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# Subject: Digital electronics

When you are explaining the concept need to follow the below format
1. The topic name
2. Explanation about the topic minimum 2 paragraphs
3. Minimum 3 relevant examples for the explained topic
4. explanation about each example with waveforms
The content should be unique, i will test the content with my company tools.
The below topics should be covered
1. NUMBER SYSTEM AND CODES
1. NUMBER SYSTEMS
1. Decimal Number System
2. Binary Number System
3. Octal Number System
2. NUMBER SYSTEM CONVERSION
1. Decimal-to-Binary Conversion
2. Decimal-to-Octal Conversion
4. Octal-to-Binary conversion
5. Binary-to-Octal Conversion
3. BASIC BINARY ARITHMETIC
2. Binary Subtraction
3. Binary Multiplication
4. Binary Division
4. COMPLEMENTS OF NUMBERS
5. NUMBER REPRESENTATION IN BINARY
1. Sign-Magnitude Representation
2. 1’s Complement Representation
3. 2’s Complement Representation
6. COMPLEMENT BINARY ARITHMETIC
2. Subtraction Using 1’s Complement
4. Subtraction using 2’s Complement
1. Hexadecimal Arithmetic Using 1’s or 2’s Complements
2. Hexadecimal Subtraction Using 15’s or 16’s Complement
8. OCTAL ARITHMETIC
1. Octal Arithmetic using 1’s or 2’s Complements
2. Octal Subtraction using 7’s or 8’s complement
9. DECIMAL ARITHMETIC
1. Decimal Arithmetic Using 1’s or 2’s Complements
2. Decimal Subtraction Using 9’s and 10’s Complement
10. BINARY CODES
11. BINARY CODED DECIMAL (BCD) CODE OR 8421 CODE
1. BCD-to-Binary Conversion
2. Binary-to-BCD Conversion
12. BCD ARITHMETIC
2. BCD Subtraction
13. THE EXCESS-3 CODE
14. GRAY CODE
1. Binary-to-Gray Code Conversion
2. Gray-to-Binary Code Conversion
3. Applications of Gray Code
2. BOOLEAN ALGEBRA AND LOGIC SIMPLIFICATION
1. BOOLEAN ALGEBRA
1. Logic Levels
2. Truth Table
2. BASIC BOOLEAN OPERATIONS
2. Boolean Multiplication (Logical AND)
3. Logical NOT
3. THEOREMS OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA
1. Complementation Laws
2. AND Laws
3. OR Laws
4. Commutative Laws
5. Associative Laws
6. Distributive Law
7. Redundant Literal Rule
8. Idempotent Law
9. Absorption Law
10. Consensus Theorem
11. Transposition Theorem
12. De Morgan’s Theorem
13. Shannon’s Expansion Theorem
4. SIMPLIFICATION OF BOOLEAN EXPRESSIONS USING BOOLEAN ALGEBRA
1. Complement of Boolean Function
2. Principal of Duality
3. Relation Between Complement and Dual
5. LOGIC GATES
1. Logic Levels
2. Types of Logic Gates
6. UNIVERSAL GATE
1. NAND Gate as a Universal Gate
2. NOR Gate as a Universal Gate
7. ALTERNATE LOGIC-GATE REPRESENTATIONS
8. BOOLEAN ANALYSIS OF LOGIC CIRCUITS
1. Converting Boolean Expressions to Logic Diagram
2. Converting Logic to Boolean Expressions
9. CONVERTING LOGIC DIAGRAMS TO NAND / NOR LOGIC
1. NAND-NAND Logic
2. NOR-NOR Logic
3. THE K-MAP
1. REPRESENTATION FOR BOOLEAN FUNCTIONS
1. Sum-of-Products (SOP)
2. Product-of-Sum (POS)
2. STANDARD OR CANONICAL SUM-OF-PRODUCTS (SOP) FORM
1. Minterm
2. Summation Notation
3. Converting SOP Form to Standard SOP Form
3. STANDARD OR CANONICAL PRODUCT-OF-SUMS (POS) FORM
1. Maxterm
2. Pie Notation
3. Converting POS Form to standard POS Form
4. CONVERTING STANDARD SOP FORM TO STANDARD POS FORM
5. BOOLEAN EXPRESSIONS AND TRUTH TABLES
6. KARNAUGH MAP (K-MAP)
1. Structure of K-map
2. Another Structure of K-map
7. PLOTTING A K-MAP
1. Plotting Standard SOP on K-map
2. Plotting Standard POS on K-map
3. Plotting a Truth Table on K-map
8. GROUPING OF CELLS FOR SIMPLIFICATION
1. Grouping of Two adjacent Cells (Pair)
3. Grouping of Eight Adjacent Cells (Octet)
4. Redundant Group
9. MINIMIZATION OF SOP EXPRESSIONS
10. MINIMIZATION OF POS EXPRESSIONS
11. CONVERTING SOP TO POS AND VICE-VERSA
12. DON’T CARE CONDITIONS
1. K-map Simplification With Don’t Care Conditions
2. Conversion of Standard SOP to Standard POS with Don’t Care Conditions
13. K-MAPS FOR MULTI-OUTPUT FUNCTIONS
14. LIMITATIONS OF K-MAP

## 4. COMBINATIONAL CIRCUITS(in this chapter I want more examples)

1. DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR COMBINATION LOGIC CIRCUITS
3. SUBTRACTORS
1. Half-Subtractor
2. Full-Subtractor
1. Carry Generation
2. Carry Propagation
7. COMPARATOR
1. 1-bit Magnitude Comparator
2. 2-bit Magnitude Comparator
8. MULTIPLEXER
1. 2-to-1 Multiplexer
2. 4-to-1 Multiplexer
3. Implementation of Higher Order Multiplexers using Lower Order Multiplexers
4. Applications of Multiplexers
9. DEMULTIPLEXER
1. 1-to-2 Demultiplexer
2. 1-to-8 Demultiplexer
3. Applications of Demultiplexers
4. Comparison between Multiplexer and Demultiplexer
10. DECODER
1. 2-to-4 Line Decoder
2. Applications of Decoder
11. ENCODERS
1. Octal-to-Binary Encoder
2. Decimal-to-BCD Encoder
12. PRIORITY ENCODERS
13. CODE CONVERTERS
14. PARITY GENERATOR
1. Even Parity Generator
2. Odd Parity Generator
5. SEQUENTIAL CIRCUITS(in this chapther I want more examples)
1. SEQUENTIAL LOGIC CIRCUITS DESIGN PROCEDURE
2. LATCHES AND FLIP-FLOPS
1. General Block Diagram of a Latch or Flip-flop
2. Difference between Latches and Flip-flops
3. S-R LATCH
1. S -R Latch using NOR Gates
2. S -R Latch using NAND Gates
4. FLIP-FLOPS
1. S-R Flip-Flop
2. D-Flip Flop
3. J-K Flip-Flop
4. T Flip-Flop
5. TRIGGERING OF FLIP-FLOPS
1. Level Triggering
2. Edge Triggering
3. Edge Triggered S -R Flip Flop
4. Edge Triggered D Flip-Flop
5. Edge Triggered J -K Flip-Flop
6. Edge Triggered T -Flip-Flop
6. OPERATING CHARACTERISTIC OF FLIP-FLOPS
7. APPLICATION OF FLIP-FLOPS
8. REGISTER
1. Buffer Register
2. Shift Register
3. Applications of Shift Registers
9. COUNTER
1. Asynchronous and Synchronous Counter
2. Up-Counter and Down-Counter
3. MOD Number or Modulus of a Counter
10. SHIFT REGISTER COUNTERS
1. Ring Counter
2. Johnson Counter
6. MICROPROCESSOR
1. MICROCOMPUTER
1. Memory
2. Input-Output Interfacing
3. System Bus
2. MICROPROCESSOR OPERATION
1. FETCH
2. EXECUTE
3. MICROPROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE
1. System Bus
2. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
3. Registers
4. Program Counter (PC)
5. Flags
6. Timing and Control Unit
4. PIN DIAGRAM OF 8085 MICROPROCESSOR
2. Control and Status Signals
3. Power Supply and Clock Frequency
4. Interrupts and Other Operations
5. Serial I/O Ports
5. INSTRUCTION SET
1. Data Transfer Instructions
2. Arithmetic Instructions
3. Branching Instructions
4. Logic Instructions
5. Control Instructions