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CIVIL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

UITM PAHANG, KAMPUS JENGKA


COURSE NAME
COURSE CODE
OPEN-ENDED LAB
SEPTEMBER 2018 – JANUARY 2019
TITLE OF : BUILDING AUTOMATION AND CONTROL
EXPERIMENT
DATE OF :
EXPERIMENT
GROUP :
GROUP MEMBERS : 1.Zahed Bin Abd Aziz (2015866952)
2.Ahmed Fareez Bin Ali Musa (2016472686)
3.Mohamad Yazid Bin Mohamad Azmi (2016472134)
4.Mohamad Syazani Bin Mohd Sarwan (2016472992)
5.Yusuf Iskandar Bin Azmi (2016471736)
LECTURER : Sir Isha Ismail
LEVEL OF OPENESS : 1

NO ELEMENT COPO Marks COMMENTS

1 INTRODUCTION

2 BASIC CONCEPT

SUMMARY OF
3
PROCEDURES/METHOD
ANALYSIS AND
4 2 4 6 8 10
INTERPETATION OF DATA

5 DISCUSSION OF RESULT 2 4 6 8 10

6 CONCLUSIONS 2 4 6 8 10

TOTAL MARKS /30


INTRODUCTION

In this laboratory activity students will be introduced to the concept, principles and the
mechanism of the building automation and control.

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this laboratory session is:

 To study the basic concepts, principles and the mechanism of the building automation
and control.

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

Building automation is the automatic centralized control of a building's heating, ventilation


and air conditioning, lighting and other systems through a building management system or
building automation system (BAS). The objectives of building automation are improved
occupant comfort, efficient operation of building systems, reduction in energy consumption
and operating costs, and improved life cycle of utilities.

Building automation is an example of a distributed control system – the computer


networking of electronic devices designed to monitor and control the mechanical, security, fire
and flood safety, lighting (especially emergency lighting), HVAC and humidity control and
ventilation systems in a building.

A building controlled by a BAS is often referred to as an intelligent building, "smart building",


or a "smart home".

APPARATUS

Intelligent Building

The construction technique of the intelligent building is rated with six stars. The building next-
generation infrastructure to provide multimedia services with high speed connectivity and
offers both a high-energy performance in facilities management systems.

Menara Telekom is equipped with the IBMS system management, a concept created by the
division of research and development of Telecom Malaysia. This system has the ability to
integrate control of the eleven major systems and subsystems engineering supplying the
building within the same tower. These air systems ranging from the conditioning and
ventilation to lighting and security management of the elevators and escalators.

Another key feature in building the system of documents and packages within the building,
ranging from three stories underground to the plant 55.

DATA ACQUISITION

At the headquarters of Telekom Malaysia in Kuala


Lumpur, there is a building that is within the 50 highest in the
world, 304 meters high, 55 floors interspersed by a series of
hanging gardens that are developed with an upward spiral a
way reminiscent of “a plant that is growing, eager to reach
the light, with strong roots with which to throw the anchor,
but with the beauty and lightness of an extended sheet.”

This is an intelligent building, 6 stars, with 148,800


square meters, located in Kuala Lumpur, located in an area
of almost 3.25 hectares of land cannot be confused with any other tower in the city. Also known
as Bamboo Tower, which evokes the way.

Designed by Hijjas Kasturi and Associates, who are also authors of Menara Maybank, Haji and
Lembaga Tabungan Torre Shahzad. The construction cost was approximately U.S. $ 160
million and was officially opened on February 10, 2003.

Component of BAS used at Menara Telekom Malasysia

1. Lighting
Lighting can be turned on, off, or dimmed with a building automation or lighting
control system based on time of day, or on occupancy sensor, photosensors and timers.
One example is to turn the lights in a space on for a half-hour since the last motion was
sensed. A photocell placed outside a building can sense darkness, and the time of day,
and modulate lights in outer offices and the parking lot.
Lighting is also a good candidate for demand response, with many control
systems providing the ability to dim (or turn off) lights
2. Air Handlers
The air handlers mix return an outside air so less temperature/humidity
conditioning is needed. This can save money by using less chilled or heated water Some
external air is absorb to keep the building's air healthy. To optimize energy efficiency
while maintaining healthy indoor air quality, demand control ventilation (DCV) adjusts
the amount of outside air based on measured levels of occupancy.
Digital temperature sensors are placed in the space or room, the return and
supply air ducts, and sometimes the external air. Actuators are placed on the hot and
chilled water valves, the outside air and return air dampers. The supply fan is started
and stopped based on either time of day, temperatures, building pressures or a
combination.

3. Security
Security systems are interlocked to this building automation system. Occupancy
sensors are present that are used as burglar alarms. This modern system use power-
over-Ethernet which is capable of charging such batteries and keeps wireless networks
free for genuinely wireless applications, such as backup communication in outage.

Fire alarm panels and their related smoke alarm systems are hard-wired to
override building automation. For example: if the smoke alarm is activated, all the
outside air dampers close to prevent air coming into the building, and an exhaust system
can isolate the blaze. Similarly, electrical fault detection systems can turn entire circuits
off, regardless of the number of alarms this triggers or persons this distresses. Fossil
fuel combustion devices also tend to have their own over-rides, such as natural gas feed
lines that turn off when slow pressure drops are detected (indicating a leak), or when
excess methane is detected in the building's air supply.

Awareness of people on using Building Automation System (BAS)

People nowadays lack of awareness on using Building Automation System (BAS) because:

 Peoples didn’t exposed to the importance of BAS in a building


 The usage of BAS in Malaysia is not widespread
 The installation and maintenance cost is high
 The mindset of peoples which think BAS didn’t important
DISCUSSION

Based in this case study of the building automation system on headquarters Telekom Malaysia
in Kuala Lumpur, the automate system that were applied based on the data acquisition such as
lighting, air handlers and security.

Most of the important thing that building automation system can help the efficiency and easiest
way to the elite building such in this place to help it’s operate. The smart way they use on
lighting are using occupancy sensor, photosensors and timers. The common advantages of
these ways of implementation is mostly to save the cost of electricity to operate the lighting.

An occupancy sensor automatically turns a light on as people come into a room, then
automatically turns it off after people leave when no motion is detected. They’re most
commonly used in rooms that are only used occasionally, such as restrooms, garages, utility
rooms, closets, basements, pantries, laundry rooms, storage areas, offices, conference rooms,
copy rooms, lounges, and warehouse facilities. They’re especially useful in rooms where it
might be difficult or even dangerous for a person to reach for a light switch, due to their hands
being full (such as in a storage facility).

Photosensors can be used to prevent outdoor lights from operating during daylight hours. This
can help save energy because you don't have to remember to turn off your outdoor lights.
Photosensors sense ambient light conditions, making them useful for all types of outdoor
lighting. These light-sensitive controls are less effective inside the home because lighting needs
vary with occupant activity rather than ambient lighting levels. Many LED nightlights,
however, have this feature built in which makes them effective and easy to use.

This building also implement a smart way to control the air and ventilation system. The
beneficiaries of the air handlers can improve the quality of the indoor air, in some cases
reducing allergy and asthma symptoms. Additional benefits of AHUs include:

a) Improved climate control.


b) Increased energy efficiency of the HVAC system
c) Fewer airborne allergens

Besides, the engineer of the building also approach the detail about the security of the building
such as fire alarm panel and buglers alarm. Based on the observation on the building, smoke
alarm systems are hard-wired to override building automation may help the communicate
directly to fire alarm panel. It can be more efficient when fire alarm system is fully capable of
performing and initiating the necessary actions to accomplish the fire alarm and building
systems’ responses, efficiencies can be obtained by integrating with the BAS. These
efficiencies include minimizing additional equipment, expediting system acceptance testing,
reducing installation costs, and sharing and consolidating information at a central location
where all of the building systems can be precisely monitored during emergency incidents.

Figure 1 : Building Automation System on security as a fire alarm detector and hard wired
system.

The BAS system that were implement as a security also on buglers alarm. Some of the
advantages of a hardwire security system is that you never need to replace batteries in hardwire
devices, multiple keypads (most often front entry, garage entry and master bedroom), keypads
are smaller and more esthetically pleasing, a burglar cannot disarm a hardwired system by
tearing a keypad off the wall, can have partitioned zones (like an In-law unit that uses the same
system but can be armed separately), don’t see the contacts on the window and doors (inside
door frames), can be utilized with various types of home automation systems and can be very
robust which may be necessary for very large homes.
CONCLUSION

A Building Automation System (BAS) is a computerized system that controls the mechanical
systems in a building based on the occupancy schedules. It decreases energy costs by keeping
the building climate within a preset range, while monitoring the system’s performance and
providing notifications to the building engineering staff. These systems have become
increasingly complicated over the years. In some cases, a BAS may be designed beyond the
building operator’s ability to use it. The following recommendations should assist designers
and building operators in ensuring these systems perform efficiently.

 Ability to control and document systems and settings

 Design to the level of ability of operating personnel

 Assure adequate training and ability to manipulate

REFERENCES

 Menara Telekom, obtained at https://en.wikiarquitectura.com/building/menara-


telekom/
 Lingemann, R. R. (2005). U.S. Patent No. 6,967,565. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and
Trademark Office.
 Donnell, M.J., Herbst, P.M., Nitsch, T.M. and Fransen, R.E., Panduit Corp,
2010. Building automation system. U.S. Patent 7,781,910.
 Lingemann, R., HX LifeSpace Inc, 2006. Building automation system. U.S. Patent
Application 11/229,379.
 Ehlers, G.A., Howerton, R.D. and Speegle, G.E., TECO Energy Management Services,
1996. Engery management and building automation system. U.S. Patent 5,572,438.