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UNIVERSITY​ ​OF​ ​SOUTH​ ​FLORIDA

College​ ​of​ ​Engineering

ECH​ ​5931​ ​-​ ​Solar​ ​Energy​ ​and​ ​Applications​ ​(Fall​ ​2017)


Instructors​ ​-​ ​Dr.​ ​Yogi​ ​Goswami

Application​ ​Project

Design​ ​of​ ​A​ ​20​ ​KW​ ​Solar​ ​Power​ ​System​ ​With​ ​4​ ​Hours​ ​of​ ​Energy​ ​Storage

Student:​ ​Chengfeng​ ​Liu


ID:​ ​U​ ​8367-9103
Date:​ ​Nov.​ ​30.​ ​2017
Application​ ​Project​ ​-​ ​Design​ ​of​ ​A​ ​20​ ​KW​ ​Solar​ ​Power​ ​System​ ​With​ ​4​ ​Hours​ ​of​ ​Energy​ ​Storage

Objective
This project will design a 20 KW solar power system with 4 hours of energy storage for an
application​ ​in​ ​Hong​ ​Kong,​ ​China.​ ​The​ ​location​ ​information​ ​as​ ​following:
● Latitude​ ​(L)​ ​=​ ​22.3964​ ​N
● Longitude​ ​(Llocal)​ ​=​ ​-114.1095​ ​E
● Standard​ ​Time​ ​Zone​ ​(Lst)​ ​=​ ​-120​ ​E

Estimation​ ​of​ ​Available​ ​Solar​ ​Radiation


Hourly solar radiations for 21st day of each month in Hong Kong are calculated based on the
following​ ​angles​ ​of​ ​the​ ​collectors:
● Azimuth​ ​angles​ ​(aw)​ ​=​ ​-90,​ ​-45,​ ​0,​ ​45,​ ​90
● Tilt​ ​angles​ ​(β)​ ​=​ ​0,​ ​L-10,​ ​L,​ ​L+10,​ ​90

Hourly​ ​solar​ ​radiations​ ​for​ ​21st​ ​day​ ​of​ ​each​ ​month​ ​in​ ​Hong​ ​Kong​ ​are​ ​tabulated​ ​in:
● Solar​ ​Radiation​ ​Table​ ​1​ ​(when​ ​aw​ ​=​ ​0,​ ​with​ ​all​ ​β​ ​angles)
● Solar​ ​Radiation​ ​Table​ ​2​ ​(for​ ​all​ ​aw​ ​angles​ ​and​ ​β​ ​angles)

Selection​ ​of​ ​Power​ ​System,​ ​Collectors,​ ​Battery,​ ​and​ ​Inverter


The solar power system in this project is PV system with an energy storage system of battery
connecting​ ​to​ ​an​ ​inverter​ ​for​ ​converting​ ​DC​ ​to​ ​AC.​ ​The​ ​electrical​ ​parameters​ ​are​ ​in​ ​the​ ​following:

The selected solar ​panel and ​battery are sold by the company ​WindyNation (See references for
more​ ​information).
● Polycrystalline​ ​solar​ ​panels:​ ​400​ ​W,​ ​12​ ​V,​ ​$​ ​900​ ​each
● Battery:​ ​12​ ​V,​ ​100​ ​Ah,​ ​$​ ​310​ ​each

The​ ​selected​ ​inverter​​ ​is​ ​sold​ ​by​ ​the​ ​company​ ​SolarEdge​​ ​(See​ ​references​ ​for​ ​more​ ​information).
● Inverter: 20 KW, $ 1700 each (other electrical components of power system such as
cables,​ ​remote​ ​control​ ​switch,​ ​ANL​ ​fuse​ ​are​ ​included​ ​in​ ​the​ ​product​ ​combo).

Note​:​ ​The​ ​following​ ​electrical​ ​parameters​ ​are​ ​NOT​​ ​provided​ ​by​ ​WindyNation​ ​and​ ​SolarEdge:
● Solar​ ​panel:​ ​degradation​ ​rate,​ ​operating​ ​factor
● Battery:​ ​efficiency​ ​rate,​ ​maximum​ ​depth​ ​of​ ​discharge​ ​rate
● Inverter:​ ​efficiency​ ​rate
● System​ ​distribution:​ ​efficiency​ ​rate

Conceptual​ ​Design​ ​of​ ​the​ ​PV​ ​System


The design process in this project is mainly based on the book “​Principles of Solar Engineering,
3rd​ ​Edition,​ ​by​ ​Dr.​ ​Yogi​ ​Goswami,​ ​Chapter​ ​9:​ ​Photovoltaics”​ .

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Application​ ​Project​ ​-​ ​Design​ ​of​ ​A​ ​20​ ​KW​ ​Solar​ ​Power​ ​System​ ​With​ ​4​ ​Hours​ ​of​ ​Energy​ ​Storage

The design flows are based on the route: Electricity is passed by PV array, battery array,
inverter, and AC load, respectively. More specifically, all the DC generated by PV array is stored
in​ ​battery​ ​array,​ ​then​ ​inverted​ ​to​ ​AC​ ​by​ ​inverter,​ ​finally​ ​passed​ ​to​ ​AC​ ​load.

In this project, other passing modes are not considered, which are PV to DC load, Battery to DC
load,​ ​and​ ​PV​ ​to​ ​AC​ ​load,​ ​directly.

● Energy​ ​Output​ ​from​ ​PV​ ​Array


For​ ​a​ ​20​ ​KW​ ​PV​ ​system​ ​with​ ​4​ ​hours​ ​of​ ​battery​ ​storage,

Energy​ ​output​ ​ ​=​ ​20​ ​KW​ ​(4​ ​h)​ ​=​ ​80​ ​KWh

● PV​ ​System​ ​Sizing


Assuming the solar panels sold by WindyNation have an operating factor of 90% in
normal​ ​operating​ ​conditions​ ​in​ ​Hong​ ​Kong,

Numbers​ ​of​ ​solar​ ​panels​ ​=​ ​(20​ ​KW​ ​/​ ​90%)​ ​/​ ​400​ ​W​ ​=​ ​ ​56​ ​panels​ ​(rounded​ ​off​ ​to​ ​the​ ​next​ ​whole
number)

Numbers​ ​of​ ​batteries​ ​=​ ​80​ ​KWh​ ​/​ ​(12​ ​V​ ​*​ ​100​ ​Ah)​ ​=​ ​67​ ​batteries​ ​(rounded​ ​off​ ​to​ ​the​ ​next
whole​ ​number)

Assuming​​ ​the​ ​needed​ ​system​ ​voltage​ ​is​ ​120V,

Number​ ​of​ ​panels​ ​in​ ​series​ ​=​ ​120​ ​V​ ​/​ ​12​ ​V​ ​=​ ​10​ ​panels

Number​ ​of​ ​rows​ ​of​ ​10​ ​panels​ ​connected​ ​in​ ​parallel​ ​=​ ​56​ ​/​ ​10​ ​=​ ​6​ ​rows​ ​(rounded​ ​off​ ​to​ ​the
next​ ​whole​ ​number)

Number​ ​of​ ​batteries​ ​in​ ​series​ ​=​ ​120​ ​V​ ​/​ ​12​ ​V​ ​=​ ​10​ ​batteries

Number​ ​of​ ​rows​ ​of​ ​10​ ​batteries​ ​connected​ ​in​ ​parallel​ ​=​ ​67​ ​/​ ​10​ ​=​ ​7​ ​rows​ ​(rounded​ ​off​ ​to
the​ ​next​ ​whole​ ​number)

The​ ​actual​ ​solar​ ​panels​ ​needed​ ​=​ ​10​ ​(6)​ ​=​ ​60​ ​panels

The​ ​actual​ ​batteries​ ​needed​ ​=​ ​10​ ​(7)​ ​=​ ​70​ ​batteries

● Energy​ ​Output​ ​from​ ​Batteries


Assuming the batteries sold by WindyNation have an efficiency of 90% and a maximum
depth​ ​of​ ​discharge​ ​90%,

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Application​ ​Project​ ​-​ ​Design​ ​of​ ​A​ ​20​ ​KW​ ​Solar​ ​Power​ ​System​ ​With​ ​4​ ​Hours​ ​of​ ​Energy​ ​Storage

Energy​ ​output​ ​from​ ​batteries​ ​=​ ​80​ ​KWh​ ​(90%)​ ​(90%)​ ​=​ ​64.8​ ​KWh

● Actual​ ​Energy​ ​Output​ ​from​ ​PV​ ​System


Assuming the inverter sold by SolarEdge have an efficiency of 90% and the power
distribution​ ​system​ ​efficiency​ ​is​ ​90%,

Actual​ ​energy​ ​output​ ​=​ ​64.8​ ​KWh​ ​(90%)​ ​(90%)​ ​=​ ​52.5​ ​KWh

Overall​ ​energy​ ​output​ ​efficiency​ ​=​ ​52.8​ ​KWh​ ​/​ ​80​ ​KWh​ ​=​ ​66%

The actual energy output from the 20 KW PV system for 4 hours of battery storage is
52.5​ ​KWh​ ​with​ ​an​ ​overall​ ​efficiency​ ​of​ ​66%.

● Field​ ​Layout
For​ ​PV​ ​array,

Figure​ ​1​.​ ​Connection​ ​of​ ​panels​ ​in​ ​rows​ ​and​ ​columns​ ​for​ ​PV​ ​array

For​ ​battery​ ​array,

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Application​ ​Project​ ​-​ ​Design​ ​of​ ​A​ ​20​ ​KW​ ​Solar​ ​Power​ ​System​ ​With​ ​4​ ​Hours​ ​of​ ​Energy​ ​Storage

Figure​ ​2​.​ ​Connection​ ​of​ ​batteries​ ​in​ ​rows​ ​and​ ​columns​ ​for​ ​PV​ ​system.

● Schematic​ ​diagrams
For​ ​overall​ ​PV​ ​power​ ​system,

Figure​ ​3​.​ ​Schematic​ ​of​ ​a​ ​PV​ ​system

Costs
Assuming no shipping and installation fees, other electrical components are included in inverter
product​ ​series.​ ​Costs​ ​will​ ​cover:
● Cost​ ​of​ ​PV​ ​arrays​ ​=​ ​Number​ ​of​ ​solar​ ​panels​ ​*​ ​Cost/panel​ ​=​ ​60​ ​*​ ​$​ ​900​ ​=​ ​$​ ​54,000
● Cost​ ​of​ ​batteries​ ​=​ ​Number​ ​of​ ​batteries​ ​*​ ​Cost/battery​ ​=​ ​70​ ​*​ ​$​ ​310​ ​=​ ​$​ ​21,700
● Cost​ ​of​ ​inverter​ ​=​ ​$​ ​1,700

Cost​ ​of​ ​power​ ​system​ ​=​ ​$​ ​54,000​ ​+​ ​$​ ​21,700​ ​+​ ​$​ ​1,700​ ​=​ ​$​ ​77,400

Assuming​​ ​the​ ​power​ ​system​ ​is​ ​purchased​ ​at​ ​full​ ​payment.

Assuming the power system gets a rebate of $ 1 / W from the electric power company, and a
30%​ ​income​ ​tax​ ​credit,

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Application​ ​Project​ ​-​ ​Design​ ​of​ ​A​ ​20​ ​KW​ ​Solar​ ​Power​ ​System​ ​With​ ​4​ ​Hours​ ​of​ ​Energy​ ​Storage

Total​ ​rebate​ ​for​ ​the​ ​20​ ​KW​ ​system​ ​=​ ​($​ ​1​ ​/​ ​W)​ ​(20​ ​KW)​ ​(1000​ ​W​ ​/​ ​KW)​ ​=​ ​$​ ​20,000

Income​ ​tax​ ​credit​ ​=​ ​($​ ​77,400​ ​-​ ​$​ ​20,000)​ ​(30%)​ ​=​ ​$​ ​17,220

Net​ ​total​ ​cost​ ​of​ ​power​ ​system​ ​=​ ​$​ ​77,400​ ​-​ ​$​ ​20,000​ ​-​ ​$​ ​17,220​ ​=​ ​$​ ​40,180

Economic​ ​Analysis
Assuming the effective electricity rate is $ 0.15 / KWh and the rate will increase at a rate of 5% /
year. The panels will degrade at a rate of 0.15% / year. The costs of maintenance and repair /
year are expected to be 1% of the initial costs, and the system will shutdown 5 days / year for
maintenance and repair. The discount rate is 5%. Given the location and sunlight condition of
Hong Kong, assuming an average 12 hours of available daily sunlight for PV system to run at its
maximum​ ​efficiency.

The economic analysis, calculating methods, and payback time are shown in ​Economic
Analysis​ ​Table​ ​3​.​ ​The​ ​payback​ ​time​ ​is​ ​approximately:

● 5th​ ​year​ ​based​ ​on​ ​cumulative​ ​revenue


● 5th​ ​year​ ​based​ ​on​ ​PW​ ​cumulative​ ​revenue
● 5th​ ​year​ ​based​ ​on​ ​net​ ​cash​ ​flow
● 6th​ ​year​ ​based​ ​on​ ​PW​ ​net​ ​cash​ ​flow

Conclusion​ ​&​ ​Inaccuracy


This 20 KW solar power system with an initial cost of $ 77,400 has a relatively short payback
time of 5-6 years due to various bonuses from the officials and markets which indicates that
renewable powers such as wind and solar are potential power for sustainable development and
are​ ​now​ ​being​ ​pushed​ ​to​ ​each​ ​sectors​ ​of​ ​the​ ​society.

This project has assumed many parameters such as some electrical parameters, income tax
credit in Hong Kong, and some rates because they could not be found or provided. This project
does not intend to give an accurate design of a solar power system, but to show how the design
processes​ ​should​ ​be​ ​done.​ ​It​ ​is​ ​a​ ​conceptual​ ​design​ ​sample​ ​for​ ​readers​ ​to​ ​use.

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Application​ ​Project​ ​-​ ​Design​ ​of​ ​A​ ​20​ ​KW​ ​Solar​ ​Power​ ​System​ ​With​ ​4​ ​Hours​ ​of​ ​Energy​ ​Storage

References
Principles​ ​of​ ​Solar​ ​Engineering,​ ​3rd​ ​Edition,​ ​Dr.​ ​Yogi​ ​Goswami,​ ​Chapter​ ​9:​ ​Photovoltaics
SolarEdge​ ​inverter
https://www.amazon.com/SolarEdge-20kW-480VAC-Inverter-SE20KUS/dp/B06VT4N82J
/ref=sr_1_8?s=lawn-garden&ie=UTF8&qid=1511250757&sr=1-8&keywords=Power+inve
rter+20+kw
WindyNation​ ​battery
https://www.amazon.com/WindyNation-Amp-Hour-Reserve-Capacity-Battery/dp/B01ACK
DGPS/ref=pd_sim_86_3?_encoding=UTF8&psc=1&refRID=PSVF09TQHR6GMMF3E7B
Y
WindyNation​ ​solar​ ​panel
https://www.amazon.com/dp/B015HXJQJ0/ref=sspa_dk_detail_3?psc=1