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# Measurement

3 basic
components
Decision -
of Process Control Controller
Action
Unit 1: Process Control Loop

## Process control loop

Pressure
Flow
Level
Process Temperature
pH

dP cell
Capacitance
I/P
Magnetic
Resistance
IR/Laser

4-20 mA
Transmitter 1-5 Vdc

Controller PID
Fuzzy logic

4-20 mA
Transducer 3-15 psig

Linear
Control valve Equal percentage

## © Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2009)

Measurement (M)
Sensor-transmitter combination

## typical process transducer.

Block diagram of sensor-transmitter combination

## • the general configuration of a measurement typically consists of

a sensing element combined with a driving element
(transmitter).
• It generates a signal (transmitter output) which related to the
process variable.
• Ideally the relationship should be linear.
-the transmitter output is proportional to the process variable.
(pressure, level and resistance temperature devices (RTDs)
• Some situations the relationship is nonlinear
-thermocouples and orifice flow meter.
• Criteria in selecting sensors
– Has no effect to the process condition
– Suitable to the process and the measured variables
– High accuracy
– Good in precision
– It has linear amplitude
– Stable frequency response
– Doesn’t induced by the phase distortion due to time-lag
– Robust to the process environment without affecting the
accuracy
• Three important terms
1. range – low and high value of the variable that is
measured.
– consider a pressure sensor-transmitter that has
been calibrated to measure process pressure
between the value of 20psig and 50psig .
– range of this sensor-transmitter combination is
20 to 50psig .
2. span – difference between high and low value of the range
–for previous example : the span is 30 psi
3. zero –low value of the range is often referred to as the zero of
the instrument
– for previous example : the zero is 20 psig
Span =30
zero =20

20 50
P (psig)
100 20

0 4
0 p(t), psig 200

## What is the gain for each transmitter? What

is zero for each transmitter? What is span
for each transmitter?
PV(s) C(s)
H(s)
Process variable Transmitter output

C (s ) KT
H (s )  
PV (s )  T s  1

KT = transmitter gain
 T = transmitter time constant
100 20

## c(t), %TO c(t), mA

0 4
0 p(t), psig 200

KT 
20  4mA

16mA
 0.08mA / psig
200  0psig 200 psig
Or in percent transmitter output (%TO)

KT 
100  0%TO  0.5%TO / psig
200  0psig

## Gain of a sensor-transmitter is the ratio of the span of the

output signal to the span of variable
Gain of nonlinear transducer

## For nonlinear instrument, the gain at any particular operating

point is the tangent to the characteristic input-output relation
at the operating point.
Question
• Calculate the gain, in
a)percent transmitter output (%TO) per variable unit
b) current output per variable unit
write the transfer function and draw the block
diagram.

## i) A temperature transmitter with a range of 100 to

350oF and a time constant of 30s

## ii) A pressure transmitter with a range of 0 to 50 psig

and a time constant of 3s
Transmitter
Remember!!

The signal
• Pneumatic transmitter 3–15 psi.
• electronics -current transmitter 4–20-mA output.
-Voltage transmitter 1-5 volt (VDC)

KT 
20  4mA
KT 
5  1Volt
200  0psig 200  0 psig

KT 
15  3 psi
200  0 psig
Question
Calibration:
A temperature transmitter with a range of 100 to 350oF

## If the measured temperature in the outlet flow is 200oF, calculate

a) the current signal transmitted to the controller
b) The percent signal transmitted to the controller