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Attention: Engr. Roel Jeznar A.

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XAVIER UNIVERSITY – ATENEO DE CAGAYAN


COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY

Mechanical Engineering Department

__ME34 - ME Laboratory 2__


Course code and description

_______Heat Transfer in a Single Pass Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger_____


TITLE

______Masion, Jaypee, 20150007014_______


Family Name, Given Name, ID Number

______November 25, 2018_____


Date submitted for Assessment

I, the undersigned declare that I am the author of this work, and that any content from other
sources has been acknowledged and fully cited.

___________ JAYPEE C. MASION ___________

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To help with our planning, please estimate ____3 hours_____


Here how long you spent on this assignment

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Date of Assessment:
TITLE: Heat Transfer In A Single Pass Shell And Tube Heat Exchanger

OBJECTIVE: Obtain experimentally the heat transfer coefficient in a shell and tube heat
exchanger.

THEORY:

The most common type of heat exchanger in industrial applications is shell-and-tube


heat exchangers. The exchangers exhibit more than 65% of the market share with a variety of
design experiences of about 100 years. Shell-and tube heat exchangers provide typically the
surface area density ranging from 50 to 500 m2/m3 and are easily cleaned.

Lt = Tube Length
Nt = Number of Tubes
Np = Number of pass
Ds = Shell Inside Diameter
Nb = Number of Baffles
B = Baffle Spacing
Baffle Spacing is obtained:

Classification of heat exchangers

Transfer of heat from one fluid to another is an important operation for most of the
chemical industries. The most common application of heat transfer is in designing of heat
transfer equipment for exchanging heat from one fluid to another fluid. Such devices for
efficient transfer of heat are generally called Heat Exchanger. Heat exchangers are normally
classified depending on the transfer process occurring in them. General classification of heat
exchangers is shown in the Figure 1.1. Amongst of all type of exchangers, shell and tube
exchangers are most commonly used heat exchange equipment. The common types of shell
and tube exchangers are: Fixed tube-sheet exchanger (non-removable tube bundle): The
simplest and cheapest type of shell and tube exchanger is with fixed tube sheet design.
Removable tube bundle: Tube bundle may be removed for ease of cleaning and replacement.
Removable tube bundle exchangers further can be categorized in floating-head and U-tube
exchanger.

 Floating-head exchanger: It consists of a stationery tube sheet which is clamped with


the shell flange. At the opposite end of the bundle, the tubes may expand into a freely
riding floating-head or floating tube sheet. A floating head cover is bolted to the tube
sheet and the entire bundle can be removed for cleaning and inspection of the interior.

 U-tube exchanger: This type of exchangers consists of tubes which are bent in the
form of a „U‟ and rolled back into the tube. This means that it will omit some tubes at
the centre of the tube bundle depending on the tube arrangement. The tubes can
expand freely towards the "U" bend end.

Parts of a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger:

Shell

Shell is the container for the shell fluid and the tube bundle is placed inside the
shell. Shell diameter should be selected in such a way to give a close fit of the tube
bundle. The clearance between the tube bundle and inner shell wall depends on the
type of exchanger. Shells are usually fabricated from standard steel pipe with
satisfactory corrosion allowance. The shell thickness of 3/8 inch for the shell ID of
12-24 inch can be satisfactorily used up to 300 psi of operating pressure.

Tube

Tube OD of ¾ and 1‟‟ are very common to design a compact heat exchanger.
The most efficient condition for heat transfer is to have the maximum number of tubes
in the shell to increase turbulence. The tube thickness should be enough to withstand
the internal pressure along with the adequate corrosion allowance. The tube thickness
is expressed in terms of BWG (Birmingham Wire Gauge) and true outside diameter
(OD). The tube length of 6, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 ft are preferably used. Longer tube
reduces shell diameter at the expense of higher shell pressure drop. Finned tubes are
also used when fluid with low heat transfer coefficient flows in the shell side.
Stainless steel, admiralty brass, copper, bronze and alloys of copper-nickel are the
commonly used tube materials.

Baffles

Baffles are used to increase the fluid velocity by diverting the flow across the
tube bundle to obtain higher transfer co-efficient. The distance between adjacent
baffles is called baffle-spacing. The baffle spacing of 0.2 to 1 times of the inside shell
diameter is commonly used. Baffles are held in positioned by means of baffle spacers.
Closer baffle spacing gives greater transfer co-efficient by inducing higher turbulence.
The pressure drop is more with closer baffle spacing. The various types of baffles are
shown in Figure 1.6. In case of cut-segmental baffle, a segment (called baffle cut) is
removed to form the baffle expressed as a percentage of the baffle diameter. Baffle
cuts from 15 to 45% are normally used. A baffle cut of 20 to 25% provide a good
heat-transfer with the reasonable pressure drop. The % cut for segmental baffle refers
to the cut away height from its diameter.

Fouling Factor

The most of the process fluids in the exchanger foul the heat transfer surface. The
material deposited reduces the effective heat transfer rate due to relatively low thermal
conductivity. Therefore, net heat transfer with clean surface should be higher to compensate
the reduction in performance during operation. Fouling of exchanger increases the cost of (i)
construction due to over sizing, (ii) additional energy due to poor exchanger performance and
(iii) cleaning to remove deposited materials. A spare exchanger may be considered in design
for uninterrupted services to allow cleaning of exchanger. The effect of fouling is considered
in heat exchanger design by including the tube side and shell side fouling resistances. Typical
values for the fouling coefficients and resistances are summarized in the table below

APPARATUS USED:

Shell and tube heat exchanger,

stop watch, pan


METHODS/PROCEDURE:

1. Close all valves at first. Fill the boiler with three-fourths full of tap water. Pre-heat the
boiler for 30 minutes.
2. Open valves so as to let steam flow through the shell side. After fifteen minutes, allow the
water to flow through the tube side. Run for another 15 minutes.
3. Record the initial, as well as the final, temperatures of both the steam and cooling water.
2. Measure the flow of water, using a pan and a stop-watch.
3. Close all valves again.
4. Allow the exchanger to cool about 10 minutes.
5. Make three trials by repeating steps 2 to 6 with the flow rates of both the cooling water
and the steam held constant for each trial.

DATA AND RESULTS:

The shell and tube heat exchanger has 1 shell pass and 2 tube passes.

Tube is schedule 40. Inside diameter is _16 mm_.

Tube length is __1m___.

Shell diameter is _145 mm_ and shell length is _1574.8 mm_.

Steam is condensing at atmospheric pressure.

Trials 1 2 3

Temperature of inlet steam (Tha), oC 96 95 94

Temperature of inlet cold water (Tca), oC 26 28 28

Temperature of condensing steam (Thb), oC 42 46 47

Temperature of heated water (Tcb), oC 38 43 44

Volume of heated water collected, liters 2.29 2.29 2.29

Duration of run, sec 60 60 60


Volumetric flow rate of condensed steam, m3/sec 190 210 220

ΔTh oC 58 52 50

ΔTc oC 16 18 19

U, KJ/hr-m2-oC 1054.15 1443.88 1452.92

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS:
SAMPLE COMPUTATIONS:

SKETCH:

OBSERVATION:

CONCLUSION:

REFERENCES:
F. P. Incropera, D. P. DeWitt, T. L. Bergman, and A. S. Lavine, “Fundamentals of Heat and

Mass Transfer”, 6th ed. (Wiley, 2007).

D. Q. Kern, Process Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Int. ed. 1965.

Dutta B.K. „Heat Transfer-Principles and Applications‟, PHI Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 1st ed.
2006.

Heat Exchangers: https://adepegbaadeseyi.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/heat-exchangers.pdf

COMPUTATION:

D i=16 m m
2
π D 2 π (16)
A= = =201.06 mm 2=0.201 m2
4 4

First Trial:

T 1 =96 ℃ ; T 2 =42 ℃

t 1 =26 ℃ ; t 2 =38℃

J
C pw =4187
kg−K

0.001 m3
v w =2.29
l 1min
(
min 60 sec )( 1l )
=3.82 x 10−5 m 3 /s

m3
mw =v w ρ=3.82 x 10−5 1000 kg /m 3=0.0382kg /s
s

kg J J
Q=Q w =mw C p w ∆t w =0.0382
s (
4187
Kg− K )
( 38℃−26 ℃ )=1919.32
s
120

100

80

Steam
60
Water

40

20

∆ t 1=96−38=58 ℃

∆ t 2=42−26=16℃

∆ t h−∆ t c 58−16
LMTD= = =32.61 ℃
∆ th 58
ln
( ) ( )
∆ tc
ln
16

2
m ℃
F=0.001 (Hard Water)
W

Q 1919.32 W
U= = =292 .82 2
A ( LMTD ) (0.201) ( 32.61 ) m ℃

Second Trial:

T 1 =95 ℃ ; T 2 =46 ℃

t 1 =28℃ ; t 2 =43 ℃

J
C pw =4187
kg−K

0.001 m3
v w =2.29
l 1min
min 60 sec( )( 1l )
=3.82 x 10−5 m 3 /s

m3
mw =v w ρ=3.82 x 10−5 1000 kg /m 3=0.0382kg /s
s
kg J J
Q=Q w =mw C p w ∆t w =0.0382
s (
4187
Kg− K )
( 43 ℃−28℃ )=2399.15
s

100

90

80

70

60
Water
50
Steam
40

30

20

10

∆ t 1=95−46=52℃

∆ t 2=43−28=18℃

∆ t h−∆ t c 52−15
LMTD= = =29.76 ℃
∆ th 52
ln
( ) ( )
∆ tc
ln
15

2
m ℃
F=0.001 (Hard Water)
W

Q 2399.15 W
U= = =401 .08 2
A ( LMTD ) (0.201) ( 29.76 ) m ℃

Third Trial:

T 1 =94 ℃ ; T 2 =47 ℃

t 1 =28℃ ; t 2 =44 ℃

J
C pw =4187
kg−K

0.001 m3
v w =2.29
l 1min
min 60 sec ( )( 1l )
=3.82 x 10−5 m 3 /s
3
m
mw =v w ρ=3.82 x 10−5 1000 kg /m 3=0.0382kg /s
s

kg J J
Q=Q w =mw C p w ∆t w =0.0382
s (
4187
Kg− K )
( 44 ℃−28 ℃ )=2599.09
s

100

90

80

70

60
Steam
50
Water
40

30

20

10

∆ t 1=95−46=50 ℃

∆ t 2=43−28=19℃

∆ t h−∆ t c 50−19
LMTD= = =32.04 ℃
∆ th 50
ln
( ) ( )
∆ tc
ln
19

m2 ℃
F=0.001 (Hard Water)
W

Q 25 99.15 W
U= = =403.59 2
A ( LMTD ) (0.201) ( 32.04 ) m ℃

PROBLEMS :

(1) Explain the use of the correction factor, F, in the computation for the log mean
temperature difference.

(2) A thin walled concentric tube heat exchanger is to be used to cool engine oil from 160
to 60 C, and water, which is available at 25 oC, is to be used as the coolant. The oil and water
o
flow rates are each 2 kg/sec, and the diameter of the inner tube is 0.50 m. The corresponding
value of the overall heat transfer coefficient is 250 W/ m 2-K. How long must the heat
exchanger be to accomplish the desired cooling?

(3) A concentric tube heat exchanger uses water, which is available at 15 oC, to cool
ethylene glycol from 100 to 60oC. The water and glycol flow rates are each 0.5 kg/sec. What
are the maximum possible heat transfer rate and effectiveness of the exchanger? Which is
preferred, a parallel flow or counter flow mode of operation?