and the standard enthalpies of formation
are given below:
NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

A +56 kJ
Standard Enthalpies

B -1330 kJ
of Formation kJ/mol
C -56 kJ NaOH(aq) -470
HCl(aq) -167
D + 516 kJ NaCl(aq) -407
H2O(l) -286
E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=4fdCy7535-Y
74 Calculate the standard heat of neutralization as 1 mol of
hydrochloric acid reacts with 1 mol of sodium hydroxide.
The equation and the standard enthalpies of formation
are given below:
NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

A +56 kJ
Standard Enthalpies

B -1330 kJ
Cof Formation kJ/mol
C -56 kJ NaOH(aq) -470
HCl(aq) -167
D + 516 kJ NaCl(aq) -407
H2O(l) -286
E I need help [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=4fdCy7535-Y
75 Calculate the standard heat of neutralization as 1 mol of
sodium hydroxide (NaOH) reacts with 1 mol of nitric acid
(HN03). The equation and the standard enthalpies of
formation are given below:

## NaOH(aq) + HNO3(aq) NaNO3(aq) + H2O(l)

A +1410 kJ Standard Enthalpies

of Formation kJ/mol
B -55 kJ NaOH(aq) -470
C +55 kJ HNO3(aq) -207
NaNO3(aq) -446
D -1410 kJ H2O(l) -286
E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=7qgc44vIwyQ
75 Calculate the standard heat of neutralization as 1 mol of
sodium hydroxide (NaOH) reacts with 1 mol of nitric acid
(HN03). The equation and the standard enthalpies of
formation are given below:

## NaOH(aq) + HNO3(aq) NaNO3(aq) + H2O(l)

A +1410 kJ Standard Enthalpies

## B -55 kJ B of Formation kJ/mol

NaOH(aq) -470
C +55 kJ HNO3(aq) -207
NaNO3(aq) -446
D -1410 kJ H2O(l) -286
E I need help [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=7qgc44vIwyQ
76 Compare the enthalpy changes for acid/base
neutralization from the previous 2 questions. Within
experimental error they are identical. The net ionic
equation for this is given below. This equation gives just
the changes taking place in solution. Why are the
enthalpy changes the same even though two different
acids are being neutralised?
H+(aq) + OH-(aq) H20(l)

A For each reaction the enthalpy change is due to the
formation of liquid water
B The enthalpy change for the reaction above is equal
to - 55 kJ
C The energy change is only due to the reaction of
hydronium ion (H+) and hydroxide ion (OH-)
D All of the above

E I need help
https://njctl.org/video/?v=pXiLFfFoaHQ
76 Compare the enthalpy changes for acid/base
neutralization from the previous 2 questions. Within
experimental error they are identical. The net ionic
equation for this is given below. This equation gives just
the changes taking place in solution. Why are the
enthalpy changes the same even though two different
acids are being neutralised?
H+(aq) + OH-(aq) H20(l)

## A For each reaction the D enthalpy change is due to the

formation of liquid water
B The enthalpy change for the reaction above is equal
to - 55 kJ
C The energy change is only due to the reaction of
hydronium ion (H+)[Thisand
objecthydroxide
is a pull tab] ion (OH-)
D All of the above

E I need help
https://njctl.org/video/?v=pXiLFfFoaHQ
77 What is the standard enthalpy of formation of aluminum
oxide? Use the information in the equation below to

## 2Al2O3(s) 4Al(s) + 3O2 (g) ∆Hº = 3351 kJ

A -1676 kJ/mol

B +1676 kJ/mol
C -3351 kJ/mol
D 3351 kJ/mol
E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=H4uB0-XBrPw
77 What is the standard enthalpy of formation of aluminum
oxide? Use the information in the equation below to

## 2Al2O3(s) 4Al(s) + 3O2 (g) ∆Hº = 3351 kJ

A -1676 kJ/mol

B +1676 kJ/mol A
C -3351 kJ/mol
D 3351 kJ/mol
E I need help [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=H4uB0-XBrPw
78 The standard enthalpy of formation of Al2O3 is
-1676 kJ/mol. Calculate the enthalpy change for the
formation of 12.5 g of this substance. You are given that
the molar mass of Al2O3 is 101.96 g.

A +1676 kJ
B -1676 kJ

C 205 kJ
D -205 kJ
E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=Yr4Ue5JCg8Q
78 The standard enthalpy of formation of Al2O3 is
-1676 kJ/mol. Calculate the enthalpy change for the
formation of 12.5 g of this substance. You are given that
the molar mass of Al2O3 is 101.96 g.

A +1676 kJ
B -1676 kJ

D
C 205 kJ
D -205 kJ
E I need help
[This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=Yr4Ue5JCg8Q
79 When calcium carbonate is heated it decomposes to
calcium oxide and carbon dioxide according to the
reaction given below. Using the standard enthalpies of
formation given, calculate the standard enthalpy change
for the reaction
CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g)

A -177.5 kJ Standard Enthalpies
of Formation kJ/mol
B +177.5kJ CaCO3(s) -1206.9
CaO(s) -635.9
C - 2236 kJ CO2(g) -393.5
D + 14449 kJ
E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=mPgjGQpLPCU
79 When calcium carbonate is heated it decomposes to
calcium oxide and carbon dioxide according to the
reaction given below. Using the standard enthalpies of
formation given, calculate the standard enthalpy change
for the reaction
CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g)

## A -177.5 kJ B Standard Enthalpies

of Formation kJ/mol
B +177.5kJ CaCO3(s) -1206.9
CaO(s) -635.9
C - 2236 kJ CO2(g) -393.5
[This object is a pull tab]

D + 14449 kJ
E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=mPgjGQpLPCU
80 You are given the equation for the combustion of
methanol below and data to calculate the standard
enthalpy change for this reaction. Why can’t you perform
this calculation?

## 2CH3OH(l) + 3O2(g) 2CO2(g) + 4H20(l)

A The wrong state for H2O
Standard Enthalpies

is given in the table
of Formation kJ/mol
B The state for methanol is O2(aq) -11.7
incorrect CH30H(l) -238.6
C A and D CO2(g) -393.5
H2O(g) -241.8
D The wrong state for oxygen is in the table
E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=udq4WxFBLGM
80 You are given the equation for the combustion of
methanol below and data to calculate the standard
enthalpy change for this reaction. Why can’t you perform
this calculation?

## 2CH3OH(l) + 3O2(g) 2CO2(g) + 4H20(l)

A The wrong state for H2O
Standard Enthalpies

## is given in the table C of Formation kJ/mol

B The state for methanol is O2(aq) -11.7
incorrect CH30H(l) -238.6
C A and D CO2(g) -393.5
H2O(g) -241.8
D The wrong state for oxygen
[This object is ais
pull in
tab] the table

E I need help

https://njctl.org/video/?v=udq4WxFBLGM
Energy in Foods and Fuels

Table of
https://njctl.org/video/?v=sWyQpl8Uflc Contents
Sources of Energy

## Energy used by our society comes from a number of sources.

Here are a few examples:

## · Gasoline provides energy to power cars

electricity
· Electricity in a home may have come from a power plant that
uses natural gas, coal, or fuel oil
· Electricity may also have been generated by a nuclear power
plant
Fuels
Gasoline, coal, natural gas or fuel oils are all examples of chemical
fuels. They are also known as fossil fuels.
.
A chemical fuel is any substance that will react with atmospheric
oxygen (burn) to release energy. Burning a fuel is an exothermic
process. Preferably a fuel should have a reasonable cost and create
as little damage to the environment as possible.

Fuels that provide us with most of our energy needs are: fossil fuels,
followed to a much lesser extent by biomass fuels such as wood and
peat.
What are Fossil Fuels?

## Although the processes that produced petroleum and natural gas

are not well understood, they are likely the remains of marine
organisms that have undergone chemical changes

## Petroleum is a thick dark liquid that is composed of hydrocarbons

these are long chains of carbon with hydrogen bonded to the
carbons. The chain lengths of petroleum are between C-5 to C-10
Natural Gas is usually associated with petroleum deposits. It
comprises mostly methane gas, CH4

## Fuel Oils are hydrocarbons with chain

lengths between 10 and 25
What are Fossil Fuels?
Coal has been formed from the remains of plants that have
been buried and subject to great pressure. Chemical changes
have altered the plant material which was originally mostly the
carbohydrate, cellulose. Carbohydrates are composed of
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. To form coal, chemical changes
have lowered the amounts of oxygen and hydrogen and
correspondingly increased the amount of carbon
Coal
Carbohydrate

## There are various types of

Carbohydrates are composed of coal with carbon contents
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen between 92% and 71%
carbon
How to Compare Fuels

## Two ways to compare a Fuel are via:

Its Fuel Value which is the energy released/1g of fuel burned
Its Energy Density which is the energy released/unit volume of
fuel
For gaseous fuels, their fuel value is high but their energy
density is low because their densities are low.
Gaseous fuels also take up a lot of storage room
To solve this problem some fuels such as propane or butane
are compressed to form liquids
Comparison of Fuel Values
and Energy Densities

## Fuel Values and Energy Densities for

Methane, Hydrogen and Ethanol

Energy
Density Fuel Value Density
Fuel
g/L kJ/g
kJ/L
Methane (g) 0.656 50.0 32.8

## Ethanol (l) 789 26.8 21200

Calculation of Fuel Value and
Energy Density for Methane

## 1CH4(g) + 2O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H20(g) ∆H= - 802 kJ

Fuel Value
-802 kJ/1mol x 1mol/16.04g = 50.0 kJ/g

Energy Density
50.0 kJ/g x 0.656 g/L = 32.8 kJ/L
Hydrogen as a Fuel
Hydrogen is another good fuel. It burns in air to produce just water.
This has a great advantage from an environmental standpoint,
because burning hydrocarbons forms carbon dioxide.

## Little hydrogen is naturally available as an element. So

considerable effort is aimed at determining ways to produce
affordable hydrogen gas.
One novel method involves growing a single cell green algae in a
medium without sulphur. Under these circumstances the algae
generates hydrogen.
Energy in Foods
Foods are fuels- they provide energy for our bodies.
Foods are comprised mainly of
carbohydrates, proteins and oils or fats.

## Carbohydrates are hydrated

carbon.
Their general formula
is Cx(H20)y . They consist of
polymers of sugars.

## Like hydrocarbons, oils or

fats consist of long chains
Proteins are polymers of hydrocarbons bonded to
of amino acids a glycerol backbone
Carbohydrates and Energy
Carbohydrates that we eat are digested in the intestines and
converted to glucose. The glucose is absorbed from the blood
stream and metabolized in cells by a series of complicated
reactions that can be added together (Hess's Law) and
summarised in the following equation:

## Note that although this reaction occurs in the body, it is equivalent to

burning glucose in oxygen. In fact the caloric value of foods can be
determined in just this way using a bomb calorimeter
The energy released per g glucose metabolized or consumed is:
(* molar mass of glucose is 180 g)
2801kJ/mol ÷180g/mol =
16 kJ/g or 3.82 Cal/g
The average is value is given 17kJ/g or 4 Cal/g
What does the Energy Released Through
Carbohydrate Metabolism do?
The energy released through carbohydrate metabolism is used to

· Contract muscles
· Transmit nerve impulses
· Construct and repair tissue
· Maintain body temperature
· Excess energy from carbohydrate metabolism is stored as fat
Fat Metabolism
Like carbohydrates, fats are metabolized in the body to carbon
dioxide and water. The equation for this is shown below for the
fat tristearin. It is the equivalent of burning fat in oxygen:

## 2 C57 H110O6 + 163 O2 114 CO2 + 110H2O

∆H = -75,002 kJ
Again, bomb calorimetry can be used to determine the energy
released as a fat is burned in oxygen. When fats are metabolized:

## Fats contain a lot of energy in a very small volume and are an

excellent store house for energy
Protein Metabolism

## Proteins contain nitrogen in addition to carbon and oxygen

Proteins are broken down to amino acids in the body and are
used to build new proteins.

## Similar to carbohydrates on average (there are many different

kinds of proteins) the energy released is:

17 kJ/g or 4 Cal/g
Energy Value of Food
Knowing the % composition of carbohydrate, fat and protein in
your diet and the mass in g of each consumed, energy intake in
Calories can be calculated from the following conversion factors
factors:

· Carbohydrates 4 Cal/g

· Fats 9 Cal/g

· Protein 4 Cal/g
Problem Solving Questions

of Contents
81 Given the following thermochemical equations, calculate
∆H for the formation of one mole of dinitrogen pentoxide

## 2H2(g) + O2(g) --> 2H2O(l) ∆H = -571.6 kJ

N2O5(g) + H2O(l) --> 2HNO3(l) ∆H = -73.7 kJ
1/2N2(g) + 3/2O2(g) + 1/2H2(g) --> HNO3(l) ∆H = -174.1 kJ

https://njctl.org/video/?v=Z4ZbvYQbh8Q
81 Given the following thermochemical equations, calculate
∆H for the formation of one mole of dinitrogen pentoxide

## 2H2(g) + O2(g) --> 2H2O(l) ∆H = -571.6 kJ

N2O5(g) + H2O(l) --> 2HNO3(l) ∆H = -73.7 kJ
1/2N2(g) + 3/2O2(g) + 1/2H2(g) --> HNO3(l) ∆H = -174.1 kJ

+ 11.3 kJ

## [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=Z4ZbvYQbh8Q
82 A student was assigned to determine the enthalpy
change for the reaction between solid MgO and aqueous
HCl represented by the net ionic reaction below:
MgO(s) + 2H+(aq) --> Mg2+ + H2O(l)
The student added 0.50 g MgO to 100 mL HCl in a
Styrofoam cup calorimeter. She determined that the
temperature rose from 24.1 to 28.1 oC.
a) Calculate the magnitude of q, the thermal energy
change, when the MgO was added to the HCl. Assume
the calorimeter has a negligible heat capacity and that
the specific heat of the contents of the calorimeter is 4.18
J/goC. Also, assume the density of the HCl is 1.0 g/mL.
b) Determine the experimental value of ∆Ho for the
reaction in units of kJ/molrxn.
https://njctl.org/video/?v=wJAtz3bhdck
83
82 c) Enthalpies of formation for substances involved in the
reaction are shown in the table below. Using the
information in the table, determine the accepted value of
∆Ho for the reaction between MgO and HCl.

Substance ∆Hof(kJ/mol)
MgO(s) -602
H2O(l) -286
H+(aq) 0
Mg2+(aq) -467
d) The accepted value and the experimental value do not
agree. If the calorimeter leaked heat energy to the
environment, would it help account for the discrepancy
between the values? Explain.
https://njctl.org/video/?v=JPt0285S254
84
83 Brass has a density of 8.25 g/cm3 and a specific heat
capacity of 0.362 J/goC. A cube of brass 22.0 mm on
each edge is heated to a temperature of 85oC. It is then
dropped into 20.0 ml of water (density of 1 g/mL and c =
4.184 J/goC) at 19.0 oC in a coffee cup calorimeter.
Assuming no heat is lost, what is the final temperature of

the water?

https://njctl.org/video/?v=YFLlq6Yst0k
84
83 Brass has a density of 8.25 g/cm3 and a specific heat
capacity of 0.362 J/goC. A cube of brass 22.0 mm on
each edge is heated to a temperature of 85oC. It is then
dropped into 20.0 ml of water (density of 1 g/mL and c =
4.184 J/goC) at 19.0 oC in a coffee cup calorimeter.
Assuming no heat is lost, what is the final temperature of

## [This object is a pull tab]

https://njctl.org/video/?v=YFLlq6Yst0k
84
85 Use the following information to determine ∆Ho for the
following reaction:
2H2S(g) + 3O2(g) --> 2SO2(g) + 2H2O(g)

Std. Enthalpies of
Formation @25oC

## SO2(g) -296.8 kJ/mol

https://njctl.org/video/?v=XwcyOEycwVY
84
85 Use the following information to determine ∆Ho for the
following reaction:
2H2S(g) + 3O2(g) --> 2SO2(g) + 2H2O(g)