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qi <aLT"< qeF frrs
Phrases and clauses q*|-rfrr cwT<I crause Frs rcE EI
Fkrtq r clause sl6s <rE q q-Nic< qt qmE' clause €R G$ftfr-strf q.FI cs< q.'{

p*rB-e q{rls carrs qRlq-{C{lC{ clause-€K qtclfr-S tR}-{ csrcr qt\e r qq'F
cEElrq-d qR<Icd clause-s-{ c(frS qfrx cq.\sTl Erqt i

I know [@.
<TaTtrcE 61- qi{t object qfr qrftTE.fq r q[<K
I know Fo;".q

ei {l" &F his name {c{r object. *ft hfr .I.q{ qrE r w<lq .cFf {rqT
phrase. STrct q< {c{i rst{ finite verb <r wtFlorfr$ 6t r ftqftT< <i-{Ttr
I know what his name is (qfr wfr iom rF.ft r)
<ffi.r- what his name is qq Tc t q(.ffri know_verb e-<t object. vf{fq
eF ft sstr phrase ? qtr{serEt fi frrq ,4sF object_€< $tq ft{..6q mc{
CEITICT-{ {C-{ qCE eik<
R etr ECqt ,{S'E phrase, frq qfttCq sl i-T I phrase_€st
rstTq$fufl fuat cffrr qt r qE qs{F{ q'c{i qsB qqFrsl fuat "rs" En-6q

4l verbF< 4sE 5ugis61€ qRq (his namei. {sil( {{ <}-sffu T.C<l qfrr+ r

fl<rQ-{ <rst <EI c{F

"[rg r qF <el s{F .ruur". siqrq qq$ <qI" q[R cq,
A clause is a group of words which has a finite verb of its
,. own but
which acts as a single element in or a part of a sentence.
(clause ECEI SsF\lrEl.trq-< qqD {l{ fi-q" qrF q$,Frfi
fu$ qns qetD sT
s-sF <n-+i< q$F ${iEF Rcqr< <icqg qr r)
EfqcE qtTRt mqEts c{ clause-€ir fr€frFFo t{FIEJerEt q.Eq
1. clause {(El E1<t vrgffQ-s word (str {TE r

2. qA fi wET fitsm qoF finite verb sJtr$ r

Grammar : Kinds of Clauses 633

3. fi-q-f finite verb qlsl q'cq€ clause frrq 6€FI sentence Ts, q"{i qsfr
sentence-€K soF q(tt TIE I

qqlfi {C{ nq cs, clause C{ sentence-{3l q(-l{'c'l {t{qg qT vF fi-q'{

finite verb ellco r c{q-{ B

He told me what he did with the pen.

T -----clause-
(fr +E{E frrs ft sL<&E q q{Trs srElh r)
*Su jffi l" sentence ft-{ subject {C4l He
3: verb " told
frQ clause-s< subject {6{l he
verb {(f,l did
{E-{t( ffill ctis cs <ffiAo clause-€< frqt verb eJf$-cE€
{q {TiF< frq-q
qlc<aB verb ?il-c$ I sFsqn q6{-sF clause €K {-c{I ettrs I

frrF< exercise fr n-< e

EXERCffi 1. All your words are true. (Fl{l{ q< sctR csi l)
2. What you say ($ $ T{ 9 Tsi r)
is true.
Question t B'lf,+< <lrsl All your words €{( 2-4( <lr$"i< what you
1 T(
say-€R {Ctft mT{ft clause Cf[{F phrase? 6{;{l
Answer : 1 4( ilf€l3 All your words-€E word s(4[ €FCGI are verb
s'itr subject Sc"i alq s<-6Q r qRR qQ -mqtEq3 fr-eq ffi{ finite verb e subject
€E'C{l qfr {f,{l phrase (noun phrase) fsq 2-4( {16<Fl-.1 what you say
qq-tFs 4?Fltr{ subject Rrrycs (is verb €3 subject) +lq +r<'cq I fiiq q< fi-q-t
qqft finite verb 9l(Q r (say). eqfl qtr {6Et qT'F clause.


(Clause-c.{ c$ftftrcI'f)
Clause Q{Frs ftq effi< I ft-q ,srT{ s-c<l, qsFd sffi{ Sflctft <TTcq I F<l(
clause €K mb cf+Wrem+ firqr"t cq-{l{ ql-t s
1. Principai or Independent clause
2" Subordinate or Dependent clauses
(a) Noun clause
(b) Adjective clause
(c) Adverb clause
3. Coordinaie clause

1. Principal clause
Principal clause C{ clause El3t qd g-{t("K q{i q{i C$14 clause s< E"K
Fr6{q-{ i-{ qrs Tcq principal clause. €< q?r66TT <9 ?<fi? qcqt qt cs ql
634 A Passage to the English Language
clause-(s {4 sentence fr celr$ qffi 4'6s frqcqs qtr qsF nq-{ <fot frqr<
firq< qd er€Fr $-{cE qrq I EhR<(q-{ {<icq RRTF {ai-dsft< c<Fft <R< r

I have a cow which is red.

E"icT-{<lsiFF p. Ffto qs.tB qdTsl have a cowy('tF qml principal
clause. sl-{{ qfrrs q;gfr 6e6q sffi a'5a frqrqre q< fiq'{ qd:T*l"f S$-ffis
q-{ I cT{{ 3

I have a cow. (qq-q qTF ttr qlcs t)

* fuq et flfu <IaiEQ S"rc<-< <Ic+l €sF q(-f Rcqr< <rqqo qr{co. r q{K
s-$Fqfi-{EqR<"f ffflst+ s
The boy is playing football.
The boy is my brother.
TlOqt($ relative pronoun-who {l€FI T'6{ {9 S-<-6{ 9l[s{t {l$ S
The boy who is playing {ootball is my brother.
€rllIq, The boy is my brother {64[ principal clause. smq qF qFTl'ql-\rTf<'
<'<qs qF q-ffi ag-41 1ftqs qv ollR i
q?F cslsrkq.?T q{ ?fisrE ollK c{, <tft q<lFs (gI qmqlglc{ {sF sentence
Rq r mFr+ C{rl principal clause T{l !tr< ql I

S+i r<tfr q({F qr{ ({s qesn qri) RE €set s The boy is playing
ft-q e< stlCal who _1w qs<lq q{d q< flfu ;E <-qrq I who is playing
football q({F c€F <ls] foqr< <r<-qs Ecs {lc{ EI r Tls"l, "cTg,ffi
qdq{ qt; q< 9i(3 <t qlc'i qR'€ frR EeK $cRtw{ slcq
c{4cq"-rc< c€,F c"t{"Ift-{ I

1-u<Tt €l 9('IE principal clause {T I €fr {6{.[ subordinate clause {t qT{l lC{
More Examples :
Pinku comes to me when he has time.

Dina wanted a pen which was costly (E-|ft).

We bought a house but we again sold it.

He worked hard so that (C{'{) he could succeed in life.

We eat in order that (€Q €ra-.6 6q; we may live (q|.l"fl
C{-{ ilucs {R).

2. Subordinate clause
2. Subordinate clause : 6{ clause principal clause €K {RlIl' Rlp'l
qslft qd e|=Fl-l
"llc{ il EIfs <fE subordinate clause. subordinate \iC1
9ft-q' r qre'Kcctq< q{"lqlr-s{"f s-<lqrscq I

Principal clause {tlfn' qlfflU+l +3F {{-S subordinate clause {|tf,{ IT{I{i
FI1"EI5-{T €<I q(T-Cq I q"lf{ €q|qfia|< Et{l6q Sl-{€ ffirsrc< subordinate clause
q-rG6qirqfE-{+3lEr{ I
Grammar : Kinds of Clauses 635

Pinku comes to me when he has time.

s. c.
E"fc<-< <toiF-< S" C. fiRs q(-tF[s {fr qlqtqt s'c< ffirII Rls

W hen he has iime (S{d Cc :{T'{ 4R) . . .

E,RCE st 6aI{ qefr<]'qs tfr{<to "r'q o<-cs "llc< I sl{"f {?t{ c{
qT q:RI
v?tq ftr s?t{ ft <T{ {T {K
S{? .sq rK El E-€< a q(-ET-{ I'cql c{i r
"t(( sfrTqf {T "sfi frq${
Frcqqrq" vr{cm TCil c+fr <q'tfts qs r

ql "f<-{qsq.ltr-{{f,41principalclause. {q<t( cq$ c'lq cs' when he has time

":sl q$tr*f sl=l fisrq qcfrs qa"f{,c i q<p s-{Rt q-{t principal clause "Pinku comes

to me"-qi $oK fr-61ftq r € fi-.6rftq chuse frr$ {c{ subordinate clause.

More Examples :
Dina wanted a pen wfrich was costly.
S.C. ,
€r{16{ which was costly €< qd 'T frqqtft" sl q.lQ-d-slc< frcqr qd eroFl
a-{'cs 'ilr{cl I

He worked hard so that he could succeed in life.

€ril6{ so that he could succeed in life q('iF{ qd EIEI "c{-{ cc ft{r{
qq'tfr He worked hard e<-lF{ p.C.) q-qp1 sEt fiTcr<
Tg-€F(EF tnn r" @
sd QTFI +={cs elfr< ql r 1u-<t< .{tr CcEf subordinate clause.
We eat in order that we may live
(qm "ttt eE Ewc.B c< R{ qtlfl iure ffi r)
He is so weak that he cannot walk.
€all6{ he is weak {6fl principal clause fi( that he cannot walk {If,]
subordinate clause. <]-siF< qdqcEl "cq Lqs ffi m qtBre "nr< {l r"
The old man prayed that I mightlive long.
€1116{ The old man prayed {6{'l principal clause 4{( that I might live
long {-fl subordinate clause.
This is what he said.
it. 1ffiq1ft-qfrfr-str< cfi<<
know how you do

know why he went there. (qR qlfi c$I cc cc"lffl


lffiq r)
i do not know where he lives. (ffi qtR 4 6s1eflrt 6c qlco l)
635 A passage to the English Language
ERrE qtrs"f 6wK qrcElD-{t e<(EqRn"t ql{fl ch-afEf{ \51 ccpca r{lt <lT C
subordinate clause :Tl{R{ ffif?lv word aC{l frCT qne CS;
Wl1o, when, how, where, wh-ich, if, as, that, why, so that, in
order that, whom, hardly, scarcely, barely, no sooner, etc.
s<K qlTfl subordinate clause 4t ffi ersr{Fc frcr qrq'I'-{r s-f{ r

a. Noun clause
(a) Noun clause : c{ {-<t subordinate clause noun q< Flq F'G anr$
9d1\ subject, object, complement, KI case in apposition
-S< S.fq F'6{ allfs
slfq<'f$ T6{ noun clause.
A noun clause is a clause which can function as a noun in a
q-<t<,{-$B $hl{{Gt 6Tl Sls S

He says that he went there. (m <-fq G 6{ fi{fr{ FA<eq

sr---cujrN-. 1;

.{rllG{ that . . . there qq C-<f-{ q(.f

{rfl says verb_ft{ object. T.l{cl c{
ft <m (says what?) 6T says q< "ffi q<qT-"sclfi <m; qdtq c{ <cE that he
went there (CS C{
fl"ltn {ffiE r) VIit noun (.fii pronoun) q-dl6Of{ part of
speech 6sl object RCCrE s]O F-{Cs {lr{ qt I
W<l( that he went there @
subordinate clause fr q{lf,{ ,{sfr noun clause.
More Examples-eRl_{ SFlfl subject, object, complement ffi
lq[l(< noun clause-€R <l-+qR CnrR t

(i) Verb a< Subject Rcrycs e

That he has much money is known to all.
q q<k? qFil r)
(vl< R qq-{ brfi qrq
Who has done this will be punished.
(c< oEo-,oFft<rqqr$*itfu cns*<r< r;
(ETl r<. €"ic<< qt <islt passive.)
(ii) Verb eT object R6mT a
I know that he has done it. ("ilfr qlfr cS fi ,44 +r<fq r)
He asked me if I would go with him.
(fr q'NR-s &qla 6r{ qfi sn w{ Rr< ft-{ r)

(iii) Preposition-€t object Rcrrrq e

I cannot understand the meaning of what he said.
(cq <t qqq sru qd qfi tr,.-.r "nRfi l)'"p
Grammar : Kinds of Clauses 637
Our prosperity depends on how hard we work
prep N.C.
(qrtrqr SEe fi-6 s'K q'{<t Ts rdi< qRqq ofi vr< Et< r;
(Do not think about what he sqi{ .
prep. N"C
(cq$<inQqqfrrl rer-qnt r)
We informed the poiice of that we had caught a thief red handed.
(qfr $-Reqf{mF RqTflqFTFF s+F cfl-<tr mQ.a1a 1y

(iv) verb 4r comlement RccK :

This b what he said (m<t<mfrtvTqq e? l)
L\i: --NCr
q"ll-C{isEr{l linking verb; what he said {fl| complement. Fl-{ct thisT6{
sl $nq @ what he said e sli r qdlq this = what he said.
The matter b that we had gone there.
(<ll"fffit E[-{I @ R 6TaII.c{ mErT r)
What I want to say j1_ that it is difficult to do.
L.V. N,C.
sfi <t TEr,o d& EI c{il ,4e c{ qe +.tsiF o-alo6* r)
Only what I desire is that he might be polite.
(slqfrrr-l< cetr${lqF[+Rvtqnl.{t m mN'Rr-$ t)
::M Nounil pronoun s{ apposition QctR t Apposition T"trs T6{
{.(T FfcqEl wq fir{, affseq case q{iT{
'{s-{< cqt{qtis r

(q?flF {<f{ al-cq {RvR r)

,The fact is clear tq all.
{teffir }rslF ft ot <-qt qgfr r q{s m Em :r<F <ta qR$F EI TqI c$fr r

srol. rtbn< q-qj fiA q{F{;ts, \or< qFKt {sjrce qI<s erq-s q<( q..{EC{Iq, s-fR
q-{ ccQsaBfr qqr{ q(rqfq-{F-{F qTR I c{q;[, T.r{ F-fi sl6 qffi qcq]-"m
qsF of<"', \or{rq .{R E?BE €"Ir{-{ Tmr* cc<t Ecn'i sRrr ftF tR s
The faci that he is a thief is clear to all.
(q<{a orq+sj xffi -flR$r< es m .lrsF oR r)
<ls1tr65 subject {6{l fact. "that he is a thief'--E Eg4l' cc? factF r qfs
{6?rr$ *t? oilF q-{ .n? q&fr-s ciause FF qFil Effi, qfr qI ell+'ffis ffi
q$Tf ,4$E n'Fst{ ss <r+qtr ws fll{s r {s<li qrs <ET {c{ apposlion.
The news is not true. (qc4qF lrst Ts l)
q{16{ c(RqF fr vt<fl qsfr r qQ vexfr I,t qrqs <fsi 16+, uge <f$i-rs
ql3rc E{R-<qF s-{l-?t BTli qT<l c€qF fr Et qro rcdr firc
"tiR I
638 A Passage to the English Language
CTT{ 3 The news that he was ill is.not true.
(m o srqqQq @ ccqlqfi;rr9l iT t)
ETSL-E *l?E cq{ ftq 6{ that he was iil €Q noun clause (N.C.) F news-
noun llr{ apposition.
Your belief was false. (Fl{Kfr{lc&EfieUt r;
<r$ifts R frdtcF frqn vr ft m qq(n ftR <ql q{fr r cqF qrq <r+iF< {.c<r
belief-noun fr c'qcr qsfr q&fr-s Eql Rlrt o-<t mri
"nr< c
Your belief that the earth moves round the sun is false.
:::i: N.C.
(Ftrmfrttc 6{ fftWtr{Emfrrs mmqcErfiqn - $ft af.6n umAc+
csfc< FIqR eefrflcfrqfit r)
The rule must be obeyed. (ffi q-{'Be eX-44 4-g6o q6q s)

ft-q ft cc frT'{Fl {rl a-fl {lo ffi e(Tl people shall not enter this
room (ET{.i qR orv €frfi sltcl lt r) qqn ,qE sGft"-s v?R'F E"fr<-< <t-$its<
qI{r'JfrLT ChsTl$-S-
The rule that peop]e shall not enter this room must be obeyed.

€1116{ noun clause fr rule-noun F{ apposition {"[ef {]zfd-g qfT[q I E|ifs

qf{-{ EgTK \TfC{ fr68-{ exercise fr q-< r

EXERCISEi 1. Clause q<l{io sio efoFl ft ftr

2. Noun clause $e et-+Rl ft ftl Noun clause T16E.RI Cfi f$E S"[q1q
frqmsMeins flrc<?
3. frrF-{ <lTlsrEt Cclrs noun clause qFII fi"e 6{< F-< q<( st qfsi cfl{
S"fl41 (subject, object ffii foqr{ sM srscq Et<Er I

(a) That I know magic is not false.

(b) He said that he would go with me.
(c) This is what I believe in.
(d) Your opinion (IslIE) that this policy needs a change will not be
supported (qTfTs (sRl) by them.
(e)l talk of what I actually do. (qtfr eT\o lrs n +ft vtQ <ft r)
Ans. (a) That I know the magic-subject.
{b) that he would go with me-said verb 4l object. (c) what I believe
in-complement. (d) that this policy needs a change-opinion-eF apposition.
(e) What I actually do-'of' preposition-€n object.

b. Adjective clause
(b) A{ective clause :-C{ I:{ clause CSl{ TICS} adjeciive {? T'fS S-Ci
sftq'-{tT adjective clause <FI I qeffl <lf$I <FIqg qC{ fSt{ noun ll noun
equivalent (noun €K qT-qry)-C$ qualify F6{ r
Grammar : Kinds of Clauses 639
An adjective clause is a subordinate clause which acts as an
adjective in a sentence and qualifies a noun or noun equivalent.
Enrmr"r< $<trq <iltRF *1? +-<t sls r

The boy is my brother.

The boy came here.
<t+i qF fiT{r"t {6 Trl {l{ B
The boy who came here is my brother. (C{ <ffi ,a{|r{ qfiRq
-----Tr. Gry

qtq<s.R r)
{clifr who camehere Ef{l qF'F subordinate clause. qi TKf clause fri
'boy'-noun Ers GRs r<[q l{s-<1( efr 'boy' noun fr{ modifier fuqc< $leT
STfq I qf$-Cq (E chuseF q({.t S-$F adjective clause.
I do not know the reason why he came here.
, A.C.
fr q{ffi cq qrqEE qIfr s} qtfi 4l r (ffi q-{ q{P6{ qcrr FFr"t qtfr q'l r)
(el16{ why he came here clause fr reason (s1'{ct) noun FC-s modify sT6R r

:{u<le,,Ctr RCEI {sF adjective clause.

lq 6srq s-sF fts'{ EaFj s-{l3t r\o I sI scEl Q R, EetKlr <.l.srFrs <fr fiID<
xo o'c< ffi rl
I do not know why he came here.
vlq(q why he came here-clause fr ,{Sffi noun clause-4 qRqigql t+T<q,
4rlT qE chuse F know verb-4lt object fr['f <fEqo qm'Cq r]
He whom you call uncle has died.
GR ft-s EIEI <E ffi qtn cirqq r)
<I-sifts whom you call uncle-€l clause-fr'He' pronoun Fro modify
TTCQ l{q{t(.Ctr qrdl 4SF adjective clause (A. C.).
Do you know the man who helped me?
GF ft mTFm on frfr q{rrs :rr<t{T sr<Rrir?)
$ll(:{ who helped me clause fr 'man' noun fre-S modify s-{.CE I qfr qfEl
adjective clause.
Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown.
(ct rwE <lqTsb q +d XsTr r)
4{IC{ that wears a crown clause F 'head' noun frfs modify s-zKQ t

,4E,Hi qF {CTI adjective clause.

.s-{< firF< €qtqncl s1nl 19 r 4€chuse <lcs]< {c{i clqlT' qsb^ lffir3
FCE ftslc< adjective CqIGF noun-( ?tl noun 6rlC$ abjective -q efft"lg qT EI
er]f{ e
640 A Passage to the English Language
Noun clause adjective claus€
1. I know who came. 1. I know the man who came.
2. He doesn't understand why I 2. He doesn't under stand the
say so. reason why I say so"
3. Tell me when you will 3. Tell me the time when you
come. will come.
4. This is who went there. 4. This is the man who w€nt
5. Tell me how you will do it. 5.
Tell me ihe way 16"nn) how
you will do it.
4IFIG[, adjective clause{$3"18 relative pronoun (who, which, what)
€ relative aciverb El{'t qF€ E{ I ft-q +'fi€ Frl{€ relative pronoun Bq efl$fs
fllK 3
This is the book (which) I bought.
That is the boy (whom),we met yesterday.
The pen (which) he gave me is missing (Rlfrm C{(Q).

1. Tell me why you went there.

2. Tell me the reason why you went there.
A. Question : ) 4( <lZ-S-t{ clausefr q[{f noun clause frq { 4( <lc<tt<
clausefr QL-fl adjective clause-fr<"t ftr
Answer . SR6f qfil )4( <IC-$i {Cfi clauseF tell-verb-€F ob,ject RCqC{'
slq fi<Iq r ftq qqs, {l6{li
clauseF sR antecedent "reason" C$ modify
TK'cq q< q-dj,Sfr EFTI adjeciive clause.
B. frrET <]$lsdEl Ctl6s adjective clauseel-fl {rsT C€ s<t I Antecedent-
srq1'€fifres-{ |

(a) This is the doll which I made. (b) i know the time when he will
come. (c) Give me the bo-ok which you bought yesterday. (d) He who is
rich can buy such a house. (e) Show me (rn{le) the process (mfr) now
to do it. (f) I do not know the reason why Munir murdered Rima" (g) This
is the town where her uncle lives. (h) Give me the notebook, i saw in
your hand the other day. (i) She is the fairest girl ithat) I have ever seen.
C. frcDT <fsiegq3 adjective {l adjective phrase-€ffifiis adjective ciause-
q qft..fre e*{ B

{a) l{e is a hard working rnan. (b) The girl in white is my sister (c)
This is a red cat. (d) He is an active boy. (e) Give me a clean shirt. {l)
The hungry man is crying for food.
D. frfF-{ adjective clause QFIIS {r!-FT adjective phrase Rl adjective <qT€ g
(a) He is a man who is poor" (bi He gave me a pen which was ted.
(c) i know the village where he lives" (d) A man who succeeds is happy.
(e) I want a shirt which is rnade in Arnerica.
,Ans. ts. I
Grarnmar : Kinds of Clauses 64 |
Adjective clause Antecedent
(a) wnlchI made (4, oou
ib) When he will come (b) the time
(c) Which you bought yesterday (c) the book
{d) Who is rich (d) he
(e) how to do it {e) the process
(f) WhV Munir murclered Riina (f) the reason
(g) where her rrncie lives (g) the iown
{h} (that) i saw in your hand the other day. (h) the notebook
* ii) (that) i have ever seen (i) sirl
,,i'" L-. (a) ne ls a man wno worl{s nard. tl'u I h ls
in',.r sister. (c) This is a cat which is red. (d) He is a bov who is active (e)
Give me a shirt which is clean. (0 The man who is hungry is crying for
f ood.
D. (a) He is a poor n:an. (b) He gave me a red pen. (c) i know his
native viilage. (ci) A succesgful man is happy. {e) I want an American

C" Adverbial Clause

C. Aelverbial Clause : G I:t clause triC€i ql{'q€ R13 adverb q< eq
Stf -e'ftq'{fS adverbial clause 3l adverb clause {Cal I

,{n adverbial clause is a subordinate clause which, used in a sentence,

acts as an adverb.
qFid qifr ad.yerb C$]-.i 4-fc? 'Rslr{", "s"F", "(sieli-g", :ry(Effis q{ El
q-rFisl-{ i WSlc adverbial clause-e €E slgierEl Fc{ i qdiq f€F. adverbial
clause "when?--s{{?", "where?-6{ri4ri-s?" <l "how?--fur<?" r+f{ Flq XtrE
q$sffiBi€s* ec{ r

.']qi-sfs adverb clause ft&d ef+T{ 4-lq q*;5 $'6{ e6a 1 fr66 qFq-fl e Rqt{
e (i) Where, whence (c+fctr+), wherever, eqfu ftn eT Ecq adverb
clause f$Fl p-{ Rt place-fs ft,cftI TTT t stl{ \d'fc Tfq adverb clause of
place. FFl4 3
----*a:e. -
Go where ycu lvant go. (sTe cs*ffc{
Gco Hs i)

Go baik io when;e
-Adl.f -v-rlu came. {cielq cqfr+ eirq'&F frffi'ftI< sTs t)

I war"rt io r+inain sittii:g rvhere I arn (Qfi fiqfT;E \q& ffiqG] 4Cq affir[q
ndt.-e. -
uR ri
Do you war:t to gc lo v,'henee I cams?
-------*---TA\,. T.
(eth cqEtiq 6qR-6 qfiR+Iq qfr ft cq"ft{ trrcs Dt€?)
O (ii) then, while, whenever tiofifr ftm e< I?t adverb clausa (ffQ-{EFl
Con q'{'s <l {*fiF fir,ftt qr< r {ffiiltrs {r{ adverb clause of time. R'FI 3
642 A passage to the English Language
({fi fr ql-cC \e-fi q:ffl. sT."""/
W e shall start


while you play; work while you work; and read while you
$_.Ft t)

read. ({tl{ CqEq Efi crl{; lfi T.lq $-{q sfi slq F{; S.|< {fi ,fW E?lq
"tv r)

She will dance whenever lrer sister will eoms.

6<nQvn e<t{v1-qr<otFR cryltx< i)
NorE : E"rm< we shall start when he comes <l+Is {sl $-< r qlolF[s
start 4Et {ffi verb Re{m {fr transitive verb 'know' qt<q-{ ir{l Es sl"{Cq ,ltr{q
clausefr {f,{ noun clause. s-i-<"|, \o{{ clausefr 'kncw, veib-€H object K..let
sl-q S-tfr{ t qqr{ (t \e (iil ,!< qF|€F iilESJ-{ clause eIEIrS noun clause_q
tr?",rs s-fl q|l r <qv Rrstr<l E"nx qrql eE aq s&F adverb clause_€il qfc{
*{iS. qSF transitive verb <l ri-sfe ftsl {IlF q-rq I

3 (iii) Because, as, since-*eyB Ckl CSt{ ciause ts?F qF sl qdq'ffii

T-G I q'Sef clause-F ?tre adverbial clatrse of reason. 6{.:l{ B

He could not go to school because he was ill.

Adv. C.
(mKrq c{.cu "ilr<Rst<"i ccfrq\tr{E t)
As I was ill i coulci not aitend the meeting. (as: C{Ie)
-aa;. e.
Since your father died you had to earn for your family.
(crrEg csrrF <Rr qr*t ffi€ra eryq rNrs FFt< efR<rr<< q-dr E{rqi
cTrs {u 1)
Fr-*R S?r, s"tra< >r<er{l <lc{I adverb clause of reason er4l csFt rr rfl{
'hl{"f" ers'l'rf F-{eq I

O (iv) That, so that, in order that, lest- -tWlR Et<t C€l{ clause tsF {t-4
El qsfr purpose?tlEfn-{i q<.TT I qq"r{I ,!E u:!-S{ clause-ce tT{ adverb
ciatrse of purpose- frrl5Fl B
We eat tirat (= so that = in order that) we ma.; live.
Adv. C.
(qqa "{i?
6T{ q]"{{t ttm".s qr? r)
F{e studied hard so that he iright pass in-ihe first_djviston
Adv. C.
1ca +*ia cqril"fgf eu-{EE 6[q fi qrfq &-sI$
"iTa F<.65 Et6n r)
lValk iaster l-ri !p*?!9!lgg51lla$i*
{qIFs W {F iRffi 6q s*cq 43rr< it=e|<e W qF "tt"e F{ cFE s-rn t)
EI-{Cq cqR|l crffi fr EellTd sl3Thl{ <trIas erE that=so
thai,/in order that=
{{I', {i[o-qq q'rf e3 I 4R( lest=
"lTcq <t i?cq-qt qd-€frF.l $c< i
{s-{t( qt
conjunctions{4"l frm mn clause B3F qfq q 5oF
T64 ,
Grammar : Kinds of Clauses

O (v) That, so-that, such tsttfr El<l c$t-{ shucs ts;F qcE \51 fsls sEsT{
.:FilTq" <ls <c{ 1 qt qffi qQ qfq? clause-cs adverb clause of result
E[q I GFF{ 3

He is so weak that he cannot w_aik.

(6c .lmq'iE m c{qFF flftno' r)
4elf6{ "that he cannot walk-{ G c{ {ftP 'fRR
qf'--qffi qffi 'a-4T-q"
* sF FR"tScqt EK weakness <l Efq.5t r

ix! What is the matter that you shout so loudly?

(ft qcrcs R gfi qs cqtr 6FFtq?)
q{lfi shoutins <t fissR F-fl scst ,q-{F sEFFq sfi' ft5Tq 6$i-{ of{Gt qrq r

cryi orcq c?ffiE El 6iil qcq. I

He did the work such that thg manager rebuked him.

Adv. C.
(cc rMF,srq sk{ e;ffi c{ <K{'r$ qr+ ftffi< €srE-{ t)
He is so rude that nobody mixes with him.
Adv. C.
(o, eto ffi cr c+B st< cftat mc{ qt t)
o (vi)E'|ff{ (iii}-,.{ q:rfl as: c{r{g-€ qcef as ffi <tTqt-{ EraQ r 4?fi'fi
as= Glrl{ cR wd as 6s $:l-{F s-{l RC{ r cR STd as <Frq\5 ECE SEist frC{ {fi
(sFt clause e:F Q3, \5fi & clause fr cdq sfq ci\frs qsTl3t "{{q" Rl' "manr,er"
E<I-T I qm't clause Cs Tf{ adverb clause of nnanner. Oi:Fl 3
Save as you want to invest.
1nv* frfu${ T-trcs Et€ Fll qsT ffi t)
O (vii) If, unless, incase, whether, on condition that, provided (that),
supposing (that)-ffi q|6| Gf4 clause 9ll-€ Erq \d 661-4 '.q6" efsm s1-6 |

€qf-eT clause 6s T64 adverb clause of condition 3l conditional clause.

l{ :gg *gg*_ I shall go.
Adv. C.
Gfi Eq qm etEr.e qfr q< r)
€?itr4 if = qfr I If you come-Ct-{t ,<nffi q1q I ,a! ld {F\o El
qeetfrnl<sT-gl<fi ssiFq I

You will fail unless you study.

- \rrqrn
({fr qR lt lg fi-s fi1;a l)
qtllc{ unless= {ft . . . 4 r q< qaf Er{l negative <'l El c<]<-s I ssl-Tcct
uniess frca 6{ clauseF not itl no ?fi ql r frrq-{ e
ss q{ q-cE
Inc. There ls no success unless there is no e{fort.
Cor. There is no success unless there is any effort.
644 A Passage to the English Language
(flT srufi qt qT-sre
qffi{ = Rfr 6slT erofi qI effr+ vrqsq c$ta
{_eoRslvfcaal r)
Unless you respect him he will not respect you.
(qr Trq Etm {6t .fl Tir srqrq c{ FlEIro dht $-{r< 1.} i)
I do not know whether_he will go there oi noi.
Adv. C.
fr frlirfi'sl,:E fu
(wtfr qfR+t r)
I do not want to konw whether you are a Muslirn or not; I want
to know that you are a good man.
He will read the passage in case it is given in the examination"
(o passageF o{cgQa ol<q sfr s; {AsF fi'€TI q-{ r) in case:spct Tft il
s H.ffii cc sft ... r

I will order some rice in case we fall short of it.

(qq"m fr'R ElT{ +<rtrs5 fr{ FR"i {fr 51rE +q qW t)
€651q ffi qze sl\efr cq B"tr<-< q-qsm <fqt c+tq i] rfi{.fd efsi"i
s-{R I

I can go with you on condition that you will give lne some money.
(qtft FFRvrftqJ sco ttR eE.n6cqqfrqmn+ftgEtoi cqr< i)
(on condition that:€Q'tsd cS)
He helped me or cordition that l wo

{ffi qqrm qf{rsi rr{Rq ql'rd c{ 'tc( ef'6Tlq-{ qc-q qtfr \fils q}El{l
s-tr{ t)
He will be appointed provided (that) he is an M. A.
(iolcafrcrT'fsrtEc-<s1? fis$
qE. q. t) q<F-q-{

fprovided (that]= {fil

Supposing that I go there, what will happen
happer then?

({<qfr cqqft{ crtelq, frq sno ft cr{r = sfr q"fi frrfiril. <.R q-{(E ft
9'.rqp..r"glhat he passes the M. A but '.i,,ili he get a job?
({fi Cufq 6{ ,{'{. d" 'll'l-€E, fr-q cn ft ssa ulofr "iir{r= qfr er. ,{.
q+S -_-
eilrtsc{ srqq cq ft rf*R tfe<r)
(supposing that= SCR fr"qTq m; sft)
O (viii) Though, although, even, if EsF fi{l Gtr T{ clause str ET
\5m-<fsTCal a dverbial clause of concession.
Though (= arlthough={fte) he is poor he is honest.
Adv. C.
(fis cr olfr<, ugs cccs t)
Grammar : Kinds of Clauses 64s
Even if lrou pay the monev now. you will not given the goods.
Adv. c
(<frs qfr q?t{ BTfl q't€ v{s FFks qEErFil @\e$ Etr{4t t)
(even if: calftlfrv)
Though he came last he completed first.
Adv. C
gfre cn+<t< flc< qrqftqq{s 6ryq-<l<qx{ eF+r<Rq r)
Even if you beg excuse now he will not be kind.

a$:t (ql{ft ,c"14 <fr qF s'5rl\e Els, u{s EIT q-{t E[< qt t)
O (ix) As . . . as, than, the same-as, such . as, so . . . as_W
ftrg c+n crause eip q'cq & crauseF csFT qs-{t T<${ r .cq-fl' qtfir ,t6E
clause 6$ adverb clause of comparison or degree fi] {s r c{rFI B
Akbar was as strong as a lion.
Fr$-€ fisr€ $o -16$'q 6qr 1y
That book is as interesting as this.
as . . . as TtE <'ifu, <q, <l slrm q?{i .ll-sl- Sslt sra
I 6{:Ft He is a
inteiligence as his brother. (ca q< qtc-Tn rE r) q{q
1h.ffi {fhrc.l<
(intelligence) Ru'rf< Ue = his brother
or, He is as intelligent as his brother.
Kamal is stronger than Jamal.
(qmE+,mEwflst c<Ff tffi l)
€rll-c-{ than Ekl EE qr..l< gE{l d-{[-m r (than:60-c{, w"t$i)
This is the sarne book as that. (qi <tF $-o & <Qtr< qs
We want such a boy as will be active.
(ql:r'.il qT{ ,s-<iq{ <E-s uR cs C[< Gft r)
(the same .. . ut=fto. . .IE I such. . . as: €I;t. . . c{ t)
NOTE : Adverb clause {fi sentence-€i qakq TC{ Efi q< qTF
srl <r{a\t ET r c{''l{ 3 Since there was no wind to fill the sairs, they had to
remain motionless in that hot sea.
Though he has no money, he helps others when they
are in danger.
As I rvas the only man there, the thief became a robber suddenlv.
If what he says is right, there wil bn no
;;;bi;; i" il; .;;;."'
Some Interesting Examples
I know where he lives. (noun clause , kro* verb €R object) ($fr
ffi cq cotem cn1-s l)
i know the place where he lives. (adjective clause : place_6$ modify
+-<ra r)
I shall go where he lives. (adverb clause : ,go' verb 6$ modify
d{Cq t)
He told me when he would come (noun clause , told,_verb€i
645 A passage to the English Language
He told me the time when he would come. (adjective clause :
antecedent 'time'-C$ modify +-<-e r)
He decided when he would come. (adverb phrase : 'decicied' verb-
6s modify +-sCe r)
He taught me how to do it. (noun clause : 'taught'-verb€K object.)
He taught me the way (B"rta) how to do it. (adjective clause : 'the
way' antecedent C$ modify Ri{R t)
ERTE fi"ti ell{ G clause 4i <Kqfd q$]TT e€ clause sfie noun
* clause, Tfig adjective clause, ftS<t +.He adverb clause S'C"t SM S1T I
.':; ,

3. Coordinate clause
3. Coordinate clause : {rt{ {E { Ersll{s qT6i{ft{ clause 6sl-{
coordinatng conjunction SKI T(F q{, io.F glfq-{GF T6{ coordinate clause.
q?lffi csl5lfcq-{ fiT qlT q.l'k€
"!F.3 CT, lT(i{ft{ clause,<rq ft q-+n
{rq I q1, aQ FqfiE q?mn }rvcu's c<Ft o+qt{ I ,{R qd qc-qr e? R fr
clause {fr {T principal clause EIQI4 q'|*{Fs {r< principal'clause. qt
clause coordinating conjunction Elili T6 Ecq qcr<r$ (FI clause conjunction.
trFFI 3
He came and he saw every thing.
$1r<-<<fqrfi?.lo He came €:I( he saw everything EE{tqlElqlq.lqlare:8<
<lEqs Cct sr$-{F qrqa{ sentence-q efR"fs W r vd g-a.]-e.R q-{t qTBr$
q-{ft<$aafr-ftftqE6oqsqt I cq-{{ s
He came. He saw every thing.
S-f\o "lcs eE qt <1arq tqTT< <f$jffirs EtF tRqE qc{rs r

ffi "1uurn-"
principal clause. €311 coordinating conjunction 'and' Ei3rl
s qca'cq I Ffl( s<l qcqrs {ffilcoordinate clause. ft-q €rF{ esF principal
clause 4{'(w{IF subordinate clause RC{ El64-{rs coordinate clause €l cqs
qRIf qSfr
clause {fr {{ subordinate clause q<( q-"{i q4.F 5u[6ydin61s
clause 9R{kel coordinating conjunction ElSt W clft-s slqTqs d 5l} clause-
CS coordinate clause {fq I ORcl q{f6{€ sl;Jt 'C-{fi{fu' S{S Ev*n?
subordinate clause. C{ri;t B
We know that he dances and sings and thus earns monev.
€rliT:{ he dances, he sings, he earns money €Q ffifr subordinate
clause 4{i q-{gfrt and (coordinating conjunction) Elfi qfS q"lf<3 Cl(ct
{CT[R i {ufiq q<t S1-qCSE coordinate clause.
€\5$rct s3r c+rEq lT'($ft<'T{cE ft T<rlE {CVq, q{ ftr
sl-qlEql{fl cq"{lElq fr_
f coordinate clause principal clause ,aq >qffi qcs
"flr{, ft(<t
I subordinate clause e< ryqffi qrg effr{ I
Grammar : Kinds of Clauses 647

More Exarnples :
She heard the news and (she) cried out in grie{
C. C.
(cq qc<r'F arE qqe E '?l3tr cEcl ewcR frc$.F Fcr E"fi r)
He went there bui (he) could not see the man.
(fi ffiqtc{ Fk{Rq 6E 6ffit<
-e. "rmfr t) cn-ell
You must study hard or (otherwise) you wili fail.
qtra v-fi
jd;e (qR q<-BR ortn m<tqgt <r<c< mw 4T6{ t)
E"fcg< wEefqt <rrsi C. C. Sl-Tl coordinate clause $fFt EcT68 i qqscl

EW{T 6q EqRKq qrfl e-<fflI 6{eFl (coordinate clause sC{1) principal clause-
q< qClllft r G'O< Bw]<"ierd,l[E coordinate clause 9I4l subordinate clause €3
TCtA'ft (qdi9 subordinaie-subordinate {t$ t)
He said that the rnan stopped in the way and picked up a piece
of string and went away.
4{lF{ the man stopped in the way, (the man) picked up a piece of
string (EQ), €R( (the man) went away ef6o16-4Q subordinate clause. fuq
,!fS qTC{< qfc{ ,{q-{ C.t(.dq[fl coordinating. Tgf,l( €31 {6ql coordinating
I know where he iives and works.
€eltH he lives €{( he works {[{l coordinate clause.
qE$t ql{{t ssersR clause frrr qrEFlt 4-{-El{ \51 frru-< qrfist sl-fir<
cq"nT ErEl 3


Adiective clause
time to a verb
-Subject to a verb
-Object to a preposition
reason or cause
in apposition
ondition or supposition
egtee ot companson