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Game Theory – Rule of dominance

1. In a small town there are two stores: ABC and XYZ, that handle sundry goods. The total
number of customers is equally divided between the two, because the price and the quality
of the goods sold are almost equal. Both stores have good reputation in the community, and
they render equally good customer service. Assume that a gain of customers by ABC is a loss
to XYZ and vice versa. Both stores plan to run annual pre-diwali sales during the first week of
November. Sales are advertised through a local newspaper, and through radio and
television. With t aid of an advertising firm store, ABC constructed the game matrix given
below: figures in the matrix represent a gain or loss of customers.

Strategy of XYZ
Strategy of ABC Newspaper Radio Television
Newspaper 30 40 -80
Radio 0 15 -20
Television 90 20 50
Determine optimal strategies and the worth of such strategies for both ABC and XYZ.


R3 > R2 .. retain R3

C3 < C1 .. retain C3


Strategy of XYZ
Strategy of ABC Newspaper Radio Television
Newspaper 40 -80
Television 20 50

No further reduction possible..

so using p-q method (mixed strategy method):

p: P(ABC choosing NP); 1- p: P(ABC choosing TV)

q: P(XYZ choosing R); 1-q: P(XYZ choosing TV)

P = 1/5; 1-p = 4/5

q = 13/15; 1-q = 2/15

V = 24

Interpretation: Optimal strategies for ABC: (1/5, 0, 4/5); XYZ: (0, 13/15, 2/15); Value of
the game = 24

2. Two breakfast food manufacturers, ABC and XYZ are competing for an increased market
share. The pay-off matrix, shown in the following table, describes the increase in market
share for ABC and decrease in market share of XYZ.

Give Decrease Maintain present Increase
ABC coupons price strategy advertising
coupons 2 -2 4 1
price 6 1 12 3
strategy -3 2 0 6
advertising 2 -3 7 1
Determine the optimal strategies for both the manufacturers and the value of the game.

R2 > R1 .. retain R2

C1 < C3 .. retain C1

R2 > R4 ..retain R2

C2 < C4 .. retain C2

Further reduction not possible.

Give Decrease
coupons price Maintain present Increase
ABC (q) (1-q) strategy advertising
Give coupons
Decrease price (p) 6 1
Maintain present
strategy (1-p) -3 2

Increase advertising
p = ½; 1-p = ½

q = 1/10; 1-q = 9/10

V = 1.5

Interpretation: Optimal strategies for ABC: (0, 1/2, ½, 0); XYZ: (1/10, 9/10, 0, 0); Value of
the game = 1.5

3. Two firms A & B have been selling a competing product that forms a part of both firm’s total
sales. The marketing executive of the firm A raised a question: ‘what should be the firm’s
strategies in terms of advertising the product in question’? the market research team of firm
A developed the following data for varying degree of advertising:

a) No advertising, medium advertising, and large advertising for both firms will result in equal
market shares.
b) Firm A with no advertising: 40% of the market with medium advertising by firm B and 28%
of the market with large advertising by firm B.
c) Firm A using medium advertising: 70% of the market with no advertising by firm B and 45%
of the market with large advertising by firm B.
d) Firm A using large advertising: 75% of the market with no advertising by firm B and 47.5% of
the market with medium advertising by firm B.
Based on the above information, answer the marketing executive’s questions. What
advertising policy should firm A pursue when consideration is given to the above factors:
selling price, Rs. 4 per unit; variable cost of product Rs. 2.50 per unit, annual volume of
30,000 units for firm A, cost of annual medium advertising Rs. 5000 and cost of annual large
advertising Rs. 15,000? What contribution, before other fixed costs, is available to the firm?

firm B

No Medium
firm A advertising advertising large advertising
advertising 50 40 28
advertising 70 50 45
advertising 75 47.5 50