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Lab Activity II

MONOHYBRID CROSSING

Name : Pratiwi Kusuma K


Student ID : B1B017007
Group :5
Subgroup :A
Assistant : Salsabila Pratiwi

LABORATORY OF ANIMAL STRUCTURE AND DEVELOPMENT


FACULTY OF BIOLOGY
JENDERAL SOEDIRMAN UNIVERSITY
PURWOKERTO
2018
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
A. Result

Table 1.1 Result of Monohybrid Crossing Wild type and Ebony Entourage V
Phenotype Observed (O)
Wild type 34
Ebony 5
Total 39

Table 1.2 Result of Calculation of Chi-Square Test Entourage V


Phenotype Observed (O) Expected (E) d2(O-E)2 d2/E
Wild type 34 ¾ x 39 = 29,5 22,56 0,77
Ebony 5 ¼ x 39 = 9,75 22,56 2,31
Total 39 39, 25 46,12 3,08

Calculation
X table = 3,84
X calculation= 3,08
Parameters:
X2 calculation ≤ X table = Accepted
X2 calculation > X table = Rejected
 3,08 ≤ 3,84
So our hypothesize is accepted

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B. Discussion
Monohibride crosses are simple crosses that only pay attention to one
characteristic or different sign. Mendel crosses monohibrids or crosses of a different
nature, with the aim of knowing the pattern of inheritance from elders to the next
generation. This cross is to prove Mendel I's law which states that the allele pair in the
process of forming gamete cells can separate freely. Mendel's Law I is also called the
law of segregation

The types of flies used in monohibrid crosses are wild ype and ebony.
Drosophila melanogaster normal (wild type) has the characteristics of having an
elliptical red eye. There are also oceli eyes that are much smaller than compound eyes,
located at the top of the head, above between the eyes of two compound eyes, round
in shape. Looks that are not pointed and branched. Elliptical head. Thorax looks
creamy, overgrown with lots of hair, with a white base color. The five-segmented
abdomen, the segment visible from the black lines located on the abdomen. The
Drosophila wing melanogaster wild type has a length that is longer than the abdomen
of the fly, straight, and starts from the thorax with transparent colors. The costal vein
has two parts interrupted close to its body. ‘Sungut’ (arista) is generally fur, has 7-12
branches. The posterior crossvein is generally straight, not curved. Observation of the
determination and differentiation of Drosophila strains from one another showed
differences in both the wing shape, eye color, body color, and body size (Ghostrecon,
2008), the characteristic of ebony flies has black colour on it body. Black colour in
ebony occur because of mutation. Mutations occur on chromosome number 3, locus
91.0, ebony flies are dark, almost black in their sides. There is a mutation in the gene
located on the third chromosome. Normally the function of the gene functions to build
pigments that give color to normal fruit flies. But because of damage, black pigments
accumulate throughout the body (Borror, et al., 1998).
The reason why we use wild type flies and ebony flies in monohybrid crossing
the presence of a number observable of mutants whose phenotype is morphologically
good in terms of eyes, wings, body color, and body hair. Another reason is because
there are color differences between wild and ebony type flies, so that the offspring will
get different characteristics, so that the ratio of the crosses will be obtained.
The monohybrid crossing pattern between wild type flies and mutant (Ebony)
flies is:

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P: wild type (normal) >< Ebony
EETT eeTT
G: ET eT
F1 : EeTT
(normal)
EeTT >< EeTT

F2 : 3 wild type ( EETT; EeTT; EeTT)


1 ebony (eeTT)
Deviation that occur in the crossing of the mendel law include:
1. Interaction of several pairs of genes
This case occurred in chicken combs with different shapes, namely rose,
pea, walnut, and single. This comb difference is caused by two pairs of
genes that interact with each other to form different properties.
Cockscomb rose has RRpp / Rrpp genotype, cockscomb pea has the rrPP /
rrPp genotype, cockscomb walnut have the RrPp / RRPP / RrPP / RRPp
genotype, Single or single cockcombs have rrpp genotype.
2. Cryptomeri
Cryptomeri comes from the word cryptos which means hidden. In this case
the nature of the dominant gene will be hidden if it stands alone and its
effect will appear if it appears together with other dominant genes. This
property was first discovered in a cross between a red Linaria marocanna
flower and white flowers.
3. Polyimetry is an event where several genes that stand alone affect the same
part of the organism's body. This case was first observed in wheat seeds
which have a variety of red colors.
4. Epistasis and hypostasis
Epistasis is a gene that covers the activity of other genes that are not
sealants, while the closed gene is called hypostasis. Epistasis can be divided
into dominant epistasis, recessive epistasis, and recessive dominant
epistasis.
a. Dominant epistasis
Dominant epistasis is the dominant gene that covers the influence of
other genes that are not one allele. For example in

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b. Recessive epistasis
Recessive epistasis is a recessive gene that covers the influence of other
dominant and recessive genes that are not alleles. This recessive gene
can cover the influence of other genes when present in a homozygous
state.
c. Dominant recessive epistasis
Dominant-recessive epistasis is a dominant gene event that will cover
the influence of other genes, as well as the presence of a homozygous
recessive gene that can mask the influence of the dominant gene
5. Complementary genes
are genes that complement each other in giving rise to certain traits. For
example, gene B and T gene that causes a person not to be deaf (normal).
If the dominant gene B appears itself not accompanied by the T gene, it
will cause deafness. Likewise vice versa, if the dominant gene T appears
itself not accompanied by gene B, it will cause deaf mute.
6. Double dominant gene
Double dominant genes are several genes that affect the same properties in
an organism. For example, genes A and B both affect the plants of Bursa
sp. to produce flowers with triangular shapes. If gene A appears itself, a
triangular flower will form, so also if gene B appears alone. And if the
genes A and B appear together, they will also affect the plant to produce
triangular flowers. Triangle flower (AABB) crossing and oval flower
(aabb) will produce a comparison of phenotype F2 = triangle flower: oval
flower = 15: 1 (Dwijoseputro, 1997).

The reason for using Chi-Square calculations in monohibrid crosses is to be


able to find out whether the results of a cross in accordance with a predetermined ratio
or expected to be done by testing the results we get. The test commonly used is the
Chi-square test (X2). Chi-square test (X2) is a real test (goodness of fit) whether the
data obtained correctly deviates from the expected ratio, not by chance. Expected
comparisons (hypotheses) based on the separation of alele freely, gamet concretely
and perfect segregation (Crowder, 1988).

In Chi-Square calculation for monohybrid crosses in group 5, X count was


3.08, and X table was 3.84. Judging from the success parameters of the crosses, the

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group 5 monohybrid crossing hypothesis is accepted, because X counts less than X
tables. But that is not entirely true. Because when viewed from the comparison of F2
flies in the group 5 monohybrid crosses, it produces a comparison of 7 (wild type): 1
(ebony). This deviates from the mendel 1 law, namely monohybrid crosses produce a
ratio of 3: 1. This can occur for several reasons, it can be estimated that crossed flies
are in a high reproductive period, resulting in abundant offspring, can be caused by
environmental factors and temperatures that support flies to cross, and can be caused
by flies getting abundant nutrients that can crossing so that more offspring are
produced.

The factor that can affect success of monohybrid crossing are :

1. External factor
External factor can come from temperature, in appropriate temperature
flies can feel comfort to do mating or crossing; availability of nutrient,
more better availability of nutrient more higher flies produce the
offspings.
2. Internal factor
Internal factor can comes from the fly itself, if the flies is in a state of
wanting to mating, the more likely it is to get the success of crossing.

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REFERENCES
Borror, J. 1992 .Pengenalan Pengajaran Serangga. Universitas Gadjah Mada Press:
Yogyakarta.
Crowder,L.V.1982. Genetika Tumbuhan. Gadjah MadaUniversity Press:Yogyakarta.
Dwijoseputro. 1997. Pengantar Genetika. Bharata: Jakarta.

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