Algebra

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Algebra

© All Rights Reserved

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Objectives:

I can determine whether a sequence can be generalized to find a formula for the general term in

the sequence.

I can determine whether a sequence is arithmetic or geometric.

I can determine the general terms of an arithmetic and geometric sequence.

I can determine the sum of a finite arithmetic or geometric series.

I can determine the sum of certain infinite geometric series.

I can use and interpret summation notation.

Sequence characteristics:

List of numbers written in a definite order

Can be finite or infinite

Does not have to have a pattern

A function whose domain is the set of positive integers

an is also known as the general term of the sequence

How to create the Fibonacci Sequence: {1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21….} by adding the previous two

terms

A recursively defined sequence is a sequence where the general term is related to the previous

terms.

Converging Sequences:

To determine whether or not a sequence converges we can look at what happens to the general

term as n gets infinitely large.

1

MAT 150

Online Lesson 11 Outline Sequence and Series

Examples:

2n

an 2

converges to:

n n

4n 2 2n

an converges to:

2n 2 1

2n 3 n 2 7

an converges to:

3n 3 4n

en

an converges to:

n 45

n

an e 1 converges to:

Bounded Sequences:

If all the terms of a sequence lie between 2 numbers, say M and N, such that the terms are never

greater than M or less than N, we say the sequence is bounded.

A convergent sequence is bounded.

However, a bounded sequence is not necessarily convergent. (A bounded sequence does

not necessarily have a limit.)

If a sequence is monotone (always increasing or always decreasing) and bounded, it

converges.

Arithmetic Sequences:

A sequence that has a constant amount of increase or decrease between terms (the common

difference) is called an arithmetic sequence. The equation for the general term of an

arithmetic sequence is just a linear function with slope d (representing the common difference).

an a (n 1)d n 1

Geometric Sequences:

A sequence that has a constant percent increase or decrease in terms (common ratio) is called a

geometric sequence. The equation for the general term of a geometric sequence is an

exponential function with base r (representing the common ratio).

an ar n 1

n 1

2

MAT 150

Online Lesson 11 Outline Sequence and Series

Examples:

( 1) n 3 n 1

an n 0

4n 1

a1 10 , an 1 an 2 for n 1

Summation notation is a short-hand way of denoting the sum of the terms of a sequence. As

with sequences, series can be finite or infinite.

Given a sequence {an }n k and numbers m and p satisfying k m p , the summation from m to

p of the sequence {an } is written:

p

an am am 1 ..... a p

n m

m is the lower limit of summation

p is the upper limit of summation

3

MAT 150

Online Lesson 11 Outline Sequence and Series

n

Sn (a1 an )

2

where n is the number of terms; a1 is the first term, and an is the last term.

All we need to calculate a finite geometric series is the first term a1 , the common ratio r, and the

number of terms n.

n 1

a(1 r n )

Sn a ar ar 2 ... ar n 1

ar i , r 1

i 0 1 r

When the common ratio is between -1 and 1, we can find the sum of an infinite geometric series

with the following:

a

Sn a ar ar 2 ... ar n ... ar i

i 0 1 r

Example: Find the sum

26

1. 1 + 4 + 7 + 10 + … + 76 3. 3 2i

i 2

49

(3k 5) 4. 3 2i

2. k 0

i 0

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