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3 basic
Decision -
of Process Control Controller
Unit 1: Process Control Loop

Process control loop

Process Temperature

dP cell
Sensor Radar, Sonic

4-20 mA
Transmitter 1-5 Vdc

Controller PID
Fuzzy logic

4-20 mA
Transducer 3-15 psig

Control valve Equal percentage

© Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2009)

Measurement (M)
Sensor-transmitter combination

typical process transducer.

Block diagram of sensor-transmitter combination

• the general configuration of a measurement typically consists of

a sensing element combined with a driving element
• It generates a signal (transmitter output) which related to the
process variable.
• Ideally the relationship should be linear.
-the transmitter output is proportional to the process variable.
(pressure, level and resistance temperature devices (RTDs)
• Some situations the relationship is nonlinear
-thermocouples and orifice flow meter.
• Criteria in selecting sensors
– Has no effect to the process condition
– Suitable to the process and the measured variables
– High accuracy
– Good in precision
– It has linear amplitude
– Stable frequency response
– Doesn’t induced by the phase distortion due to time-lag
– Robust to the process environment without affecting the
• Three important terms
1. range – low and high value of the variable that is
– consider a pressure sensor-transmitter that has
been calibrated to measure process pressure
between the value of 20psig and 50psig .
– range of this sensor-transmitter combination is
20 to 50psig .
2. span – difference between high and low value of the range
–for previous example : the span is 30 psi
3. zero –low value of the range is often referred to as the zero of
the instrument
– for previous example : the zero is 20 psig
Span =30
zero =20

20 50
P (psig)
100 20

c(t), %TO c(t), mA

0 4
0 p(t), psig 200

What is the gain for each transmitter? What

is zero for each transmitter? What is span
for each transmitter?
PV(s) C(s)
Process variable Transmitter output

C (s ) KT
H (s )  
PV (s )  T s  1

KT = transmitter gain
 T = transmitter time constant
100 20

c(t), %TO c(t), mA

0 4
0 p(t), psig 200

KT 
20  4mA

 0.08mA / psig
200  0psig 200 psig
Or in percent transmitter output (%TO)

KT 
100  0%TO  0.5%TO / psig
200  0psig

Gain of a sensor-transmitter is the ratio of the span of the

output signal to the span of variable
Gain of nonlinear transducer

For nonlinear instrument, the gain at any particular operating

point is the tangent to the characteristic input-output relation
at the operating point.
• Calculate the gain, in
a)percent transmitter output (%TO) per variable unit
b) current output per variable unit
write the transfer function and draw the block

i) A temperature transmitter with a range of 100 to

350oF and a time constant of 30s

ii) A pressure transmitter with a range of 0 to 50 psig

and a time constant of 3s

The signal
• Pneumatic transmitter 3–15 psi.
• electronics -current transmitter 4–20-mA output.
-Voltage transmitter 1-5 volt (VDC)

KT 
20  4mA
KT 
5  1Volt
200  0psig 200  0 psig

KT 
15  3 psi
200  0 psig
A temperature transmitter with a range of 100 to 350oF

If the measured temperature in the outlet flow is 200oF, calculate

a) the current signal transmitted to the controller
b) The percent signal transmitted to the controller