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' irilr SYNTAX

RrET<Fmenil ry
Rahim is honest. Rahim and Karim are honest.
Rahim as well as Karim is honest.
E"tr+< {tI:I EqRT"fFrc Rahim ei subject, third person_singular
number. qR 'l]T CT verbfr<cqfqg.tqE is. fr.fts {k-s.i subject qq
Etq-{ r .c
Flil-l.t verb {6s6ea1s. q6a<trom as well as = and. qsq qdl EqIE q?$r{
are Cl TC{ is {C:TR I {s<TE 6q-{fi TlrrE subject-qi E"f< ffi o-trr< 6S.f1
<r{qs qr{ gl, r q6o subject ,${ er< Tfr q8s verb {cl{ qr sRcE {El
ER c{
subjeci r!{( verb elit*'13tr
{l {$qqqi Ecs-6q I q LI ECE {El E{ C{
qrf qdtq ,{rq< <r{qlrtr{ {"c{J srqt{qq] (disagreement)
'RDfSCA agree <rc<fr
(cs[q rEq-{<lslwe3 r

Tca fl{r{ agreement qfr{ qE '!|{qCl" r gqrq ffiq q$IsE ss {4R}r-f

elcRtqilT I

II. RULES (f{qrRfr) Generar Rute ({t{rn.t fiT{) B Verbs agree

with th-eir subjects in number and person.
Eell\ subject
'{it number 4?tr( person Eq-{TrC{ verb-€K {ef {[ form frfiR-
I 4r fl13 <.cq am
you are
We are
She is
They areffir
oF refi c+.F TS-{ Tfiefl{ T{ i e m q--fcd Right forms of the verb
q{]Tfi3 gq-{ frrs ffit r

*R *ym subject-verb agreement-€{ 6cqT{ frT-{ fuT qk-dlr{l s-rl Cr<

c{q[Ef(sfiTlftffi C{lc{cjlq[-{ qirs I
Grammar : Syntax Agreement : Subject-Verb 807

I 1. And S'r{t ER Sl ssqfq+ singular subject I$9 qcE vfccar "mr

plural verb {6{ I

qetq <r'fil Tct

eats eat
is.... are
was . were
makes..... make
has."... haveMtc{:FI3
Rahim is a good boy. (singular subject)
Rahirn and Karirn are good boys. (qfD singular subject 'and' EKI {9
qcrce t)
Both the man and his brother have (has {s) much money.
(ffiffi< q<( ER qqrn" oq< fio vne r;
A fool and his money ire (is--T,'{) soon parted. (6{IaT< CIC{ El< Efd-{
€ fuR frpm qF r = c<rcr{ Tkq c<ftft{ Br+t {rs q] r)

You, he, and I are (am3l is-m) students.

Mina and Biva dance (dances i-rtr) well.

Exceptions (<i'Bo.c) c
p each (ersrs = 'qft + qtr) {.{<( every (EG9-JT) ql .1-q tdt ft.u crrs
qrql TJfu, {q tqTfrr$ qlqnl qffi 'e-Ir{ {<11-{ I {ETI( and EIsl {@
subjectal-fl{ qlcti .{E 1q?t <q-r{ c{rs-Gl singular verb $3Q\5 q6{ I ffi:Ft s
Each boy and girl has (have T{) paid the money.
Every man and woman is (are ;Is) satisfied (q'q?).
Each of the boys is (are rltr) honest. (<f"r'$slfr-< ei-reir'+t qs)
E uooq"F singular subject sl-fi qr-E <fu <l <qrs fiTif{ Tr< \ofi Elcn<
verbF RT singular. R:I;l 3
The Headmaster and secretary has (have-Tltr) come to the meeting.
(Headmaster €?I( secretary c+t Vfu r;
frE ft{ c{ alfu-ca nilrq cc'csrq plural verb <r{ds Er< I c{:l{ s
The Headmaster and the secretary have (has-{T) corne to the
fTrIVC, q<t <]furS T1tlrn qq<R the Kl{Qs q{ Tl, c$-qtr <i{ds q{; frq
fr{ fu $fu?"T {<mn eft6*1 the <r+es q{ r)
q<qF q<i <lri
E] 'fififuo AcfK< cfiI{ pluralil singular cs cslt verb-Q

6q5l{ 3

Two and two are four. (plu.)

or, Two and two is four. (sing.)
Five and five makes ten. (sing.)
or, Five and five make ten. (ph,r.) (oflru "tl6F q-t ST l)
808 A Passage to the English Language
I 2. ER <t sl-e-tfi$ singular subject Tfr or, nor, but-E.|fl {w C{
'lCi singular verb SiTde E{ | {fi <l"R-{-
-+qGfr subject-l {6{ singular.
{s ql€C{ | C{:FI s
-+ vl3ll or, nor, but-EBtl
He or his brother is (are-T{I) intelligent (or= ft<<l)
He or his brother has (have-iTtr) done this.
He or his brother was (were-Tll) present.
Either he or his brother is (are-{ttr) intelligent.
Either he or his brother has (have--;{1tr) done this.
Either he or his brother was (were-{{t) present (B"tfu).
Neither he nor his brother is honest. (6T <l \rlF qn FW Ce, cT t)
Not Kashem but Karim is (are-T{l) happy.
f 3. T{q or, not, but il{l €Ffr singular q<q qsF plural subject its E{
E{{ verb 4i[ number W<ffi subjectF{ number-4{ q{frel I C{'{"{ e
He or his brother has done it.
lffFtqc, subjeci qfD q He 4{( his brother BeaQ singular. 4 41s6.f
slngular verb nas {J<Qe qcl ll
He or lhis brothers-l have done it.
[qqF{ He-EE € plural subject. €Tt
singular subject 9T( his brother
or Elsll {s RtTCq t q"l;t
fi{t {|cq 6{ verb (have)-q{ ffi subject (his
brothers) {4 plural. lpKI( fiRI q-{qk< verb-€ plural €}
Neither Karim nor his friends are 'guilty.
frq, Neither Karim nor frir fri"nJ i" guiitv.
Either Karim or his sister has said so.
ft-q, Either Karim or his sisters have said so.
Not only Biva but also Shuva has come.
ft-q, Not only Biva but also her friends have come.
f 4. Sfi or {I nor El{l TF [t subject-€3tr person Cf QT ( first
person--second person, second person-third person, second person-
first person) io:F'F|-s?{q subject q-{{lr< verb iI{e\D qC< I cTsl;I s
Rahim lv-
ou I are gullty.
[e{[C{ verb-q< fi-sf{ff subject € 'you'. 'you'-4K ef{ are TC{ K'6{ verb
{CT[R '61s'.1

Rahim or |Kartt"l is guilty.

[verb €]t ffi subject R4 third person, singular number (Karim).
€EFII verb'is'(l{ds € tl
r <fi ,{tm"r<I<.{r< T5t{iK IE srs qr{ <'@ qr{ q{ tr{{ <fsi q"{].
d-"rcq'tbqs-dTF r mvq s
Grammar : Syntax Agreement : Subject-Verb 809

Neither Shuman nor I am guilty. <t$iFrs fiTfi"f \e 6{?tl TlS

qT; ffis q{ 1;
Shuman is not guilty; neither am I. (q{-{ cqtft
€3(-You or shipon has done it.
<T-sIFts q\9_fc{ 6{t {T-You and shipon have done it.
:Tfj:':ii + as well as,in addition to, including, no less than, with,
together with + singular,/plural subject
ql CS;t,
ffir1\rJf< <p1-qg, E Cq, "f*<ff subjectfr singular Kl plural {l-E 6{I'S
verb {<t {:Rtr singular {C r sf< {C{ ilq({. Qelrl subject-ftT
q-fiit singular
qFE[< rssFq 3
He as well as his brother has done this'
lcq s<R^ sR qt qsfg s-rR I as well as=and. Rq <l-siFcg and TrT[cQ
has-€3t E6{ have {5f(-{ I CTII-{ 3

He ind his brother have done this'l

He as well as his brothers has done this.
[qFi <r{, brothers (plural) <I€R <<R "l|<s singular verb K]tl-ds {{ ll
The chair in addition to the table (or tables) is mine'
(in addition to = and)
{64 <l{1q chair-€ singular subject. Qel{ subject frfS W<{fQ singular
EFqr{ rq?ce q?R'srqffiq]qr{4l I

,This house including ({CIs, {{.) the furniture has (have-T{tr) been
bought by my brother.
Abul no less than (csl{ q.(.lR sI T{) the boys is (are--lTl) guilty'
Rina together with (qs'fq, {l-cel) her sisters has (have-IT) gone
qsl6?t accompanied by-q< ct-cEs Fr<'qF €lc{lqi I

I 6. Singular subject Cs {fr plural modifier (phrase) modify F6{

qqcq verb-FQ[-4 singular. Rrl;{ s
The tallest boy of the seventy students is a talent (et r1-e< u-t
qq/Et&< Tc{i rrftfltt sq q"rm qrq-{ 6ffi <tdrc 1;
[a[E'ie{, boy€ singular. 'of the seventy students'-{q plural. €F'boy'
6s modify sifcq I {{ subject qf, boy. ' boy' Cs frCTe frR <ril q(q, 'seventy
students'-6hiK<F Ffrg +g I {s{l( verb RC{ singular (is, are-i"{)l
One of the girls has said so. (4fronn< qc{j q$-qq
q6l Tcq-cs l)
[q{l[{ one RI subject (singular), the girls-ffi I the girls-{4 modifier'
€F pluralesTtWCqe verb ft R4 singular.l
A list of twenty students has (have-{{T) been made'
w qraTqTA< q-$tr qfr-+t ?sR r-fl ccscq r)
810 A Passage to the English Language
l(rlfr{ sublect R4 a list (singular). students_Rq modifier. q$.Rl-t6l
'students' plural RSRI {6gs ysrb
{6S[Q singut3r.l
The leader of the people is*present
le?tllT the leader € subject (singuLr). people_F
'people' plural R€{l {Q€ verb
modifier. {sfl(
RIR(q singular.l
f7. Any body (m_c+B), anyone (cl_rc6;,
each (Erqrr+), either (c{_
cslq *<tq{,) everybody (Arsp56;, every
one (qrqfr$), neith", (EFrdn
TC{I csER iR), nobody (c+EQ as;,
no on" (6TBe IR);'.,o,.,n (=* o,.,"1,
somedody (crR.s-sqq)_{Q indefinite pronoun
(qfiffi_st fiD_s r{{lq; scq}
{fr subject fuqr{ slq $lR Ei-qcE slrq-< elcr singular verb
Anydody who has money is rich. [have_tFld-s q6{
l-crl I R:l{ s
T[ t]
Nobody has so much money that ie,zshe
can buy a country.
(+fts qEbffl 6,I cq cC eFF Cri.tft-*s
Everybody is (are*lT) liable ({fi) to error.
lervizo<R yt et r;
Does (De-t'ttr) anyone like this? (CsBfr <Dt
tq_{ +_r$?)
Somebody has (have-{ttr) stolen my p€n. (r+B qmn
oeffi qfr
Someone has (have_il) done this. (c+-E/cofa qTq_{ qs.M
I 8. Any €it( none €8 pronoun qfB iingular il plural R Cs.f{+f<a r)
verb cf{.t
+-*cs 'ilr{ I cTsFr 3

Are any of you going rhere? (CsTflfq< csB ft cq$n

[4S] <r{, any qR fi fs.F noun {GTfr, of (preposition)
<fq.Cq I {ro_fl(
any--4{ft-{ pronoun. Tfr any+noun rl]gf< <I{Ctr qE qqF
Efi any_m
adjectve <-l qE r 6T:Fl-anybody, anyone
erffi r q csrq any qF acl]ective
anyone efl pronoun. ,any,_€$-{fe pronoun
qRffi'{m5 Rrqc< <nqs
crqt rl
Is any of them going there?
Is any of these watches (E&) satisfactory (qrgtT"e-{_s)?
None has everything. (em c+B o? sk
wng qtrA rj
None are called in the meeting. (T.lW
{qT ulrFt Rt fr i)
Cfi ilrfc{, B"W n"ii (plural €{( singular) €fSq Glrfi. \e-r{
I F.C?llef${r{ q3(
informal English-€ plural verb C{fi <i{q.- qT q<(
Formal English_( singular
verbR c<ft <r{q.c qn I

I 9. Subject {fr relative pronoun q_{ vR6 & subject_.{i Ti

singular Tf
plural TITQ. q,u q & rerative pronoun (K
antecedent (qrcrr{ pronoun 3r
nounfr) €m fr{IRE Er< I qdlE relative pronounFi sTk{<t
nounfr (antecedent)
plural qfq 6K (relative pronoun qS) el(K-{
verb F plural, €{( ,,rn"f". q,_
verbfr singular EC-{ I C$:|-{ S
Grammar : Syntax Agreement : Subject-Verb 811

I am one of them who act wisely.

(vtR qffi< q's-q-{ ltfl $w{< sv sM st< r)
[qqtqg, who€ relative pronoun. q< "K-<q verb € act. €:Ft acts
(sing.) 4fr act (plu.) Tt{ds q6{ \51F-'lll TC{ who q< qE F noun RI pronoun
(antecedent)Fi G"m r e"Jfc{ antecedent € them- plural. {-sKl( verb R,h
act- plural.l
He is the man who acts wisely. (fr Cb fre <ifu n qfutr+< rio ofq
ft< I) \--l
[q{lC{ who (r.p.)-q< antecedent Rf, man {l singular. {pKI( singular
verb 'acts'qfEqE EE tl
These are the books which have been bought.

(qRsE cqR<Qemts.l cs-{tq6r-cE I

This is the book which has been bought.

[qvJ+-<, books. . . €< "lc{ have €i(book... q< eir< has{{lQtl
f 10. Expletive 'there'; introductory 'there' ft({
adverb 'here' fi[T
<lsi sF qrq q< "f<-{ff verb singular 4ft plural Cr< q fr-t"'< 3K6q \5t( el-ffi-q
subject (noun (l pronoun KI noun phrase) €{ number-€3tr G1< r & subject {fr
singular number E{ ElqcE verb € {-{ singular number €Ri Q subject {fr
plural numbe. qg vp6{ verb-s {6{ plural number. c{I;[ 3
Here is vour book ((e C{ csl{l< <t)

teqlcq'<lsifr eF qcrcq Here frcn I q<'lc< is Rl are XEt <t-<qm <-d {1{ I

Fp-q et irs.i is <J.{qs qr{, S13l{, ,h verb €K el{ C{ subjectfi <fqqio <mq
(book) 9l {4 singular. 4q;It verbFs qC{ singular.l
Here ate three books. (q"nT{ ffi 3Q Wrq r)

fq?fcq books 4T plural. 4e-{i verbfr-e € plural (are).]

There is a mosque in our village. (qlTftq{,{fF qsF q{&q qlcq r)
There are a mosque and a school in our village.
lqT;i T-{, u und a school-{fl plural. T13l"f, EF singular subject-
and lw <*Ce tl

Is there a chance of his winning? (sR

csTElT ft rofq q'c<ltl virAl)
872 A Passage to the English Language

lE$c<t{s <lsi <'@ Is'there'-€t qfttt TqEI I qR].?t chance qq subject {t

singular. 4H'6{i singular verb 'is'TI(-QE qE tl
Are there any people in the street? (TlgF ft C$TT FIT qlR?)
There was a king in a country.
There were two beggars in a village.
Were there two beggars in that village?
q{F frrF-{ exerciseF F< I

EXERCISEI Use the correct form of the verb.

1. Anybody who (amfs,/are) honest (am/is/are) happy.
2. Each of them (havelhas) much money.
3. The opinion of the people (are/is) acceptable (€lq"l Rltf).
4. The man as well as the woman (have, has) much money.
5. Rahim together with his sisters (have,y'has) done ihis.
6. He is one of the boys who (study,/studies) hard.
7. Here (is/are) your pen.
8. Here (are/is) your pens.
9. There (is/are) a book on the shelf.
10. There (is/are) many books on the shelf.
Ans : R&tr Rule 6h'{ r

I 11. Expletive (anticipatory {[ introductory 'lt'Et-31 n"l{ 6$14 sentence

sT q{ 9fi sK "f-ffiff verbF q< singular, ffi subject-€K number {I-q em
ql c$-{ I cqq{ 3
It is I who am'to blame. (qfiR fi'lR,)
It is we who are to blame. lwtxaF Offt r)
tqall <,Klfrzo I <cl Tqs sR qfc'l is <c>r(e I frfrs <ffi?s€ we-{Isl
CCq\€ It €R ell is <CCCQ tl
a 72. Collective noun EKI 6sFI class <.l cTBfs {<lr-{ r ,!q qTErc {fr
qsF unit {l '\"|$"-Rfi'c< {fl qg rot-q6E & collective noun €K el( singular
verb (is, was, has, eats, goes etc.) {c{ I ft-q, sfr '"i&s' q| fuqr{ ffi'
frc<bTl 4<l qR sR6E \51{ elc3 plural verb (are, were, have. eat, go- etc)
TCq I R5l;I 3

I he jury is ot the same opinion. jury are divided in their

(qfr qst E\o catllct o-+rqq) [qdts, opinions. (ER'l"f fud 1v c"nsq
gR<+oqqqqlfirE qvfrffi{ rl s-<r{{ t) lqdts e"tq strq-< '.h"-oi' cerq
"{&s"'q?lg" Sr{ CtkR ll
Grammar : Syntax Agreement : Subject-Verb 813

The family is giving a party. lqcnq, The family are ot varlous

opinions. ("rfut<< cq'ci'k*r G{ CA
{fu'r+{ c-{E frcq' onffftm rl
rE t)
A large number is expecteo. unlY A number ot errors have oeen
part of the order was delivered. found. A great part of the PeoPle
have no opinion on the question.
The rest of the page ("{6I<t <Irc The rest of
the PeoPle have gone
q{). there.
qt-l) is illegible ("rf{ 6ql'l1

r 13. Book, magazine, movie (qt$qfr), newspaper (ni<lE"E), play

at1-4r6aTs Srq-{ e;64 singular verb TC{
Ftr4s)-q.41q &R1:K {16:I plural noun

6{5l{ s Ali and the Bull is a fine story.

The Bangladesh times is a good magazine'
I 14. C{F "qR'qq" <I "q(r{{ qTs" {{lrE plural subject q< 'lc<
singular verb {f,51, GT{ s A million dollars is a great deal of money'

r-sj o-<,,{s frfr 's{ *ffi H-.ffiT#ffi

qFF slq
m qa1 qc* rl

Ten percent is a good rate of interest'(100/o {[n< Rl<)

work' (qK'6{-{ q<'F +trs-{ q-{
Ten years is too long a time for such a
)o <{{ q-$t^ GR cr{ Ecr sK l)
Eight hours is our working daY-
S[t xtrrE q-s-s-qm qrc{m qsF ffiqlq Rrqr{ ffi T-{l qrq, qFfiq'l
q4qMr{d{ tl
r 15. ftRftR noun ql(qqI(EIrs fr{c1 plural <'@ qrq q-{ ftEsRf <rs
subject RCq14 <'{5q s:kq<
el6{ singular verb {Flds q{ I (qerqt IEI-[-6 number
*on* alof+-vTK \ryc4tE-{ s-{I SCn.rq l)
Economics is a good subject'
The news is horrifYing (sT(F()