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experiment on bernoulli theorem

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You are on page 1of 16

EXPERIMENT 3

BERNOULLI’S THEOREM DEMONSTRATION

1.0 OBJECTIVE

To demonstrate and verify Bernoulli’s Theorem

Please familiarize with the unit before operating the unit. The unit consists of the

followings:

a) Venturi

The venturi meter is made of transparent acrylic with the

following specifications:

Throat diameter : 16 mm

Upstream Diameter : 26 mm

Designed Flow Rate : 20 LPM

b) Manometer

There are eight manometer tubes; each length 320 mm, for static

pressure and total head measuring along the venturi meter. The

manometer tubes are connected to an air bleed screw for air release as

well as tubes pressurization.

c) Baseboard

The baseboard is epoxy coated and designed with 4 height adjustable

stands to level the venturi meter.

d) Discharge valve

One discharge valve is installed at the venturi discharge section for flow

rate control.

e) Connections

Hose Connections are installed at both inlet and outlet.

f) Hydraulic Bench

Sump tank : 120 litres

Volumetric tank : 50 litres

Centrifugal pump : 0.6 kW, 60

LPM

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PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory Module

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PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory Module

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PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory Module

classical Venturi made of clear acrylic. A series of wall tappings allow measurement of

the static pressure distribution along the converging duct, while a total head tube is

provided to traverse along the centre line of the test section. These tappings are

connected to a manometer bank incorporating a manifold with air bleed valve.

Pressurization of the manometers is facilitated by a hand pump.

Hydraulic Bench (Model: FM110). This base board has four adjustable feet to level the

apparatus. The main test section is an accurately machined acrylic venturi of varying

circular cross section. It is provided with a number of side hole pressure tappings,

which are connected to the manometer tubes on the rig. These tappings allow the

measurement of static pressure head simultaneously at each of 6 sections. The

tapping positions and the test section diameters are shown in Appendix A. The test

section incorporates two unions, one at either end, to facilitate reversal for convergent

or divergent testing as illustrated in Figure 1 and Figure 2.

A hypodermic tube, the total pressure head probe, is provided which may be

positioned to read the total pressure head at any section of the duct. This total

pressure head probe may be moved after slacking the gland nut; this nut should be re-

tightened by hand after adjustment. An additional tapping is provided to facilitate

setting up. All eight pressure tapings are connected to a bank of pressurized

manometer tubes. Pressurization of the manometers is facilitated by connecting any

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PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory Module

hand pump to the inlet valve on the manometer manifold.

The unit is connected to the hydraulic bench using flexible hoses. The hoses

and the connections are equipped with rapid action couplings. The flexible hose

attached to the outlet pipe which should be directed to the volumetric measuring tank

on the hydraulics bench. A flow control valve is incorporated downstream of the test

section. Flow rate and pressure in the apparatus may be varied independently by

adjustment of the flow control valve and the bench supply control valve.

3.1 THEORY

1p z z

g V (2.1)

s s s

p

ds dp (the change in pressure) (2.2)

s

z

ds dz (the change in elevation) (2.3)

s

V

ds dV (the change in speed) (2.4)

s

dp

gdz VdV

dp V 2

2 gz cons tan t (2.6)

The relation between pressure and density must be applied in this equation. For the

special case of incompressible flow, ρ = constant, and Equation 2.6 becomes the

Bernoulli’s Equation.

p V2

gz cons tan t (2.7)

2

Restrictions:

i.Steady flow

ii.Incompressible flow

iii.Frictionless flow

iv.Flow along a streamline

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PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory Module

3.1.2 Bernoulli’s Law

Bernoulli's law states that if a non-viscous fluid is flowing along a pipe of varying cross

section, then the pressure is lower at constrictions where the velocity is higher, and the

pressure is higher where the pipe opens out and the fluid stagnate. Many people find

this situation paradoxical when they first encounter it (higher velocity, lower

pressure). This is expressed with the following equation:

p v2

z h * cons tan t (2.8)

g 2 g

Where,

ρ = Density of the flowing fluid

g = Acceleration due to

gravity

v = Mean velocity of fluid flow at the cross section

z = Elevation head of the center at the cross section with

respect to a datum

h* = Total (stagnation) head

The terms on the left-hand-side of the above equation represent the pressure

head (h), velocity head (hv ), and elevation head (z), respectively. The sum of these

*

terms is known as the total head (h ). According to the Bernoulli’s theorem of fluid flow

*

through a pipe, the total head h at any cross section is constant. In a real flow due

to friction and other imperfections, as well as measurement uncertainties, the results

will deviate from the theoretical ones.

In our experimental setup, the centerline of all the cross sections we are

considering lie on the same horizontal plane (which we may choose as the datum, z = 0,

and thus, all the ‘z’ values are zeros so that the above equation reduces to:

p v2

h * cons tan t (2.9)

g 2 g

This represents the total head at a cross section.

*

For the experiments, the pressure head is denoted as hi and the total head as h i,

where i represents the cross sections at different tapping points.

Equation 2.7, is the thermodynamic pressure; it is commonly called the static pressure.

The static pressure is that pressure which would be measured by an instrument

moving with the flow. However, such a measurement is rather difficult to make in a

practical situation.

This fact makes it possible to measure the static pressure in a flowing fluid using a wall

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PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory Module

pressure tapping, placed in a region where the flow streamlines are straight, as shown

in Figure 4 (a). The pressure tap is a small hole, drilled carefully in the wall, with its

axis perpendicular to the surface. If the hole is perpendicular to the duct wall and free

from burrs, accurate measurement of static pressure can be made by connecting the

tap to a suitable pressure measuring instrument.

In a fluid stream far from a wall, or where streamlines are curved, accurate

static pressure measurements can be made by careful use of a static pressure probe,

shown in Figure 4 (b). Such probes must be designed so that the measuring holes are

place correctly with respect to the probe tip and stem to avoid erroneous results. In use,

the measuring section must be aligned with the local flow direction.

sizes as small as 1.5 mm (1/16 in.) in diameter. The stagnation pressure is obtained

when a flowing fluid is decelerated to zero speed by a frictionless process. In

incompressible flow, the Bernoulli Equation can be used to relate changes in speed and

pressure along a streamline for such a process. Neglecting elevation differences,

Equation 2.7 becomes

p v2

cons tan t (2.10)

g 2 g

If the static pressure is p at a point in the flow where the speed is v, then the stagnation

pressure, Po, where the stagnation speed, Vo, is zero, may be computed from

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PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory Module

2

po vo p v2

(2.11)

g 2 g 2

Therefore,

1

p o p v 2 (2.12)

2

incompressible flow. The term ½ ρV² generally is the dynamic pressure. Solving the

dynamic pressure gives:

1 2

v po p (2.13)

2

Or

2( p o p )

v (2.14)

or

v 2 g ( ho h) (2.15)

Thus, if the stagnation pressure and the static pressure could be measured at a

point, Equation 2.14 would give the local flow speed.

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PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory Module

that faces directly upstream as shown in Figure 5. Such a probe is called a

stagnation pressure probe (hypodermic probe) or Pitot (pronounced pea-toe) tube.

Again, the measuring section must be aligned with the local flow direction.

We have seen that static pressure at a point can be measured with a static

pressure tap or probe (Figure 4). If we know the stagnation pressure at the same point,

then the flow speed could be computed from Equation 2.14. Two possible experimental

setups are shown in Figure 6.

In Figure 6(a), the static pressure corresponding to point A is read from the

wall static pressure tap. The stagnation pressure is measured directly at A by the

total head tube, as shown. (The stem of the total head tube is placed downstream

from the measurement location to minimize disturbance of the local flow)

Two probes often are combined, as in the Pitot-static tube shown in Figure

6(b). The inner tube is used to measure the stagnation pressure at point B, while the

static pressure at C is sensed using the tapping on the wall. In flow fields where the

static pressure variatio in the streamwise direction is small, the Pitot-static tube may

be used to infer the speed at point B in the flow by assuming pB =pC and using

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PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory Module

Equation 2.14. (Note that when pB ≠ pC, this procedure will give erroneous results)

Remember that the Bernoulli equation applies only for incompressible flow

(Mach number, M ≤ 0.3).

The venturi meter consists of a venturi tube and differential pressure gauge.

The venturi tube has a converging portion, a throat and a diverging portion as shown in

the figure below. The function of the converging portion is to increase the velocity of the

fluid and lower its static pressure. A pressure difference between inlet and throat is thus

developed, which pressure difference is correlated with the rate of discharge. The

diverging cone serves to change the area of the stream back to the entrance area and

convert velocity head into pressure head.

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PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory

Module

4.1 General Start-up Procedure

1. Fully open the outlet flow control valve at the Bernoulli’s Theorem

Demonstration unit.

2. Fully close the bench flow control valve, V1

3. Turn on the pump and gradually open the water supply valve. At this point,

you will see water flowing into the venturi and discharge into the collection tank

of hydraulic bench.

4. Also check for “Trapped Bubbles” in the glass tube or plastic transfer tube. You

would need to remove them from the system for better accuracy.

Note:

To remove air bubbles, you will have to bleed the air out as follow:

i.Quickly open and close water supply valve for many times.

5 Proceed to fully open the water supply valve. When the flow in the

pipe is steady and there is no trapped bubble, start to close the discharge valve to

reduce the flow to the maximum measurable flow rate.

You will see that water level in the manometer tubes will begin to display

different level of water heights. If the water level in the manometer board is too

low where it is out of visible point, open V1 to increase the static pressure. If the

water level is too high, open the outlet control valve to lower the static pressure.

7. Adjust V1 and outlet control valve to obtain a flow through the test section and

observe that the static pressure profile along the converging and diverging sections

is indicated on its respective manometers. The total head pressure along the

venture tube can be measured by traversing the hypodermic tube.

Note: The manometer tube connected to the tapping adjacent to the outlet flow

control valve is used as a datum when setting up equivalent conditions for flow

through test section.

8. The actual flow of water can be measured using the volumetric tank with a stop

watch.

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PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory

Module

2. Check that all manometer tubings are properly connected to the corresponding

pressure

3. Adjust the discharge valve to a high measurable flow rate.

4. Close the hole inside the tank by using water block stick. Start your stop watch

5. After the level stabilizes, measure the water flow rate using volumetric method

by taking time needed to fill up 20 litres of water in the volumetric tank. Take

at least 3 measurements and record the timings in order to calculate (average)

flow rate

6. Gently slide the hypodermic tube (total head measuring) connected to

manometer #G, so that its end reaches the cross section of the Venturi tube

at #A. Wait for some time and note down the readings from manometer #G

and #A. The reading shown by manometer #G is the sum of the static head and

*

velocity heads, i.e. the total (or stagnation) head (h ), because the hypodermic

tube is held against the flow of fluid forcing it to a stop (zero velocity). The

*

reading in manometer #A measures just the pressure head (hi ), because it is

connected to the Venturi tube pressure tap, which does not obstruct the flow,

thus measuring the flow static pressure.

7. Repeat step 5 for other cross sections (#B, #C, #D, #E and #F).

8. Repeat step 3 to 6 with three other decreasing flow rates by regulating the

venturi

9. Calculate the velocity, Vi using the Bernoulli’s equation where;

ViB 2 g (h8 hi )

10. Calculate the velocity, ViC using the continuity equation where ViC = Qav / Ai

11. Determined the difference between two calculated velocities.

12. Close water supply valve and venturi discharge valve.

13. Turn off the water supply pump.

12

PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory

Module

Name :______________________________ Date : ______________

Matrix No :______________________________

Flow

Liter

Time (minute) Flow Rate (liter/min) Rate

(m3/s)

1 20

2 20

3 20

4 20

Using Bernoulli equation

Section equation

ViB = Ai = ViC =

h*=h G hi ViB-ViC

√[2*g*( π Di2 / 4 Qav / Ai

# (mm) (mm) (m/s)

h* - hi )] (m2) (m/s)

(m/s)

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

Using Bernoulli equation

Section equation

ViB = Ai = ViC =

h*=h G hi ViB-ViC

√[2*g*( π Di2 / 4 Qav / Ai

# (mm) (mm) (m/s)

h* - hi )] (m2) (m/s)

(m/s)

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

13

PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory

Module

Name : ______________________________ Date : ______________

Matrix No : ______________________________

Using Bernoulli equation

Section equation

ViB = Ai = ViC =

h*=h G hi ViB-ViC

√[2*g*( π Di2 / 4 Qav / Ai

# (mm) (mm) (m/s)

h* - hi )] (m2) (m/s)

(m/s)

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

Using Bernoulli equation

Section equation

h*=h G hi ViB-ViC

√[2*g*( π Di2 / 4 Qav / Ai

# (mm) (mm) (m/s)

h* - hi )] (m2) (m/s)

(m/s)

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

14

PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory

Module

Name :______________________________ Date : ______________

Matrix No :______________________________

- Firstly tell about the experiment objective

- Explain the significance about your results and why is it of interest to

you

- Discuss about the trends and the nature of your results

7.3. Explain any unusual difficulties or problems which may have led to poor results.

- Gives 3 problems in your experiment

7.4. Offer suggestions for how the experimental procedure or design could be

improved.

- Give 3 suggestion how to improves your results

15

PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory

Module

Name :______________________________ Date : ______________

Matrix No :______________________________

7.0 REFERENCES

8.0 APPENDIX

- Show the sample calculation for one data.

16

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