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PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory Module


To demonstrate and verify Bernoulli’s Theorem


Please familiarize with the unit before operating the unit. The unit consists of the

a) Venturi
The venturi meter is made of transparent acrylic with the
following specifications:
Throat diameter : 16 mm
Upstream Diameter : 26 mm
Designed Flow Rate : 20 LPM

b) Manometer
There are eight manometer tubes; each length 320 mm, for static
pressure and total head measuring along the venturi meter. The
manometer tubes are connected to an air bleed screw for air release as
well as tubes pressurization.

c) Baseboard
The baseboard is epoxy coated and designed with 4 height adjustable
stands to level the venturi meter.

d) Discharge valve
One discharge valve is installed at the venturi discharge section for flow
rate control.

e) Connections
Hose Connections are installed at both inlet and outlet.

f) Hydraulic Bench
Sump tank : 120 litres
Volumetric tank : 50 litres
Centrifugal pump : 0.6 kW, 60

PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory Module

Figure 1: Parts Identification Diagram

1. Manometer Tubes 6. Flow Control Valve

2. Test Section 7. Gland Nut

3. Water Inlet 8. Hypodermic Probe

4. Unions 9. Adjustable Feet

5. Air Bleed Screw

PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory Module


PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory Module

Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration (Model: FM 24) apparatus consists of a

classical Venturi made of clear acrylic. A series of wall tappings allow measurement of
the static pressure distribution along the converging duct, while a total head tube is
provided to traverse along the centre line of the test section. These tappings are
connected to a manometer bank incorporating a manifold with air bleed valve.
Pressurization of the manometers is facilitated by a hand pump.

The unit is mounted on a base board which is to be placed on top of the

Hydraulic Bench (Model: FM110). This base board has four adjustable feet to level the
apparatus. The main test section is an accurately machined acrylic venturi of varying
circular cross section. It is provided with a number of side hole pressure tappings,
which are connected to the manometer tubes on the rig. These tappings allow the
measurement of static pressure head simultaneously at each of 6 sections. The
tapping positions and the test section diameters are shown in Appendix A. The test
section incorporates two unions, one at either end, to facilitate reversal for convergent
or divergent testing as illustrated in Figure 1 and Figure 2.

Figure 2: Front View of Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration Unit (Model: FM24)

Figure 3: Top View of Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration Unit (Model: FM24)

A hypodermic tube, the total pressure head probe, is provided which may be
positioned to read the total pressure head at any section of the duct. This total
pressure head probe may be moved after slacking the gland nut; this nut should be re-
tightened by hand after adjustment. An additional tapping is provided to facilitate
setting up. All eight pressure tapings are connected to a bank of pressurized
manometer tubes. Pressurization of the manometers is facilitated by connecting any

PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory Module
hand pump to the inlet valve on the manometer manifold.

The unit is connected to the hydraulic bench using flexible hoses. The hoses
and the connections are equipped with rapid action couplings. The flexible hose
attached to the outlet pipe which should be directed to the volumetric measuring tank
on the hydraulics bench. A flow control valve is incorporated downstream of the test
section. Flow rate and pressure in the apparatus may be varied independently by
adjustment of the flow control valve and the bench supply control valve.


3.1.1 Derivation Using Streamline Coordin

Euler’s equation for steady flow along a streamline is

1p z z
 g V (2.1)
s s s

If a fluid particle moves a distance, ds, along a streamline,

ds  dp (the change in pressure) (2.2)

ds  dz (the change in elevation) (2.3)

ds  dV (the change in speed) (2.4)

Thus, after multiplying Equation 2.1 by ds,

 gdz  VdV 

Integration of this equation gives:

dp V 2
   2  gz  cons tan t (2.6)

The relation between pressure and density must be applied in this equation. For the
special case of incompressible flow, ρ = constant, and Equation 2.6 becomes the
Bernoulli’s Equation.
p V2
  gz  cons tan t (2.7)
 2
i.Steady flow
ii.Incompressible flow
iii.Frictionless flow
iv.Flow along a streamline

PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory Module
3.1.2 Bernoulli’s Law

Bernoulli's law states that if a non-viscous fluid is flowing along a pipe of varying cross
section, then the pressure is lower at constrictions where the velocity is higher, and the
pressure is higher where the pipe opens out and the fluid stagnate. Many people find
this situation paradoxical when they first encounter it (higher velocity, lower
pressure). This is expressed with the following equation:
p v2
  z  h *  cons tan t (2.8)
g 2 g


p = Fluid static pressure at the cross section

ρ = Density of the flowing fluid
g = Acceleration due to
v = Mean velocity of fluid flow at the cross section
z = Elevation head of the center at the cross section with
respect to a datum
h* = Total (stagnation) head

The terms on the left-hand-side of the above equation represent the pressure
head (h), velocity head (hv ), and elevation head (z), respectively. The sum of these
terms is known as the total head (h ). According to the Bernoulli’s theorem of fluid flow
through a pipe, the total head h at any cross section is constant. In a real flow due
to friction and other imperfections, as well as measurement uncertainties, the results
will deviate from the theoretical ones.

In our experimental setup, the centerline of all the cross sections we are
considering lie on the same horizontal plane (which we may choose as the datum, z = 0,
and thus, all the ‘z’ values are zeros so that the above equation reduces to:

p v2
  h *  cons tan t (2.9)
g 2 g
This represents the total head at a cross section.
For the experiments, the pressure head is denoted as hi and the total head as h i,
where i represents the cross sections at different tapping points.

3.1.3 Static, Stagnation and Dynamic Pressures

The pressure, p, which we have used in deriving the Bernoulli’s equation,

Equation 2.7, is the thermodynamic pressure; it is commonly called the static pressure.
The static pressure is that pressure which would be measured by an instrument
moving with the flow. However, such a measurement is rather difficult to make in a
practical situation.

As we know, there was no pressure variation normal to straight streamlines.

This fact makes it possible to measure the static pressure in a flowing fluid using a wall

PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory Module
pressure tapping, placed in a region where the flow streamlines are straight, as shown
in Figure 4 (a). The pressure tap is a small hole, drilled carefully in the wall, with its
axis perpendicular to the surface. If the hole is perpendicular to the duct wall and free
from burrs, accurate measurement of static pressure can be made by connecting the
tap to a suitable pressure measuring instrument.

Figure 4: Measurement of Static Pressure

In a fluid stream far from a wall, or where streamlines are curved, accurate
static pressure measurements can be made by careful use of a static pressure probe,
shown in Figure 4 (b). Such probes must be designed so that the measuring holes are
place correctly with respect to the probe tip and stem to avoid erroneous results. In use,
the measuring section must be aligned with the local flow direction.

Static pressure probes or any variety of forms are available commercially in

sizes as small as 1.5 mm (1/16 in.) in diameter. The stagnation pressure is obtained
when a flowing fluid is decelerated to zero speed by a frictionless process. In
incompressible flow, the Bernoulli Equation can be used to relate changes in speed and
pressure along a streamline for such a process. Neglecting elevation differences,
Equation 2.7 becomes

p v2
  cons tan t (2.10)
g 2 g

If the static pressure is p at a point in the flow where the speed is v, then the stagnation
pressure, Po, where the stagnation speed, Vo, is zero, may be computed from

PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory Module

po vo p v2
   (2.11)
g 2 g 2

p o  p  v 2 (2.12)

Equation 2.12 is a mathematical statement of stagnation pressure, valid for

incompressible flow. The term ½ ρV² generally is the dynamic pressure. Solving the
dynamic pressure gives:

1 2
v  po  p (2.13)


2( p o  p )
v (2.14)


v 2  g ( ho  h) (2.15)

Thus, if the stagnation pressure and the static pressure could be measured at a
point, Equation 2.14 would give the local flow speed.

PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory Module

Figure 5: Measurement of Stagnation Pressure

Figure 6: Simultaneous Measurement of Stagnation and Static Pressures

Stagnation pressure is measured in the laboratory using a probe with a hole

that faces directly upstream as shown in Figure 5. Such a probe is called a
stagnation pressure probe (hypodermic probe) or Pitot (pronounced pea-toe) tube.
Again, the measuring section must be aligned with the local flow direction.

We have seen that static pressure at a point can be measured with a static
pressure tap or probe (Figure 4). If we know the stagnation pressure at the same point,
then the flow speed could be computed from Equation 2.14. Two possible experimental
setups are shown in Figure 6.

In Figure 6(a), the static pressure corresponding to point A is read from the
wall static pressure tap. The stagnation pressure is measured directly at A by the
total head tube, as shown. (The stem of the total head tube is placed downstream
from the measurement location to minimize disturbance of the local flow)

Two probes often are combined, as in the Pitot-static tube shown in Figure
6(b). The inner tube is used to measure the stagnation pressure at point B, while the
static pressure at C is sensed using the tapping on the wall. In flow fields where the
static pressure variatio in the streamwise direction is small, the Pitot-static tube may
be used to infer the speed at point B in the flow by assuming pB =pC and using

PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory Module
Equation 2.14. (Note that when pB ≠ pC, this procedure will give erroneous results)

Remember that the Bernoulli equation applies only for incompressible flow
(Mach number, M ≤ 0.3).

3.1.4 Venturi Meter

The venturi meter consists of a venturi tube and differential pressure gauge.
The venturi tube has a converging portion, a throat and a diverging portion as shown in
the figure below. The function of the converging portion is to increase the velocity of the
fluid and lower its static pressure. A pressure difference between inlet and throat is thus
developed, which pressure difference is correlated with the rate of discharge. The
diverging cone serves to change the area of the stream back to the entrance area and
convert velocity head into pressure head.

PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory


4.1 General Start-up Procedure

1. Fully open the outlet flow control valve at the Bernoulli’s Theorem
Demonstration unit.
2. Fully close the bench flow control valve, V1
3. Turn on the pump and gradually open the water supply valve. At this point,
you will see water flowing into the venturi and discharge into the collection tank
of hydraulic bench.
4. Also check for “Trapped Bubbles” in the glass tube or plastic transfer tube. You
would need to remove them from the system for better accuracy.
To remove air bubbles, you will have to bleed the air out as follow:
i.Quickly open and close water supply valve for many times.
5 Proceed to fully open the water supply valve. When the flow in the
pipe is steady and there is no trapped bubble, start to close the discharge valve to
reduce the flow to the maximum measurable flow rate.
 You will see that water level in the manometer tubes will begin to display
different level of water heights. If the water level in the manometer board is too
low where it is out of visible point, open V1 to increase the static pressure. If the
water level is too high, open the outlet control valve to lower the static pressure.
7. Adjust V1 and outlet control valve to obtain a flow through the test section and
observe that the static pressure profile along the converging and diverging sections
is indicated on its respective manometers. The total head pressure along the
venture tube can be measured by traversing the hypodermic tube.
Note: The manometer tube connected to the tapping adjacent to the outlet flow
control valve is used as a datum when setting up equivalent conditions for flow
through test section.
8. The actual flow of water can be measured using the volumetric tank with a stop

PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory

4.2. Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration

1. Perform the General Start-up Procedures in Section 4.1.

2. Check that all manometer tubings are properly connected to the corresponding
3. Adjust the discharge valve to a high measurable flow rate.
4. Close the hole inside the tank by using water block stick. Start your stop watch
5. After the level stabilizes, measure the water flow rate using volumetric method
by taking time needed to fill up 20 litres of water in the volumetric tank. Take
at least 3 measurements and record the timings in order to calculate (average)
flow rate
6. Gently slide the hypodermic tube (total head measuring) connected to
manometer #G, so that its end reaches the cross section of the Venturi tube
at #A. Wait for some time and note down the readings from manometer #G
and #A. The reading shown by manometer #G is the sum of the static head and
velocity heads, i.e. the total (or stagnation) head (h ), because the hypodermic
tube is held against the flow of fluid forcing it to a stop (zero velocity). The
reading in manometer #A measures just the pressure head (hi ), because it is
connected to the Venturi tube pressure tap, which does not obstruct the flow,
thus measuring the flow static pressure.
7. Repeat step 5 for other cross sections (#B, #C, #D, #E and #F).
8. Repeat step 3 to 6 with three other decreasing flow rates by regulating the
9. Calculate the velocity, Vi using the Bernoulli’s equation where;
ViB  2  g  (h8  hi )
10. Calculate the velocity, ViC using the continuity equation where ViC = Qav / Ai
11. Determined the difference between two calculated velocities.
12. Close water supply valve and venturi discharge valve.
13. Turn off the water supply pump.

PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory
Name :______________________________ Date : ______________
Matrix No :______________________________


Time (minute) Flow Rate (liter/min) Rate
1 20
2 20
3 20
4 20

1. Flowrate : ___________ (m3/s)

Cross Using Continuity Difference

Using Bernoulli equation
Section equation

ViB = Ai = ViC =
h*=h G hi ViB-ViC
√[2*g*( π Di2 / 4 Qav / Ai
# (mm) (mm) (m/s)
h* - hi )] (m2) (m/s)

2. Flowrate : ___________ (m3/s)

Cross Using Continuity Difference

Using Bernoulli equation
Section equation

ViB = Ai = ViC =
h*=h G hi ViB-ViC
√[2*g*( π Di2 / 4 Qav / Ai
# (mm) (mm) (m/s)
h* - hi )] (m2) (m/s)

PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory
Name : ______________________________ Date : ______________
Matrix No : ______________________________

3. Flowrate : ___________ (m3/s)

Cross Using Continuity Difference

Using Bernoulli equation
Section equation

ViB = Ai = ViC =
h*=h G hi ViB-ViC
√[2*g*( π Di2 / 4 Qav / Ai
# (mm) (mm) (m/s)
h* - hi )] (m2) (m/s)

4. Flowrate : ___________ (m3/s)

Cross Using Continuity Difference

Using Bernoulli equation
Section equation

ViB = Ai = ViC =
h*=h G hi ViB-ViC
√[2*g*( π Di2 / 4 Qav / Ai
# (mm) (mm) (m/s)
h* - hi )] (m2) (m/s)

PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory
Name :______________________________ Date : ______________
Matrix No :______________________________


7.1. Explain the significance of your findings.

- Firstly tell about the experiment objective
- Explain the significance about your results and why is it of interest to

7.2. Briefly summarize the key results of experiment.

- Discuss about the trends and the nature of your results

7.3. Explain any unusual difficulties or problems which may have led to poor results.
- Gives 3 problems in your experiment

7.4. Offer suggestions for how the experimental procedure or design could be
- Give 3 suggestion how to improves your results

7.5. Compare your experimental values with theoretical values given

7.6. Define and write the Bernoulli’s Equation.

7.7. Give three (3) applications of Bernoulli’s Theorem.

PLT 221 – THERMOFLUID AND MATERIAL(2014/2015) Laboratory
Name :______________________________ Date : ______________
Matrix No :______________________________


- Gives at least 2 reference

- Show the sample calculation for one data.