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ANALYSIS OF

ENUMERATION DATA
Presented by: DR. GEORGE F. BARUNDIA
What is Enumeration Data?

• Are expressed in the form of frequencies


which represent the number of items
within specified qualitative description or
categories.

• This type of data answers the questions,


“How many items satisfy a particular
description?” or “How many items belong
to a category?”
Classifications according to the number of
variables described

• One-Way
has only one variable described by at least
two categories.

• Two-Way
have two variables described by their
respective categories. The frequencies
given are applicable to both variables.
data with two-way classification are best
summarized in a contingency table which
is made up of several rows and columns –
the rows representing categories of one
variable, and the columns representing
the categories of other variables.
Example No. 1
One way classification of the Civil Status of 50 employees

Status Frequency
Single 18
Married 24
Widowed 5
Legal. Separated 3
Total 50
Example No. 2
One way classification on the IQ of 40 students

High IQ Average IQ Low IQ Total


15 20 5 40
Example No. 3
One way classification on the Production Quality of 1200
Products

Production Quality Number of Products


Non-defective 1,000
Defective 200
Total 1,200
Example No. 4
Contingency Table on Sex and Attitudes Towards
Household Chores of 50 College Freshmen

Sex Boys Girls Total


Attitude
Positive 9 21 30
Negative 9 11 20
Total 18 32 50
Example No. 5
Contingency Table on the Academic Performance and IQ
of 100 students

IQ High Average Low Total


Acad.
Performa
nce
Passed 31 45 4 80
Failed 1 4 15 20
Total 32 49 19 100
How are enumeration data analyzed?

Analysis of enumeration data is done trough a Chi-square


test (the chi-square symbol is 2 )

The chi-square is a versatile statistical test named after


the chi-square distribution which is derived the
assumption of normality of the population.

Just like the format used in the test of hypothesis involving


the t-test and the z-test, the steps will serve as a guide in
the analysis of enumeration data.
Steps:

I. Problem
II. Hypothesis (Ho and Ha )
III. Given
Set the level of significance
df = c -1 (for one way classification)
df = (r-1)(k-1) (for two way classification)
Locate the tabular value of 2
IV. Calculate the chi-square using the formula
2 = (fo – fe)2
fe
in one-way classification of enumeration data, the expected frequency (fe) is
computed by multiplying the total frequency (n) by the known proportion (p) of
the category fe = np
Steps:

In two-way classification of enumeration data, the expected frequency (fe) is


computed by multiplying the subtotals of the intersecting categories, then dividing
the products by the total frequency represented by the grand total of the
contingency table.
fe = (subtotal A) (subtotal B)
Grand Total
when there is only one degree of freedom (this means that 2 x 2 contingency table
is given), Yates correction for continuity is applied by reducing the absolute value of
each difference |fo – fe| by .5 before squaring. Hence, the formula to us is:

2 = (|fo – fe| - .5)2


fe

V. State the Decision Rule


VI. State your Conclusion
VII. Interpretation
Problem 1
Based on the data example 1, is the actual
observed proportion significantly different
from expected proportion, if the ideal or
expected proportion is 30% for married,
50% for single, 10% for widowed, and
10% legally separated?
Problem 2
Using the data in example 2. Find out
whether or not the given sample
distribution agrees with the hypothetical
normal distribution whose ratio is 1:2:1

High IQ Average IQ Low IQ Total


15 20 5 40
Problem 3
Does attitude toward household chores
depend on sex for the 50 children being
considered in Table 4? Set 5%
significance level.
Sex Boys Girls Total
Attitude
Positive 9 21 30
Negative 9 11 20
Total 18 32 50
Problem 4
For the table 5, test the hypothesis that
academic performance does not depend
on IQ at 1% significance level.