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Running Head: FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 1

Female Faculty Members’ Use of Technologies at Princess Norah University

Mona Alenezi

Northern Illinois University

ETR 525
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 2

Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 3
Literature Review ......................................................................................................................... 4
Technology in Saudi Arabia ..................................................................................................... 4
Higher education in Saudi Arabia ........................................................................................... 5
Uses of ICT in Saudi Arabia higher education ...................................................................... 6
Theoretical Framework .......................................................................................................... 10
Methodology ................................................................................................................................ 12
Description of site and participants....................................................................................... 12
Participants .............................................................................................................................. 13
Data collection procedures ..................................................................................................... 14
Data analysis ............................................................................................................................ 15
Researcher role........................................................................................................................ 15
Results .......................................................................................................................................... 16
Findings.................................................................................................................................... 16
Summary of Findings ............................................................................................................. 16
Applications of Roger’s Diffusion of Innovation Theory ........................................................ 18
Roger’s Decision-Making Process ......................................................................................... 18
Roger’s Technology Adopted Categories.............................................................................. 19
Theoretical Application of the Findings ............................................................................... 21
Answer to the Research Question .......................................................................................... 22
Discussion..................................................................................................................................... 24
REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................ 26
APPENDICES .............................................................................................................................. 28
APPENDIX A .......................................................................................................................... 28
APPENDIX B .............................................................................................................................. 29
Appendix C .................................................................................................................................. 30
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 3

Female Faculty Members’ Use of Technologies at Princess Norah University

Introduction

Technology plays a vital role in our current world. Because of technology, innovations

have been made causing digitalization to transpire. Through definition, technology is accepted as

the incorporation of various skills and techniques to accomplish particular objectives. To

facilitate a desire for technology, Saudi Arabia saw it was necessary that the idea of technology

be introduced to and integrated in specific learning institutions. Only through this system would

the plan be established for the younger generations, who represent the future. In Saudi Arabia,

the influence of technology is therefore attributed to the higher education institutions. Higher

education involves organizations that engage in providing advanced courses in a specific sector

that determines one's career. Therefore, it becomes necessary to realize and admit that in higher

education, Saudi Arabia would be wise to understand and seek the benefits that come with

technology. In terms of education, the integration of ICT in education provides several benefits,

including but not limited to, increased access to education through offering different options for

educational implementation (Hawkins, 2002), potentially improved equity in education

(Robinson, 2008), and potentially improved quality of instruction (Sanyal, 2001). The use of

instructional technology helps achieve educational goals, engages students by drawing their

attention to the lesson, brings the subject closer to their level of awareness, and improves their

orientation towards the lesson’s content. The integration of ICT in higher education also plays a

significant role in constructivism for learning and teaching (Nanjappa & Grant, 2003).

Prince Norah University is an important institution regarding technology in Saudi Arabia.

It is a public university offering higher education for women. The integration of instructional
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technology at Princess Norah University is a slow but emerging process. This is due to the slow

growth of technology in Saudi Arabia and the low level of technological use in the rural areas of

Saudi Arabia, where many Princess Norah University students reside. The purpose of this

qualitative study is to investigate female faculty members’ use of technologies in their teaching

at Princess Norah University.

Literature Review

Technology has long been defined as the incorporation of individual skills and techniques

to accomplish a specific objective. Although technology was first implemented in European

nations, its impact is now felt in the African and Arabian countries. To be precise, Saudi Arabia

is significantly incorporating the use of technology. Because of this, it has been able to advance

educational technology. This is because without advancement of technology, it would be difficult

to understand technology and its different uses for information and telecommunication. In order

to understand the emergence of technology in Saudi Arabia, it is vital to examine the preliminary

studies to get a glimpse of the current state of technology, higher education and information and

telecommunication in Saudi Arabia.

Technology in Saudi Arabia

According to an article by Al-Emran and Shaalan (2015), most of the achievement in

Saudi Arabia is because of technology. This article lauds the foundation of a good technology

infrastructure within the region. Because of this, positive developments have emerged, since

people have become interested in developing higher education within the region. However, the

article posits that success would be impossible if technological knowledge and devices were not

endorsed in the buildings (Al-Emran & Shaalan, 2015). The technological tools include
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machinery that is digitalized, such as the mobile phone and tractors. With new tractors and

machinery, buildings are constructed more efficiently, and with the mobile phone technology,

the intersection of infrastructure and digital technology helps Saudi Arabia become part of

globalization.

Phones that are digitized as a result advanced technology provide a platform where

people can transact their business online and interact individually on other issues. In addition to

this, the author states that the presence of technology in Saudi Arabia has influenced the

development of higher education systems for better utilization of the different technologies

present within the region. Considering this fact, it remains difficult to understand how useful

higher education in Saudi Arabia with technology can be without understanding the concept of

higher education.

Higher education in Saudi Arabia

In the previous literature review, it was evident that an understanding of technology

requires access to higher education. Only through the higher education system do students learn

to make new technological discoveries, and the society learns how to use the existing

technologies. In their article, Jamjoom and Kelly (2013) define higher education as learning at an

advanced level that is mostly availed to students at the university. According to this report, the

education system in Saudi Arabia was not as beneficial for older generations as it is for newer

ones. Influencing this was a prior absence of higher education institutions. However, with the

recognition of the role of the schools in advancing technology, Saudi Arabia saw it necessary to

establish higher learning education systems.

Without hesitation, the universities began to be established in Saudi Arabia. Among the

first universities built was King Saudi University, which remains relevant today. The university
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began in 1957 with minimal students (Jaamjoom & Kelly, 2013). However, as the years

progressed, more students enrolled in the King Saudi campus, creating a need for more

universities in the area. Although other schools and colleges were being established, the higher

education systems still had many challenges to encounter.

One of these was the gender equality issue. Whereas most boys were allowed in the

universities, only a few females could enroll. However, the article states that with time, this

concept diminished in importance, and institutions like Prince Norah University, which is

exclusively for women emerged. Besides championing equality in Saudi Arabian higher

education, Prince Norah University also played a vital role in the use and advancement of

technology.

Uses of ICT in Saudi Arabia higher education

According to Srivastava et al. (2014), technology has resulted in the invention and

improvement of information and telecommunication (ICT) systems. Based on the article, the ICT

is the technology that enables vital information to become transferred to people, as well as

communication in general. The transmission of education is enabled through various signals for

the system to work in the desired manner. With the advancement of technology, information and

telecommunication emerged. In as much as the systems are used widely within various institutions

in Saudi Arabia, they are commonly utilized by students, especially those from Prince Norah

University.

Srivastava et al. (2014) admit that in the absence of the ICT system, it would be challenging

for the admission and registration processes to take place within higher learning institutions. The

reason is that though the various signals, computerized devices within the school can key in the

names of students along with their information (Srivastava et al., 2014). Through this, it becomes
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easier for the vast number of students to make any clarifications concerning their personal

information within a short time.

Additionally, through the ICT, systems have been created that ensure every student has a

national school identification card. Creating school identification cards for every student would be

complicated if done solely by manual means. Concurring with these ideas is the journal article

titled Feminization in Saudi by Parveen (2014). Through this article, it is clear the ICT is very

much utilized by higher education systems. Therefore, higher education in Saudi Arabia cannot do

without these technology-based systems.

In an article by Aleibakan &Troudi, 2010), technologies are necessary for communication

within Saudi Arabian institutions. In learning, the disclosure is necessary whether it is performed

within a class or outside of class. In the article, a total of 93% used the technologies for

communication purposes. Influencing the high rate of communication through technological

strategies is the use of technical devices by students. Such methods include mobile phones which

students use to communicate about classes and other vital information regarding their studies.

Further, students along with the entire faculty, employ the technology in advancing their

institution. The advancement includes infrastructure such as buildings and roads that make up the

physical campus. These are quite advanced. The fact that the structures are so advanced is a sign

that the organization employs proper uses of technology. In the absence of technology use, the

institutional infrastructure would not be in good shape (Aleibakan &Troudi, 2010). Because of

this, one can see the impact of technology on the advancement of higher education. Therefore, the

universities confirm and endorse the value of technology.

Through Hussein (2011), one cannot help but visualize the incorporation of international

students within the university. In addition to this, e-learning is offered within the institution to
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enable it to capture a lot of students, adding to substantial profits. One of the significant

components of e-learning is the incorporation of highly advanced technology and information

telecommunications. Through information and telecommunication, the university can use various

platforms to ensure that international students or students from foreign countries access their

content and instructors.

This would not be possible in the absence of the Internet and the relevant machinery

brought about through technology. Because of this, there is no denying that the school utilizes the

technologies for learning purposes. For example, for e-learning to take place in education,

globalization and global learning had to occur (Hussein, 2011). Scholars have defined e-learning

as the act of receiving learning services through the Internet and a stable, available network.

Therefore, Princess Norah University uses technology to affect its functions for global education

through e-learning platforms and strategies.

According to Al-Khalifa (2009), university students, although mature, can be challenging

to handle. Such is the case when students feel their desired needs are not being provided for. When

such ideas emerge in students’ minds, they may engage in dangerous acts, including planning

strikes. As an institution, the administration must ensure that activities like strikes do not occur on

school premises. However, it would be challenging for the university to control this if it did not

have access to advanced technology.

Once Princess Norah University discovered this, administrators decided to purchase CCTV

cameras that make student monitoring easy. The devices are not only used for tracking, but offering

maximum security to all within the school (Al-Khalifa, 2009). Therefore, the female university in

Saudi Arabia uses technologies to guard and monitor all events taking place within the school.
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This is a significant step, because it assures parents, students and tutors of safety, which is the right

of every human being.

Supporting the above journals by confirming the use of technologies within Prince Norah

University is the report by Mills (2009). In his journal Mills not only agrees that the university

used technology but provides instances of how they use it. According to the researcher, meetings

and conferences are necessities of every school including Princess Norah University. Here,

students and administrators use technologies to hold meetings and various conferences effectively.

In these gatherings, communication and interaction are significant.

For the interaction and communication to be conveyed efficiently, the university uses high

technology materials such as speakers and microphones. In the absence of the use of technology,

the institution would not have managed to hold any meetings and relevant conferences (Mills,

2009). Due to frequent meetings and conferences, the university uses highly advanced

technologies which are beneficial to everyone attending the meeting. The journal further states

that the school uses the technologies to make available examinations to students and to offer

registration services to them. Concerning tests, the university employs the use of printers to

produce and reproduce exam papers.

Examination papers, once printed, allow for students to sit for their specific examinations

without strain. With regards to registration, identification of the students is a prime responsibility

of the institution (Mills, 2009). In the absence of a record, it becomes difficult to recognize

matters pertaining to school fees or any other issues arising from students. Concerning this, the

organization employed computers to register students to know the exact number of students

within the student body, and their specific fields of study.


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Based on the information above, it is apparent that Princess Norah University is highly

technological. Supporting this position is the numerous use of technology in running the

organization. The purpose of the technology has however, made the university more publicly

recognized, and it has had to accommodate more students within a short period. Because of this,

the future of technology in Saudi Arabia is bright, because the students are Saudi Arabians, and

because of the ICT courses, they gain knowledge, which is useful in making Saudi Arabia highly

advanced in technology.

Theoretical Framework

This study will draw on Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovation Theory. Rogers’ model (2003)

discusses diffusion of innovation for individuals and organizations. Pursuant to this theory,

“Diffusion refers to the process through which innovation is communicated across different

channels over time to members of a certain social fabric” (Rogers, 1995, p. 5). This model

defines five crucial elements that determine the extent to which an innovation is adopted:

 Features of the Innovation: Innovation can be described as any practice, object, or idea

that is viewed as novel by a social system. The features of an innovation refer to its

constituent functionalities which market it.

 Type of Innovation: Admittedly, not all innovations are the same. The problems that a

new innovation seeks to solve determine whether it is suitable for a particular society or

not. A suitable and practical innovation is likely to be better adopted.

 Communication/Transmission Channel: According to Rogers (1995, p. 17),

communication refers to the process through which information is created and then

shared among participants to come to a mutual understanding. A Communication

Channel is the means through which this information is transmitted within the social
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framework. The communication channels can be categorized between interpersonal

channel and mass media (Rogers, 1995).

 Composition of the Social System: The type of individuals in a given society determine

whether new technology shall be adopted and if so, how fast. As shall be discussed later,

there are five categories of adopter categories. Adopter categories are just a classification

of individuals depending on how fast they adopt new technology.

 Extent of Promotion by the Change Agent (Ellsworth, 2000). Every new technology

requires plenty of marketing and advertisement to make people aware of its existence.

Subsequently, innovations that are marketed and widely advertised are more likely to

enjoy a wider adoption.

In the next section, the research findings shall be discussed. These findings shall also be

discussed considering Roger’s Diffusion of Innovation Theory.


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Methodology

This section addresses research questions and methods of data collection. It also provides

a description of potential study participants, and an overview of conducting the data analysis.

The purpose of this qualitative study is to investigate female faculty members’ use of

technologies in their teaching at Princess Norah University. The questions for this research are as

follows:

 What types of technologies do female faculty members use in teaching at Princess Norah

University?

 How do female faculty members use technologies in lesson preparation and teaching at

Princess Norah University?

 From The female faculty members’ perspectives, what are the factors that encourage the

use of technologies tools in teaching?

 From the female faculty members’ perspectives, what are the factors that limit the use of

technologies tools in teaching?

Description of site and participants

The official name of Saudi Arabia is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia is an Arab

Islamic state that occupies the greater part of the Arabian Peninsula. Saudi Arabia is the most

gender-segregated country. Saudi Arabia is in the southwestern corner of Asia.

Saudi Arabia has paid great attention to higher education. The Ministry of Higher Education

was established by Royal Decree in 1975 and given responsibility for overseeing the planning

and coordination of the needs of the Kingdom in the field of higher education to provide the

nation with human capital specialized in a variety of areas to serve national development

objectives (Ministry of Higher Education, 2012).


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In Saudi Arabia, there are 21 government universities, six private universities, and eighteen

private colleges, which offer undergraduate and graduate degrees in various fields. In 1997, the

Council of Ministers approved the private sector’s creation of non-profit educational institutions

based on administrative, scientific, economic, and financial grounds to contribute to the

development needs, complementing the role played by public universities (Ministry of Higher

Education, 2012).

Princess Norah bint Abdulrahman University is located in Riyadh City and is considered the

first university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia exclusively for women. The University was

established in 2008, and is the largest female university in the world. The number of faculty

members in the Education college at Princess Norah University is 22 members. Princess Nora

University is the largest female university in the world. The university now has 15 colleges that

together educate more than 40,000 students each year. This qualitative case study will utilize a

purposeful sample of four participants from Princess Norah University. The focus of this

research will be on female faculty members at Princess Norah University.

Participants

The participants in this study are female faculty members who teach at Princess Nora

University in Saudi Arabia. I interviewed only four female teacher-educators currently teaching

at the University of Princess Norah. Two of them have ten years or more experience in higher

education. And two of them have less than ten years’ experience in higher education. The study

took place in the Teachers Education College at Princess Norah University in Saudi Arabia. The

language of instruction at the university is the Arabic language.


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Data collection procedures

This study is a qualitative study that involves the use of interviews via Skype software.

An invitation email was sent to each prospective participant to ask for their participation. The

consent form also states that the interview questions will be provided to the participants before

the interview and that the participants may decline to answer any question that makes them feel

uncomfortable. Each participant was interviewed on an individual basis. Each interview lasted

between 45 and 60 minutes. Each interview was audio recorded after receiving the participants’

permission. For this study, the participants were provided with an explanatory statement that

stated the purpose of the research and the time required of the participants, along with any

expected inconvenience. Participants were provided with a consent form that made it clear that

participation in this study is voluntary and that the participant is under no obligation to be

involved in the effort. Also, they would be provided with a finding report of the study. The

researcher also received permission from the gatekeeper at Princess Norah University, after an

explanation letter about the study’s aim and data collection procedures was provided. To build

the relationship between the researcher and participants, interviews began with background

questions.

In-depth and open interviews were conducted with four female teacher educators on the

faculty of Education at Princess Nora University. Each participant was interviewed on an

individual basis. The three types of data collection in qualitative methods included: in-depth and

open interviews, observation, and written documents (Patton, 2003). Interviews were chosen as

the essential source of data collection because "open questions and fields give in-depth answers

to people's experiences, perceptions, opinions, feelings, and knowledge." The data consists of

literal quotations with sufficient context to be interpretable (Patton, 2003, p .2).


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Data analysis

According to Ary, Jacobs, Sorensen, and Razavi (2010), data analysis has been subjected

to three stages (i.e., organization and definition; coding and reduction; interpretation and

representation). At the stage of organization and definition, the researcher became familiar with

the data collected by listening to interviews recorded on tape. Then these interviews were copied

reflective notes were taken on the data. After that, the data was organized according to the

source. In the coding and reduction phase, the data was sorted for each participant in the meaning

units, where each unit was encoded or labeled with a meaningful title. All units were placed with

the same code in one class. Once categories were established, similar categories and related

topics were linked. Then categories and topics of each participant were merged together.

The final stage of the analysis of the data was explained and represented the stages in

which the researcher derived the meaning, relations, and visions from the data. Also, the

researcher reported the main findings and implications of the study. The process used in coding

for participants highlighted commonalities within the dialogue, then each word or phrase was

counted to find the major themes. Then concepts were created based on the major themes, and

subcategories were created from within the themes. The subcategories were counted and then

listed in numerical order to determine how often each word or phrase was mentioned. These

codes were used to determine commonalities among the use of technology at Princess Norah

University.

Researcher role

The researcher was a teacher assistant at Princess Norah University, and noticed that

there was a lack of knowledge of the importance of the use of ICT among some department

heads, and a dearth of conviction among faculty members regarding the use of technologies and
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e-learning, as some considered it to be a fad. The administrative constraints included a lack of

adequate support from the administration and the strong resistance of some faculty members to

any change or development in the academic departments. This causes the researcher to want to

know: Do faculty members at Princess Norah University consider the use of educational

technology necessary?

Results

Findings

In general, the research findings demonstrated similarities and differences in the extent to

which the teaching staff incorporated technology in the classroom. Evidently, whether to

integrate technology into teaching is a conscious decision made by staff members.

Considering this, this section shall begin by providing insight into the research outcomes.

These shall then be compared against Roger’s Diffusion of Innovation Theory.

Summary of Findings

The first interview subject D, has experience of less than a decade in higher education.

She uses technology tools such as the Internet, e-mail and conferencing mainly for

professional reasons. E-mail is, for example, used for administrative purposes and the

Internet is used to search for information and social networking. On the other hand, she never

uses publishing software tools such as In-Design and Page Maker in both her academic or

personal lives. Evidently, the adoption of technology is guided by its suitability for her day-

to-day activities. Thus, since she has never encountered circumstances which call for the

usage of publishing tools, she never makes any effort to learn them. In a typical lecture

however, she uses tools such as PowerPoint, MSWord and hardware such as laptops and
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projectors to create effective lessons. The electronic library is, however, probably her most

important program for educational purposes. She further adds that the adoption of technology

is beneficial as it helps students learn better and comprehend the subject matter more deeply.

It also saves a lot of time. Nevertheless, she asserts that there are still some faculty members

who do not understand these benefits and continue using conventional tools, such as markers.

She, however, asserts that one disadvantage of technology is a lack of ability to verify the

veracity of information and filter less credible information.

The second interview subject A, also uses technology. Her usage of technology is driven by

her needs and the applicability of this technology in her studies and career. For instance, she uses

Skype and voice conferencing for communication with colleagues in different geographical

locations and emails for communication with other students and the professors. In addition, she

draws upon search engines and tools like Google Scholar to access crucial academic information.

Furthermore, the SPSS software is indispensable in conducting statistical analyses of data.

Nevertheless, she believes that the digital camera should not be used extensively in the current

academic year because the current projects do not require it. Similarly, the nature of her course

does not warrant the use of publishing tools such as Pagemaker. She admits that her adoption of

technology is informed by the fact that it provides room for flexibility and is easy to use. Her

only problem is that some technologies have excessive and superfluous functionalities which are

not necessary.

For the third interview subject B, the usage of the Internet and e-mails is pivotal in the day-

to-day affairs of her profession. In addition to academic purposes, this interview subject also uses

technology in her personal life for activities such as designing magazines and books. Her interest

was initially piqued out of curiosity. Over the years, however, her adoption of new technologies
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has been guided by its feasibility in her career. For instance, she is now learning the Java

programming language because she views it as a qualification for future career opportunities.

Her leadership qualities are further evinced by the fact that she designs her own web pages and

online electronic questionnaires without employing the services of a computer engineer.

According to her, the costs associated to technology are not high. Moreover, she is always

conscious of presenting a perfect lecture, which is often facilitated by technology such as digital

cameras and word processors. However, if she feels that a certain technology is not necessary,

she avoids it. In this regard, she uses social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter sparingly

during work, but more frequently while on holiday. Her greatest fear of using technology,

however, is an electrical or technological failure that may occur while presenting a lecture. For

instance, in this year, she lost the translation of two entire chapters of a book that she was

writing.

The fourth interview subject C, has just four years of experience in the profession. Like the

others, the Internet, emails and the electronic library are her three most frequently used

technology tools. Publishing tools and digital cameras are also not extensively used due to a lack

of need. She also asserts that she is not afraid to face any technological challenge. The Internet

abounds with enough resources and tutorials. At the same time, she rarely uses databases such as

Eric and ProQuest. Compared to the other interview subjects, this one seems to take time before

adopting new technologies. Considering these results, the next section measures these findings

against the Rogers’s Diffusion of Innovation Theory.

Applications of Roger’s Diffusion of Innovation Theory

Roger’s Decision-Making Process


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As already alluded to, the divergence in technological adoption among different

individuals is best explained using Roger's model on the decision-making process. According to

this model, the decision-making process on whether to adopt a new technology comprises 5 key

stages: Knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation and confirmation.

Knowledge: When one comes across a new technology, one does not have much information

on the technology. Thus, one does not care about it at all in the initial stages. At this point, one

can either opt to acquire more information on this new technology or not. If one opts to learn

more about this technology, then one can make a conscious and better-informed decision on

whether to adopt it or not.

Persuasion: In this stage, one has gained enough interest in the new technology to decide

whether to use it or not. All that is left to confirm adoption is persuasion. There are different

ways through which individuals are persuaded to adopt technology. Peer pressure and the need to

connect with friends is, for instance, enough reason to persuade one to join a social networking

site. Teacher requirements to use certain software to complete a task or assignment also persuade

students to learn how the software functions.

Decision: In this stage, the individual should decide whether to adopt the technology or not.

If the individual has been persuaded, then he or she adopts the technology.

Implementation and Confirmation: Once the technology has been adopted, the individual

begins using the technology and making assessments. If satisfied, the individual confirms the

adoption by continuing to extensively use the technology (see Appendix B for a graphical

representation of these five stages).

Roger’s Technology Adopted Categories


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In addition, the swiftness with which individual educators adopt the new technology can

be explained by Roger's assertions on the 5 adopter categories. Rogers (2003) postulates that the

characteristics of a population about how it embraces innovations can be divided into the five so-

called adopter categories. These are:

 Innovators: these are individuals that are at the forefront when it comes to trying out new

innovations. In many cases, these individuals are adventurous and exhibit great interest in

testing novel ideas. They are ready to take risks, whether calculated or not. At the same

time, they are pioneers when it comes to developing new ideas.

 Early Adopters: These individuals play leadership roles in steering the opinions of others.

They embrace change easily because they are already aware of its necessity. They take

self-initiative and just need guidance in adopting new technologies through media such as

information sheets and how-to manuals.

 Early Majority: Although they rarely lead, these individuals adopt new ideas relatively

quickly compared to the average person. They, however, must see empirical evidence of

the benefits of the innovation before adopting it. Thus, success stories of these

innovations are the most effective way of convincing these individuals into adopting this

innovation.

 Late Majority: These individuals exhibit a high level of skepticism, which only abates

after the early majority has adopted the new technology.

 Laggards: This category comprises conservative individuals that are bound by tradition.

Their level of criticism is much higher than that of the late majority and thus, even more

difficult to convince them to adopt innovations (Please see appendix B for a graphical

representation of these five adopter categories).


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Theoretical Application of the Findings

From these findings, it is clear how the Roger’s decision-making model is applicable to the

incorporation of technology into the lessons. First, the faculty members are made knowledgeable

about the technologies through training and provision of the necessary hardware tools such as

laptops. Through the university policies and the expectations from the management to

incorporate technology in teaching, they are persuaded to integrate the technology in lesson

planning. Each staff member must then make a conscious decision on what technologies to

employ in the classroom. This may be challenging in the first phases. However, if successful, the

implementation and confirmation stages follow.

With regards to adopter categories, it can be safely asserted that the first staff members are

early adopters. The fourth interview subject C, may be categorized as a late majority. She takes

time and needs a lot of persuasion before adopting a new technology. Not only do all these staff

members effectively incorporate technology in their profession, but they also use it extensively

in their personal lives. Some have further taken the initiative of teaching themselves

programming languages in preparation for future opportunities. This is an indicator of leadership.

At the same time, it was also noted that the adoption of technology by all the interview subjects

was guided by its practicability in their professions. These are also indicators of early adopters.

These findings have many ramifications. First, a culture of innovation must be inculcated

among the teaching staff so that they increasingly incorporate technology into their practices. At

the same time, however, different strategies need to be employed to pique the interest of the

different adopter categories. For instance, the second interview subject acknowledges that the

banner system enjoys very little usage among the university professors and students particularly
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 22

because they are not well trained to use it. At the same time, there is a language barrier, because

while the banner system is predominantly in the English language, a great majority of the

students have poor command of this language.

Moreover, the university should continue providing the staff members with equipment

such as laptops to ensure that they continue using technology. This shall in turn boost the

performance of the students and the university’s standing in society.

Answer to the Research Question

 What types of technologies do female faculty members use in teaching at Princess Norah

University?

The result of the qualitative data indicated that participants use ICT as tools of

communication, presentation, management, information collection, and data analysis. However,

the participants use ICT for both personal and educational purposes. For personal purposes, the

most popular uses of ICT were communication purposes. Participants indicated that they use

synchronous and asynchronous communication tools. The most popular asynchronous

communication tools were e-mail and social networks such as Twitter and Facebook. Among the

synchronous communication tools, participants reported that they use audio and video

conferencing such as Skype. Sometimes, the personal use of conferencing systems turned out to

be for educational purposes. For instance, D pointed that she might accidentally meet students on

Skype who might ask some education-related questions. In addition, D reported that she uses

advanced software and programming languages related to website design and image possessing

for personal purposes. Some participants reported using digital cameras for personal purposes.
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 23

 How do female faculty members use technologies in lesson preparation and teaching at

Princess Norah University?

All the participants reported using technologies for different purposes. For example,

participants reported that they use technologies in teaching students and conducting research. For

example, faculty members use technology to present educational material, communicate with

students by email, share educational content, look for academic studies, and prepare lectures.

 From The female faculty members’ perspectives, what are the factors that encourage the

use of technologies tools in teaching?

One of the perceived factors that promote the use of technologies is related to personal

interest and desire. For instance, A, B, C, and D mentioned that one motivation for using

technology is self-desire. Each indicated that this is the main motivation for using technology in

her life. Another reason mentioned by the participants is the availability of the required

technologies in their workplace would encourage them to use it for teaching and personal

research. In addition to that, participants reported that providing training and workshops for

using emerging technology in teaching would help them to use it in their academic work. For

instance, A, B, C, D reported that universities should work on faculty motivation and desire to

teach using technologies.

 From the female faculty members’ perspectives, what are the factors that limit the use of

technologies tools in teaching?

Regarding the factors that limit the use of technologies in teaching, all participants reported

that the lack of the required technology is a main factor that limits them to use technology in

teaching. For example, A, B, C, D, stated that “there is a lack of periodic maintenance of the

equipment inside the lecture rooms, sometimes the professor comes ready to provide her lecture
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 24

then she would find the projector is broken or the cable is not good”. Another factor mentioned

by the participants is students’ lack of technology proficiency in technology. Participants

reported that some students do not know how to use technology or they do not possess it.

Discussion

As has been sufficiently shown, the integration of technology in the teaching practice at

the university is not only expected, but has also been widely adopted. All the interview subjects

concur in the view that technology is vital in conducting an effective and efficient lesson. The

benefits are enjoyed by both the students and staff. Despite a few challenges such as language

barriers and electrical and technology challenges, the associated benefits far outweigh the

setbacks. This adoption has, in fact, facilitated student comprehension of the subjects and made

the lessons more interactive.

This study, though limited to a single institution, has a broader significance to higher

education in general. The university’s success is a clear indicator that education institutions

ought to leverage technology to streamline their operations as well as to boost their performance.

In addition, these institutions should invest heavily in training to enhance the adoption and usage

of these technologies. The challenges and setbacks mentioned in the research findings should be

taken into consideration while making such decisions.

Subsequently, all educational stakeholders and policies are impacted in one way or

another. Teachers are, for instance, expected to learn at least two technologies that they shall

integrate into their lessons. To enforce this, amendments shall have to be made to the educational
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 25

policies in which the expectations, procedures of technology selection, and ramifications of

failing to meet these standards are outlined.

The findings of this research have demonstrated that further research needs to be

conducted into student performance among institutions that rely heavily on technology, and

those that do not. Many assertions have been made that students in East Asian educational

institutions which employ technology sparingly tend to perform better than their counterparts in

developed economies. A comprehensive comparison needs to be drawn between these categories

of institutions and the extent to which technology should be integrated into education should also

be determined. Nevertheless, this paper draws the conclusion that incorporation of technology in

teaching is extremely vital.


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 26

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FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 28

APPENDICES

APPENDIX A
Adopter Categories
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 29

APPENDIX B
Five Stages in the Decision Innovation Process
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 30

Appendix C

Interview script

I was skyping with “A,B,C,D” who live at Saudi Arabia, and I asked her if she could make the

interview now. They then say, “Yes no problem”.

Me: I am a student in master's degree in Education Research and Evaluation at Northern

Illinois University and my name is Mona Alenezi.

Interview: A

“A” is a Saudi woman, and she is a faculty members at Princess Norah University.

Me: In the beginning, I will ask you about the number of years of experience that you have.

A: my own experience is almost 19 years.

Me- what is your specialty and in which department you are?

A: my Specialization is Sociology. I am working as Associate Professor in the Department of

Social Service at the University of princess Norah University.

Me –Okay Doctor, I will ask you about three main themes relating to the investigated subject

matter, these themes are:

• The types of information and communication technologies used in the educational

process.

• Extent of technologies use

 The factors that promote or limit the use of technologies tools


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 31

Types of ICT

Me: Describe the technological tools you have used within the last year.

A: We use the Internet (professors and students). I use the internet to collect information about

the topics of the lectures. Sometimes we ask the students to collect information in order to

conduct research paper or assignments. I used the internet and search engines for the last year,

but I can say we used the internet more this year. This year we started using e-mail in order to

send and receive students’ assignment. We use YouTube to view some educational content

associated with the subject matter. I will give an example of my use of video. I teach a course

that is related to the theories of learning. I created videos about some of these theories such as

Skinner and Gestalt learning theory. The video shows the students how the people of the learning

theories designed their experiences. The result showed that the students liked the experience and

they had fun watching the YouTube videos. Also, I used the e-mail.

Me: In which areas, you have been used the e-mail?

A: We were using in it with the students, to send, educational activities, exercises, and

assignments. I meant, we communicate with students via email, the email of the teacher or the

supervisor of the course. Particularly we used the email in the second semester greater or better

than the first one.

Me: The described use of email was regarding educational purposes such as communication

with students, what about the administrative uses of the email at the university?

A: In the university and in the department, we always use the e-mail, for communication

purposes among faculty members.

Me: do you use Digital camera for documentation?


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 32

A: I do not expect that we used it a lot in the last year or this year.

Me: how about Search engines?

A: the rest of these we do not use it such as search engines and publishing tools.

Me: -I mean by search engines such as Google scholar?

A: I used it by myself as a teacher or professor, I use search engines to increase my personal

information, but not in teaching.

Me: How about video and voice conferencing?

Sometimes, we use it to connect with the boys in College Boys to work in a joint meeting in the

college of education, but do not use them with students.

Me: Publishing tools?

A: What do you mean by publishing tools?

Me: - Publishing tools are programs such as the page maker or the in-design these programs are

typically used for the design of books or design the interfaces of books.

A: I do not expect, because the nature of the course does not require us to use it, because the use

of such things is linked to the teaching position and specialization. We use the Internet, e-mail,

search engines, and YouTube in some lectures. I think we do not use the rest of what you

mentioned.

Me: do use it in the academic field to document the lectures, for example?

A: I personally do not use it. However, the Public Relations Unit used it to document and show

scientific meetings, where they post the pictures on the college website. In our department, when

we do our annual report we document our work by attaching images with it.
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 33

Me: Let us switch to the second question, in your academic practice, tell me about what

types of technologies you used the most.

A: Let us put them in ascending order, the Internet is number one, number two is search

engines, e-mail number three, number four is YouTube. All of these are used for the purposes of

collecting data or sending it. Students gather information about educational subjects or the

educational materials are already existing on the web site and they download it. They might write

a critical article about it and determine the advantages and disadvantages in addition to strengths

and weaknesses points in it. They also might read it to increase their knowledge about the

subject which is free reading, when we take the subject within the classroom and ask the students

to make free reading on this subject, all these purposes related to data collection issue of the

information or copying it in order to e expand the perceptions of students in this regard.

Me: Databases, do you use it on a daily basis?

A: I do not expect that, but I used them personally but not in teaching, if I conducted research or

study I can use the Eric and especially that it has much educational research related to the

universities in Saudi Arabia.

Me - do you use word processing programs or the power point?

A: yes, in all courses I use the power point presentations. Sometimes I use some pictures in it.

Personally, my laptop contains all courses’ materials that I have taught previously, even if the

classroom is not equipped with the required equipment’s to use power point, I try to keep my

laptop in front of me and take the elements of the subject or the basic elements and explain it

more. I already have educational content on the power point, if the classroom allowed me to use

it I will do, I try to get benefit from it in the explanation and clarification on the board.

Me – How about word processing programs, for example the word?


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 34

A: yes, I use it in the tests or a summary of lectures, if some lectures need to be summarizing I

use Word but mostly all exist on the power point.

Me - If we talk about your research matters in academic field, are there any certain programs

such as the use of statistics programs like SPSS?

A: Yes, of course I use SPSS program and databases websites. In addition, I use the word and the

power point and all sources of information in the field research. We use it because the research

requires you to use it, depends on the title of the research, its theme, the study sample and the

methodology. It is important to any faculty members to use the SPSS because you cannot

process the statistical work without it.

Me - which system is used in the management of learning at the university, I heard that the

Banner system is used here?

A: Banner system has a problem at the university because professors and students are not trained

to use it very well because most of it in English-language and a large part of students have weak

knowledge in English. We use it only in the case of monitoring the marks and monitoring the

absence of the students but we do not use it in teaching because of the students themselves. The

students are supposed to interact with the professor through it, and if there are assignments,

students are supposed send them to the site of the professor, and the professor must have her own

page through the Banner and she must upload her lectures, research, courses on it.

Banner needs to be understood by the faculty members, faculty members need to train the people

within the university to use it because it is an ambitious and strong program but it reduced to the

issue of registration materials only. If there are academic guidance on how to use Banner. Maybe

in the near future by God willing Banner will be developed.

Me - Is the program provides sending the assignments through it or not?


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 35

A: No, I almost use my e-mail or the e-mail of the university to send assignments, to receive

students’ responses, and to send feedback. In addition, I discuss with my students the

assignments in class.

Me: We now switch to the third question at the first part, tell me about what you like when

it comes to the use of technologies?

A: “Ohm…” Of course, I love it because it is easy to use, clear, and it is linked to the purpose. I

like the ICT to be not very complex and expensive. Some professors can prepare these things at

their own expense. I like the flexibility of ICT where it can be used in numerous situations not

only one teaching situation, the third thing I would love that the university provides a team to

train people. Certainly, technologies help students in their learning, with technology students can

see and touch the information rather that imagine it. In addition, when I teach students about

multimedia programs and what they contain from elements such as sounds and images in

theoretical way that do not make the students understand these multimedia programs.

Me: No, I am not asking you about how the information communications and technology are

supposed to be. They can understand and learn about these technologies by viewing and working

on them. For example, when I make an electronic test and the student see it, the comprehension

of the subject is certainly greater compared to learning without use of technology.

A: ease of use, it is easy to use and there are no complexities, so it allows the person to use it

smoothly, I mean the Galaxy mobiles take me time to get along with it because it has many

complications and I love the simplicity in everything.

Me: what is meant by these complications?


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 36

Not all faculty members know how to use it because the Most programs is in English. Also,

some faculty members do not believe in technology at all. Some of them say that by using the

marker and the board, they can achieve their educational goals successfully.

Me: is there anything else you want to add?

A: This is for the educational process, while for scientific research, the access to any scientific

research has become easy and simple for me. I began research in 1994 and was a very difficult

process if I want to get research that is published in the United States, it needs a year to become

available in the library of the American University in Cairo and then I have to get permission

from the University of Cairo allowing me to enter the American University library as well as you

will have an appointment to discuss these papers and then take a copy and translate. Now, this

process is taking only half an hour.

Me: Things you dislike in the use of technology, I mean, for example, do you have any

problem in the use of technology? for example, do you have any problem in the use of

technology?

A: “mm….”, the only thing is the complexity I mean there are technologies that have too many

options and sometimes you do not need it, maybe the device contains a lot of options you do not

use or need may be a need and the complexity will be an obstacle in front of use the technology.

Me: did you lose information or data because of technology?

A: “mm….”, because of viruses on the computers and laptops sometimes information gets lost,

there is no good protection system so the issue linked to protection only if the protection system

is good things do not get lost. Once I lost my whole a laptop because of the viruses.

Me: something you dislike it in using technology?


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 37

A: I really hate the negative side or unwanted Web sites that have contents that are contrary to

the values, religion, and customs. I hate also the bad uses of ICT. These are the drawbacks of

ICT, otherwise it promotes scientific and social relations between people.

Me: Are there any disadvantages of technology?

A: Technology is a double-edged sword. Most of ICT is advantageous; however, the users decide

to use in a positive or negative way. The user can customize the technology; he/she can use it

positively in scientific research or in the search for information. Or he/she can use it in negative

way. The user decides how to use the technology in either the positive side or the negative side.

Me: Do you think that the person is the one who determine how to use technology?

A: yes, if the person is self-positive, psychologically compatible, and compatible with uses of

technology, then he/she will look for positive things but if he/she is looking for negative things,

that is up to him/her as a human being.

Me: do you have problems because of technology, for example, have you experienced a satiation

in which technology make you lost your time and effort? Like power outage whiles you

operating on Word processor?

A: sometimes, when you're looking for information in the network and suddenly you find failure

in the network or power outage. Such situations make you lose time and effort. Hardware failure,

interruption of electricity, and slow network in sometimes make you feel boring and

inconvenient.

Me: Make you feel boring, can you give an example?

A: sometimes you forced to leave the device and leave the information you are looking for.

Me: Do not you think that the use of technology is waste of time?
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 38

A: No for a wide extent. The user is the one who decide. The things that the user looks for

determine if technology is waste of time or not. If you are looking for useful information then

you will find, and if you are looking for a waste of time then you will also find it.

Me: We now switch to the fourth question; How do you feel about the level of access to

technology in the university? we speak here about the University of princes Norah university and

how it can improve access to these tools?

A: “mm…” There is access to information technology, particularly when talking about the

Internet, I mean the access is available in all offices in all the institutes. Internet is available in

computer labs; however, we need to improve the situation by making it available in the

classrooms.

University in the current period is working on libraries in order to allow the access to them. the

electronic libraries were not existing until the beginning of this semester where the Deanship of

Libraries strongly appears and emerge and begin to offer links with many of the world's libraries

and local communities in all disciplines from science, humanities, physics, Chemistry, or

Engineering. You can enter to the library by using your university number and your password

then you will find all links and you can interact with them all, but previously this system was not

present. The university can adopt the case of scientific research and support it through

supporting the faculty members. The evaluation of faculty members or renewing their contracts

for non-Saudi faculty members, and the financial incentives should be linked to the research

studies. Now you provide the information and does not encourage me to interact with them, this

is something important in the coming period.

Me: With respect to classroom I am talking about the availability of equipment’s and services

related to technology.
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 39

A: of course, there is data show projector.

Me: In all classrooms?

A: “mm…” yes, in all classrooms or I can say in 90% of them. May be some of the projectors

are broken or in the regular maintenance. I mean they were in all classrooms but some of them

get broken due to misuse and because of the ignorance of some faculty members about correct

use of it or because some students’ desire in sabotage. The IT team in the university is taking

care of them.

Me: we are talking about the other services like the smart boards are they available in the

classrooms?

A: very few are available.

Me: Are they working?

A: I never see anyone use them but for myself I used it in a place other than the university, I used

it in the private schools where I was doing training for teachers there and it was very good use

and it gave me a good experience.

Me: you know to use the power point program you need a computer, is there computers available

in the classrooms?

A: the university provided a laptop for each faculty member there is no argument in that even if

the computer is not existing you supposed to have your laptop available with you when you go to

the lecture you just put the cable and it will operate normally.

Me: Is the Internet available in the classroom?

A: “mm…”, no, it is not available, but it is available in the administrative offices only, the

wireless network should be existing.

Me: We now switch to the second part which is Extent of technologies use:
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 40

The fifth question When did you start using technologies in your educational practice?

A: I start using it from four years from the moment we moved to this building, it is exactly four

years we are now at the end of the fourth year when we were in old building the classrooms were

not equipped and you do not have a laptop from the university so I use it from four years ago.

Me: Why did you decide to use it?

A: “mm…”, First of all because it is available, and sometimes in the evaluation of the faculty

member, the administration will know if you use it or not. Sometimes the nature of the tasks on

your shoulders forces you to deal with this matter. If there is a lecture or a seminar or report you

must prepare it for the college. Sometimes the department forces you to deal with it. if the

department needs something they send emails for each member and the members responding to a

department through emails, if there are decisions, instructions, meetings, or anything else the

chair of department send e-mails to all members but if the attitude of the chair of Department

toward the e-mail are weak then he will depend on the paper and telephone communication, I

expect that the environment can facilitate using technology.

Me: We switch now to the sixth question on a daily basis how often do you use technologies

tools for educational purposes?

A: according to the number of hours, I prepare my lectures every day up to two hours in order to

develop the power point and gather information about the subject. I divide my topics in parts and

I check if there is enough information about each part. If there are a Video clips I need to put

them through slides so it almost takes two hours.

Me - I mean the overall for example if you use the computer in the classroom?

A: There is a difference between the preparing the lecture and the implementation of it. I am

talking now preparing the lecture, but actually implementation the lecture takes less time, I mean
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 41

the lecture takes preparing for two hours, if you had ten hours teaching in a week then I will take

another ten hours for preparing.

Me: The seventh question What are the limitations of technologies tools in your opinion?

A: “mm…”, of course, it is useful, no one can deny that we live in an age of communication and

we as teachers respond and develop ourselves, I started at the University by writing with chalk

on the blackboard and writing with a pen, and then things began to evolve, now I do not hold pen

or chalk, we started responding to the circumstances of the times, no one can deny the role of

communications and technology at the moment. It attracts and motivates me. The information

you can find is a lot and you can judge on it through your opinion or your understanding of your

personal information. Of course, it is feasible and useful. It helps in the development of the

educational side of the human. It helps in self-learning, is also useful for teaching students.

Me - Since your years of experience in higher education are too long can you see the difference?

A: Yes, of course, I said when I was assistant teacher at princess Norah University, we explain to

the students by using chalk on the blackboard, and when we came here we used the pens and

then we started using the power point slides, but sometimes, if there was a need to clarify

something in the same slide we use the pen to clarify some points for students,

Me - the most important question is why it is useful?

A- “mm…”, will be interesting and attractive for students and makes students have high degree

of concentration and they will not suffer from boredom and their interaction with the lecture will

be very high compared to traditional lectures. All of these are reasons and necessities to respond

to the requirements of the times. We must train ourselves on it. The University provide annual

training on it too.
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 42

Me - is it saving a lot of time and effort for you?

A: “mm…”, Yes, a lot, even the course I prepare it in and teach it in the classroom I already have

it on my laptop, I can delete and edit the educational content. I find the student receive the

information with attraction, motivation, and excitement and with no mental distraction. Students

who communicate with me by e-mail still using this technology for communication.

Me: Have you encounter any student who said to you I do not know what is the e-mail?

A: “mm…”, yes, they do not know how to sign up in e-mail, even the ones who send me e-mails

they asked other students to create their emails.

Me: But in general, do you think that students do not accept technology?

A: students do not use technology in wide extent; the ones who communicate with me through

email do not exceed 5% of the students.

Me Did you ask them to do that?

a: I have asked them to create websites or create email until most of the students accept the idea

and create email but they do not communicate with me as a teacher.

Me: does technology make the learning process more enjoyable than ever before?

A: “mm…”, Of course. Using technology is changing the traditional way of education. For

example, when I tell the student that we will talk today about educational videos do I explain it

theoretically or do I give examples using videos? When I tell the students we will not follow the

traditional way of teaching by using video, would they be convinced? Of course, they will be

convinced because they lived the experience by themselves.


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 43

Me - Moving to the eighth question Describe any difficulties you have faced in integrating

technology in your academic practice.

A: “mm…”, the only difficulty in the lack of periodic maintenance of the equipment inside the

classrooms sometimes the professor come ready to provide her lecture then she finds the

projector is broken or the cable is not good.

Me - Does it happen many times?

A: Yes, now there are classrooms known to have good projectors and the other have broken

ones, but with regular maintenance I expect that will not happened, the maintenance should be

weekly, I suggest that the team of the IT should check through all the classrooms and make sure

they are good every week.

Me - With regard to skills, for example, is there any software that you find it difficult to use?

A: the skills that I own enough of the nature of the educational content that I teach, but for

example if I need to use the Photoshop or another certain program then I need training. The

nature of the lecture itself imposed you. I think the skills which I have are good to some extent,

but this does not prevent that I need more training and need to know more about computer and

internet programs that I might use. I mean I use only the YouTube, the Internet, and

presentations software. But if there classes that need skills in Photoshop or other programs then I

need training about them. You can say that the situation is good but not excellent to some extent.

Me - Do you mean that the nature of specialization determines the use?

A: the nature of specialization is the controller, if I am specialized in Islamic culture or

psychology then the maximum that can be done is to prepare the lecture in interesting way for

students and achieve a higher degree of interactivity and effectiveness regardless of using

technology.
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 44

Me - With regard to communicating with students, do you communicate with them by using of

technology such as e-mail?

A: I noticed that there are students who have high skills in using technology, but sometimes the

barriers are not in the hand of the student, such as, when he lives in the village or in a place far

from the Internet or does not have a device. I notice their high skills in using mobiles

Me - Moving to the ninth question Describe how you learn about the use of various

technological tools in the higher education environment.

A: I have ICDL (International Computer Driving License) certificate. But the training courses

were simple and few, but this does not prevent that the college from time to time to offer training

on the use of smart board and training on the power point presentations, in which people with

little knowledge and skills can attend. I have ICDL certificate then I have not received any

training because I felt that the skills that I have are enough for using MS word, power point, or

excel and all the existing programs then what we have is good, but we need more.

Me-We now switch to the last part of the interview which is it the factors that enhance or limit

the use of tools of information technology and communications.

Me:10-What do you think are the most important factors that promote the use of

technological tools in the higher education environment?

A: The first factor is to create the right technology environment; I mean the administrative

environment. The administrative side should create, stimulate, follow up, and evaluate your use
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 45

of the technology, the second thing is inside the classrooms the environment must be equipped

with all the physical things that are needed.

Me - No doctor I do not speak of what is supposed to be I am talking about now in the current

situation in higher education in the Kingdom or in general, I mean, what are the factors that

promote using technology?

A: First of all, what encourages me is the availability of technologies. The second thing that I

feel in is the issue of follow-up from the administrators, do you use technology or not and if you

use them does it enter in your evaluation or not. The third important thing is the nature of the

content and nature of the course itself, there are some contents need to be processed

electronically and some courses do not need to. for example, sisters who work in the prophetic

tradition and interpretation maybe seeing that their presentation in the lecture is most suitable for

them rather than doing something special in this matter so I expect that these factors are

important. The opposite will be the answer of the eleventh question which is the factors that

limit your use of the technology, that the environment is not ready or the technologies are not

available or there is no follow-up for using, or that the content itself does not help to use

technology with it.

Me - if we go back to the tenth question Do you see now that the information revolution and

especially the next generation now has a passion for technology, do you think these factors

promote the faculty members to uses the technologies?

A: Good I agree with you on this, this factor is essential for faculty members. If faculty member

does not keep pace with changes she will be with the people who they are behind. These

technologies are not difficult; they just need training on simple things.

Me - can we say the environment, for example?


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 46

A: the environment is very important and the general atmosphere must motivate you, I mean

when the Banner system is appeared there is some people afraid from using it and there are

people have a kind of hesitation and fear because it is in English but with days people are

beginning to use and respond to it.

Me: In the current era of technology, do you think the characteristics of this era would encourage

the use of technology?

A: Technology is becoming requirement for every human being. Technology become necessary

for each person in the educational field, whether a university professor or a student.

Me: Do you see any other factors encourage using these technologies?

A: The benefits associated with the new information technology. The real-time communication

between faculty members with the university’s administration, colleagues, and students

encourages you or give you motivation to use ICT. In addition, the increasing of information and

easy access to this information encourages the use of ICT.

Me: What are the most important factors that limit the use of technologies tools in the

higher education environment?

A: I would say the lack of motivation toward the use of ICT would hinder its use.

Me: How about the lack of knowledge of these technologies and their benefits and importance.

A: Negative attitudes towards ICT represent a problem in higher education.

Me: with regard to students, is there any factors for example the lack of knowledge of the student

may hinder the use of ICT in higher education.


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 47

A: the negative attitudes of students toward ICT as well as their acceptance represent obstacle

that limit the use of ICT in higher education. For example, when I tell my students to create an

email account, they do not do that. Students have a little acceptance of the use of technology in

class and out class.

Me: How can the university facilitate the uses of technologies tools among the faculty

members in the college of education?

A: First thing is working to make technologies available. The second thing is follow-up with

regular maintenance. The third thing is providing training for faculty members from time to time.

The fourth thing university should make the faculty members feel that the use of technology is

crucial skill of them faculty member and they should use it. Using technology must be one of the

evaluation criteria for faculty members. This is the role of the university; it must publish the

technical culture and provide training. If I have intense pressure to use technology, then I might

learn from colleague.

Me- We switch now to the last question What are your views on the support the University

Provides with regards to technology training?


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 48

A: the only support we get is a laptop. At the beginning of the contract I received one but I have

to return it back at the end of the contract. But the university does not pay the much of attention

to the issue of maintenance, training, follow-up and facilitation. In fact, the only support I get it

from the university is the laptop after that it does not know if the device is used or not, or do I

employ the device for teaching or not or Did I receive enough training to use the device or not,

and inside the classroom if there is logistical support or not. All these things need support.

Me- Any financial stimulus?

A: there is no financial stimulus, the Saudis faculty members have what called computer

allowance, but other faculty member with contracts do not have this thing, and I hope this thing

will be for the all or at least people find technical support or logistical support related to training

or follow-up, all these things are necessary. the university has the Deanship of e-learning and

information technology which should have a strategic plan with clear vision and policies.

Me-is it active?

A: The Deanship is existed and have person who is doing in Dean Work, and the other staff,

most of them are Pakistanis, Indians. It supposed to have a clear plan in order to deal with the

issue of quality and whether the university has international quality standards since the quality is

linked to technology or e-learning. The university must take care of these issues, it must have a

clear plan that staff work on it, investigating problems and find solutions to them. The situation

is not bad, but we still look forward, the current situation is not bad, but we cannot say we have

arrived to the maximum point, we are located now in the beginnings of the road we have a good

start on the right track but we may need to years, the progress is slow but not bad compared to

other universities since the university is still relatively new and the infrastructure is not ready yet.

Me: Does the university force faculty members to use technology?


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 49

A: The administrators in the college and the department ask faculty members to use technology.

The university provide projectors in the classrooms, if the university do not want to us to use

technology, then it will not provide it in all classrooms and in all offices.

Me: is providing a faculty member with a laptop connected to anything else, for example, he

must have a personal site or what?

A: yes, the university gives professor laptop to upload his lectures on his website and to upload

personal information.

Me: Do you have a personal website?

A: I have a personal website.

Me: Do you deal with it on a daily basis?

A: I deal with it on a daily basis, and upload all my lectures

Me: do the students download materials from and interact with your website?

A: a few, very few.

Me: Is there anything else that you would like to add?

Interview A: No, Thank you

Me: Well, thanks for taking the time to talk with me today. I really appreciate it

Me: I am a student in master's degree in Education Research and Evaluation at Northern

Illinois University and my name is Mona Alenezi.

Interview: B

Me - The first question is about your department and your major.


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 50

B : I am in the Department of Psychology.

Me - How many years of experience in higher education do you have?

B : I got my bachelor in 1994, my master degree in 1998, and my PhD degree in 2004.

Me -Doctor, I will ask you about three main themes relating to the investigated subject matter,

these themes are:

• The types of information and communication technologies used in the educational process.

• The degree of use of information and communication technologies and

• The factors that enhance or limit the use of tools of information technology and

communications. Types of information and communication technologies used in the educational

process

Me- Let us begin with the first question, have you used ICT tools such as (internet, email, video

and audio conferencing, search engines, publishing tools, digital Camera) within the last year?

B : The Internet and the e-mail have become something major in our lives. Now we're using

them to facilitate our work in the Department of Psychology, such as sending files and setting up

interviews’ schedule. For example I will meet you tomorrow at a certain hour.

Me -Nice, this is among the faculty members.

B : Yes it makes many things easy. For video conferencing and voice, sometimes we use it in the

department where the women and men must be exist , when the college held meeting for all the

faculty members, so we use audio and video conferencing in the meeting.

Me -that means you have to use it if there are women.

B : For the search engines we rely on it so much. I use search engines every day.

Me - Is it for personal purposes or for educational matters?


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 51

B : No one can forget its academic role. It is important to pursue scientific research; therefore I

use scholar search engines and I use search engines just for entertainment or education.

Me -Well, of course, you use the scholar search engines?

B : Yes, all the day. For the publishing tools, what do you mean by it?

Me - Of course, programs used to design interfaces, design books or magazines, Such as the use

of programs like Page Maker and In-Design?

B : In the beginning I used programs such as those. I learned about them just out of curiosity. But

now because of the availability of web page in the academic department, and the availability of

web page for each faculty member, I do not see the need to use them.

Me -You mean you have used them.

B : I am interested in these issues. Now I am studying the language of Java, to learn

programming, it might qualify me to do something in the future

Me –How about Page design?

B : Yes, I design my own page. I do not need computer engineer to do that. I can design

electronic questionnaire, send it, and publish it on the internet. So I can collect data.

Me -Good, what about the digital camera?

B : Frankly I have not tried it at the university. I used it at home, for example if I like to present

perfect lecture, I would to use the camera, I video record myself and I try to see the strengths and

weaknesses then try to avoid the positions of weakness until I reach advanced level of

performance.

Me -This means that you did not attempt to use the camera for example, to record the actual

lecture?
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 52

B : No, I have not tried. I recorded the lecture of myself so I can see the strengths and

weaknesses, but I will think about posting them online for students’ benefits.

Me –what is the reason for not posting the video of the lecture, is it the fear?

B : Yes, it is the reason,

B : If I published, I will find someone says look what he is saying or doing. I should not be

afraid from anything and remains confident because I speak in terms of academic, but it is still

the human fear or the human caution.

Me -Well, is the camera popular among faculty members?

B : No, it is not

Me - Let us switch to the second question, in your academic practice, what types of ICT you

used the most and for which purposes? And please take them one by one

B : Yes please, I use data show on the lecture using power point. I use MS word during the

lecture to clarify something for the students.

Me - Of course, a word processor program

B : Yes, if I want to clarify something for the students, and this is common almost every day.

Me – you used on a daily basis, did not you?

B : yes most of the faculty members are doing that

Me - you mean, you use a word processor program, with data show

B : After that if the students want a lecture, for example, either take it to the flash, or either that I

post it on Face book, or sometimes by email.

Me – Do you use Face book?

B : Yes, I use Face book and Twitter.

Me – Do you use it on a daily basis?


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 53

B : No, because I am busy with the research and study so my time is tight, but in the summer

vacations I use it on a daily basis.

Me – Do you use any other hardware or software?

B : We also use Excel because of the explanation and statics sketches. Frequently, I use the

SBSS program in statistics to do calculations and for statistical analysis.

Me - But I want to come back to the point I liked, you use Face book for teaching purposes, do

you use it on a daily basis with students?

B : No, I noticed that students here in Saudi Arabia rely on Twitter more than Face book most of

them are Twitter users because in Twitter you do not have limited words or limited capacity you

can download programs or attached ones. It is easy to use. I use it sometimes for teaching.

Me - Well, is there any other devices or software, such as databases?

B : Yes, I use databases frequently, thank God the university provides these services such as me -

do you use it on a daily basis?

B : yes I use it on a daily basis in the process of finding of writing literature review but in the

process of data analysis I might leave it for a week or two weeks. In the beginning stage of

writing research study I must use it every day.

Me – Do you use JUSUR system?

B : I do not think so

Me - is it not activated?

B : no not yet, or I do not understand what do you mean exactly

Me - Put the marks of the students and so on

B : with Banner

Me - Through the Banner.


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 54

B : Yes.

Me – what are the differences between Banner and JUSUR Systems?

B : I do not have long time here in this university so I do not know the differences between the

system you talked about and the Banner system

Me – what do you use the Banner system for?

B : Frankly with Banner system all things get easy. The names of students are available so I use

it to post students’ scores beside the names. Students can see their marks and if one of them feels

that he deserves better than this mark he come to me and see his paper so this system save a lot

of times for me .

Me - This is from one side, what about providing the lectures, you mentioned that you are using

Face book?

B : also I can know the time of my lectures and providing the student with the time and the place

of the lecture, so it saves the time for both.

Me - And the students use it frequently

B : Students currently understand it and know how to register using it, so they use it on a daily

basis. First-year students have difficulty in dealing with the Banner system; they asked older

students or they ask the faculty members. Each student now has academic adviser helping him,

and the academic unit still clarify this matter for new students, how they can enter on this system

and register for the subjects or delete courses.

Me – Do you use any other hardware or software?

B : chat programs like yahoo messenger.

Me - Hotmail?

B : I do not remember.. Skype for example.


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 55

Me - do you talk with students through Skype or with faculty members?

B : I can communicate with anyone

Me - No, I'm talking about the learning process.

B : not in the teaching process, for example, you are sometimes surprised when you are available

on Skype or Yahoo Messenger that there is students want to talk and ask you something.

Me - Do you accept to communicate with them?

B : Yes and there are some students asking questions and search for the answers. Sometimes I

send them the answers.

Me – Do you mean that you do not present this thing to the students that they communicate with

you via Skype, or communication happened by chance?

B : No, what I give the students is the E-mail because you can send and receive message at any

time and you do not need to talk in specific time or maybe you have a problem in the internet

connection so you cannot talk through these programs.

Me - We switch now to the third question, what you like and dislike when it comes to

technology or the use of ICT?

B : First of all I rely on information and communication technologies and admire their use, and I

feel without it the time and effort are wasted. I like saving time. I like the search option in my

computer, imagine that I have research study or even a small file, and I write it on paper and put

it in the library and forget its place, it will take a lot of time to find it, but now with one Word

and the Search option you can find it, and this is save time and effort and saving data.

The second thing that I like is the statistical programs, if you imagine the tradition way if I want

to calculate the averages of data, if you have two hundred or three hundred students and you

want to process their degrees one by one then you needs days and months, not just hours, but
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 56

now with pressing a button I can get results and sketches and the technology is very useful in this

matter.

But what is bother me and I hate it the possibility of electrical failure during the lecture like

what happened today, for example, or sometimes when you did not save your work and trying to

get it back but you cannot this is happened to me a lot of times and I hate it

Me – you said a lot, what do you mean?

B : for example this year, I lost translation of two chapters for text book I am working on it.

Me - two chapters!

B : yes two full chapters and I lost a research study that I was working on. Other things are okay

and with the things related to the department we send it by E-mail so it is save and I can get it at

any time .

Me - Cost, for example? Do you think it is high?

B : No, cost is not high. The internet become familiar or common and all of us use it

B : but as a cost, if I want to type a research I will do that by myself, but imagine if I want to

bring someone to write and other one to type , the cost will be high, but now you can do that by

yourself and with cost almost zero.

Me - If you want to compare the services provided by the Internet with the amount you pay.

B : In the master stage, for example, I was not rely on myself in processing or typing data, so I

paid a lot of money for processing and typing the research then I decided to rely on myself in

using the technologies and learning what I do not know .

Me - Ok, any things else that you want to add.

B : technology is very attractive


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 57

Me - Do you think using Internet and Face book is waste of time?

B : That is possible, especially in the beginning time of using technology. For example, I

remember the Internet appeared in Egypt almost in the nineties and since we do not have internet

at home, we relied on the places that the university provided for the faculty members to do

scientific research. At that time, we did not feel in time, we spent a lot of time in front of the

screen searching for any information so we became addicted. However, with times we started to

take care and paying more attention.

Me - you mean if you organize your time, technology will not waste it

B : yes, who organize his time never lost it.

Me - We switch now to the fourth question, do you think that you'll have access to sufficient

tools of information technology and communications at the university? And how it can improve

access to these tools?

B : Thank God the university is providing everything.

Me - In the classroom, for example, what are the tools in each classroom?

B : you will find data show and smart board

Me – is that in every classroom?

B : yes but data show are old and they do not give the high image quality, sometimes you find

the them broken or the cable is broken, so we call the IT unit and they will repair it .

Me - Ok, excuse me, is there computers available in the classroom so the faculty member can

use it?

B : I can use my laptop.

Me - does the university give you this Laptop?


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 58

B : yes, the university provides laptop for faculty member when I came to take my laptop I did

not find any problem

Me - Is there any hardware or other programs offered by the university?

B : Through the unit of IT, you will find anti-virus software, original copies of MS word, and

any other common software.

Me - are there any devices or programs that the university does not provide?

B : for example, there are no statistical programs; we rely on ourselves to get them. In addition if

there are technical programs that you need for personal use but they are not avaliable.

Me - Well, is there online service available in the classroom?

B : yes available.

Me - I mean for example if you need to play a video clip on YouTube.

B : Yes, a documentary film, You tube clip is available.

Me - how about the Library??

B : library is available they are preparing the library now and it will open in the building next to

us.

Me - No I was talking about the digital library.

B : Digital Library is available, too many sites available

We now switch to the second part which is the degree of use of information and communication

technologies

Me - The fifth question When did you start using ICT in your educational practice and why?

B : I used the technologies after I got my Masters, as I told you I got my Master degree in 1998,

after that I decided to rely on myself in every step of the scientific research, including writing,

and processing the data. Thank God I am very good in it and sometimes help who needs me .
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 59

Me - can we say you started after 1998?

B : From 1998 which means after the Master. I took time off between master time and doctoral

time to learn the computer.

Me – How about your use of technologies in the process of learning or teaching?

B : yes I used it in everything I need, I learnt statistics programs, word processing, access, and

excel. In addition I learned graphic programs like Photoshop.

Me - Dr. When did you begin teaching in higher education?

B : In the period of master degree we were studying the practical courses. But we were studying

materials in theoretical way. We are responsible for these courses. I got my PhD degree in 2004

Me - I want to know when you used the technology in the process of teaching, in lectures.

B : I understand what you mean. you can say from 2004. Sometimes you need to teach practical

course , so I used Excel or Power Point to show explanation sketches for the students and I used

MS word.

Me -to be clear, Why did you decide to use it?

B : for all considerations we talked about them, saving time and effort, more attractive and easy

to use, and we are living in the technology and digital era, so we have to prepare ourselves to this

time .

Me - Well, we switch to the sixth question, what is the time you spend in the use of techniques,

for educational purposes, I mean.

B : a lot of time

Me – do you mean on a daily basis.

B : on a daily basis I will tell you how is my day start. I come to the university at eight o'clock in

the morning. Usually there are one lecture or two on the day, so you can say there is four hours
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 60

or five hours for teaching. The rest of the time checking my E-mail, responding to students

questions, sending lectures to students, browsing the research sites, and downloading research

studies that I need in my scientific research. The working hours ends at two clock, then I take

two hours to rest , and after that I continue again either preparing for a lecture, viewing program,

working on my research, or assignments from the department.

Me – Let us say what is the average number of hours you spend using technologies?.

B : 10 hours.

Me – you mean you take 10-hours in the use of technology for educational purposes.

B : yes, on average.

Me - The seventh question, what are the limitations of ICT tools in your opinion? What do they

greatly assist with?

B : Of course useful.

Me – Why is it useful?

B : for all considerations we talked about them before. First, it save your effort and your time.

you can get the information directly without helping, in the past we were asking our teachers

about something we did not know when we were students, or going to the library to search about

something we need and this is take a lot of time or sometimes you are going to your teacher to

ask him about something but you do not find him or find him very busy or he do not have any

idea.

Me – do you think technologies save the time you need to determine when your teacher is

available or to make an appointment?

B : now we can put schedule if you want to meet someone or attend a conference. do not forget

that we can use the mobile in the educational process


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 61

Me – but Dr. Do you see that we get busy in technology more than educational content, do you

see that technologies distract the student?

B : there is a statement I really believe , the large number of contact sometimes hinder

communication, and frequent communication is sometimes hinder communication, let us take an

example when you are in you house contacting your colleague, talking and chatting with him, or

even you are using the search engine and gathering data , and you have a wife and children want

to talk with you, so a lot of communication is not good everything increase beyond their limits

will switch off against it , then you need organization .

me – Eighth question in the second part, do you have any difficulty using the tools of

information technology and communication in the academic practices of your own?

B : No, there is no difficulties , but sometimes there is power outages, then you forced to present

the lecture in the tradition ways , or sometimes the internet is not available while you want to

present a video , or section from YouTube, or anything located on the internet.

Me – do you have the skill to deal with the most kinds of programs, for example, the

establishment of electronic courses?

B : Thank God, now I can do all things that are needed in the educational process by myself

without relying on anyone.

Me – you mean you can deal with the most kinds of programs that can serve the educational

process without facing any problems?

B : Yes, I deal with them well.


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 62

me – The ninth and the last question, Did you receive any training regarding the use of ICT for

educational purposes, such as training courses or workshops or training via the Internet?

B : It is actually for example at the University of Suhad in Egypt the university; I took a training

session that is comparable to the ICDL. I learned the first level of IT until the maintenance level.

I took training about advanced software such as website design software, images and text

processing software. I remember it very well because I got benefits from it. I learned about how

data enter into units of input, maintenance issues, and other things. I learned about how to use

software, like word , excel , access and Power point, all Microsoft programs, we take after that

other programs in image processing, voice and image too, after that we took programs need it in

the statics like SPSS. Frankly, we get benefits from this training when I came to the University

of Princes Norah University I found courses providing by the university but I did not see any

specialized courses in anything.

Me – Have you participated in any training course at University of Princes Norah University?

B : Thanks God there are activities here at the university, there is annual activity and semi-

annual sessions of training, for example, I attended training session on how to prepare Portfolio

course, how can you prepare the course and using the calendar for the course and I got benefits

of it. If there is special occasion like the World Health Day, or the day of the blind these are

occasions I attend it and get benefit from it .

Me –How many courses you attended at the University of Princes Norah University ?

B : about six

Me –you mean that the university doing its job through providing training?

B : Thanks God, yes it is systematic not random.


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 63

Me –Now we switch to the last part with respect to factors that enhance or reduce the use of

tools of information and communication technology in the educational process,

The tenth question: What are the most important factors that encourage the use of ICT in higher

education.

B : the environment itself encourages, suppose that I have ambition to adopted the technology for

teaching students, but the university does not provide any services related to technology, so I will

stop I mean the environment helps, if the university providing appropriate scientific

environment, equipped with modern technology that will encourages you, even if you do not

know you will learn and you can do it , but if the environment itself does not encourage you then

you will stay in your place .

Me –we need to know also about the most important factors that limit it, but we focus on the

factors that encourage, you mentioned the environment.

B : the second thing is the way of work, I'm surprise when the department chairs tell me about

meeting verbally, I can forget but our department we have direct contact between us, through the

E-mail or SMS.

Me –do you mean there is flexibility?

B : yes the nature of the work encouraging this, it makes you depend on technology.

Me –What about dealing or communicating with students?

B : students in this age interested in the use of computers and digital devices in various kinds,

when you want to use these devices, you make the process enjoyable, because they automatically

knows this. If the student want to learn using the internet, but the faculty members do not want

then the faculty member and the students would be on different side, the faculty member should

meet students’ need where this encourage students .


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 64

M e –Any other things, for example? any Points?

B : we almost covered the important things.

Me –The second question is the opposite of course, factors that can limit the use of ICT in higher

education?

B : it is the same factors but instead what we say that the environment providing everything and

encouraging us we say the environment frustrating and not providing anything, or the students

are not eligible to have education with e-learning.

Me –do you mean you face that with students, for example?

B : Sometimes, for example, you want a student to send me message so I can send him the

course but he would say I do not have E-mail, there are students really do not have it, so I have

to print the lecture on paper and give it to him, it happened to me just once.

Me –Any other factors limit the use of technical we talk about the technical support?

B : No the University providing that very well, and there is specialized unit if you are having

some problems even while you are presenting a lecture, suppose the data show device has broken

cable there is unit taking care of it by doing maintenance.

Me –Any other factors limit the use?

B : Frankly no.

Me –do you feel that there is no difficulties in using technology or software in higher education?

B: for example, at the university we can only uploads files on the department website through a

some on else, if for example I'm doing personal page of a new faculty member I get it ready

then I send it to another person, this other person have the username and password and can

submit it on the site. I wish every faculty member have the username and password so he can
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 65

update his data or upload files on his personal page so the Students can get benefits from them, I

hope this will happen with the new site.

Me –We switch to the question twelfth say what is the role of the university in facilitating the

use of information technology and communications to members of the faculty of the College of

Education at the University of Princes Norah University, of course, in your opinion?

B : of course it has a big role , I mean the university can make its faculty members reach to

perfect level or vice versa .

Me –Through what?

B : Through providing hardware technology, providing data show in all classrooms, providing

internet. when the teaching environment is equipped with everything needed that makes you

working, ok, suppose you are not qualified, the university through the courses and specialists can

qualified you. The university has big and pivotal role, especially that some members of the

teaching are at old age they do not live with the digital world, so you must prepare them for this

things, through doing courses lectured by specialists doing it in a attractive way so they can

entice people to this world.

Me –Does the university do this role in right way?

B : in this university here I did not find anyone who has difficulties in presenting a lecture on

data show or presents a lecture with power point. Of course there are some special difficulties

with some colleagues, however if a faculty member want to make a sketch but I he does not

know how so he would ask other colleague to do that , and sometimes he want to know how to

do that .

Me –do you mean the role of university is very large, by providing tools and equipment or

training of faculty members?


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 66

B : a very big role.

We switch now to the last question which says whether the faculty member has adequate support

from the University for the Use of ICT in education mean for example, material support, or

technical support or technical support, for example?

Me –Is the university encourages the faculty member I mean incorporeal supportt?

B : I already saw that, from a week ago I met the president of the university and said to me who

wants to get a laptop he should update his profile on the web page.

Me –do you mean if you have a laptop that you can update your personal page on the web page?

B : yes, they give you laptop to update your page.

Me –Technical support maybe I have mention before.

Me: I am a student in master's degree in Education Research and Evaluation at Northern

Illinois University and my name is Mona Alenezi.

Interview: C

Me - At the beginning I will ask you about the number of years of your experience that you have

in higher education?

C : My years of experience are four years in higher education.

Me - Okay, what is your specialty and in which department you are?

C : My specialization is Educational Technology, Department of the educational means and

technology, the College of Education.

Me –Okay Doctor, I will ask you about three main themes relating to the investigated subject

matter, these themes are :


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 67

• The types of information and communication technologies used in the educational

process.

• The degree of use of information and communication technologies and

• The factors that enhance or limit the use of tools of information technology and

communications.

Types of information and communication technologies used in the educational process

Me - Let us begin with the first question, have you used ICT tools such as (internet, email, video

and audio conferencing, search engines, publishing tools, digital Camera) within the last year?

C : in the past year we have not been used it at the college for different reasons, but the

technology that I used is the e-mail.

Me –In which areas you have been used the e-mail?

C : We were using in it with the students, to send, educational activities, exercises, and

assignments. I meant, we communicate with students via email, the email of the teacher or the

supervisor of the course. Particularly we used the email in the second semester greater or better

than the first one.

Me –The described use of email was regarding educational purposes such as communication

with students, what about the administrative uses of the email at the university?

C : In the university and in the department, we always use the e-mail, for communication

purposes among faculty members

Me – how about the Internet?

C : we use the Internet to search for information, search for more knowledge, or to search for

research studies.
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 68

Me -Of course, in which field you use it, is it in scientific research or for personal reasons?

C : in the scientific research, for personal reasons, and self-learning. All of us are students need

to learn more. Doctor is looking for information via the Internet to increase his knowledge, to

teach himself, and to benefit his students through the new information or knowledge.

Me -We turn to video and voice conferencing, have you used them in the last year?

C : we do not use it in the Faculty of Education.

Me –how about Search engines?

C : the rest of these we do not use it such as search engines and publishing tools.

Me -I mean by search engines such as Google scholar?

C : I used it by myself as a teacher or professor, I use search engines to increase my personal

information, but not in teaching.

Me - How about publishing tools?

C : also there is no big uses of them in clear way especially with the students.

Me -The Digital cameras, do you use it in documenting lectures?

C : we do not use it, we do not document any lectures using digital camera. Digital camera is

from the technical tools that we do not use within the college, especially in the last year.

Me -Is there a particular reason for not using the digital camera, can you say it is the fear of

using it to document a lecture for students?

C : as a teacher I am not afraid from anything. If I have the camera and I documented my

lectures and published for the students, for me I do not see anything wrong in it.
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 69

Me -We switch now to the second question. Doctor, in your academic practice, what types of

information and communication technologies do you use frequently and for what purposes? May

you start with the `most widely used.

C : the most widely used is the internet. I used it for scientific purposes, and some time for

educational matters. I search for references, information, or new knowledge.

I use e-mail sometimes but less than the Internet, particularly in the scientific exchange, I mean I

communicate with some universities by e-mail, and I receive some messages by email from my

colleagues.

Me –how about for communication with the Students?

C : I use e-mail with students in order to receive and send assignments. I rarely receive emails

from students with educational questions, however whenever I receive email from students, I

reply.

Me –Doctor. Do you mean that a very few students send you emails with educational questions?

C : yes very few, however I enjoy to answer the students whenever they send email with

educational questions.

Me –are there any other hardware or software that you see use on a daily basis in classrooms?

C : there is no daily basis.

Me –how about computer programs like word processor, power point.

C : yes I use the power point and the projector for teaching on daily basis.

Me -Is the projector the same as data show?

C : yes the data show projector.

Me –How about the word processor?

C : I do not use it.


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 70

Me -What do you use on a daily basis to write the research?

C : I use it in simple way, but I use power point more than the word.

Me –do you use other computer programs to help you in research and statistical analysis, for

example SPSS?

C : I have never used it.

Me –how about databases websites?

C : I do not use these things.

Me –you do not use Eric, pro quest, or other databases that provides research studies, do you?

C : I use them for personal purposes, but I use a few of them.

Me –what is the learning management system that you use at the University? is it JUSUR or

Banner ?

C : yes we use the Banner, at the University of Ha’il

Me -Can you mention the benefits that are provided by Banner?

C : Classes’ schedule, names of your students, courses names, posting grades, therefore there is

no paper works, particularly in the monitoring of grades, students names, and course.

Me - you mean it is a Management system, is not it?

C : administrative management system, yes.

Me –do you use it on a daily basis?

C : I use it on a daily basis, I mean I can see student adding or removing their names. I can see

my classes’ schedule and classrooms location.

Me -Is there communication between the student and the teacher through this system?

C : the students enter the system, and they see their schedule through using specific password.

Me -Do you use discussion forums to put discussion topics?


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 71

C : we use it in simple way, we do not use them.

Me –how about chat software, for example?

C : No except through Face book, but I do not use it in education but in social things.

Me –do you mean you use social networking sites?

C : I use social networking sites, but not for educational purposes.

Me -We turn to the third question, what do you love and hate when it comes to information

technology and communications.

C : when I use ICT I become very happy, ICT is fun, interesting, and by using ICT you can find

anything you want at any time.

Me -do you see it has made the learning process more enjoyable and interesting?

C : very enjoyable and interesting. In addition, the information you get by ICT will still exist in

your mind for longer period than other information.

Me -something you hate it in using technology?

C : I really hate the negative side or unwanted Web sites that have contents that are contrary to

the values, religion, and customs. I hate also the bad uses of ICT. These are the drawbacks of

ICT, otherwise it promote scientific and social relations between people.

Me – Are there any disadvantages of technology?

C : Technology is a double-edged sword. Most of ICT is advantageous; however the users decide

to use in a positive or negative way. The user can customize the technology; he/she can use it

positively in scientific research or in the search for information. Or he/she can use it in negative

way. The user decides how to use the technology in either the positive side or the negative side.

Me -Do you think that the person is the one who determine how to use technology?
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 72

C : yes, if the person is self-positive, psychologically compatible, and compatible with uses of

technology, then he/she will look for positive things but if he/she is looking for negative things,

that is up to him/her as a human being.

Me -do you have problems because of technology, for example, have you experienced a

satiation in which technology make you lost your time and effort? Like power outage whiles you

operating on Word processor?

C : sometimes, when you're looking for information in the network and suddenly you find failure

in the network or power outage. Such situations make you lose time and effort. Hardware failure,

interruption of electricity, and slow network in sometimes make you feel boring and

inconvenient.

Me – Make you feel boring, can you give an example?

C : sometimes you forced to leave the device and leave the information you are looking for.

C : No for a wide extent. The user is the one who decide. The things that the user looks for

determine if technology is waste of time or not. If you looking for useful information then you

will find, and if you are looking for a waste of time then you will also find it.

me -We turn now to the fourth question, do you think that you have sufficient access to tools of

information technology and communications at the university, we speak here about the

University of Ha’il, and how it can improve access to these tools?

C : yes there is access to information technology, particularly when talking about the Internet, I

mean the access is available in all offices in all the institutes. Internet is available in computer

labs; however we need to improve the situation by making it available in the classrooms.

Me -Let's talk about classrooms; is the internet is available?


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 73

C : it is available in computer labs, but if we can develop or improve it by making it available in

the classrooms, then the one can find information directly and show them to students through the

Data show.

Me –Let us talk about services and the technologies that are available in the classrooms, are they

enough?

C : the data show is available in all classrooms.

Me – are they working?

C : Of course it is normal to have them break down, but they maintain them periodically.

Me – how about smart board?

C : smart boards are available but they have not been used yet, but most rooms or more than half

of the halls have a smart board.

Me - Do you use data show in active way?

C : we use it on daily basis, even if the device in the hall is not available we have device in the

department and I can take it with me to present on it.

Me - Is it available only in the technology department?

C : it is available on the department of technology, but the other departments I really do not

know.

Me - We switch now to the second part of the interview with respect to the degree of use of

information technology and communications, the fifth question, when you started using ICT in

your practice educational and why?

C : of course I have four years of experience in higher education including three years or more in

the Sudan. However, I have not use ICT that much so far, but in this year I used ICT more than

previous years.
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 74

Me - No I say as start, even if it was weak.

C : I started using it from four years; I used the Internet and e-mail in the last four years.

Me - Why did you decide to use them? Is your specialization forced you? Or do you like to use

them?

C : Both of them, my specialization forced me and I found search for information through

information technology and communications is easy, saves time and effort, and provides an

interesting learning process.

Me - We turn now to the fifth question which says: what is the percentage of time that you

spend it in using tools of information and communication technologies for educational purposes?

Can you give me a percentage on a daily basis?

C : if we calculate it on a daily basis it maybe about five hours for educational purposes, I always

sit on the internet between lectures or at home.

Me – I am talking about educational matters, like preparing lessons?

C : I use the internet to prepare for of lectures, evaluate the assignments received from students,

to send students assignments, and to search for new information related for the educational

content that I teach.

Me - We now switch to the seventh question. What are the limitations of ICT tools in your

opinion? What do they greatly assist with?

C : I think it is useful more than the traditional methods because it saves your time and effort for

example in searching for references, books, research paper. It attracts and motivates me. The

information you can find is a lot and you can judge on it through your opinion or your

understanding of your personal information. Of course, it is feasible and useful. It helps in the
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 75

development of the educational side of the human. It helps in self-learning, is also useful for

teaching students.

Me – In what sides it is useful for students?

C : when you deal with the students through information technology or when you send

information using technology, I find them receive the information with attraction, motivation,

and excitement and with no mental distraction. Students who communicate with me by e-mail

still using this technology for communication.

Me – Have you encounter any student who said to you I do not know what is the e-mail?

C : yes they do not know how to sign up in e-mail, even the ones who send me e-mails they

asked other students to create their emails.

Me – But in general do you think that students do not accept technology?

C : students do not use technology in wide extent; the ones who communicate with me through

email do not exceed 5% of the students.

Me – Did you ask them to do that?

C : I have asked them to create websites or create email until most of the students accept the idea

and create email but they do not communicate with me as a teacher.

Me – Eighth question a in the second part, do you have any difficulty using the tools of

information technology and communication in the academic practices of your own?

C : I am not professional in all the computer software.

Me – do you have any difficulty with certain programs? Have you taken any courses related to

software use?

C : SPSS statistics program, I have some difficulty using it.


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 76

Me – for example the normal tools like a word processor programs.

C : I use a word processor and the Power Point normally without any problems, but I remember

that I have some problems with SPSS program and I do not have sufficient information about it.

Me – Any other programs that you would like to mention?

C : also e-learning or virtual classrooms I have not use them and my information about them is

very little.

Me – The ninth and the last question, Did you receive any training regarding the use of ICT for

educational purposes, such as training courses or workshops or training via the Internet?

C : I have not attended any training over the internet.

Me – What about training courses and workshops?

C : in simple way we took workshops in Sudan, but it was theoretical only. I mean when you

take theoretical workshop or course you will forget it because you do not practice what you

learn.

Me – Do you mean you do not have benefits from the training courses?

C : we have benefit from it in theoretical way but we do not get an practical benefits from it.

Me – do you remember programs and courses that you have taken it?

C : I took a training session about how to set up an e-mail and how to use it. I also we took

training course about searching for information using the Internet it. I took theoretical course

About e-learning in it without applying practical application thus we need more applied courses

in particular.

Me – for example in e-learning you do not try to create educational content?

C : no, because all the things that we have studied was about theory and without any application.
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 77

Me – we speak about the University of Ha’il, Did you receive any training courses while you

are here?

C : while I am here I do not have any training, there is training courses to be held and I registered

in it and I filled questionnaires but there is no courses held until now.

Me – Is there any other difficulties related to the presence of courses or with its timing?

C : All courses proposed in the evening, they do not interfere with teaching or lectures. The

specialized staff decide the right time and manage the courses but I do not know anything about

them. The university is excited about it and the department is excited about it. We are all ready

for these courses.

Me – do you want to attend these courses?

C : yes I have the desire and I would register for any training coerce.

Me –Now we turn to the last part with respect to factors that enhance or reduce the use of tools

of information and communication technology in the educational process, the tenth question:

What are the most important factors that encourage the use of ICT in higher education.

C : The first factor is motivation, or self –desire whether for the teacher or for the student. If

there is a desire or self-motivation to learn through this technology it will be the main drive for

the use of these technologies, the second thing is the availability of these technologies.

Me – We talk about the reality, is the availability of these technologies will encourage the use of

them?

C : yes it will be an encouragement, now if these technologies are available and most of faculty

members use them, then that would impact the university as a whole. Therefore, the university

will work more to qualify the faculty to use ICT.


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 78

Me – In the current era of technology, do you think the characteristics of this era would

encourage the use of technology?

C : Technology is becoming requirement for every human being. Technology become necessary

for each person in the educational field, whether a university professor or a student.

Me – Do you see any other factors encourage using these technologies?

C : The benefits associated with the new information technology. The real-time communication

between faculty members with the university’s administration, colleagues, and students

encourages you or give you motivation to use ICT. In addition the increasing of information and

easy access to this information encourages the use of ICT.

Me –The second question is the opposite of course, factors that can limit the use of ICT in

higher education?

C : I would say the lack of motivation toward the use of ICT would hinder its use.

Me – How about the lack of knowledge of these technologies and their benefits and importance.

C : Negative attitudes towards ICT represent a problem in higher education.

Me – with regard to students, is there any factors for example the lack of knowledge of the

student may hinder the use of ICT in higher education.

C : the negative attitudes of students toward ICT as well as their acceptance represent obstacle

that limit the use of ICT in higher education. For example when I tell my students to create an

email account, they do not do that. Students have a little acceptance of the use of technology in

class and out class.


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 79

Me –We turn to the question twelfth that says what is the role of the university in facilitating the

use of information technology and communications to members of the faculty of the College of

Education at the University of Ha’il, of course, in your opinion?

C : the role of the university is a positive role in the use of information technology with evidence

that all the rooms have Data show and all offices have Internet, each computer labs also has the

Internet connection.

Me – What is the main role, what it is supposed to do?

C , it is doing its role with full positive way, but the rest on the faculty members and students,

and how they can use these technologies..

Me – What its role with respect to the faculty members?

C : The university provides training courses and it introduced deanship of Information

Technology which exists now, to use this technology in full way. It provides all services within

the classrooms like the smart boards and Data Show.

Me – What about computers, is it available in the classrooms?

C : It is available in the labs, there are computer labs available at the university and they are open

for all students.

Me – With respect to the normal classrooms?

C : In the ordinary classrooms the internet services are no available. There are labs specialized in

computers which are available with internet and they are open all the time.

Me – if there are faculty members in the classroom who want to show students software?

C : the Data Show already exists within each classroom.

Me – Sorry, but I'm talking about the Power Point.


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 80

C :The University gave each faculty member a laptop to use it in teaching in the classroom, this

is a positive role for the University toward the faculty members.

Me – We turn now to the last question which says whether the faculty member has adequate

support from the University for the Use of ICT in education mean for example, material support,

or technical support or technical support, for example?

C : Technical support is available. The communications technology is available in all classrooms

especially in the College of Education. Data Show is available. The laptop is available.

Computer labs connected to the Internet and all computers in the offices are connected to the

Internet too. The university administration provided financial support and incorporeal

support. It encourages the use of technology.

Me – Like what?

C : incorporeal support through the use of the university's email, messages come to you by

email. You can find news about the university via e-mail or via the website of the University.

Me – What about financial stimulus, is there any financial incentives?

C : the financial stimulus is available to encourage scientific research. Researcher or faculty

member can get financial support for the scientific research.

Me – Does the university force faculty members to use technology?

C : The administrators in the college and the department ask faculty members to use technology.

The university provide projectors in the classrooms, if the university do not want to us to use

technology, then it will not provide it in all classrooms and in all offices.

Me – is providing a faculty member with a laptop connected to anything else, for example, he

must have a personal site or what?


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 81

C : yes, the university gives professor laptop to upload his lectures on his website and to upload

personal information. .

Me – Do you have a personal website?

C : I have a personal website.

Me – Do you deal with it on a daily basis?

C : I deal with it on a daily basis, and upload all my lectures

Me – do the students download materials from and interact with your website?

C : a few, very few.

Me: I am a student in master's degree in Education Research and Evaluation at Northern

Illinois University and my name is Mona Alenezi.

Interview: D

Me -In the beginning I will ask you about the number of years of experience that you have, is it

more or less than ten years in higher education?

D - In fact it is less than ten years

Me – In which department you are? And what is your major?

D - At the Department of instructional technology and my specialization in instructional

technology

Me –Okay Doctor, I will ask you about three main themes relating to the investigated subject

matter, these themes are:

• The types of information and communication technologies used in the educational

process.

• The degree of use of information and communication technologies and


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 82

• The factors that enhance or limit the use of tools of information technology and

communications.

Types of information and communication technologies used in the educational process

Me - Let us begin with the first question, have you used ICT tools such as (internet, email, video

and audio conferencing, search engines, publishing tools, digital Camera) within the last year?

D - Yes of course I have used the Internet, e-mail, and conferencing. These things are from the

heart of specialization. In addition, I use these technologies as ways to communicate with our

professors and our colleagues in Egypt.

Me - Take the e-mail as an example.

D - E-mail used in daily administrative work and in the exchange of researches and articles

between me and my colleagues, in short, all my work depends on it.

Me - For the Internet?

D - You know that my academic work depends upon posting students’ scores, the absenteeism

rates. In addition I use these technologies to search for personal information and in social

networking

Me - Do you use the video and audio conferencing?

D - Based on the system used at the university, each conference is held must be accompanied by

an audio and visual imaging to benefit women at the university.

Me - For search engines?

D - I use it permanently

Me - For which purposes?

D - In the routine search and scientific research.

Me - Publishing tools?
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 83

D - What do you mean by publishing tools?

Me - Such as the use of programs like Page Maker and In-Design?

D - No, I never use it before.

Me - Digital camera?

D - I use it for personal purposes.

Me - This means you do not use it in the academic field to document the lectures, for example?

D - I personally do not use it. However, the Public Relations Unit used it to document and show

scientific meetings, where they post the pictures on the college website. In our department, when

we do our annual report we document our work by attaching images with it.

Me - Let us switch to the second question, in your academic practice, what types of ICT

you used the most and for which purposes? and please take it one by one

D - Did you mean in the teaching process?

Me - Yes

D - In the process of teaching we use our computer laps to make presentation on data show

projector

Me - Do you use data show projector?

D - Yes, we used data show projector as display mean and the computer as a display tool. For

example, when I present lecture on multimedia I view examples of multimedia programs for

students and also when I present lecture about the Internet, this requires us to show some

websites in the Internet, in the end, this depends on the subject matter and I would like to

acknowledge that here we do not have lap for educational equipments.

me - There is no lap for educational equipments?


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 84

D - Yes, We have asked for it from some time ago, but unfortunately it is not available until now

and also you know that the classrooms began to provide by Smart Board but did not work so far.

Me - Has not been activated yet?

D - Yes

Me - Any other programs such as the Power Point?

D - Yes, of course, Power Point is the primary mean for presentation

Me - Do you use it permanently?

D - Yes we use it on daily basis and in all lectures, especially in our department when class

rooms do not have data show projector we bring a portable one

Me - What are the most common types of devices or media do you use?

D - For the media the Power Point is essential, but sometimes some lectures related to some

programs so we use these programs , for example if you want to give a lecture on multimedia I

view models for special educational programs where the student can examine the characteristics

of each multimedia program . In addition I use internet and computer to show students the

electronic tests , where I give examples of these tests, where the students enter the answer on the

computer, the computer then correct this answer and give them the correct answer. They students

enter several answers so they student can know the difference between the right and wrong

answer. The same applies to the Internet and the electronic questionnaire, where students search

for electronic questionnaire on search engine (Google) so they can learn learn by themselves.

Me - All these methods are used in the explanation of the educational materials?

D - Yes, because it part of the curriculum where the students see and use the technologies by

themselves. In addition, we have courses in the curriculum in which students develop

educational software using Power Point software.


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 85

Me - What are scientific research tools, databases, programs like SBSS that you use?

D - Yes, the important databases in our university is electronic library. the university provided

us with electronic library access as mean of scientific research. Journals are whether in Arabic

or foreign languages. For the SBSS program, I do not really use it, but I rely on Excel program , I

did not switch to SBSS software .

Me - What are the most used programs that you use in your educational practice?

D - the popular programs I already told you about, as I told you that we miss the presence of

educational means I hope it will be available as soon as possible.

Me - We now switch to the third question what you like and dislike when it comes to the use of

ICT?

D - Many things that I love and because of my specialty, I fully believe in it

Me – Can you mention some of them?

D – Certainly, technologies help students in their learning, with technology students can see and

touch the information rather that imagine it. In addition, when I teach students about multimedia

programs and what they contain from elements such as sounds and images in theoretical way that

do not make the students understand these multimedia programs. They can understand and learn

about these technologies by viewing and working on them. For example when I make an

electronic test and the student see it, the comprehension of the subject is certainly greater

compared to learning without use of technology.

Me - This means that technologies facilitate students’ learning?

D - Yes, certainly, and this is what we are trying to convince others colleagues in other

departments where there are some people in other departments who do not believe in technology

Me - Is there anyone who does not believe in the importance of technology?


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 86

D - Yes, certainly there are some faculty members who do not believe in technology at all. Some

of them say that by using the marker and the board they are able to achieve their educational

goals successfully

Me – is there anything else you want to add?

D - This is for the educational process, while for scientific research, the access to any scientific

research has become easy and simple for me. I began research in 1994 and was a very difficult

process if I want to get research that is published in the United States, it needs a year to become

available in the library of the American University in Cairo and then I have to get permission

from the University of Cairo allowing me to enter the American University library as well as you

will have an appointment to discuss these papers and then take a copy and translate. now this

process is taking only half an hour.

Me - Do you mean that the use of technology led to save time?

D - Of course in addition to that too much research is available now

Me - Did you mean compared to the past?

D - Yes, I said this because I experienced the traditional way in the research as well as the

electronic way

Me – is there anything else you want to add?

D - This is for the educational process and research methods As for personal purposes, I contact

my family via the Internet where I live in a different country and I talk to them by audio and

video using programs such as Skype, Messenger, and this is wonderful

D - Yes
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Me - Is there anything you hate in your use of the technology?

D - Yes we are suffering from the availability of non valid information on the Web , where

anyone can write what he wants on the web pages easily. For me, I am suffering from the

problem of spam that I receive it in my e-mail and I cannot get rid of it.

Me - Do you feel safe when you use the technology?

D - Yes, there are safe in significant extent, but if I have personal and highly confidential

information, I do not open it on the Internet

Me working on one of the software and suddenly the power goes Do you hate that ? Have this

happened to you?

D - Of course it happened but with a very low rate and in any work there are some risk such

as power outages and the loss of some information but it does not happen a lot when compared to

traditional ways.

Me - Have you ever lost data during your work?

D - Yes, but it was a personal error when I was writing my doctoral thesis and after two weeks

of work I accidentally delete the original file and kept the older file.

Me - We now switch to the fourth question; do you think that you have adequate access to the

ICT tools in the university? How could accessibility be improved?

D - For the University of Princes Norah University it provides all these services such as Banner

system or e-mail, and all of that is available and work well

Me - What is the Banner system?

D - It is a management system of the educational process as a whole starting from the

registration of students and doing lists of their names, their scores, and the names of failed

students. In addition, it provides other services such as electronic library, e-mail, and search
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 88

process. There is a plan in the university to adopt of e-learning system (LMS) and there is the

possibility to be a model or Blackboard, where it will be activated in the next year

Me - What is the difference between the Banner system and Jusar system ?

D - There is a big difference JUSUR system is a learning management system while the Banner

system is administration management with no electronic courses and it does not get education

through it so it is a system for administrative operations

Me - This means that there is no process of educational content management?

D - No it is not aimed to that

Me – What is the availability of computers in the classroom?

D - Every professor in the university received a laptop. For students there are computer labs

that can be used where each lab contains data show projector and now the university began

installing Smart Board.

Me - These things are related to the computer labs, but in the usual classrooms is there data

show projector in it?

D - No not all of the classrooms but most of them because some of them are broken or got lost,

the university is working in fixing that, but in slow way

Me – is the Smart Board available in all classrooms?

D - No not at all, for the Faculty of Education while in Faculty of Science all classrooms

contain these devices and as you know that these devices need the faculty members to be trained

on it and it has not been activated yet.

Me - How can we improve access to such tools?


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 89

D - By training, however this is not a problem in our department but it is a problem in other

departments. There are some faculty members who do not use laptop for educational purposes,

but for his personal purposes because they do not have the skills for that. There are many faculty

members who do not use educational software such as Power Point at all. It is important to begin

the process of training because the one who do not know how to use a technology and he is not

aware of its potential, then he would lessen its importance.

Me – is the reason is the fear of technology?

D - No, it is not the fear of technology but it is the absence of the possibility of learning or

resistance of change. We find some people accustomed to a certain style and they are comfort

with it. The change process is not that simple. There are some people who do not believe in the

usefulness of technology in the educational process

Me – Are the majority of faculty members in the college of Education do not use technology?

D - No, not the majority, but a large proportion, especially in the educational disciplines such as

Islamic education, Arabic language, in addition to the disciplines in which we find that the level

of English is low because the technology is sometimes associated with language difficulty.

We now switch to the second part which is the degree of use of information and communication

technologies

Me - The fifth question When did you start using ICT in your educational practice and why?

D - Started from the beginning study because of my major . When I was a student in the

bachelor degree I was able to use the computer and employed it in education and when we do the

Me - How long are you talking about?

D - Since 1995 where I graduated in 1994

ME - Are you convinced of its importance?


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 90

D - Yes, I am convinced of its importance because it is my specialty you can find some people

in the other departments use it due to their conviction of its importance, while I use it for two

reasons of their importance and because it is my specialty and I believe in the importance of

technology and whether I am satisfied or not satisfied, I will use technology.

ME - We switch now to the sixth question on a daily basis how often do you use ICT tools for

educational purposes?

D - Always at a time when I'm in my office and do work related to the educational process or

when I'm in the classroom

Me - I mean, whether you're at work or at home?

D - Generally spend about seven hours, that is equivalent of my working time at the university.

I do not deny that I'm working at home sometimes.

Me - What about the academic process?

D - academic process in the classroom, where we use the technology in all lectures

Me - We now switch to the seventh question. What are the limitations of ICT tools in your

opinion? What do they greatly assist with?

D - of course it is useful

Me – Why, Can you give me examples?

D - Using technology facilitate students’ learning and delivery of information to them. In

addition, students are used to technology. In the research side, it saves time and efforts in

obtaining and exchanging information

Me – does technology make the learning process more enjoyable than ever before?

D - Of course. Using technology is changing the traditional way of education. For example,

when I tell the student that we will talk today about educational videos do I explain it
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 91

theoretically or do I give examples using videos? When I tell the students we will not follow the

traditional way of teaching by using video, would they be convinced? Of course, they will be

convinced because they lived the experience by themselves.

Me - What about the process of communication with students??

D - For students, I communicate with them in the traditional way

Me - Why is that?

D - because of the students wants to communicate face to face till now.

Me – Do you see that the student prefers traditional methods?

D - Yes at the beginning of the semester we distribute course information to students, and

within this data there is my e-mail address. I found that the student is not thinking at all in

communicating by e-mail with their teacher

Me - Do you see that because of the unavailability of e-mail to all students?

D -No , this service is available for most of the students, but they like to communicate by

traditional methods, where they consider it the most influential

Me - Moving to the eighth question, do you have any difficulty in using information and

communication technologies in the academic practices of your own?

D - For me, I cannot find any problem and when something new shows up I'm trying to learn

it. For my job, I do not think it represents a problem when I want to use a particular program, it

takes me a while until I learn; while it is possible to be a problem for other colleagues especially

in the skills of usage

Me - Are there any hardware or software that Faculty members in the college of Education fined

them hard to use?

D - This depends on your specialty and the types of programs


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 92

Me - How about common software such as Power Point?

De - Yes, there are some faculty members have lack of skills to use it. For example in the last

week we received a call from a member of faculty in other departments and they told us that they

want to adopt a Power Point to present their lectures in knowing that they do not know to how to

use this program at all

Me - Move to the ninth question did you receive any training regarding the use of ICT for

educational purposes? Such as training courses, workshops and online training?

D - Yes, I received a lot of training, whether face to face or over the Internet

Me - Have you taken any courses?

D - Yes, I have received training on most of the internet programs. I graduated in 1994 and all

of these programs came after this year and we did not receive education on it. I have received

training about management systems. In the last year I took a training course in JUSUR System.

In Egypt I took a course that is administrated by Siemens Company. In addition to the Microsoft

Software I obtained a diploma in the software production.

Me - Do you give training courses?

D - Yes, last year I administrated a training session about the advanced use Power Point, and

last year's application in e-learning

Me - Do you see that the number of training sessions offered by the university is enough?

D - I think it's the beginning and, by God willing, next year there will be activation of the e-

learning
FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 93

We now switch to the last part of the interview which is it the factors that enhance or limit the

use of tools of information technology and communications.

Me - What do you think are the most important factors that promote the use of ICT tools in the

higher education environment?

D - Provides technical tools and training on it leads to have the conviction and activated it and

technological environment when it is available you can use it

Me -. What are the most important factors that limit the use of ICT tools in the higher education

environment?

D - Lack of technology and the lack of training on it, may be devices and technology exist but

there is no training which limits the use , and the cost of technology may limit its use.

Me - How can the university facilitate the uses of ICT tools among the faculty members in the

college of education?

D - This is done first by make the technologies available. In addition the university should

provide training, followed by technical support to overcome failures in the university labs also to

overcome the problems of the electronic network, such as interruptions or slow or the blocking

some of the scientific sites

Me - . Do you think education faculty members receive enough support from the university to

use ICT tools?

D - Yes, the beginning there is the financial support ,the university has provided laptops as

well as t Internet connection all the time and with excellent speed. There is a unit of technology (

IT) in case the I face any problem, I can contact them and they will help me in it, they also

provide technical support . The University will give training courses about the new e-learning

system in the coming year.


FEMALE FACULTY MEMBERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY 94

Me - Thank you very much doctor.