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The PETRO STAR of the Southern India

BASIC PROCESS UNITS


REFINERY - I
COMMISSIONED DURING 1969
• ENGINEERING / CONSTRUCTION - SNAM PRAGETTI, ITALY

• DESIGN CAPACITY - 2.5 million MTPA


– REVAMPED TO 2.8 million MTPA

• DESIGN CRUDE - DARIUS OF 2.5 % “S”


• SECONDARY UNITS
• LUBE - 200 TMT LVI , MVI & HVI (FEU+MEK
DEWAX)
• HYDRO DE-SULPHURISERS FOR SK/ATF, HSD, VD
• HYDROFINISHING FOR LUBE
• HYDROGEN PLANT, PLATFORMER, SULPHUR UNIT
REFINERY - II
COMMISSIONED DURING 1984

• DESIGN & ENGINEERING / CONSTRUCTION - EIL

• DESIGN CAPACITY - 2.8 million MTPA

– REVAMPED TO 3.7 million MTPA DURING 1993

• DESIGN CRUDE - BASRA LIGHT /


BOMBAY HIGH
• SECONDARY UNITS
• FCCU (0.6 million MTPA)
• MEROX UNITS FOR LPG, GASOLINE, SK/ATF
REFINERY - III
COMMISSIONING DURING 2003-04

• DESIGN CAPACITY – 3.0 million MTPA

• SECONDARY UNITS
– HYDROCRACKER (1.85 million MTPA)
– VISBREAKER (1.15 million MTPA)
– NHT / CRU (0.267 million MTPA)
– MEROX UNITS FOR LPG / Kerosene
– ATU / SRU
Cogeneration Power plant
POWER PLANT - I

4 Boilers - 85 tons/hr

2 TG’s - 11.2 MWHr

2 Sl.G’s - 2.5 MWHr

1 GT - 9.7 MWHr
POWER PLANT – II

3 Boilers - 130 MT/Hr

3 TG’s - 20 MWHr
Along with 3 MMTPA
Expansion Refinery

1 Boiler - 130 MT/Hr

2 GT - 26.5 MWHr

2 HRSG - 45 MT/Hr
Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited (CPCL), formerly known as Madras
Refineries Limited (MRL) was formed as a joint venture in 1965 between the
Government of India (GOI), AMOCO and National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC)
having a share holding in the ratio 74%: 13%: 13% respectively. Originally,
CPCL Refinery was set up with an installed capacity of 2.5 Million Tonnes Per
Annum (MMTPA) in a record time of 27 months at a cost of Rs. 43 crore
without any time or cost over run.
In 1985, AMOCO disinvested in favour of GOI and the shareholding percentage of GOI
and NIOC stood revised at 84.62% and 15.38% respectively. Later GOI disinvested
16.92% of the paid up capital in favor of Unit Trust of India, Mutual Funds, Insurance
Companies and Banks on 19 th May 1992, thereby reducing its holding to 67.7 %. The
public issue of CPCL shares at a premium of Rs. 70 (Rs. 90 to FIIs) in 1994 was over
subscribed to an extent of 38 times and added a large shareholder base.
As a part of the restructuring steps taken up by the Government of India, IndianOil
acquired equity from GOI in 2000-01. In July 2003, NIOC transferred their entire
shareholding to Naftiran Intertrade Company Limited, an affiliate, in line with the
Formation Agreement, as part of their organizational restructuring. Currently IOC
holds 51.89% while NICO holds 15.40%.
CPCL has two refineries with a combined refining capacity of 10.5 Million Tonnes
Per Annum (MMTPA). The Manali Refinery has a capacity of 9.5 MMTPA and is one
of the most complex refineries in India with Fuel, Lube, Wax and Petrochemical
feedstocks production facilities. CPCL's second refinery is located at Cauvery Basin
at Nagapattinam. This unit was set up in Nagapattinam with a capacity of 0.5
MMTPA in 1993 and later enhanced to 1.0 MMTPA.
The main products of the company are LPG, Motor Spirit, Superior Kerosene, Aviation
Turbine Fuel, High Speed Diesel, Naphtha, Bitumen, Lube Base Stocks, Paraffin Wax,
Fuel Oil, Hexane and Petrochemical feed stocks. The Wax Plant at CPCL has an installed
capacity of 30,000 tonnes per annum, which is designed to produce paraffin wax for
manufacture of candle wax, waterproof formulations and match wax. A Propylene
Plant with a capacity of 17,000 tonnes per annum was commissioned in 1988 to supply
petrochemical feedstock to neighbouring downstream industries. The unit was
revamped to enhance the propylene production capacity to 30,000 tonnes per annum
in 2004. CPCL also supplies LABFS to a downstream unit for manufacture of Liner Alkyl
Benzene.
The crude throughput for the year 2009-10 was 10.058 million metric tonnes (MMT).
The company’s turnover for the year 2000-10 was Rs.29184 crores and the Profit
after Tax was Rs.603.22 crores.
The Company has declared a dividend of 120% on the paid-up equity share capital of
the Company for the year 2009-10 in view of the excellent performance of the
Company.
Shareholding & Board Structure
Categories Percentag
e
Board Structure
Indian Oil Corporation Ltd 51.89 Chairman
Chairman of IOC is the part-time
Naftiran Intertrade Co., 15.40 non-executive Chairman
Iran
Banks, FIs, Insurance Cos. 13.49 Managing Director

Foreign Institutional 3.43


Investors
3 Functional Directors
Mutual Funds 0.84
Nominees:
Corporate Bodies 6.44 IOC-1/ NIOC-2/ MoP&NG-1
Public (including 7.73
employees) 1 Independent Director
Non-Resident Indians 0.78

Total 100.00 Total -10

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Refinery Locations

Manali
10.5 MMTPA

Nagapattinam
1.0 MMTPA
(334 km from
Chennai)

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Pioneering Efforts

CPCL has implemented the following projects that are


“First of its kind” in the oil industry

 Distributed Digital Control System (DDCS)


 Advanced Control & Optimisation Techniques
 City Sewage Reclamation Plant
 Zero Discharge Plant
 RO Rejects Recovery Project
 Sea Water Desalination Project
 Renewable Energy Initiatives – Windmill Farm

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Process Units – Manali (Fuel & Lube Refinery)

PRIMARY UNITS (MMTPA)


• CDU I 2.8
• CDU-II 3.7
• CDU-III 4.0

SECONDARY / TREATING UNITS OTHERS (TMTPA)


(MMTPA) • Wax 30
• FCCU 0.78
• Propylene 30
• OHCU 1.80
• VBU 1.15 • Hexane 25
• CCR 0.30
• DHDS 1.80
• DHDT 1.80
• ISOM 0.14
• LOBS 0.235
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CP CL CHE NNA I -BL OCK FLOW DIAGRA M
PRODUCT
BLEND
Fuel gas
LPG
Unstab ilzed Nap htha LSRG
Plant 2 LSRN Propane LPG
Plant 72
ATF ATF
Lube K ERO
Bearing H exane F GH
Crude Gas Oil
Plant 13
CDU 1 LN
NM P LUBE
DWO
LUBE HIFI
IN Raff inate LUBE
500N NAPHT
HN HA
VR
wax
WA X Foots oil
BS/EUR III
Plant 71 BN Am ine S our gas MS
Pitch Gas BS /EUR IV
DHD S Naphtha
Gas Diesel
Low LPG
sulphur Stabilzed Naph tha
Crude Heav y Naphtha ATF
SK,ATF Gas Gas KERO
Diesel Naphtha LPG S KO
EGO DH DT Diesel Gas oil
CDU 2 Vac.Diesel LCO
LVGO FCCU HCO
HVGO CLO
Slop Dis
VR BS/EUR III
DIESEL
SWS
BS /EUR IV

Gas
LPG
High LN LUBE
sulphur Gas HN
crude LPG HG U O HCU Kero
Unstab ilzed Nap htha LS RG Diesel FO
Heav y Naphtha UCO UCO
NSU
SK,ATF LS RN FUEL RFO
CDU 3 Diesel OIL
EGO LS RG ISO M Gas
Vac.Diesel LPG
LVGO Gasoline
HVGO Gas SRU Sulphur Sulphur
Slop Dis Naphtha Gas
VR Gas oil LS RN CCR Hydrogen
V BU
V GO LPG
FO Gasoline A SPHA L
T
* Euro III and Euro IV Products 39
Product Evacuation
All major products are marketed through IndianOil

 CTMPL to Trichy, Madurai & Sankari


 CBPL to Bangalore with a branch at Chitoor (AP)
 Coastal movements to Mumbai, Goa, Paradeep, Haldia
 Export: 1.0 MMTPA to Singapore Market & Sri Lanka, mainly
Naphtha, Fuel Oil & Lube Oil

Direct Marketing
Hexane, Wax, Sulphur, Petrochemical feed stocks, Naphtha to MFL.

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Desalination Plant
Intake well & Pump House

Investment : ` 243.9 Cr.


Capacity : 5.8 MGD

Desalination Plant dedicated to Nation on 4.7.2009

Intake well & Pump House


for Sea water

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Renewable Energy - Windmill Farm

• Capacity : 17.6 MW

• 22 machines (800 KW each)


• Pushpathur village Coimbatore
• Project cost : ` 90 crore

FIRST OF ITS KIND IN THE OIL INDUSTRY

Windmill Operation 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14

Energy Generated (in Million 30.03 28.41 34.17 24.72


Units)
Completely Completely
Revenue Generated in ` Crs. 8.71 8.24 utilized at utilized at
Desal Desal
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Power Plant

Refinery 3

You are Here

Power Plant
Refinery 1

Refinery 2

ETP

TTP
WHAT ROLE DO ENGINEERS
PLAY IN THE REFINERY?
What Role Do Engineers Play?

• Operations Engineer
• Maintenance Engineer
• Control Systems Engineer
• Poject / Design Engineer
• Health/Safety/Environmental Engineer
• Planning / Scheduling Engineer
• Reliability Engineer
Other Ways Engineers Support The Refining Industry

• Research & Development Engineers


• Engineering & Construction Engineers
Engineering Disciplines In The Refinery

• Mechanical Engineers - design & maintenance of


compressors, vessels …
• Electrical Engineers – Generation and distribution.
• Electronic Engineers - Instrumentation, Controls
• Computer Scientists - main plant control &
information systems
• Civil Engineers - Constructions
Departments in Refinery
ADMINISTRATION & WELFARE
CONTRACTS & MATERIALS
CORPORATE FINANCE
DEVELOPMENT / R&D
ELE. INSTRUMENT & PLANNING
ENGG., INSP. & CIVIL
ENGINEERING & SERVICES
FINANCE
FIRE & SAFETY
GENERAL ENGG.& INSPECTION / ENVIRONMENT
HUMAN RESOURCES
LOGISTICS & UTILITIES
MAINTENANCE
MANUFACTURING
MATERIALS & CONTRACTS
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH SERVICES
PERSONNEL
PROCESS ENGINEERING
PRODUCTION PLANNING
PROJECTS
REFINERY FINANCE
VIGILANCE
Maintenance Department is responsible for
maintaining equipment and facilities located at
85 Plants
spread over
820 (+) acres of land.
FACILITIES

• Static Equipment - 2860


• Rotary Equipment - 2917
• Electrical Equipment - 4211
• Instruments - 9173
• Material Handling Equip. - 95
• FW Network - 58 KM (25 loops)
• Civil - Plants & Buildings,
50 KM of roads
The price and quality of crudes is constantly changing.
The price and specifications of the products is constantly
changing.
Government regulations add additional constraints.
There is not much difference between the price of crude
and products.
HOW DO WE KEEP IN BUSINESS ?

• We need to design and revamp the plant utilizing


the latest technology to be more efficient

• We need to make the plant more flexible and


responsive

• We need to operate (control) the plant in the


most efficient manner possible

• We need to keep the equipment running all the


time
HOW DO WE KEEP IN BUSINESS ?
MINIMIZING POLLUTION

• Operate Furnaces Efficiently


• Waste Material Goes To The Flare Stack
• Avoid Spills & Accidental Releases
• Special Treatment of Sewer Water
• Lots of Paper Work
INDIAN PETROL SPECIFICATIONS EURO III

S. No. Characteristics Unit Unleaded Unleaded


Regular Premium
1. Colour Orange Red

2. Density @ 15ºC Kg/m3 720-775 720-775


3. Final Boiling Point, max ºC 210 210
4. Residue, max % volume % vol 2 2
5. Research Octane No. (RON), 91 95
min
6. Motor Octane No. (MON), min 81 85
7. Total Sulphur, max mg/kg 150 150
8. Lead Content, max g/l 0.005 0.005
9. Reid Vapour Pressure (RVP), kPa 60 60
max
10. Benzene Content, max % Volume 1.0 1.0
11. Copper strip corrosion for 3 hrs rating Class 1 Class 1
@ 50ºC, max
12. Olefin content, max. % volume 21 18
13. Aromatics content, max % volume 42 42
14. Oxygen content, max % mass 2.7 2.7
INDIAN PETROL SPECIFICATIONS EURO IV

S. No. Characteristics Unit Unleaded Unleaded


Regular Premium
1. Colour Orange Red
2. Density @ 15ºC Kg/m3 720-775 720-775
3. Final Boiling Point, max ºC 210 210
4. Residue, max % volume % vol 2 2
5. Research Octane No. (RON), 91 95
min
6. Motor Octane No. (MON), min 81 85
7. Total Sulphur, max mg/kg 50 50
8. Lead Content, max g/l 0.005 0.005
9. Reid Vapour Pressure (RVP), kPa 60 60
max
10. Benzene Content, max % Volume 1.0 1.0
11. Copper strip corrosion for 3 hrs rating Class 1 Class 1
@ 50ºC, max
12. Olefin content, max. % volume 21 18
13. Aromatics content, max % volume 35 35
14. Oxygen content, max % mass 2.7 2.7
HOW DO WE KEEP IN BUSINESS ?

• Refineries are very complicated chemical processing plants


that use reactions and separations to convert crude oil into
gasoline and other valuable products.

• Engineers play an important role in keeping these plants


running safely and efficiently.
ENGINEERING

CHEMICAL PROJECT MAINTENANCE

MANUFACTURING MECHANICAL MECHANICAL

PROCESS
ELECTRICAL ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING

OPTIMISATION CIVIL CIVIL

R&D INSTRUMENTS INSTRUMENTS


ENGINEERING

CHEMICAL PROJECT MAINTENANCE

MANUFACTURING MECHANICAL MECHANICAL

PROCESS
ELECTRICAL ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING

OPTIMISATION CIVIL CIVIL

R&D INSTRUMENTS INSTRUMENTS


THE BASIC PROCESS
THE BASIC PROCESS
THE BASIC PROCESS
CATALYTIC CRACKING

To convert low value gas oils to valuable products (naphtha and diesel) and slurry oil.
FLUDISEDCATALYTIC CRACKING
FLUDISED CATALYTIC CRACKING
CATALYTIC CRACKING
CATALYTIC CRACKING
CATALYTIC CRACKING
CATALYTIC CRACKING
Basic reaction — carbon‐carbon scission of paraffins & cycloparaffins to form
olefins & lower molecular weight paraffins & cycloparaffins

Paraffin Paraffin+Olefin
Alkyl Naphthene Naphthene+Olefin
Alkyl Aromatic Aromatic+Olefin

Example CH3 CH2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 === > CH32 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH=CHCH3

Olefins exhibit carbon‐carbon scission & isomerization with alkyl paraffins to


form branched paraffins

Cycloparaffins will dehydrogenate (condense) to form aromatics

Small amount of aromatics & olefins will condense to ultimately form coke
CATALYTIC CRACKING PARAMETERS

Reactor Space Velocity (lb/hr/lb) 1.1-13.4


C/O (v/hr/lb) 5-16
Recycle/Fresh Feed 0-.5
Catalyst Requirement, lb/bbl Feed .15-.25
Cat. Crclt. Rate, ton Cat./BBl total feed .9-1.5
On-Steam Efficiency 96-98
Reactor Temp. (F) 885-950
Regenerator Temp. (F) 1200-1500
Reactor Pressure (psig) 8-30
Regenerator Pressure (psig) 15-30
RON 92-99
MON 80-85
HYDROCRACKING

The hydrocracking of paraffins into smaller molecules as exemplified by the


cracking of normal heptane into isopentane and ethane
H2 – DHDS - SRU
PSA
ISOMERISATION

Isomerisation is the process by which one molecule is transformed into another


molecule which has exactly the same atoms, but the atoms are rearranged
ISOMERISATION
SULPHUR REMOVAL
SULPHUR REMOVAL
AROMATIZATION

The dehydrogenation and aromatization of paraffins to aromatics (commonly called


dehydrocyclization) as exemplified in the conversion of normal heptane to toluene
HYDROTREATING

To remove contaminants (sulfur, nitrogen, metals) and saturate olefins and


aromatics to produce a clean product for further processing or finished product
sales.
PYROLYSIS

Pyrolysis is thermal decomposition in the absence of oxygen.

This process requires an external heat source to maintain the pyrolysis process.

Typically, temperatures of between 300 C to 850C are used during pyrolysis of


materials such as MSW.

The products produced from pyrolysing materials are a solid residue and syngas
CATALYTIC REFORMING

To convert low-octane naphtha into a high-octane reformate for gasoline blending


and/or to provide aromatics (benzene, toluene, and xylene) for petrochemical plants.
Reforming also produces high purity hydrogen for hydrotreating processes.
CATALYTIC REFORMING
CATALYTIC REFORMING
CATALYTIC REFORMING

Dehydrogenation & Dehydrocyclization: Highly endothermic, cause decrease in


temperatures, highest reaction rates, aromatics formed have high B.P so end point
of gasoline rises

Dehydrogenation reactions are very fast, about one order of magnitude faster than
the other reactions. The reaction is promoted by the metallic function of catalyst

Methyl cyclohexane  Toluene + H2

MCP  Benzene + H2
CATALYTIC REFORMING

Favorable conditions for different reforming

Reaction temperature
Space velocity
Reaction pressure
H2/HC ratio
Feedstock Characteristics
CATALYTIC REFORMING

Reaction Pressure Temperature

Dehydrogenation of naphthenes to aromatics Low pressure High temperature

Isomerisation of naphthenes Indeterminate Indeterminate

Dehydrocylistion of paraffins to aromatics Low pressure High temperature

Hydrocracking High pressure High temperature


HYDRODESULFURIZATION

Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) is a catalytic chemical process used to remove sulfur (S)


from refined petroleum products such as gasoline or petrol, jet fuel, kerosene, diesel
fuel, and fuel oils. The purpose of removing the sulfur is to reduce the sulfur dioxide
(SO2) emissions that result from using those fuels in automotive vehicles, aircraft,
railroad locomotives, ships, gas or oil burning power plants, residential and industrial
furnaces, and other forms of fuel combustion.

Sulfur, even in extremely low concentrations, poisons the noble metal catalysts in the
catalytic reforming units that are subsequently used to upgrade the octane rating of the
naphtha streams.

2 R-SH + H2 --> 2 R + 2 H2S


mercaptan hydrocarbon
REACTIONS TO REMOVE SULFUR

convert H2S to elemental sulfur:


2 H2S + 2 O2 --> SO2 + S + 2 H2O
2 H2S + SO2 --> 3S + 2 H2O
RO
ENGINEERING

CHEMICAL PROJECT MAINTENANCE

MANUFACTURING MECHANICAL MECHANICAL

PROCESS
ELECTRICAL ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING

OPTIMISATION CIVIL CIVIL

R&D INSTRUMENTS INSTRUMENTS


HEAT EXCHANGER
HEAT EXCHANGER
HEAT EXCHANGER
DE SALTER
DEAREATOR
STATIC EQUIPMENT
STATIC EQUIPMENT

Description Quantity
Columns / Vessels 1369
Exchangers 1194
Furnace 57
Reactors 22
Steam Generator 14
Boilers & HRSG 6
Storage Tanks 198
PUMPS
COMPRESSOR
POWER HOUSE – STEAM TURBINE
ROTARY EQUIPMENTS
ROTARY EQUIPMENTS

Description Quantity

Pumps 2080
Compressors 287
Turbines 24
Fans / Blowers 196
Others
330
(Mixers, Filters, Gear Boxes)
ENGINEERING

CHEMICAL PROJECT MAINTENANCE

MANUFACTURING MECHANICAL MECHANICAL

PROCESS
ELECTRICAL ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING

OPTIMISATION CIVIL CIVIL

R&D INSTRUMENTS INSTRUMENTS


The Power circuit
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS

Description Quantity
HT Motors 200
LT Motors 2661
Transformers 95
Generators 9
HT Panels 445
UPS Systems 14
PCC 95
MCC 160
Plant Communication System 10
Battery Banks 35
Intercom Telephone Exchange 1
Battery Chargers 14
Central Air Conditioning Plants 35
Split / Window Air Conditioners 437
4211
ITS