EARLY MODERN JAPAN

FALL, 2002

Early Modern Literature
© Haruo Shirane (HS), Columbia University and Lawrence E. Marceau (LEM), University of Delaware

General Comments
Generally speaking, the history of Japanese literary studies in English can be divided into two stages. The first stage is usually that of translation; the second is that of scholarship. In some cases, translation is preceded by literary histories or more general studies that take up texts that have not been translated. Such is the case of William Aston, A History of Japanese Literature (1899), the earliest history of Japanese literature, and Donald Keene’s World Within Walls.1 These literary histories have served the function of arousing the interest of readers and potential translators in yet untranslated works. Generally speaking, however, it is the appearance of a translation that sets the stage for scholarship and criticism, particularly in the case of major literary texts such as The Tale of Genji, The Tale of the Heike, or Noh drama. The translation of The Tale of Genji by Edward Seidensticker, for example, provided the foundation for a series of groundbreaking studies on Heian literature (Norma Field, Richard Okada, Haruo Shirane).2 Early modern literary studies have not yet reached the stage found, for example, in Heian literary studies, where almost all the texts are already available and where scholarship spawns scholarship. Instead, we find a situation where translation spawns scholarship or vice versa. Thus, it is almost impossible to speak of historical development or trends in scholarship of the kind found, for example, in political or institu1

Aston, W. G., A History of Japanese Literature. Rutland, Vt. & Tokyo: Tuttle, 1972 (rept.; 1st pub. 1899); and Keene, Donald, World Within Walls: Japanese Literature of the Pre-Modern Era 1600-1868. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1976. 2 Norma Field, The Splendor of Longing in the Tale of Genji (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987); Richard Okada, Figures of Resistance: Language, Poetry, and Narrating in The Tale of Genji and Other Mid-Heian Texts (Durham: Duke University Press, 1991); Haruo Shirane, The Bridge of Dreams: A Poetics of The Tale of Genji (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1987).

tional history. This is not to say that the recent scholarship is out of touch with contemporary scholarship. On the contrary, the best scholarship and criticism in early modern literary studies is closely tied to recent trends in Japanese scholarship and contemporary Western literary and cultural theory and is best understood in a context that transcends Western historiography, which is still too thinly dispersed to provide a critical frame. A number of Western literary studies in the 1950s-1980s consisted of a translation or translations preceded by an extended introduction. Typical examples include Howard Hibbett’s The Floating World in Japanese Fiction3, which include translations of ukiyo-zoshi by Saikaku and Ejima Kiseki in the latter half of the book. In the 1990s, this format has given way to monographs that are almost entirely concentrated on criticism and scholarship. Nevertheless, the need for much more translation remains, for without translations, the criticism in English has limited meaning. It is analogous to writing art history without access to the art. Unlike the readers of histories, the reader of literary studies needs to see the literary texts to be able to fully appreciate the analysis. One reason that I edited Early Modern Japanese Literature, Anthology: 1600-19004 (Columbia University Press, 2002) is that the life of the field depends very much on the ability of the reader to have some sense of the texts in question. That said, it should be noted that early modern texts are notoriously difficult to translate, and frequently do not stand up in translation or make sense in isolation. As a consequence, there remains a need for monographs to appear alongside translations. The period that has drawn the most interest has been the Genroku period. In the 1950s-60s Donald Keene, Ivan Morris, Howard Hibbett, and other Western scholars translated what are generally considered to be the “big three” of the Genroku period: Matsuo Basho, Ihara Saikaku, and Chikamatsu Monzaemon, who have come to rep3 Hibbett, Howard S. The Floating World in Japanese Fiction. New York: Oxford University Press, 1959. 4 Shirane, Haruo, ed. Early Modern Japanese Literature: An Anthology 1600-1900. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.

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resent the major genres of poetry, prose fiction, and drama respectively.5 The emphasis on Genroku literature and drama has been so great that I would venture to guess that it surpasses in volume all the work done on texts in the rest of the early modern period. Not only have many of the texts of the “big three” been translated, major monographs have been written on Basho (Makoto Ueda, Haruo Shirane),6 Saikaku (Ivan Morris),7 and Chikamatsu (Drew Gerstle).8 Related to this interest in Genroku literature is the general interest by both scholars and nonspecialists in haiku, with enormous attention being paid to a related “big three”: Matsuo Basho, Yosa Buson, and Kobayashi Issa, from the late seventeenth, late eighteenth, and early nineteenth century respectively. This interest in haiku has been driven by the English haiku movement, and as a consequence much of the material, both translations and scholarship, has been published by non-specialists, English haiku poets, whose work is not always very reliable. Nevertheless, it remains a lively area of interest, with direct links to the English-language world. Robert Hass, for example, who was the Poet Laureate of the U.S., wrote and edited a book on Basho, Buson, and Issa for public consumption though he was not a

Donald Keene, tr. Major Plays of Chikamatsu (Columbia University Press, 1961), on Chikamatsu; Ivan Morris, tr. The Life of an Amorous Woman (NY: New Directions, 1963) and Howard Hibbett, The Floating World in Japanese Fiction (New York: Oxford University Press, 1959) on Saikaku; and Donald Keene, tr., “The Narrow Road of Oku,” in his Anthology of Japanese Literature: From the Earliest Era to the Mid-Nineteenth Century (New York: Grove Press, 1955), on Basho. 6 Makoto Ueda, Matsuo Basho: The Master Haiku Poet (Tokyo: Kodansha, 1982); Ueda, Makoto. Basho and his Interpreters: Selected Hokku with Commentary (Stanford: Stanford U. Press, 1992). Haruo Shirane, Traces of Dreams: Landscape, Cultural Memory, and the Poetry of Basho (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997). 7 Ivan Morris, The Life of an Amorous Woman (NY: New Directions, 1963) 8 Donald Keene, Bunraku, The Art of the Japanese Puppet Theatre (Tokyo & New York: Kodansha International, 1965); Andrew Gerstle, Circles of Fantasy: Convention in the Plays of Chikamatsu (Cambridge, Mass.: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1986).

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Japanese specialist.9 By contrast, other important genres-particularly waka, kyoka (comic waka), senryu (comic haiku), kanshi, and kyoshi (comic Chinese poetry), all of which flourished in the early modern period—remain largely neglected. These genres flourished in the eighteenth century, after the Genroku period. The peak of kyoka, senryu, and kyoshi was in the mid- to late-eighteenth century. These texts need both to be translated and studied. One recent and welcome exception here is a senryu anthology edited and translated by Makoto Ueda.10 Another area that has drawn much interest in the West is kabuki, which begins in Genroku and spans the entire early modern period, and bunraku, puppet theater. In contrast to kabuki, which came to the foreground in the Genroku period and continued to flourish well into the midnineteenth century, joruri (chanting to the accompaniment of the samisen and puppets) came to a peak in the mid-eighteenth century and then declined. Furthermore, kabuki continues to be an active genre. The nature of drama studies differs considerably from that of poetry and prose fiction in that most of the scholars are specialists in theater, with an interest in kabuki or joruri as it exists today, as performance. In many cases, the focus has been on the present, on the “living tradition,” rather than on reconstructions of the past. Nevertheless, the relationship between kabuki and popular culture and literature is such that this field should become a major focus of sociohistorical studies. Kokugaku (also wagaku, nativist studies), which provided commentary on classical Japanese texts and espoused a nativist philosophy, and Motoori Norinaga (1730-1801), the most notable kokugaku leader, have been the object of considerable study, but this field has been dominated by intellectual or political historians, who view kokugaku teleologically, in terms of the rise of modern nationalism, or strictly in relationship to
9 Robert Hass, The Essential Haiku : Versions of Basho, Buson, and Issa (Hopewell, N. J., Ecco Press, 1994). 10 Ueda, Makoto. Light Verse From the Floating World : An Anthology of Premodern Japanese Senryu. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.

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Neo-Confucianism or the ancient studies school, that is to say, in terms of political, religious, or philosophical issues.11 By contrast, there are almost no studies of the early modern waka, which lies at the heart of this movement (Kamo no Mabuchi, one of the founders of kokugaku, was first and foremost a major waka poet), or of the philology and literary commentaries, which were the basis for what came to be called “thought.” In the early modern period, as in the medieval period, commentary was a major genre of writing and scholarship. Nor has much attention been paid to the innovative work of these scholars (such as Fujitani Mitsue) on language. The kokugaku scholars were the first linguists of Japan, but this has been largely overlooked by Western scholars. There are some anomalous areas, which can not easily be categorized. One of those is Ueda Akinari, the late-eighteenth century yomihon (fiction in neo-classical style, drawing heavily on Chinese and classical Japanese sources) writer and kokugaku scholar, who has attracted attention for Ugetsu monogatari, which has been made into a famous film by Mizoguchi Kenji. Meantime, other noted writers such as Hiraga Gennai have been almost completely neglected, particularly when it comes to published translations. The great frontiers of scholarship and translation, particularly for prose fiction and poetry, lie in the period from early and middle eighteenth century through the mid-nineteenth century. Of particular interest here is gesaku, popular prose fiction from mid-to-late eighteenth century through the early nineteenth century, which has been the object of study by a handful of scholars (James Araki, Sumie Jones, Leon Zolbrod, and others) but which has so far produced very few monographs.12 Some of the vast holes in this
11 Maruyama Masao, Studies in the Intellectual History of Tokugawa Japan (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1974). H.D. Harootunian, Things Seen and Unseen: Discourse and Ideology in Tokugawa Nativism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988). 12 For example, see Araki, James T. "Sharebon: Books for Men of Mode." Monumenta Nipponica 24. 1-2 (1969): 31-45, Jones, Sumie Amikura. "Comic Fiction in Japan during the Later Edo Period." Ph.D. dissertation, U. of Washington, 1979, and Zolbrod, Leon M., trans. "The Vendetta of Mr. Fleacatcher Managoro, the Fifth, with

body of literature include dangibon (comic sermons), which followed the ukiyo-zoshi, and preceded the yomihon in the mid-eighteenth century, sharebon (fiction of the pleasure quarters) in the late-eighteenth century, and gokan ("combined" picture books), in the early-nineteenth century. No major works from these genres have been translated, and little has been written in English. Hanashi-bon (books of humor), which derive from public oral storytelling, and which differ from kokkeibon (comic fiction), have also been completely neglected. Another major genre that remains unexplored is the zuihitsu, meditative writings, which became a major genre in the early modern period, actively carried out by scholars, poets, and artists of all persuasions (Neo-Confucian scholars, kanshi poets, kokugaku scholars, waka poets, historians, etc.). Even a noted zuihitsu such as Matsudaira Sadanobu’s Kagetsu zoshi (Book of Moon and Blossoms), canonized in Japan from the Meiji period, has not been translated. While it is difficult to discern recurrent trends in all these different subfields in the postwar era, one could say that post-war scholarship generally began, in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, with the study of authors and major texts (generally speaking, biographical or genre studies), while moving increasingly, in the 1980s and 1990s, to more interdisciplinary studies which eschew more traditional notions of literature in favor of focusing on texts in a broader cultural, economic, social, political, or geographical context. An example of a recent trend is Joshua Mostow's study of the relationship between text and image focusing on the reception of the Ogura hyakunin isshu (One Hundred Poems by One Hundred Poets) collection.13 Hopefully, we shall see studies that take up issues such as the relationship among print culture, publishing, commodity exchange, and literature, or cross-genre studies such as the study of the relationship between kabuki and prose fiction. These are just some of the possibilities for the future. At the same time, we still continue to
Illustrations by Kitao Shigemasa, and an Introduction." Monumenta Nipponica 20.1-2 (1965): 121-134. 13 Mostow, Joshua, Pictures of the Heart: The Hyakunin isshu in Word and Image (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1996).

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need good translations to pave the way. (HS)

Poetry
Waka, Choka, Kanshi, and Kyoshi We can define haikai as a verse form consisting of three lines with a 5/7/5 syllable count, or as a series of linked verses consisting of a first verse with a 5/7/5 syllable count, followed by a verse with a 7/7 syllable count, and continuing over several links, most often 36, which is called a kasen. Waka, in the form of tanka, or "short poems," is a verse form consisting of five lines with a 5/7/5/7/7 syllable count, and serves as the representative poetic form of the Japanese literary tradition, anthologized in twenty-one imperial and countless private collections. Choka, or "long poems," follow a sequence of several lines alternating in a 5/7 syllable pattern, and ending with the final two lines in a 7/7 syllable pattern. Choka represent an archaic poetic form, found most often in the massive eighth-century anthology, Man'yoshu, and choka composition proved rare until a revival in the early modern period. Kanshi, or "Chinese poetry," and kyoshi, "wild" or "deranged" poetry in Chinese, appear throughout Japanese literary history, especially as compositions by men (aristocratic women were expected to be proficient in waka), but over the course of the early modern period, a combination of factors led to an increase in both the numbers of poets working in the Chinese idiom, and in the quality of their production. As we have seen above, a plethora of translations, studies, and "appreciations" are available in English for haikai, or its contemporary form, haiku. However, haikai was originally considered to be a "zoku," or plebian, form of literary production, while literary elites considered waka and kanshi as "ga," or refined, poetic forms. Waka and kanshi have not enjoyed the attention given to haikai, both in terms of translations, as well as in terms of studies. Even today, most early modern waka translations available are found in a prewar anthology, Miyamori Asataro's Masterpieces of Japanese Poetry, Ancient and

Modern.14 A mere four pages are devoted to 16 examples of early modern waka (by six poets) in Donald Keene's Anthology of Japanese Literature, Hiroaki Sato and Burton Watson provide selections from Ryokan (1758-1831), 30 tanka by Tachibana Akemi (1812-68), and nine kyoka ("wild," or humorous waka) in their 1981 anthology, From the Country of Eight Islands, while Steven Carter, in his 1991 anthology, Traditional Japanese Poetry, includes just seven kyoka, 12 waka by Ryokan, and 23 waka by four poets, nine verses of which are by Akemi.15 If it were not for Keene's 1976 history of "premodern era" (Keene's terminology) Japanese literature, World Within Walls, and its three chapters devoted to early modern waka and kyoka, complete with example translations and discussions of several poets, then Western students and non-specialist scholars would have almost nothing available in English to which they could gain access. 16 Since the 1980s, Peter Nosco has published a study of the important mid-kinsei poet and scholar Kada no Arimaro (1706-51) and his poetics, and Roger Thomas has published on the bakumatsu poet Okuma Kotomichi and others. 17 There has yet to appear in English, however, a single study that treats the Japanese nativist schools of wagaku (or kokugaku) as primarily a collection of schools of poetics and classical studies, much less a treatise that examines the distinc-

14 Miyamori Asataro. Masterpieces of Japanese Poetry, Ancient and Modern. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1970 (2 volumes, reprint of 1936 edition). 15 Keene, Donald, ed. Anthology of Japanese Literature: From the Earliest Era to the Mid-Nineteenth Century. New York: Grove Press, 1955; Sato, Hiroaki and Burton Watson, ed. and trans. From the Country of Eight Islands: An Anthology of Japanese Poetry. (Anchor Books) Garden City: Anchor Press, 1981; Carter, Steven, tr. and intro. Traditional Japanese Poetry: An Anthology. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991. 16 Keene, Donald. World Within Walls: Japanese Literature of the Pre-Modern Era 1600-1868. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1976. 17 Nosco, Peter. “Nature, Invention, and National Learning: The Kokka hachiron Controversy: 1742-46.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 41.1 (1981): 75-91; Thomas, Roger K. "Okuma Kotomichi and the ReVisioning of Kokinshu Elegance." Proceedings of the Midwest Association for Japanese Literary Studies 3 (1997): 160-81.

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An Anthology of Kanshi (Chinese Verse) by Japanese Poets of the Edo Period (1603-1868). 1990. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Poetry and Prose in Chinese by Japanese Writers of the Later Period. kus have published essays on comic kanshi. Watson. and Other Writings. but who has not enjoyed similar recognition in the West. and other. “Kyoshi: Japanese ‘Wild Poetry’'. Lawrence. One Bowl: The Zen Poetry of Ryokan. Lewiston: The Edwin Mellen Press. Andrew. Watson. Ryuichi Abe and Peter Haskell. The Western reception of haiku has been deeply influenced by the the Imagists. and. and in-depth studies of various circles and individual poets. Kanshi: The Poetry of Ishikawa Jozan and Other Edo Period Poets. 1981. New York: Columbia University Press.21 The next step now is to build on this groundwork with a critical study of kanshi in the early modern period. One Robe. court-sponsored) poetry. Yuasa. 1998. One kanshi poet has received inordinate attention in English. and whose poetry was to have a profound influence on the develPollack. trans. 21 26 . which emerged in the 1960s. 20 Sato. Kanshi: The Poetry of Ishikawa Jozan and Other Edo-Period Poets. The Zen Poems of Ryokan. F. New York and Guildford: Columbia University Press. or kyoshi. Premier among these in terms of volume is the 1997 collection by Timothy Bradstock and Judith Rabinovitch. Watson. Translated with Essays by Ryuichi Abé and Peter Haskel. Burton. or by chonin urbanites. though. Ryuichi and Peter Haskel. 22 Stephens. and ed. New York: John Weatherhill. 1976. and Grass Hill: Poems and Prose by the Japanese Monk Gensei. Ryokan (1758-1831). Burton.19 Hiroaki Sato has recently compiled and translated Breeze through Bamboo: Kanshi of Ema Saiko. William Carlos Williams. the situation for poetry in Chinese is somewhat better. including those by John Stevens.” HJAS 58. who exerted enormous influence both during his life and afterward. most recently.D. Markus. movements. who appeared in the 1910s. 1997. and the North American haiku movement. Nobuyuki. New York and Chichester: Columbia University Press. 2002 tions between the various schools of tosho (or dojo.Poems. “Domyaku Sensei and ‘The Housemaid’s Ballad’ (1769). Burton Watson. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press. D.S. and his work was not recognized even by Japanese scholars until the modern period. The compilers provide an introduction for each poet. Flint.. Several volumes of his verse in Chinese and Japanese have appeared. This falls in stark contrast to the case of Rai San'yo (1780-1832).. the first anthology of Japanese poems in Chinese by a woman to appear in English. and others—who worked together in London in the early 20th century. 1983. Grass Hill: Poems and Prose by the Japanese Monk Gensei.” Journal of Asian Studies 38 (1979): 499-517.1 (1998): 5-58. New York: Columbia UP. Abe. John Gould Fletcher. David. H. 19 Watson. In addition to Keene's chapter in World Within Walls on ”Poetry and Prose in Chinese. (LEM) Haikai and Haibun The Western history of poetry in the Tokugawa period has basically been the history of haiku. 18 This collection includes selections from 93 poets working in kanshi. and six poets composing in the humorous kyoshi form. Japanese Literatiure in Chinese-Volume 2. such as Kada no Azumamaro and Kamo no Mabuchi. Inc. Timothy and Judith Rabinovitch tr. 1977. An Anthology of Kanshi (Chinese Verse) by Japanese Poets of the Edo Period (1603-1868). It is unfortunate. Hiroaki. Surprisingly. San Francisco: North Point Press." there exist at least five booklength translations of Chinese prose and/or poetry composed by Japanese in the early modern period. and Ozawa Roan in Kyoto. Ryokan: Zen Monk-Poet of Japan.20 David Pollack and Andrew Mar18 Bradstock.. which provide something of a starting point for future studies of this important genre. H. describing his or her life and poetic activities. such as Murata Harumi in Edo. unofficially organized. Letters. however. 1977. trans. that this valuable anthology is priced beyond an affordable level for students or non-specialists to purchase. 1996. Burton Watson has published three volumes of early modern kanshi translations. John tr. Burton. The Imagists were a small group of English and American poets—Ezra Pound. Great Fool: Zen Master Ryokan . ed. Amy Lowell. Breeze through Bamboo: Kanshi of Ema Saiko. especially between 1912 and 1914. the itinerant Zen monk. Japanese Literature in Chinese: Volume 2.22 Ryokan lived a relatively isolated existence in rural Japan.EARLY MODERN JAPAN FALL. including the wagaku schools started by Shinto clergy. jige (officially recognized poetry schools). Burton.

and gravitated toward a single. haiku was the poetry of "meaningful touch. a best-selling novel centered on a protagonist (modeled on Gary Snyder) who composes haiku—and American scholartranslators such as Donald Keene contributed to the popular interest in haiku. Alan Watts. . Blyth focused on the "concrete thing. . and stressed the importance of the reader. America suddenly took an avid interest in Japanese culture and religion. directness. History. The Imagists stressed concentration.23 Following Pound and the Imagists. Daisetz T. creating two centers and often generating what he called the "principle of internal comparison. the Beats (in New York)—especially Jack Kerouac's The Dharma Bums. personal moment. and other major 20th-century poets. Haiku. believed that reading and composing haiku was a spiritual experience in which poet and nature were united. The Japanese Haiku: Its Essential Nature. Reginald H. and Harold Henderson. especially sharp contrasts in texture and color.EARLY MODERN JAPAN FALL. who works by the process of association. and Yasuda. Pound also stressed the notion of juxtaposition. coming under the spell of D. 4v. was "a state of mind in which we are not Blyth. of "sensation. and Tokyo: Tuttle. Kenneth Yasuda. and yet retain our own individuality. Suzuki's view of Zen. he drew attention to the "overtones. and smell. dominant image. which divided the haiku in half." the highly suggestive quality of good haiku. Blyth.T. the techniques of condensation and ellipsis. closely tied to the spiritual state of the 27 . and Possibilities in English. New York: Doubleday Anchor Books. who believed that the haiku should have only one focal point. which emerged in the 1960s. During the 1950s. For Blyth. equation. In contrast to Blyth and Yasuda. or a succession of related images." "the poetry of sensation"—as opposed to that of thought and emotion. like Blyth before him. Zen. or contrast between two separate elements--a dynamic that he saw as a major characteristic of Basho's poetry. and freedom from metrical laws. are indeed identical with them. sight. Henderson drew attention to the role of the cutting word (kireji). usually visual. sound. Nirvanalike harmony" and the "poet's nature and environment are unified. Kenneth. the San Francisco poets. Eliot. Tokyo: Hokuseido Press. and Henderson's An Introduction to Haiku: An Anthology of Poems and Poets from Basho to Shiki—that generated widespread fascination with haiku and set the stage for a North American English haiku movement. As this brief overview of Anglo-American reception suggests. There has also been a strong tendency to treat the haiku in a spiritual context or in an autobiographical. 1949-52. haiku has been largely conceived as the poetry of the object (particularly small things). History. especially as "haiku experience. which becomes indistinguishable from haiku in much of Blyth's writing. but most of all it was R. personal mode. Blyth. and Possibilities in English." Harold Henderson's An Introduction to Haiku: An Anthology of Poems and Poets from Basho to Shiki. Suzuki. Henderson. an updated version of an earlier book called The Bamboo Room from the 1930s. Kenneth Yasuda. 1958. and Possibilities in English. History. Haiku is the apprehension of a thing by a realization of our own original and essential unity with it. stressed the "haiku moment" when the poet reaches "an enlightened. which flourished in the 1960s and continues to this day. Wallace Stevens." and of the moment.S. Yasuda's The Japanese Haiku: Its Essential Nature." In Yasuda’s view. simile. Vt." This view of haiku as a spiritual subject/object fusion had a profound impact on subsequent Western reception of haiku. with Selected Examples." an implicit comparison. Furthermore. provided a major stimulus to the North American haiku movement. writers such as Blyth and Yasuda transformed the "impersonality" that the Imagists stressed into a highly subjective. Rutland. precision. H. 2002 opment of T." but without the "intellectual and emotional complex" that has interested Pound. 1957." By stressing the unity of the poet and the object. taste. An Introduction to Haiku: An Anthology of Poems and Poets from Basho to Shiki. 23 separated from other things. Unlike Yasuda. the haiku poet also "eschews metaphor. or personification. especially Zen Buddhism and haiku. Instead. who wrote a series of books—a fourvolume work called Haiku by Blyth. Harold G. In The Japanese Haiku: Its Essential Nature. Garden City. Henderson did not regard haiku as a spiritual or aesthetic experience and downplayed the notion of Zen illumination.

Matsuo Basho: The Master Haiku Poet. Helen. preserving the elipses and tense changes of the original Japanese.' words lift them on leaving. going beyond the hokku (haiku) to analyze linked verse (haikai). 1982. transformed." and "sincerity. In 1992. Ueda made yet another major contribution. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 1968. Just follow anyone going your way. "'Unfortunately we often like to take detours. and translated into the vernacular. but felt sorry for them for some time after" (section 41).27 For example. There have been a number of translations.. he examined the different genres that Basho was engaged in.. cultural memory. A Haiku Journey: Basho's Narrow Road to a Far Province. The Narrow Road to Oku. Narrow Road to the Interior. 26 Shirane." The state of the field was significantly altered by the work of Makoto Ueda who produced the first modern scholarly study of Basho in English. Basho and his companion Sora encounter a pair of courtesans (yujo) on a pilgrimage.' We walked off without waiting for an answer. stream-of-consciousness effect on the reader. 27 28 . personal and impersonal. I'm sure the gods will see you there safely. and social practice through a reassessment of haikai. Just follow others going to the same place. Ueda not only provided a biographical context for Basho’s work. 25 Ueda. 1997). which haikai parodied. confessional poet. provides a direct. Classical Japanese Prose: An Anthology. Tokyo: Kodansha. Sato. and hairon (haikai theory). Haruo. Cultural Memory. trans. Corman's translation. to Donald Keene’s translation. while at the same time exCorman.25 In Traces of Dreams: Landscape. Surely the gods will protect you and see you safely through. which he sees as emerging from the engagement between the new commoner culture and earlier literary texts. 1996. Makoto. One of the most striking aspects of Basho studies in the West has been the overwhelming interest in Oku no hosomichi. and the Poetry of Basho (Stanford University Press. 1992.24 Here and in a number of related essays. 545). Basho and his Interpreters: Selected Hokku with Commentary. but reject the women's plea to serve as their traveling companions. representation and collage—multiple planes made possible in large part by the fundamental haikai assumption that the meaning of the text is relative and dependent on its context." "fact. and Helen McCullough’s translation in her Classical Japanese Prose: An Anthology. Each of these has sought out a different aspect of the text. Matsuo Basho: The Master Haiku Poet. trans. haibun (haikai prose). using one-line translations of the hokku. McCullough desires to provide a translation that attempts to be both faithful to the original and at the same time readable in English. 1980. Keene. New York: Mushinsha/Grossman. Boston: Shambhala. Haruo Shirane brings together the issues of language. 1996. Cultural Memory. in one section. thus revealing the wide range of possibilities for reading Basho’s haiku. particularly that of Basho and his disciples. but it was some time before I could stop feeling sorrow for them" (p. The Narrow Road to Oku. which range from the haiku poet Cid Corman’s experimental Back Roads to Far Towns. McCullough. "'I sympathize with you. Most recently Hiroaki Sato has come out with another translation. 24 which is subject to constant change. 1997. Basho's Narrow Road. to Dorothy Britton’s A Haiku Journey: Basho’s Narrow Road to a Far Province. objective and subjective.” the seemingly paradoxical co-existence of different textual and perceptual planes— figurative and literal. monologic and dialogic. Back Roads to Far Towns. in his book Basho and his Interpreters: Selected Hokku with Commentary. Dorothy trans. as a part of a larger literary and cultural tradition that gives priority to "truth. Indeed. Stanford: Stanford University Press. landscape. trans. Tokyo: Kodansha... referential and parodic. which was the first book to translate commentaries (modern and early modern) on specific poems. Berkeley: Stone Bridge Press.26 Shirane explores the notion of “haikai imagination. Cid and Kamaike Susumu trans. Donald." In Helen McCullough comp. Sato's translation attempts to remain as faithful as possible. 1991.EARLY MODERN JAPAN FALL. Sam. She translates. Hiroaki. 1990: 522-551. also. Ueda. and the Poetry of Basho. thereby paving the way for future research. "The Narrow Road of the Interior. and ed. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Western scholars have tended to regard Basho as an autobiographical. metaphorical and metonymical. but we'll be making frequent stops. Traces of Dreams: Landscape. Britton. New York: Kodansha International. Hamill. 2002 poet..

33 A word should be said here about haibun. 44. as simply a form of travel diary. I and II.29 As in his book on Basho. 1997. Shiffert.28 Some of the best translations and explications appear in Makoto Ueda’s recent study The Path of Flowering Thorn: The Life and Poetry of Yosa Buson (Stanford: Stanford UP. 33 Mackenzie. trans. No. enhances one aspect of the text while downplaying other possible readings. 1958. "Buson's Poetic Ideals: The Theory and Practice of Haikai in the Age of Revival. The Autumn Wind. 34." The Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan 3 (1988): 53-81. No. The Spring of My Life and Selected Haiku." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies . Makoto. Shiffert’s Haiku Master Buson. 39. Lewis trans. Zolbrod. Zolbrod.N. also Hamill. Tokyo: Nippon Gakujutsu Shinkokai. perhaps the most famous work of haibun. Haikai and Haiku. however. Nobuyuki trans.. all should go well." In Saburo Ota and Rikutaro Fukuda. 17711784. while at the same time exploring Buson’s interests in a variety of art forms. as the composer of haiga. as many earlier scholars and translators have. Buson. or haikai paintings. "Buson and Shiki. 30 Zolbrod. You should go along following the others as they go. does not deal with Buson as a visual artist. With the Sun Goddess's protection.E. sadness did not cease for quite some time" (p. Zolbrod. 32 See Huey...2 (1984-5). (Ueda. a major prose genre pioneered by Matsuo Basho. London: John Murray." Monumenta Nipponica. Some more focused examples include Nippon Gakujutsu Shinkokai ed. His major prose works have also been translated." Journal of the Association of Teachers of Japanese 9. 1957. Lewis Mackenzie has also translated many of Issa’s texts in The Autumn Wind. He is easily translated and his works are easily accessible. Haikai and Haiku. 1960.. 31 29 . "Talking Poetry: Buson's View of the Art of Haiku. Boston & London: Shambhala." Monumenta Nipponica.."31 Of the three famous early modern haiku masters (Basho. Nevertheless. or Chinese-styled literati. 1998). 2002 ploiting the lyricism of the original. Each translation. remains to be done with haibun after Oku no hosomichi..1 (1974): 1-20. Yuki and Edith M.) Leon Zolbrod also wrote a series of articles on Buson and unfortunately passed away before publishing his book on Buson. I had to tell them: 'We sympathize with your plight. 1973: I:146-54.30 Other important Nippon Gakujutsu Shinkokai. "However. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 1783-84. Considerable work has been done on Oku no hosomichi. rely heavily on Chinese or classical Japanese allusions. " in Selecta: Journal of the Pacific Northwest Council on Foreign Languages 7 (1986): 26-31.. Much work. and the genre prospered into the modern period. 1979. There has been.1. 1978." Literature East and West 15-16 (19711972): 719-34. The Path of Flowering Thorn: The Life and Poetry of Yosa Buson. 1984. how- Morris. (HS) Senryu and Kyoka Almost all the attention to early modern poetry has been focused on haiku. 28 essays on Buson include Mark Morris. Kobayashi Issa (1763-1827) is perhaps the most popular among English haiku poets. "Emblems of Aging and Immortality in the Poetry and Painting of Buson (1716-1784). Vols. Robert N. Studies on Japanese Culture. Basho’s disciples compiled a number of haibun anthologies. Sam. which were a critical part of his career as a bunjin. imagining a different potential readership. most notably Journal of My Father’s Last Days (Chichi no shuen nikki) and The Year of My Life (Oraga ga haru). however. Ueda takes a biographical approach. 1998. San Francisco: Heian International.EARLY MODERN JAPAN FALL. and Yuasa. 111). ed. The Year of My Life: A Translation of Issa’s Oraga Haru (University of California Press. "Rags and Tatters: The Uzuragoromo of Yokoi Yayu. Tokyo: Japan P. Lawrence. and Issa). 29 Ueda. 34 Rogers. Haiku Master Buson. Club. by contrast. Leon M. Mark. which includes hokku and his washi (Japanese-Chinese poetry) and Sawa Yuki and Edith M. "Death of a Poet-Painter: Yosa Buson's Last Year. Haruo Shirane’s Traces of Dreams looks at Oku no hosomichi as a form of haibun rather than.' And so we left. Buson’s haikai appears in all the major English anthologies of Japanese poetry. Vol. Zolbrod. Sawa. or haikai prose. The only translation/study of post-Basho haibun is Lawrence Rogers’s work on Yokoi Yayu’s Uzuragoromo34. "Journal of My Father’s Last Days: Issa’s Chichi no Shuen Nikki. "Buson and Shiki. but we stop in many places. and have proved to be popular among North American audiences32. which escape English readers. 1777. Basho and Buson. "The Busy Year: Buson's Life and Work.

30 . which has a hard time with the seasonal word) and regularly use this genre. Except for a handful of translations in large poetry anthologies. Nanrei. 1991. R. H. neither preceded by any significant kana-zoshi writers (of whom Asai Ryoi stands out in particular).35 Though poets of English haiku have taken a serious interest in senryu (often more suited to English haiku. his appearance makes little sense without study of the lives and works of such predessors as Masuho Zanko. Saikaku himself seems to be on a kind of island. Tokyo: Hokuseido Press. nor flanked by any contemporaries or followers.38 In Japan. Bownas. Kiseki and Jisho. From the Country of Eight Islands: An Anthology of Japanese Poetry. 39 Aside from Hachimonjiya publishing house writers. on whom work was done a half century ago by Howard Hibbett." not only is Hiraga Gennai currently absent from the field. new editions of kanazoshi and ukiyo-zoshi by less-well-known authors have been appearing in recent years. Among dangibon "sermonizers. which should do much to vitalize the study of this genre. Reginald H. Hiroaki. Geoffrey Bownas and Anthony Thwaite. some work on senryu. which came into prominence in the late-eighteenth century. Japanese Life and Characters in Senryu. relatively little has been done in English scholarship or translation until recently. with the exception of Ejima Kiseki. ed. 50 volumes. 37 Sato. Issai Chozan. and Blyth. the seventeen syllable comic haiku. or comic waka. Edo Satirical Verse Anthologies. The Penguin Book of Japanese Verse. et al. Shin Nihon koten bungaku taikei. has benn by contrast almost entirely neglected. both in the Shin Nihon koten bungaku taikei compendium (for which fully 40 of the 100 total volumes features early modern texts). and trans. 1989. which generally requires a seasonal word and a cutting word and tends to be serious poetry related to nature. 100 volumes + indices. mainly as a result of the general interest in haiku. and Anthony Thwaite. Light Verse From the Floating World : An Anthology of Premodern Japanese Senryu. such as Tsuga Teisho and Ueda Akinari. Takada Mamoru and Hara Michio.. not to mention serious studies. Carter. The Floating World in Japanese Fiction. 1961.36 Kyoka. ed. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten. Howard. 1987-2002. the state of the field for narrative fiction outside of Saikaku. In contrast to haiku. New York: Viking Penguin. 1961.37 (HS) Narrative Fiction General Comments As mentioned in the General Comments above. Columbia University Press. Sosho Edo bunko. Gennai's pre38 Hibbett. Traditional Japanese Poetry: An Anthology. the names of Miyako no Nishiki. a Shinto intellectual figure. 2002 ever. The Penguin Book of Japanese Verse. Nishizawa Ippu. Geoffrey. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Tokyo: Kokusho Kankokai. senryu requires neither the seasonal word nor the cutting word and focuses instead on the human condition and often provides satire of contemporary society. who was one of the pioneers of haiku. 1986. 36 Ueda. and Tada Nanrei come to mind as fertile ground for research and translation that will place Saikaku in a context he does not currently have. 35 Blyth.. in which he advocated the value of senryu as an alternative or complement to haiku. 1959. and in the unannotated but still valuable Sosho Edo bunko (50 volumes). 1981. such as Watson and Sato’s Eight Islands. Steven. and Jokambo Koa. is basically open for anyone interested in doing some work.EARLY MODERN JAPAN FALL. 39 Satake Akihiro. Makoto. Blyth. Garden City: Anchor Press. and Burton Watson. took a serious interest in senryu and wrote a series of books—including Edo Satirical Verse Anthologies and Japanese Life and Characters in Senryu—and articles in the 1950s and 1960s. especially plays an important role as a bridge to later writers.. Currently. 1999. Tokyo: Hokuseido Press. and Steven Carter’s Anthology of Japanese Poetry. for whom more studies and translations exist than any other author. there are hardly any translations. New York: Oxford University Press. with the publication of Makoto Ueda’s recent anthology of senryu.

Caryl Ann. his first work of prose fiction. Lane. "Saikaku: Novelist of the Japanese in the early 1960s by Ivan Morris." Monumenta Nipponica 30.D. 1963. and Sargent." Japan Quarterly 4 (1957): 178-188. who did a dissertation on Saikaku at Columbia University.46 Christopher Drake is completing a translation of Koshoku Renaissance. 1600-1682.. "Wild violets may be plucked free. New York: New Directions. trans. 45 Callahan... Sargent’s The Japanese Family Storehouse or the Millionaire’s Gospel Modernized." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 20 (1957): 644-701. In the 1950’s. "Three Stories from Saikaku. Paul Gordon...EARLY MODERN JAPAN FALL." Atlantic 195 (1955): 126-27. "Saikaku and the Modern Japanese Novel. The Japanese Family Storehouse or the Millionaire's Gospel Modernized." "Life of an Amorous Woman. ["How the flea escaped his cage"." In Japan's Modern Century..42 The most extensive translation and research in early modern prose fiction has been with regard to Ihara Saikaku (1642-1693). Richard Lane." MN 30. 46 Schalow.4 (1975): 357-391. 44 Morris. "The Eternal Storehouse of Japan. dissertation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. did a series of articles and translations on Saikaku. an excellent translation of Nippon eitaigura. (LEM) Kana-zoshi and Ukiyo-zoshi Kana-zoshi (literally. but for a courtesan you need hard cash". "They thought him no different from the grubs. 41 Putzar. Lane.. who published The Life of an Amorous Woman. Stanford: Stanford University Press.41 But there are almost no studies of this genre as a whole. 1968: 115-132. 1990). Edward." "Five Women Who Chose Love. 1957) and an entry in Keene’s World Within Walls. Some representative pieces have been translated. NY: Grove Press. 20. The only extended study are a 1957 article by Richard Lane (“The Beginnings of the Modern Japanese Novel: Kana-zoshi. Robert Leutner’s “Saikaku’s Parting Gift— Translations From Saikaku Okimiyage”. Edward. Tokyo: Sophia U. almost all of Saikaku’s major works have been translated into English." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 28 (1968): 98-113. Richard. Rucinski. and deserves as much scholarly attention as Gennai himself.. G. 1981. "Saikaku and the Japanese Novel of Realism. Tales of Samurai Honor. W. trans. 1955: 354-356. "'Inu makura': The Dog Pillow. Lane. Rutland. Lane. by Edward Putzar ("'Inu makura': The Dog Pillow. Wm." Monumenta Nipponica 14 (1958): 1-26.1-2 (1959-60): 87-118. 42 Lane. "The Beginnings of the Modern Japanese Novel: Kana-zoshi. which exists in a poor translation. Vt..44 Other noteworthy translations include Caryl Ann Callahan’s translation of Bukegiri monogatari. trans. Theodore. “books in kana”) was the prose fiction genre that flourished in the first half of the seventeenth century. Theodore de Bary’s Five Women Who Loved Love. "Postwar Japanese Studies of the Novelist Saikaku.. No." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 18 (1955): 181-99. trans. Two are parodies of Heian classical texts (Makura no soshi and Ise monogatari): Inu makura. 1957. trans. 1959. "The Umbrella Oracle. With the exception of Koshoku ichidai otoko. Lane. The Novella in Japan and Italy. Lane. trans."].") and Nise monogatari. A Bibliographical Study. and Tokyo: Tuttle. Anthology of Japanese Literature." In Ivan Morris trans. Columbia U. and G. Five Women Who Loved Love. Wm. prior to the rise of ukiyo-zoshi in the Genroku period. "Saikaku's Parting Gift—Translations From Saikaku Okimiyage. 1990." Ph. Lane. a translation of Nanshoku okagami. trans. Jack.43 This was followed 40 Putzar. and Reckonings That Carry Men Through the World (Seken munesan'yo). Lane. 31 ." in Donald Keene ed. 43 Lane.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. which included not only a translation of Life of an Amorous Woman but selections from other major works including Five Women Who Chose Love.W." Reckonings That Carry Men Through the World." Japan Quarterly 5 (1958): 71-82.1 (1975): 39-62.45 Another noteworthy translation is Paul Schalow’s The Great Mirror of Male Love (Stanford UP. de Bary." Monumenta Nipponica 16 (1960-61): 161-195. Tokyo: Monumenta Nipponica. Robert. "Chikusai monogatari: A Partial Translation. Ivan. "A Japanese Burlesque: Nise Monogatari. by Jack Kucinski ("A Japanese Burlesque: Nise Monogatari"). 1600-1682. "Saikaku's Prose Works. Leutner. "Two Samurai Tales. 40 Another popular kana-zoshi that has been translated in part is Chikusai monogatari. Romance and Realism in Old Japan. Richard. and in many instances we have more than one good translation. Tales of Samurai Honor. by Edward Putzar ("Chikusai monogatari: A Partial Translation")." Monumenta Nipponica 15. 2002 mier disciple. The Life of an Amorous Woman and Other Writings. 1956. The Great Mirror of Male Love. "Saikaku and Boccaccio. Morishima Churyo (Shin-ra Manzo) expanded Gennai's oeuvre even further.

2002 ichidai otoko. Haruo. dissertations on the subject. who wrote two masterworks. Donald. ed. (Seken musume katagi. (Seken musuko katagi." which reveals the manner in which Saikaku borrowed and parodied dramatic techniques (such as the michiyuki) from kabuki and joruri for his fiction. 1959. Jr. the scholarship has tended to be limited to explications of the socio-historical context of Saikaku’s works. "Old Stories. There have been several Ph. who is a writer on the order of Ihara Saikaku and Ueda Akinari.47 Saikaku awaits a major monograph in English.EARLY MODERN JAPAN FALL. Nevertheless.1 (1988): 63-93. Scientist. "Saikaku’s Adoption of Shuko from Kabuki and Joruri. Gesaku is one of the areas in which World Within Walls provides little discussion. Hibbett translated selections from Ejima’s Seken musuko katagi (Characters of Worldly Young Men.. Furyu ShiNoma. commonly referred to as Hachimonjiya-bon. "A Rake". 1715). New Modes: Ejima Kiseki’s Ukiyo Oyaji Katagi". and "A Worthless Trio" from Characters of Worldly Young Men. Charles E. and samurai. Fox.” Ph. in spite of the fact that more publishing of gesaku works occurred in the last century of the early modern period than in any other field. as well as other classes. but still obscure in Western scholarship. much less writing them. and Fox translated selections from Ukiyo oyaji katagi (Characters of Worldly Fathers)." The term derives from the fact that narrative fiction was considered base and vulgar. 1971). whose 1950 Harvard University dissertation was on Kiseki. as well as "A Wayward Wife" from Characters of Worldly Young Women. “Comic Fiction in Japan during the Later Edo Period.D. Includes translations of "A Prig". and Charles Fox ("Old Stories. 49 Fortunately. 17281780. 1979). New York: Columbia University Press." in Donald Jenkins' The Floating World Revisited (1993) provides one of the few extended discussions of gesaku available in English. New Modes: Ejima Kiseki's Ukiyo Oyaji Katagi. but none of these has been published.D. 1717). "A Swaggerer". The only significant work are the translations of Ejima Kiseki (1667-1736) by Howard Hibbett (The Floating World in Japanese Fiction. or samurai class. 2002. Haruko Iwasaki's essay "The Literature of Wit and Humor in LateEighteenth-Century Edo. New York: Oxford University Press." Monumenta Nipponica 43. An Anthology includes major selections from Gennai. 48 Hibbett. 1959). “Scholar. Haruko.48 Dangibon and Early Kokkeibon Another major lacuna in Edo prose fiction is the dangibon (comic sermons) and early kokkeibon (comic fiction) written in Edo from the mideighteenth century. which was important in Japan and should draw more attention in the West. is that by Noma Koshin. 51 Iwasaki's recognition of sekai ("world") and shuko ("trope") as factors making 49 Probably the best of these are Stanleigh Jones. dissertation (Columbia University. The Floating World in Japanese Fiction. particularly the work of the monumental figure of Hiraga Gennai (17281779). 50 Shirane. Little has been done in the area of postSaikaku ukiyo-zoshi. were especially discouraged from reading such works.” Ph. Howard S. Saikaku’s first work of prose fiction and the first ukiyo-zoshi. 1717). Portland: Portland Art Museum. and members of the bushi." sometimes translated as "frivolous works" or "playful writings. Despite the large number of translations. 47 doken den (The Modern Life of Shidoken) and Nenashigusa (Rootless Weeds). Hiraga Gennai. "Saikaku's Adoption of Shuko from Kabuki and Joruri. "A Spendthrift". Early Modern Japanese Literature. Virtually all fictional prose narratives written after 1750 are categorized into one of several subgenres of "gesaku. many of the most active gesaku writers came from samurai ranks. (1975): 62-83.. dissertation (University of Washington. D.50 (HS) Later Fiction Gesaku. One exceptional article. "The Literature of Wit and Humor in Late-Eighteenth-Century Edo. as well as the comic essay Hohiron (A Theory of Farting)." Acta Asiatica 28. 32 . and Sumie Jones. appear prominently in the pages of these works. 1993. Popular Author. 1715) and Seken musume katagi (Characters of Worldly Young Women. Koshin. The Floating World Revisited." In Jenkins. with particular emphasis on his chonin background and the commercial world that he inhabited. Early Modern Japanese Literature: An Anthology 1600-1900.. distributed by University of Hawai'i Press: 47-61. 51 Iwasaki.

Leon."53 Since Zolbrod's article. and even a 54 Takagi. Nakano Mitsutoshi. including his 1967 monograph. ed. represented by Santo Kyoden and Kyokutei Bakin. aside from Leon Zolbrod's work on Bakin. San Francisco: Gay Sunshine Press. Susanna. attempts to generate interest in early modern literature." The East 33-6 (1998): 20-22). yet retained the relative stature of their larger counterparts. next to nothing has been published on the Edo yomihon in general. Sibley's "The Blue Cowl" (Aozukin) in Partings at Dawn: An Anthology of Japanese Gay Literature (1996). Folklore Gleanings. Basically. Sibley. Rutland.52 Yomihon. Recently. Leon M. a 52 Nakano. Ibid. 58 Perhaps inspired by Mizoguchi Kenji's 1953 film of the same name. (Reprinted as "The Edo Period as an Antidote to Modernism: A Plea for Accepting the Tokugawa Age on Its Own Terms. and from the perspective of the interplay between word and image. Given the fact that they originated in the Kamigata (Kyoto-Osaka region) in the mid-eighteenth century. especially gesaku. 56 Saunders.1 (1990): 39-74. James T. and so were less expensive to produce. in a 1966 article. 33 . “The Nature of the Kami: Ueda Akinari and Tandai Shoshin Roku.. Yomihon are not a monolithic form. Mitsutoshi. Translations of Ugetsu monogatari (1776) made up some of the first articles to appear in Monumenta Nipponica.” MN 21 (1966): 171-202. Fessler. 58 Zolbrod. trans. but developed in Edo from the 1790s through the 1840s. Lafcadio. 57 Hearn. 1974. centered in the Kamigata region and represented by Tsuga Teisho and Ueda Akinari. is Leon Zolbrod's Ugetsu monogatari: Tales of Moonlight and Rain (1974).EARLY MODERN JAPAN FALL.” MN 25. William F.. Dennis. starting with Koizumi Yakumo's (Lafcadio Hearn's) "Of a Promise Kept" (Kikka no chigiri) and "The Story of Kogi the Priest" (Muo no rigyo) in A Japanese Miscellany (1905) up to William F. yomihon are divided into the early yomihon. from the perspective of its radical "dissimilarity" to the literature of other periods. Miller. 1967. Araki. For one thing. 1996: 125-33. practically nothing has appeared in English on yomihon as a general form. and Tokyo: Tuttle.1 (1996): 1-16.” Journal of Asian Studies 25 (1966): 485-498. “Ugetsu Monogatari or Tales of Moonlight and Rain. while the other gesaku subgenres depended heavily on a sophisticated blend of image and text in their works.3-4 (1970): 371406. “A Critical Approach to the ‘Ugetsu Monogatari’. For this reason Leon Zolbrod. 1967 (reprint of 1905 original). 53 Zolbrod. Takizawa Bakin." The Japan Foundation Newsletter 21-1 (1993): 1-8. we cannot expect uniformity. 2002 up gesaku structure provides a starting point for future research in gesaku across the lines of the various subgenres. New York: Twayne. especially in the 1770s and 1780s. 1995. "Revising Edo." Japanese Book News (Japan Foundation) 18 (1997): 3-5. or to one or two illustrations per volume. in spite of the fact that the two major writers of the final century of the early modern era. trans. and. Tokyo: Perikan Sha. Furthermore. “Yomihon: The Appearance of the Historical Novel in Late Eighteenth Century and Early Nineteenth Century Japan. 57 The "standard" translation of Ugetsu monogatari to date. Gen. are remembered today for their yomihon works. Edo yomihon no kenkyu: jukyu-seiki shosetsu yoshiki ko. and the Edo yomihon. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. Leon M. “Hankai: A Translation from Harusame Mongatari by Ueda Akinari.. though. Dale tr. subgenre of the Edo yomihon. Ugetsu Monogatari: Tales of Moonlight and Rain. Studies Here and There. the Japanese scholar Takagi Gen has conducted extensive work in a subgenre called the Chubongata yomihon. Anthony tr.” Monumenta Nipponica 22 (1967): 49-64." In Steven D. "reading books") are distinct from other forms of gesaku in several ways. Yomihon (literally. Washburn. "The Blue Cowl [Aozukin]. "Hardboiled Survivors of the Edo Studies Boom. Vt. and Akinarirelated articles and translations have continued to appear in that journal on a regular basis. A Japanese Miscellany: Strange Stories. referred to the yomihon as "historical novels. their illustrations were limited to frontispieces.54 No research is available in English on this subgenre. “Ghostwriters and Literary Haunts: Subordinating Ethics to Art in Ugetsu Monogatari. Chambers. 56 Ugetsu monogatari itself has been translated in whole or in part several times. Finally. which are lighter in style and smaller in size. a pair of essays by the premier scholar of gesaku in Japan today.” Monumenta Nipponica 45.” MN 51.55 Ueda Akinari and his works are a different matter. Partings at Dawn: An Anthology of Japanese Gay Literature. Ueda Akinari and Kyokutei Bakin. yomihon were generally historical in nature. 55 Zolbrod.

dissertation.59 While Sasaki's translation falls short of its goal.” HJAS 32 (1972): 150-207. "A Critical Approach to the 'Ugetsu Monogatari'. Young." Monumenta Nipponica 22 (1967): 49-64. was a contempory who associated with Akinari.." Monumenta Nipponica 45.D.68 Another yomihon 64 Reider. 2002 jazz composition by Art Blakey. has also received quite a bit of attention. University of Michigan..61 James T. Tokyo: Chuo Koron Shinsha. Ueda Akinari. a comparative approach that also takes in the intellectual trends of the time seems most promising. artistic. perhaps more for his literary. Tokyo: Hokuseido Press. Several scholars have done critical studies on Akinari and his work. Blake Morgan Young in 1972. Another bunjin. Ueda Akinari’s Tales of a Rain’d Moon. like Hiraga Gennai and Buson. Sasaki Takamasa tr. 61 Young." SinoJapanese Studies 12-1.EARLY MODERN JAPAN FALL. 1975. "Santo Kyoden and the Yomihon: Mukashi-gatari inazuma byoshi. both in Japan and abroad. 63 Washburn. Ann Arbor: Center for Japanese Studies. with translations of the longest story in the collection. 66 Marceau. November 1999: 33-46.1 (1982): 77-121.66 One of Ayatari's important works was translated from the perspective of the "starcrossed-lovers" motif by Blake Morgan Young in 1982. or bohemian individualist. Lawrence Edward. 1990. Blake Morgan. Bekkan. Harvard University. Noriko R. Lawrence E. The published study is entitled. Takebe Ayatari.” Ph. Tokyo: Japan Foundation. et al.1 (1990): 39-74." Ph. that promise to open up a new era of Akinari scholarship." by Anthony Chambers in 1970. "Ghostwriters and Literary Haunts: Subordinating Ethics to Art in Ugetsu Monogatari. 60 Jackman's translation is especially helpful in that it provides an alternative translation of parts of "Hankai" based on a variant manuscript. The first writer of later yomihon published in Edo is Santo Kyoden. and scholarly relationships during the eighteenth century than for the quality of his prose. 1 v. little else is available. 1982. trans. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. and first-rate introductions to those texts. 62 Araki. The ongoing publication of Akinari's collected works in Japan provides scholars with accurately transcribed texts. 68 Devitt. ed. is considered a representative bunjin. Jackman.” Monumenta Nipponica 37.62 Another important study that links Ugetsu monogatari to Akinari's nativist scholarship is Dennis Washburn's 1990 "Ghostwriters and Literary Haunts: Subordinating Ethics to Art in Ugetsu Monogatari. active in a number of genres. Jane Devitt produced a Harvard dissertation in 1976. “‘Hankai’: A Tale from the Harusame monogatari by Ueda Akinari (1734-1809). Noriko R. Blake Morgan. Barry. Tales of the Spring Rain: Harusame Monogatari by Ueda Akinari. and its inclusion in Barry Jackman's complete translation."63 In 1999. 1990-. due to appear from the Center for Japanese Studies. Sasaki Takamasa created a limited-edition translation in 1981 that attempts to recreate Akinari's prose in a style attempting to emulate Shakespeare's. and probably Gennai.64 Given Akinari's breadth. “A Tale of the Western Hills: Takebe Ayatari’s Nishiyama Monogatari. Ueda Akinari zenshu. 67 Young. “Literati Consciousness in Early Modern Japan: Takebe Ayatari and the Bunjin. Blake M. Ayatari attracts our scholarly interest. 59 34 . it provides an example of the range of possibilities available when translating early modern literary texts. but other than these two items. James T. Tales of the Spring Rain: Harusame Monogatari by Ueda Akinari in 1975. and provides a starting point for future studies. trans.D. University of Michigan. recorded in concert in Tokyo in 1961. identifying the relationship between the text and Chinese vernacular sources. and subsequently an article in HJAS in 1979. "Hankai. Jane Crawford. "'Chrysanthemum Tryst': Remaking a Chinese Ghost Story in Japan. Marceau has completed a study of his life and many of his literary and artistic works from the bunjin perspective. Takebe Ayatari: A Bunjin Bohemian in Early Modern Japan. Araki in 1967 provided the first "critical approach" (in his words) to Ugetsu monogatari. Dennis. 65 Nakamura Yukihiko. 13 vols. 60 Chambers: 1970. 1981. 65 This is especially important with regard to his many other untranslated works that demand careful analysis. Reider conducted a useful comparative study of one of the stories in Ugetsu monogatari with its Chinese source. of the eighteenth century. "Ugetsu" (Blakey believed that "ugetsu" was the Japanese translation for "fantasy"). unpublished until modern times). Akinari's other major collection of historical narratives. Akinari.67 As a polymath. in press. Harusame monogatari (1805-09. Young's 1982 biography is a detailed study of Akinari's life and major work.

On the other hand. Zolbrod. trans. and scholar. but no other works or studies have been published to provide a greater sense of this talented and prolific Edo writer. also famous in his youth as the kyoka poet. including fashions. instead of the two or three for kibyoshi. Tokyo: Yagi Shoten. Ninjobon. Gokan appeared after the decline of kibyoshi. &Tokyo: Tuttle.” In Katushiko Takeda. and even decades in some of the most successful cases. Tokyo: Waseda University Press. and through serialization. The scholar who did the most work on Bakin is Leon Zolbrod. Frederick Victor Dickens published in 1912 a translation of Masamochi's Hida no takumi monogatari (1808). as well as translation of a Bakin kibyoshi. with Illustrations by Kitao Shigemasa. or "books of human emotion. Essays on Japanese Literature. as a scholar of the classics and classical language. adults overwhelmingly made up the readership of kibyoshi ("yellow-covers") and gokan ("combined fascicles") . “Tigers. Takizawa Bakin. 71 Zolbrod.EARLY MODERN JAPAN FALL. Finally. and other matters related to a successful experience as a customer visiting the quarters. differences between various courtesans. Zolbrod. ninjobon. and an Introduction. “The Autumn of the Epic Romance in Japan: Theme and Motif in Takizawa Bakin’s Historical Novels. and expanded the possibilities of the genre through publication in bundles of five booklets. Kibyoshi consisted of short illustrated narratives that often parodied contemporary life in innovative ways. New York: Twayne. Boars. Nanso Satomi Hakken den. Leon M. “Santo Kyoden and the yomihon.2 (1979): 253-74. and his works. in retirement. identified by the color of their covers. Some 1000 titles were published over the period between 1775 and 1805. “The Allegory of Evil in Satomi and the Eight ‘Dogs’. trans. poet.72 Kusazoshi (Akahon. Kokkeibon. with children as the intended audience." represent popular fiction. 2002 author for whom more work is necessary is Ishikawa Masamochi. but also published three articles on Bakin's representative work.70 Zolbrod's 1967 biography provides a good starting point for any number of studies and translations of Bakin. entitled. Sharebon. and. his milieu in Edo.2 (1970): 172-184.” Monumenta Nipponica 20. both in the metropolis of Edo. Zolbrod." arose after the demise of the sharebon. Kurohon/Aohon. Vt. Bakin is extremely important. whereby a particular work might continue appearing in annual installments over a period of years.1-2 (1965): 121-134. Yadoya no Meshimori. Devitt. Kyokutei Bakin. 1977: 76-94. 35 . would be a valuable contribution to the field. The subject matter for these works. 1988. 69 Dickens. dissertation. 1976. The Magical Carpenter of Japan. and Kokkeibon. while cast as fictional narratives. or over thirty titles annually." consisted of humorous narratives and focused on the foibles of comic characters and the earthy side of everyday life. Frederick Victor. The Magical Carpenter of Japan.71 As a literary critic. which Tuttle reissued under the title. ed. Rutland. Sharebon ("fashionable books"). Fleacatcher Managoro. Gokan). through the wealth of detail they contained often provided valuable information to people who wished to know details of life in the pleasure quarters.” HJAS 39. by Rokujiuyen (Ishikawa Masamochi). or "humor books. Kusazoshi. These genres represent the most popu72 Kimura Miyogo. Kinsei mono no hon Edo sakusha burui (1834). 1965 (reprint of 1912 ed. Akahon ("red books") and kurohon/aohon ("black books/blue books") appeared in the first half of the eighteenth century. and Severed Heads: Parallel Series of Episodes in Eight “Dogs” and Men of the Marshes. wrote under the sobriquet. Takizawa Bakin. and generally focused on the intricacies of the often complex relationships between courtesans and their customers. Leon. Story of a Hida Craftsman). not only completed a biography. insider slang terms.” Literature East and West 14. the Fifth. and in the provinces. Kibyoshi. sometimes referred to as "grass booklets. in which illustrations of the narrative are equal in importance to the text itself.” Chung Chi Journal 7 (1967): 3039. “The Vendetta of Mr. and a study with selective translations of his series of critical comments on early modern gesaku authors. tended to focus on legends. fairy tales.69 The major figure of the Edo yomihon. Harvard University. and similar stories that children and their mothers would have desired to read. 70 Zolbrod. Kinsei mono no hon Edo sakusha burui. 1967.

” Monumenta Nipponica 25. (LEM) Early Modern Drama There are a number of general introductions and surveys of Japanese theater that devote significant space to kabuki and joruri. and fewer books have appeared on these subjects. a 1993 biography of Ryutei Tanehiko. 77 36 . Zolbrod. 1929). the author. 1998). Harvard University. are represented by Alan S. only Robert Leutner's partial translation of and introduction to Shikitei Samba's Ukiyo-buro.” Monumenta Nipponica 24. 75 Araki. Cambridge. Nishiki no ura: An Instance of Censorship and the Structure of a sharebon. 1-2 (1969): 31-45. 1993. They should be noted here since some of these are often just as useful as the more specialized studies or translations. 1959). 1969). Leon M. trans. Thomas. and Thomas Satchell's idiosyncratic translation of Jippensha Ikku's Tokai dochu Hizakurige (reprinted) are available. with his 1977 MN article.74 James Araki broke the ground in studies of sharebon with his 1969 MN article. especially during the An'ei and Temmei eras (1772-89). "Sharebon: Books for Men of Mode. 1971).EARLY MODERN JAPAN FALL. “Romantic Edo Fiction: A Study of the Ninjobon and Complete Translation of ‘Shunshoku Umegoyomi’.79 Other noteworthy general introductions include Peter Arnott’s The Theatres of Japan (St. 74 Markus.D. and. and his position in the world of ninjobon writing in particular."73 The major work to date among any book-length studies is Andrew Markus's masterful The Willow in Autumn: Ryutei Tanehiko. and Tokyo: Tuttle. The only work on kusazoshi in general is Leon Zolbrod's 1968 "Kusazoshi: Chapbooks of Japan. dissertation. : Council on East Asian Studies. Traditional Japanese Theater: An Anthology of Plays (Columbia UP.2 (1977): 153-188. With regard to kokkeibon."78 Tamenaga Shunsui. Alan S. an extremely well conceived anthology of which 259 pages are devoted to kabuki and joruri. Mass. Kawatake Toshio’s A History of Japanese Theatre II: Bunraku and Kabuki (Kokusai bunka shinkokai.” Ph. Kornicki. The Willow in Autumn: Ryutei Tanehiko 1783-1842. New York: Columbia University Press.. and Tenpo-era (1830-43) literary circles in general. 1995).” Monumenta Nipponica 32. Faubian Bowers’s Japanese Theatre (Hill and Wang." while Peter Kornicki provided a study of the Kansei-era crackdown on satirical fiction. are invaluable sources for understanding popular culture. 1970. 1998. is another major figure in his own right."75 The best published study of kibyoshi so far has been James Araki's highly entertaining study of a Chinese Taoist motif and its transformation in Japanese popular fiction. Satchell. "Romantic Edo Fiction: A Study of the Ninjobon and Complete Translation of 'Shunshoku Umegoyomi'. “Kusazoshi: Chapbooks of Japan.1-2 (1970): 43-105. 1978.77 Finally. Mass. as such. 1783-1842. dissertation. based in the pleasure quarters. Karen. Japan’s Great Comic Novel of Travel & Ribaldry. ninjobon romances of the earlynineteenth century. "The Dream Pillow in Edo Fiction: 1772-81" in MN. Shikitei Sanba and the Comic Tradition in Edo Fiction (1985). Nise Murasaki inaka Genji.: Harvard Council on East Asian Studies. “The Dream Pillow in Edo Fiction. Traditional Japanese Theater: An Anthology of Plays. especially the dynamic lifestyles of the inhabitants of the Edo metropolis itself. author of the massive episodic novel in fully illustrated gokan form. James T. Peter F. 2002 lar forms of narrative fiction in the early modern period. 1960 (first pub. 1985. ed.D. ed. Vt.” Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan 10 (1968): 116-147. Rutland. few articles. "Nishiki no ura: An Instance of Censorship and the Structure of a sharebon. Martin's Press. Andrew Lawrence. “Sharebon: Books for Men of Mode. 76 More specific studies along the lines of Araki's would go far toward providing an appreciation of the quality and level of sophistication of illustrated fiction. demands our attention. James T. 78 Woodhull. These include Karen Brazell. Robert. Shanks’ Mare: Being a Translation of the Tokaido Volumes of Hizakurige. 1772-81. 73 Leutner. Stanford University. and Benito Ortolani’s The Japanese Theatre: From Shamanistic Ritual to Contemporary Pluralism (Princeton University Press. Shikitei Sanba and the Comic Tradition in Edo Fiction. one that brought an end to sharebon and kibyoshi as they had existed in the 1780s. Woodhull's 1978 Stanford Ph. In spite of the plethora of subgenres.. 76 Araki. Cambridge. 79 Brazell.

82 Keene. Backstage at Bunraku: A Behind the Scenes Look at Japan's Traditional Puppet Theater. The 84 Keene. translated by Stanleigh Jones as Yoshitsune and the Thousand Cherry Trees: A Masterpiece of the Eighteenth-Century Japanese Puppet Theater. In Bunraku: The Art of the Japanese Puppet Theater. 1985. particularly in the later Chikamatsu history plays that Keene had not translated. 116] Cambridge. Andrew. Columbia University. the most famous of Chikamatsu Monzaemon’s historical plays (jidaimono). which introduced the diversity of Chikamatsu’s plays to the world and laid the ground for all subsequent studies. but it was understood almost entirely as performance. 1978. 85 Two other beautifully illustrated books on this topic are Barbara Adachi’s Backstage at Bunraku and The Voices and Hands of Bunraku. 83 Gerstle. New York: Columbia University Press. in collaboration with Namiki Senryu and others. Harvard University. Sugawara denju tenarai kagami. Donald.. translated by Donald Keene. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. dissertation was on Chikamatsu Monzaemon’s The Battles of Coxinga. their costumes. Donald. Mass. (revised version of Adachi 1978). and the training of the puppeteers. 80 Donald Shively. The Love Suicide at Amijima. The "big three" of the "golden age" were Kanadehon Chushingura. Donald Keene provides both commentary and full-size photographs on these topics. who was ranked by some contemporaries as the equal of Chikamatsu. which looked for the first time in English not only at the content and social and religious context but at the musical structure of the joruri play.82 A major turning point in the state of the field occurred in 1986 when Andrew Gerstle published Circles of Fantasy: Convention in the Plays of Chikamatsu. "'The Battles of Coxinga': Chikamatsu's Puppet Play. Jr. 1986.. 37 . Columbia University Press. New York: Columbia University Press. trans. 1993. more elaborate multi-authored plays.. [Harvard East Asian monographs.86 Kabuki Kabuki has attracted the attention of Western audiences from as early as the Meiji period. also Tokyo: Mobil Sekiyu Kabushiki-gaisha. The roles of the shamisen and the musicians is also extremely important. Jones. Chushingura: The Treasury of Loyal Retainers. Circles of Fantasy: Convention in the Plays of Chikamatsu. and Yoshitsune senbonzakura. trans. 83 Gerstle drew subtle parallels between the musical structure of the plays and the larger narrative movement (such as the downward spiral toward hell). 80 Keene as Chushingura: The Treasury of Loyal Retainers. Sugawara and the Secrets of Calligraphy. These were longer." Ph. 85 Keene. New York: Weatherhill. 86 Adachi. whose 1952 Ph. 1985. Major Plays of Chikamatsu. in The Love Suicide at Amijima.EARLY MODERN JAPAN FALL. The Art of the Japanese Puppet Theatre.. thereby opening up yet more ground for understanding the breadth of Chikamatsu’s vast repertoire. Its Background and Importance. Tokyo: Kodansha. soon after wrote a study and translation of Chikamatsu’s most noted contemporary play (sewamono). translated by Stanleigh Jones as Sugawara and the Secrets of Calligraphy.D. murder. 1961. these plays are rarely performed in their entirety but key scenes from these plays are regularly performed in both bunraku and kabuki. 1965. dissertation. trans. The Voices and Hands of Bunraku. Stanleigh H. and the role of the protagonist.: Council on East Asian Studies. and Adachi. Yoshitsune and the Thousand Cherry Trees: A Masterpiece of the EighteenthCentury Japanese Puppet Theater. Donald. their wigs. D. 1953. Jones. Donald L. 1978. Gerstle went on to write a series of articles on the notion of tragedy. after the death of Chikamatsu and the development of the three-person puppet. their construction.84 All three were written by Takeda Izumo II (1691-1756). 2002 Puppet Theater The field of joruri (present-day bunraku) or puppet theater was pioneered by Donald Keene. Tokyo & New York: Kodansha International. 1952. One of the interests of bunraku. Bunraku. The English reader thus has full access to these plays. C. with little attempt to translate the texts. is of course the puppets. Barbara Curtis. New York: Columbia University Press. 1971. 81 Eventually Keene went on to translate ten sewamono (contemporary or domestic plays) by Chikamatsu in Major Plays of Chikamatsu. which are deserving of more specialized study. What many consider to be the "golden age" of the puppet theater occurred in the mid-eighteenth century. trans. 81 Shively. trans. their manipulation. Donald H. With the exception of Chushingura.

Sugawara’s Secrets of Calligraphy. James R. Kabuki Plays on Stage. and Donald H.” Monumenta Nipponica.. Chronicle of the Battle of Ichinotani.EARLY MODERN JAPAN FALL. 88 Leiter. One consequence is that the interest in kabuki is more extensive both in Japan and in the West. C. New York: Grove Press.. who each produced an anthology of noted kabuki plays. 1997. “Ya no Ne: The Genesis of a Kabuki Aragoto Classic. in the 1830s. 88 Both anthologies. and Naozamurai."93 Of the two forms. Andrew. an outstanding study of early kabuki. Not surprisingly.91 Earle Ernst’s The Kabuki Theatre remains perhaps the best all-around study of the historical milieu of kabuki. the nature of the audience. of Edo kabuki. Adolphe. One important group of kabuki plays are the Kabuki juhachiban (Eighteen Plays of Kabuki). Shively.. Samuel L. kabuki has been more active and continues to grow. Leiter. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1953. Reprint of Harvard University Press edition. 87 Leiter’s The Art of Kabuki: Famous Plays in Performance contains noted scenes from Benten kozo. and Ya no ne (Laurence Kominz)—most of these plays are not yet available in English89 . and can appear in television. "Flowers of Edo: EighteenthCentury Kabuki and Its Patrons. The Art of Kabuki: Famous Plays in Performance. particularly in the mid-eighteenth century. "Flowers of Edo: EighteenthCentury Kabuki and Its Patrons. New plays continue to be written for kabuki. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. James R. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. Saint Narukami. when kabuki was in decline. Narukami (Brandon) and Kanjincho (Adolphe Scott). The transla91 Brandon. William P. Shunkan. which have established a kind of canon for Western readers. and The Scarlet Princess of Edo.90 It is well known that there is a close relationship between kabuki and joruri. 87 tury—Kanadehon Chushingura. Love Letter From the Licensed Quarter. and there are very few new joruri plays. and Historical Context. the life of the actors. 38. Studies in Kabuki: Its Acting. film.92 Also recommended is Andrew Gerstle. Kabuki actors are major stars. 1983: 387-407.Malm." Asian Theatre Journal 4. Brandon and Leiter have translated a number of noted scenes from the kabuki adaptations of joruri (such as the noted "Temple School" scene from Sugawara denju tenarai kagami) and famous scenes from Chronicle of the Battle of Ichinotani and Shunkan. The Kabuki Theatre. 38 . and Donald Shively’s Studies in Kabuki: Its Acting. Brandon and Leiter are now editing a multi-volume series of translations of kabuki that include many of the eighteen plays and that should dramatically alter the state of the field as a whole. especially Ichikawa Danjuro and Sakata Tojuro. and Samuel L. and Kominz. 1978. 90 Brandon. which is performed regularly at a number of venues. Though some of these eighteen plays have been translated—such as Sukeroku (Brandon). Earle. Gen'yadana: A Japanese Kabuki Play and Kanjincho: A Japanese Kabuki Play. Laurence. were derived from joruri. the number of performances of joruri remains limited. Music. a canon established by Ichikawa Danjuro VII. Many of the plays in the kabuki repertoire. Indeed. 2002 first major breakthroughs in the postwar period came with the translations done by James Brandon and Samuel Leiter. and theater. Tokyo & New York: Kodansha International.. 2002.. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ed. Western scholars have produced a number of fine historical studies that examine the contemporary socio-political milieu of the theater. the three great joruri plays of the mid-eighteenth cen- Brandon. and the structure of the theaters. 5 volumes. 1956. (1975). Brandon’s Kabuki: Five Classic Plays contains famous scenes from Sukeroku. Particularly noteworthy are James Brandon. take representative plays ranging from the early-eighteenth century to the latenineteenth century and provide highly detailed stage instructions and photographs. 1979. the troupes are government supported. 92 Ernst. the conventions of kabuki. 89 Scott. Tokyo: Hokuseido. By contrast. Laurence.1 (1987): 52-75.4. kabuki and joruri. Music. James R. The Stars Who Created Kabuki. 93 Gerstle. on the plays as they are performed today. & tr. Sugawara denju tenarai kagami. 1992. and Yoshitsune senbonzakura— became three of the foundations for the kabuki repertoire. William Malm. the primary interest of Western research on kabuki remains with contemporary kabuki. and Kominz. Kabuki: Five Classic Plays. and Historical Context and Laurence Kominz’s The Stars Who Created Kabuki.

J.D. Brandon includes Nanboku’s The Scarlet Princess of Edo (1817) in his anthology.: Princeton University Press. which remain scarce and difficult to obtain. Ooms. Herman. especially as it was reformulated in the Southern Sung dynasty by Chu Hsi and the Ch'eng brothers. and swindlers. and how these teachings were interpreted by Yi Toegye in sixteenth-century Korea. 1570-1680. From this perspective. Harootunian. with Motofuji. Victor Koschmann. The teacher instead must teach kabuki strictly as performance. Things Seen and Unseen: Discourse and Ideology in Tokugawa Nativism. Frank T. Harootunian. this is an area that needs to be developed: a video library of kabuki with English subtitles.95 We are also fortunate to have an English translation of the most important treatise on kabuki acting. H. Karen Brazell’s anthology includes a fine translation by Mark Oshima of Nanboku’s Tokaido Yotsuya kaidan. Tokugawa Ideology: Early Constructs. Naoki. 1969). 97 They have. later identified as sharing kogaku. Ito Jinsai in Kyoto. one should be aware of the teachings of the disparate schools. 94 Both of these major playwrights deserve to have full-length studies in English." tendencies. and its relationship to Yomeigaku and Shingaku in Japan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Tetsuo and Irwin Scheiner eds. The Love of Izayoi and Seishin: A Kabuki Play by Kawatake Mokuami. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. It is also necessary to be aware of the thought of the Ming philosopher Wang Yang-ming. trans. The Actors' Analects. are also included in Leiter’s anthology. 1969 [trans. have appeared over the past quarter century. Westport. of Yakusha banashi]. are consequently filled with minute stage instructions based on modern performances. which has been extensively revised and expanded. Famous scenes from Mokuami’s most famous play.. murderers. Japanese Thought in the Tokugawa Period. by Wm. In short. later. Yakusha banashi. H. Finally. VT: Tuttle. Princeton. Tetsuo Najita. New York: Columbia University Press. and. it is of course essential to have a familiarity with Confucian thought. translated by Frank Motofuji. New Kabuki Encyclopedia. Other plays by Mokuami include The Love of Izayoi and Seishin. to the use of literature as a means of indirectly criticizing the political status quo by Takizawa (Kyokutei) Bakin. Several major studies of early modern Japanese thought. Two major nineteenth century kabuki playwrights to receive attention from Western scholars are Tsuruya Nanboku IV (1755-1829). we can discern a range of trends and strategies for legitimizing literary activity. Naoki Sakai. Herman Ooms. From the narrowly didactic views of literature proposed by Confucian scholars such as Hayashi Razan and Yamazaki Ansai and their schools in the seventeenth century through the reinterpretations of the Chinese and Japanese classics by Ito Jinsai and Ogyu Sorai. 1966. 94 97 For example. D. 1978. and published as New Kabuki Encyclopedia. 2002 tions of kabuki. A helpful sourcebook in English is Samuel Leiter’s Kabuki Encyclopedia. 1997. Charles and Bunzo Torigoe. Benten kozo. known for his drama of thieves. Najita. by Kamo no Mabuchi and Motoori Norinaga in the eighteenth century. N. Theodore de Bary and Irene Bloom. which has been translated by Charles Dunn and Bunzo Torigoe as The Actors’ Analects (Columbia UP. Voices of the Past: The Status of Language in 39 . and others. Janine Sawada. this rarely makes for good reading as literature.96 (HS) Literary Thought (Excluding Hairon and Drama Theory): Confucian and Nativist Studies Literary thought in the early modern period underwent a course of development in conjunction with developments in socio-political and religious thought in general. 1988. Rutland. 1985. CT: Greenwood Press. (Kosode Soga azami no ironui) 95 Leiter. also in Edo. 1600-1868: Methods and Metaphors. or "ancient learning. and Ogyu Sorai.EARLY MODERN JAPAN FALL. Samuel L. particularly those by Brandon and Leiter. pimps. with the aid of video or film. Hagiwara Hiromichi. Sakai. enough to allow for a director to perform the play in English. 96 Dunn. and Kawatake Mokuami (1816-93). and Hirose Tanso in the nineteenth century. However. promoted by Yamaga Soko in Edo.

While both Peter Nosco and Blake Morgan Young." Monumenta Nipponica 49 (1994): 455-69. 1982. for comprehending the literary thought that served as a pillar of the various ideological systems promoted over this period. approached the movement from a perspective of "nostalgia" and archaic utopianism. 101 40 . Sawada. Mass. Sources of Japanese Tradition. Ueda Akinari. 102 Thomas. Harvard Yenching Monograph series 31. Mabuchi. “Nature.102 Other disputes exist. Remembering Paradise. New York: Columbia University Press. (Iwanami koza) Nihon bungaku shi. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.EARLY MODERN JAPAN FALL.103 Nosco's book-length study of nativist studies. reinterpretation. Ryusaku. Harvard University. De Bary. little work has been done to date. 1976.100 One intellectual historian who has examined some of the literary issues involved is Peter Nosco. Nosco. analyzed the important Kokka hachiron. who. 99 Keene's observations require extensive amplification. and National Learning: The Kokka hachiron Controversy: 1742-46. Sources of Japanese Tradition. 1958. Rinehart and Winston. Confucian Values and Popular Zen: Sekimon Shingaku in Eighteenth-Century Japan. and Naoki Sakai. Volume II. Janine Anderson. Remembering Paradise: Nativism and Nostalgia in Eighteenth-Century Japan. World Within Walls: Japanese Literature of the Pre-Modern Era 1600-1868. and Irene Bloom. and of the growing body of research on early modern Japanese poetics that continues to appear in Japan (such as the excellent series of essays found in the kinsei volumes [1996] of the Iwanami koza Nihon bungaku shi series). 1964 (paper). 1993. "'High' versus 'Low': The Fude no Saga Controversy and Bakumatsu Poetics. Cambridge. Roger K. 103 Young. The Mito Ideology: Discourse. have discussed this controversy.. and Koschmann.101 Study of such "debates" can prove fruitful toward understanding poetic preferences from within a culture. 1987. provided readers with some tools for understanding intellectual trends.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 41. J." controversy between Kada no Arimaro and Tayasu Munetake (joined later by Eighteenth-Century Japanese Discourse. 1991. NewYork and London: Columbia University Press.1 (1981): 75-91. 98 Tsunoda. ed. in his Voices of the Past (1991). each leaving at least one published anthology of his poems (kashu) behind. but these are typically not directly related to literary thought per se. and. both of primary sources. et al. Wm. 2002 varying degrees of success. and the "Edo faction" (Edo-ha) led by Murata Harumi and Kato Chikage in the first decade of the nineteenth century. 1990. identified the Man'yoshu and Man'yo studies in the early modern period as a convenient angle for examining the literary Nosco. Wm. 1996. many of the issues Nosco raises in his study might profitably be re-examined from a perspective that focuses on such literary issues as the development of alternative schools of poetry composition and their relationships with the publishing industry at that time. Peter. With regard to translations of theoretical texts. Berkeley. 98 Donald Keene's World Within Walls in many cases provides the only discussion of the thought promoted by various writers. most notably the heated argument that waged between Ueda Akinari in Osaka and Motoori Norinaga in Matsusaka in the late 1780s. 100 Kubota Jun. Principle and Practicality: Essays in Neo-Confucianism and Practical Learning. known as the Kagaika Controversy. Theodore. and finally Norinaga until the latter's death in 1801. Volume II provide brief translations of works by various thinkers of the period. 1979.104 Nosco surveys the movement from Keichu in Osaka in the 1690s through Kada no Azumamaro in Kyoto. Donald. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. Blake Morgan. Peter. Los Angeles and London: University of California Press. and Insurrection in Late Tokugawa Japan. 104 Nosco. and Roger Thomas successfully broke new ground in 1994 with an article on the "ga/zoku" controversy that waged between followers of Kagawa Kageki in Kyoto. Given the fact that all five of the main nativist scholars were known for their poetry. Victor. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten. Akinari's biographer.: Council on East Asian Studies. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. 1790-1864. a full examination has yet to appear. or "Eight Treatises on (Japanese) National Poetry. ed. comp. and Donald Keene. Theodore de Bary. to a lesser extent. in 1981. Volumes 7-11. Reform. New York: Holt. and critical examination based on a close reading. 99 Keene. Invention. Kamo no Mabuchi).

for that matter) actually played." Earl Miner. 112 Marceau. 1998. Many important Japanese Confucian scholars dealt with literary issues in their writings. dissertation. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. 130-50." Ph. 1794).. Scholarship such as this provides a standard of quality that future students in the field can use when judging their own work. Lawrence E. In this respect." Ph. 1999. 1991. 109 41 . 106 Harper. and its reception.D. 1985. 107 Noguchi.D. the only article to date that examines the relationship between Jinsai's school. and of Genji studies alike. trans. 107 More recently. Principles of Classical Japanese Literature. and also to provide nativist-leaning scholars with new tools for developing their own poetics. 1999. 111 Tucker. though. and The Tale of Genji. Yale University. Noguchi Takehiko examined the use of Genji monogatari by the nineteenth-century scholar Hagiwara Hiromichi (1815-63). The major development in early-modern use of Genji monogatari by an intellectual figure.108 Publication of Caddeau's study will go far to help fill in the gaps in our understanding on the relationships between Chinese and Japanese literary thought. Spae wrote a treatise on Ito Jinsai in the 1940s that appeared in reprinted form in 1967. Princeton: Princeton University Press. rigorous attention to factual detail. 113 Jones. Voices of the Past: The Status of Language in Eighteenth-Century Japanese Discourse. in which she related Sorai's literary thought with Hiraga Gennai's creative practice. Go-Mo jigi ("Meanings of Words in the Analects and the Mencius"). Early modern scholarly and critical interest in the Heian classics. and the Shih ching. John Allen. The 1971 dissertation by Thomas Harper on Norinaga's Genji monogatari Tama no ogushi (pub. IdeSakai. Joseph J.105 Much more detail is necessary. Ito Jinsai's Gomo Jigi & the Philosophical Definition of Early Modern Japan.) New York: Paragon Book Reprint Corp. (Master Sorai's Re- McMullen. Princeton: Princeton UP. Patrick W. Thomas James. In a 1985 essay translated by Bob Wakabayashi. thesis on Hiromichi and his poetics. though. complete with English translation of the "Omune" ("General Theory") section. however. Protest. 2002 thought of various scholars. has for three decades now served as an important starting point for many students. Sumie. Joseph J.” In Earl Miner. 106 Hopefully this study will be published. Wakabayashi. University of Michigan. Oxford: Oxford UP. and how those roles changed over the course of the period.112 As for Sorai and his literary thought. Pp. is James McMullen's 1999 monograph. dissertation. “Language in Crisis: Ogyu Sorai’s Philological Thought and Hiraga Gennai’s Creative Practice. Educator and Sinologist of the Tokugawa Period. Protest.109 McMullen's analysis is marked by clarity of thought. "Ninjo and the Affective Value of Literature at the Kogido Academy. both of early modern literary thought.. D. a masterful study of Genji in Kumazawa Banzan's thought. Naoki. (rept.EARLY MODERN JAPAN FALL. and clarity of argument. ed. 1967. Patrick Caddeau has produced a substantial Ph. such as the Ise monogatari and the Genji monogatari also serve as potential subjects of fruitful research. and examine its development. 113 Sorai influenced many more writers than Gennai. 1985: 209-256. to provide a clear understanding of what roles the Man'yoshu (or the Kokinshu or the Shin-kokinshu. and between nativist poetics and nineteenth-century yomihon fiction. Idealism. 105 alism. and such treatises served both to enhance literary discourse among Confucians themselves. and the Tale of Genji." SinoJapanese Studies 9/1 (November 1996): 47-55. or Book of Songs. "Motoori Norinaga's Criticism of the Genji monogatari: A Study of the Background and Critical Content of His Genji monogatari Tama no ogushi. Ito Jinsai: A Philosopher. Leiden: Brill. James.111 However. Principles of Classical Japanese Literature.110 John Allen Tucker has recently published a translation and study of one of Jinsai's most important works. ed. or perhaps a future study can take Norinaga's literary thought to the next level. is Lawrence Marceau's study found in the journal Sino-Japanese Studies. "Hagiwara Hiromichi's 'Genji monogatari hyoshaku': Criticism and commentary on 'The Tale of Genji'. 108 Caddeau. 1971. "The Substratum Constituting Monogatari: Prose Structure and Narrative in the Genji Monogatari. its origins. Bob T. Takehiko. especially Jinsai's notion of human emotions. Samuel Yamashita has published a useful translation of the Sorai sensei tomonsho. and their indebtedness to Sorai and his followers demands further examination. Sumie Jones published an essay in Earl Miner's Principles of Classical Japanese Literature (1985). 110 Spae.

with his 1977 survey. Eirakuya Toshiro: Publisher at Nagoya. Ithaca: Cornell UP. Maruyama Masao's study of Ogyu Sorai's thought transformed the field when it appeared in English translation in 1974. Peter Kornicki's 1998 The Book in Japan serves as a cornerstone that will continue to be valuable for dec- Conclusion Briefly. 118 Finally. but it is one in which Western scholars can provide a unique contribution to the field. Hibbett to appear from the University of Hawai'i Press.120 Given the greater ease in Yamashita. Smith II published a comparison of the publishing worlds in Paris and Edo respectively. 2002 sponsals). 120 Maruyama. The fact that many narratives. C. The Japanese Picture Book: A Selection from the Ravicz Collection. the current state of early modern Japanese literature studies in Western languages is one of nearly unlimited opportunity. 1994.EARLY MODERN JAPAN FALL. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. 114 119 Kornicki. broke ground in this respect. & San Francisco: Kodansha International. while. Amsterdam: Gieben. students need an introduction to the field. 1991. for example. given the strong collections of illustrated books (ehon) that survive outside of Japan. and Other Related Schools in Japan: A Biobibliography. Edo and Paris : Urban Life and the State in the Early Modern Era. close collaboration with Japanese scholars can provide for more productivity. and Ugawa Kaoru. Maruyama. trans. that underscores the great diversity and momentum that publishing enjoyed in the early modern period. Studies in the Intellectual History of Tokugawa Japan. Jack. Merriman. 1994: 332-54. Leiden: Brill. Hillier. such as that edited by Haruo Shirane (Columbia University Press. Undergraduates and M. trans. 2000. interdisciplinary collaboration among literature specialists and art historians. rept.granting programs are currently active in training the next generation of scholars.. and has followed through with several other studies in book illustration and woodblock picture books. especially yomihon. John M. promise to generate greater interest in the field from a broader range of students. but comparative studies of Japanese literature vis à vis Chinese (and Korean) literature can help provide a context from within the East Asian cultural sphere. so much responsibility for active publication falls on the shoulders of scholars in smaller programs that do not enjoy strong Japanese collections. Hopefully.116 C. Shijo. individuals. 42 . Tokyo. Forrer. Henry D. Mitchell's 1972 biobibliography of illustrated books is an indispensable reference. David. historians. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. James L. New York: Abrams. The Art of the Japanese Book. London: Philip Wilson for Sotheby's. Matthi. 117 Mitchell. Only a few scholars at Ph. eds. Masao. 1972. H. II. From another perspective. Samuel Hideo. The Book in Japan: A Cultural History from the Beginnings to the Nineteenth Century. The Illustrated Books of the Nanga. 118 Smith. Master Sorai’s Responsals: An Annotated Translation of ‘Sorai Sensei Tomonsho’. 116 Hillier. Peter. Anthologies. 1987.119 Early Modern Books and Publishing This is not only a field that raises important issues in its own right. David Chibbett. 115 Chibbett. The History of Japanese Printing and Book Illustration. in the intellectual history field.115 Jack Hillier has provided a massive compendium of ehon with his 1987 The Art of the Japanese Book. and intellectual historians can generate more articles and books.D. 1998. Only a handful of essays by Japanese scholars have been translated into English.117 Henry D. 2002). 1985." In McClain. Mikiso Hane. 2 vols. "The History of the Book in Edo and Paris. owe a great deal to continental Asian fiction makes it imperative that continued research on literature and literary thought in early modern Japan take continental Asian writings into account. and Matthi Forrer. Los Angeles: Dawson's Book Shop. with his 1985 study of an important publisher. Not only does much basic identification of works. New York. and it is a great shame that this is out of print and difficult to find. Eirakuya Toshiro: Publisher at Nagoya: A Contribution to the History of Publishing in 19th Century Japan. H. and such anthologies are a powerful enticement to further reading and research.114 (LEM) ades to come for future work in the field.A. A History of Japanese Books and Printing. and another by Sumie Jones and Howard S. and movements still need to be done. 1977.

that provide bilingual texts. an unusual textual variant. The Actor’s Image: Print Makers of the Katsukawa School.. p. 146.. writers. From Timothy T. and illustrators seem almost endless. on Taketori monogatari. 43 . the Ohidebon. it should be possible to collaborate with Japanese scholars on bilingual editions of works. Donald Keene has published three books. Donald. Clark and Osamu Ueda with Donald Jenkins. and beautiful illustrations.121 In the case of Taketori. 1994. The possibilities for such collaboration with Japanese scholars. Selections from Essays in Idleness (Yorinuki Tsurezuregusa). Chicago: The Art Institute of Chicago in association with Princeton University Press. 1996. trans. The Narrow Road to Oku. 1974. on Oku no hosomichi. Keene. The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter: Taketori monogatari. multi-language studies of authors. Tokyo & New York: Kodansha International. Keene. most recently. ed. (LEM) Nakamura Nakazo I (actor) portraying a monk. trans. 1998. and. 121 Keene. Tokyo & New York: Kodansha International. or other such publications. 1999. 2002 communication and sharing of ideas (not to mention texts) provided by the Internet. trans. Princeton & Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press and Princeton University Press..EARLY MODERN JAPAN FALL. on Tsurezuregusa. is even provided as an appendix to Kawabata Yasunari's modern Japanese and Keene's English translations. Naomi Noble Richard. Tokyo: Kodansha Intanashonaru.

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