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COMBINED HEAT AND POWER

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COMBINED BENEFITS OF
DISTRIBUTED COGENERATION
Increasing demand for energy and long transmission distances from
power plant to end user affect the reliability of the electricity supply,
and also put pressure on the price of electrical and thermal energy. The
power and energy market has been deregulated and liberalized, pushing
power generation towards a decentralized model. More and more power
and heat is being produced close to the point of consumption. At the
same time, the world is calling for more efficient use of fuels to protect
the environment for future generations.

Wärtsilä addresses these demands with its Combined Heat and
Power (CHP) solutions for utilities, IPPs, industry and municipalities.
Typical plant sizes range from 4 to100 MWe, in single or multi-engine
configurations.
The combination of high efficiency and low emissions offered by
Wärtsilä CHP plants is unequalled in the market. Wärtsilä engines as
such comply with various national and local environmental requirements
and with World Bank guidelines for power plants.
Cogeneration is a closed process that requires no auxiliary cooling
of the engines since the heat from the process is taken into profitable
use. CHP plants, with their unbeatable electrical efficiency and high
total efficiency throughout the load range, have very low CO2 emissions,
so they easily comply with the most stringent environmental and CHP
regulations.
Wärtsilä CHP plants can run on various grades of natural gas and
liquid fuel, while still maintaining low emissions and high efficiency. The
plants include thermal heat recovery for hot water, steam, direct-fire hot
air, or chilled water – raising an already efficient power plant, 43-45%
in terms of net electricity, to a total efficiency of 90% or above. More
efficient use of fuel also translates into lower emissions per unit of fuel.

Typical specific CO2 emissions by WÄRTSILÄ CHP – WIN-WIN CONCEPT
different power plant types ++ Extremely efficient utilization of primary fuels
CO2 emissions in g/kWh ++ Decentralized energy production (DE)
enables individual CHP solutions that are
800
750
economical and efficient
670 ++ Optimized plant size with step-by-step
600 600
450 investment thanks to multi-unit design.
340 Gives lower investment risk in a changing
240 market
1) 2)
++ Maximized plant availability in all operating
situations
Coal fired Gas turbine Diesel engine Gas engine ++ Flexible operation for changes in power and
steam natural gas fuel oil natural gas CHP heat demands
boiler single cycle single cycle
++ Electrical output and efficiency are
Gas turbine Diesel engine Gas engine unaffected by the rate of heat production
fuel oil emulsified fuel natural gas
single cycle single cycle single cycle
++ Lower power transmission costs
++ On-site maintenance without production
1) 7 bar (g) saturated steam production. down-time
2) Hot water production (45°C in/85°C out).
Single cycle: g/kWhe. == Low capital and operational costs per
CHP-mode: g/kWhtot (heat + electricity). output unit. High profitability!

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PISTICCI, ITALY
Type of customer ..........................Industry - IPP
Engine type............. 4 x Wärtsilä 18V34SG (Gas)
3 x Wärtsilä 18V32 (LBF)
Total electrical output............... 22 MW + 24MW
Total heat output ................. 17.3 MW + 2.1 MW
Total efficiency........................................... 59%
Fuel .......................................Gas/Liquid biofuel

PLANT CONCEPT
Wärtsilä+CHP+plants+powered+by+reciprocating+ and+make+on-site+installation+a+matter+of+ operation+enabled+by+the+cascading+multi-
engines+offer+fl+exibility+and+uncompromising+ assembling+and+connecting+the+modules.+ engine+structure+of+the+plants.+Multi-unit+
performance+wherever+power+and+heat+are+ Wärtsilä+has+the+resources+and+capabilities+ installations+provide+load+fl+exibility:+extra+
required. to+carry+out+deliveries+ranging+from+the+supply+ generating+sets+can+be+turned+off,+while+the+
Wärtsilä’s+gas+and+diesel+engines+have+by+ of+equipment+and+engineering+to+complete+ plant+continues+to+run+at+peak+effi+ciency+with+
far+the+highest+electrical+effi+ciency+for+prime+ turnkey+projects+including+engineering,+ as+many+units+as+required.
movers+in+the+market.+The+exhaust+gases+and+ procurement+and+construction.+A+globally+ As+needs+change,+the+design+of+the+plants+
cooling+water+from+the+engine+can+fl+exibly+ experienced+project+organization+guarantees+ makes+it+possible+to+increase+the+plant+size+in+
be+utilized+for+numerous+applications+–+as+ successfully+executed+deliveries+around+the+ stages+by+adding+new+engines.+This+also+allows+
low-pressure+steam+for+industrial+entities,+as+ world. for+a+smaller+initial+investment+with+the+option+
district+heating+and/or+chilled+water+for+cities,+ One+of+the+benefi+ts+of+Wärtsilä’s+modular+ to+expand+later+as+required.
offi+ce+complexes+and+municipalities;+or+the+ plant+concept+is+the+unique+fl+exibility+of+
exhaust+gases+can+be+used+directly+for+drying,+
etc.+Depending+on+customer+needs,+the+CHP+
plant’s+total+effi+ciency+can+even+exceed+90+%.
Typical+heat+recovery+systems,+between+the+
CHP module
prime+mover+and+the+customer’s+equipment,+
are+of+“hang-on”+type+and+ensure+both+
optimized+heat+production+and+effective+engine+
cooling+and+operation.+Wärtsilä’s+heat+recovery+
design+takes+into+account+all+the+customer’s+
seasonal,+monthly,+weekly+and+daily+variations+
in+running+and+operational+heat+production+
conditions.+Heat+production+does+not+affect+the+
electrical+output+or+the+electrical+effi+ciency+of+
the+prime+mover. Wärtsilä 20V34SG
The+modular+design+of+Wärtsilä+CHP+plants+
enables+rapid+delivery+anywhere+in+the+world.+
Engine auxiliary module (EAM)
Prefabricated,+functionally+pre-tested+modules+
guarantee+consistent+quality+and+performance+

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MONOPOLI, ITALY
Engines ............................... 6 x Wärtsilä 18V46
Pre-engineered and + Steam turbine
pretested modules Output ................................ 100 MWe (engines)
minimizes construction time + 11 MWe (turbine)
and maximize reliability. Fuel ..............................................Liquid biofuel
Emission control ................ SCR NOX abatement

Exhaust gas silencer

+10,950

FIELD CONCEPT EXAMPLE
Where the building site is ample and not situated
in the midst of a densely populated area, the
single floor plant layout with an overall lower
plant profile is used. The main heat recovery
system is situated outside the main engine hall,
CHP- Engine- either under a separate roof or as weatherproof
Exhaust gas boiler module generator set
equipment.

21,250

Radiator
TOWN CONCEPT EXAMPLE
+15,500 When the plant is situated in the middle of a
city or an industrial plant site, the layout is more
compact and the protective shielding is stronger.
The two floor plant lay-out allows a small and
Combined compact footprint. The exterior of the plant and
SCR/OXI-CAT possible architectural design of the power house
(option) has also to be suited to its surroundings. The
emission levels have to be kept very low with
effective emission reduction systems and heavy-
duty silencers have to be installed to eliminate
any noice problems.

CHP-module Engine-generator set

22,500

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capacity or temperature in the industrial industrial process steam or even chilled
process or the district heating network. Such water, Wärtsilä provides a design that ensures
a plant is very suitable when all the heat and maximum efficiency and the best possible
power it produces can be used for either heat overall solution. The automation system not
or processing purposes. only controls all the internal processes in
To optimize the balance between thermal the Wärtsilä CHP plant but is also carefully
and electrical energy production, each plant is integrated with all necessary signals and
customized to suit the needs of the end user. connections to existing systems to guarantee a
Whether it is hot water for district heating, fully compatible plant.

LOW-PRESSURE STEAM GENERATION FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

POWERFUL CHOICES
The high efficiency of Wärtsilä’s CHP plants Steam
consumer
translates into considerable savings in fuel
costs compared to other technologies. For Electricity
optimized balance and profitability, the Steam generator

plants are customized to the customer’s
specific needs.
Hot water
A decentralized combined heat and Lube oil cooler
consumer
(optional)
power plant increases the reliability of
energy supply in the neighbourhood. Total
energy production is local and close to the CAC 1 and 2

point of consumption. Local heat generation
ensures a quick response to changes in

COGEN FOR MAXIMUM STEAM GENERATION
Steam
consumer

Electricity
Burner

CAC 1 and 2

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UJPALOTA, HUNGARY
Type of customer...........................................IPP
Engine type....................... 3 x Wärtsilä 20V34SG
Total electrical output............................ 20 MWe
Total heat output................................ 19.2 MWth
Total efficiency......................................... 84.6%
Fuel..............................................................Gas

7 °C

TRIGENERATION
Typical trigeneration solution for airports
1-stage Chilled water
absorption or district cooling
chiller
95-105 °C
12 °C

Electricity
80-90 °C
Boiler

70-105 °C
CAC1/
jacket water

Hot water
or district
heating
Lube oil cooler
45-55 °C

Circulation pump

HOT WATER GENERATION FOR DISTRICT HEATING APPLICATIONS

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RINGKØBING, DENMARK:
Type of customer ......................................Utility
Engine type...................... 1 x Wärtsilä 20V34SG
Total electrical output............................ 7.9 MW
Total heat output ................................... 9.7 MW
Total efficiency........................................... 96%
Fuel .............................................................Gas

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Liquid fuel
Gas fuel
Gas fuel
Gas Liquid
fuel
Liquid fuel

Gas

SG operation Dual-fuel operation GD operation Diesel operation

ENGINE WORKING PRINCIPLES

1.05
Derating due to cooling water temperature.
(Derating due to inlet air temperature starts at 45°C)
1
Wärtsilä 20V34SG
(radiator cooling)
Derating factor

0.95

Aeroderivate gas turbine
0.9

Industrial gas turbine
0.85

Source: GE Ger-3567 Ger-3695; Wärtsilä perf
0.8
15 20 25 30 35 40 45
Ambient temperature (°C)

Wärtsilä reciprocating gas engines offer stable output
and high performance in hot and dry conditions. No water
consumed for plant cooling = remote area suitability!

ENGINE TECHNOLOGY
A+reciprocating+engine+is+the+most+effi+cient+ The+heart+of+Wärtsilä’s+generating+sets+is+
means+of+converting+liquid+or+gaseous+fuels+ Wärtsilä’s+reliable+engine+technology,+the+result+
into+energy. of+long+experience+of+demanding+marine+and+
The+Wärtsilä+CHP+plant+can+run+on+most+ power+plant+applications.+All+Wärtsilä+engines+
natural+gas+types,+heavy+and+light+fuel+oils,+and+ have+a+simple+and+straightforward+modern+
emulsifi+ed+fuels.+Dual-fuel+engines+give+added+ design+with+facilities+for+easy+and+rapid+on-site+
reliability+to+the+CHP+plant,+since+they+can+use+ maintenance.
whichever+fuel+is+available+at+the+lowest+cost.

The Wärtsilä 20V34SG engine features
the latest design in gas technology.

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Typical interior and design of a control room
in Wärtsilä power plants.

CUSTOMER CARE
Wärtsilä’s aim is to ensure that customers Wärtsilä Operations & Maintenance currently
obtain the best possible performance from runs more than 130 plants around the world,
their power plant investment throughout its making it the world’s leading power plant O&M
lifecycle. After all, who could be better at this contractor.
than the people who designed and built the If customers choose to operate the plant
plant? themselves, they can still rest assured that
Wärtsilä provides a comprehensive range they have the best possible support available
of services built on the concept of enhancing as and when needed – from training and
the customer’s profitability by optimizing all on-line support to service packages or plant
aspects of the power plant operation. modernization and upgrading. Wärtsilä’s
The services range from rapid spare global network is always ready to make sure
parts delivery to a complete operation and the power plant performs flawlessly, free
maintenance partnership, allowing the of breakdowns and unwanted downtime
customer to focus on their core business. throughout its lifetime.

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COMBINED CYCLE SOLUTIONS
Wärtsilä’s combined cycle solutions with using a conventional steam bottoming cycle
reciprocating engines reach plant efficiencies recovering hot exhaust gases or an organic
far above 50%. This is achieved by recovering rankine cycle recovering heat from sources
energy from the otherwise wasted heat with lower temperatures.
produced in thermal power plants, either by

Photo courtesy of Jung Bu City Gas and JB Enertek Co., Ltd

CHEONG SOO, KOREA
The purpose of Cheong Soo plant is to provide District heating and
electricity (CHP) to a newly established and build town with about
6400 house holds including public buildings. The CHP plant generates
electricity in parallell with the electrical grid and supplies the district
heating to the network for the town. During summer the plant provides
also district cooling.
Type of customer ............................................................................ IPP
Engine type..........................................................2 x Wärtsilä 20V34SG
Total electricity output............................................................. 16.9 MW
Total heat output..................................................................... 14.2 MW
Total efficiency............................................................................ 85.1%
Fuel.................................................................................... Natural gas

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THE SINGLE-SOURCE
SUPPLIER THAT
STAYS WITH YOU
Wärtsilä has the resources and capabilities
to carry out deliveries ranging from the
supply of equipment and basic engineering to
complete turnkey projects including financing,
engineering, procurement, construction,
operation and maintenance.

BARAJAS AIRPORT, SPAIN
In 2003, AENA, the Spanish Airport Authority, called for bids to supply
thermal and electrical energy to the major Barajas airport in Madrid under
a twenty-year power purchase agreement.
The trigeneration plant, generating a net electric power of 33 MW, is
connected to the airport’s internal grid and to the public grid. The plant
provides electricity continuously, as well as heating during the winter and
cooling during the summer.

Engines................................................................6 x Wärtsilä 18V32DF
Total electrical output............................................................. 33.6 MWe
Total heat output...................................................................... 24 MWth
Total absorption cooling output.................................................. 18 MWc
Total efficiency............................................................................... 74%
Fuel............................................................................. Natural gas/LFO

LINATE AIRPORT, MILAN, ITALY
Type:........................................... Industrial self generation, Trigeneration
Engines................................................................3 x Wärtsilä 20V34SG
Total electrical output................................................................ 24 MWe
Total heat output................................................................... 17.5 MWth
Total efficiency........................................................................... 80.2 %
Fuel.................................................................................... Natural gas

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THIS IS NOT THE FUTURE.
THIS IS TODAY.
THE+WÄRTSILÄ+TOWN+CONCEPT+is+a+ architecture.+As+the+heat+recovery+system+
Combined+Heat+and+Power+plant+designed+for+ and+other+auxiliaries+are+built+into+functional+
decentralized+energy+production+in+built-up+ modules+surrounding+the+engine,+Town+
areas+close+to+consumers.+These+facilities+ Concept+plants+have+a+small+footprint.
have+a+high+level+of+performance,+comply+with+ Town+Concept+CHP+plants+can+also+easily+
all+environmental+regulations+–+particularly+ be+expanded+as+the+demand+for+power+and+
noise+emissions+–+and+are+designed+to+ heat+grows.
blend+smoothly+into+the+surrounding+urban+

Exhaust stacks

Cooling radiators

Exhaust gas boiler

Transformer

Control room

Lubrication
oil tank

Engine air intake filters

Engine generator set

Module for hot water generation Engine exhaust outlet

District heating pump

Feed and return for district

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POWER PLANT OUTPUT RANGE

Gas engines MW 1 5 10 50 100 300 500
Wärtsilä 34SG

Dual-fuel engines (gaseous fuel/liquid fuel)
Wärtsilä 32GD

Wärtsilä 34DF

Wärtsilä 50DF

Liquid fuel (LFO, HFO, CRO, emulsified, LBF)
Wärtsilä 20

Wärtsilä 32

Wärtsilä 46

LFO = light fuel oil CRO = crude oil
HFO = heavy fuel oil LBF = liquid biofuel

Boiler and absorption chillers at
Madrid’s Barajas airport, Spain.

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Performance data as guidelines for CHP calculations – Wärtsilä gas fuelled generating sets at 50 and 60 Hz
Wärtsilä gas engines Wärtsilä gas engines
Performance data
at frequency 50 Hz at frequency 60 Hz

Engine 9L34SG 16V34SG 20V34SG 20V34DF 18V50DF 9L34SG 16V34SG 20V34SG 20V34DF 18V50DF
Liquid + Liquid Liquid + Liquid +
Gas + Gas + Gas + Gas +
fuel+ fuel + fuel+ fuel+
mode mode mode mode
mode mode mode mode
Engine optimization: + 1460–2000* (LFO)+ 1460–2000* (LFO)+
mg/Nm3 95–190* 95–190* 95–190* 190–380* 190–380* 2000* 95–190* 95–190* 95–190* 190–380* 190–380* 2000*
NOX (dry @ 15 vol-% O2) 1600–2000 (HFO) 1600–2000 (HFO)

Electric power kW 3888 6970 8730 8730 8730 16621 16621 3758 6737 8439 8439 8439 17076 17076
Heat rate 1) kJ/kWh 7817 7753 7737 8036 8127 7616 8185 7817 7753 7737 8036 8127 7616 8186
Efficiency 1) % 46.1 46.4 46.5 44.8 44.3 47.3 44.0 46.1 46.4 46.5 44.8 44.3 47.3 44.0

Cooling circuit inlet/outlet 2) °C 36/59 36/66 36/67 36/69 36/77 36/68 42/83 36/58 36/65 36/66 36/68 36/75 36/68 42/85
–– HTCAC temperature inlet/outlet °C 42/52 45/57 46/58 47/59 49/65 45/59 54/72 42/52 45/56 45/57 46/58 48/64 45/59 55/73
–– Cylinder temperature inlet/outlet °C 84/91 82/91 82/91 81/91 83/91 80/85 79/85 84/91 83/91 82/91 81/91 83/91 80/85 78/85
–– Lubrication oil circuit inlet/outlet °C 63/74 63/76 63/77 63/78 63/80 63/74 63/78 63/74 63/76 63/76 63/78 63/79 63/74 63/78
–– LTCAC temperature inlet/outlet °C 36/37 36/38 36/39 36/39 36/41 36/38 42/46 36/37 36/38 36/38 36/39 36/40 36/38 42/46

Charge air flow ± 5% kg/s 6.2 11.1 13.8 14.1 17.5 26.2 32.5 6.0 10.7 13.4 13.5 16.7 26.1 32.5
Exhaust gas flow ± 5% kg/s 6.4 11.4 14.2 14.5 17.9 27.0 33.5 6.2 11.0 13.8 13.9 17.2 26.6 33.5
Exhaust gas temp. ± 15 °C 400 400 400 380 335 400 377 400 400 400 380 335 401 369

Exhaust gas energy ± 10% kW 2657 4733 5924 5714 5975 11016 12705 2567 4572 5722 5486 5718 11379 12415
Cooling circuit-energy ± 10% kW 1929 3436 4294 4595 5631 7403 9504 1868 3322 4147 4432 5404 7409 9991
–– HTCAC energy ± 10% kW 840 1405 1723 1710 2238 3237 4129 817 1369 1680 1659 2168 3219 4117
–– Cylinder cooling energy ± 10% kW 560 1005 1254 1404 1587 2101 2514 540 965 1214 1354 1517 2238 2925
–– Lubrication oil energy ± 10% kW 424 761 961 1065 1149 1528 1967 414 741 920 1035 1108 1538 2048
–– LTCAC energy ± 10% kW 105 265 357 416 662 542 884 97 247 333 384 611 539 901
Heat losses by radiation ± 20% kW 130 230 290 350 350 630 670 120 220 280 340 340 640 670
Note: Heat and mass balances are dependent on ambient conditions and plant application, above given figures 2) Single-circuit cooling system.
are for guidance only and calculated at ISO 3046 reference conditions; 25°C ambient temperature, 100m above * Adjustable NOX range according to local requirements. Heat rates given at the marked NOX optimization level.
sea level and 30% relative humidity. Heat rates at other NOX optimization levels to be checked case by case.
1) Heat rate and electrical efficiency at generator terminals, including engine-driven pumps, ISO 3046 conditions Note! 1 ppm-v dry @ 15% O2 » 2.054 mg/Nm3 dry @ 15% O2, NOX calculated as NO2, Nm3 defined at NTP
and LHV. Tolerance 5%. Power factor 0.8. Gas Methane Number >80 (273.15 K and 101.3 kPa).

Performance data as guidelines for CHP calculations – Wärtsilä liquid fuelled generating sets at 50 and 60 Hz
Wärtsilä diesel engines Wärtsilä diesel engines
Performance data
at frequency 50 Hz at frequency 60 Hz
Engine 9L20 12V32 16V32 18V32 20V32 18V46 9L20 12V32 16V32 18V32 20V32 18V46

Engine optimization: + ppm-
710*-780 710*-970 710*-970 710*-970 710*-970 900*-970 710*-780 710*-970 710*-970 710*-970 710*-970 900*-970
NOX (dry @ 15 vol-% O2) vol

Electric power kW 1539 5327 7124 8032 8924 17076 1454 5211 6970 7841 8730 17076
Heat rate 1) kJ/kWh 8604 7880 7856 7840 7840 7698 8561 7880 7856 7861 7840 7698
Efficiency 1) % 41.8 45.7 45.8 45.9 45.9 46.8 42.0 45.7 45.8 45.8 45.9 46.8

High temperature circuit inlet/outlet °C 84/91 79/96 80/96 80/96 80/96 80/91 84/91 80/96 80/96 80/96 80/96 80/91
–– HTCAC temperature inlet/outlet °C 87/96 87/96 88/96 87/96 83/91 87/96 87/96 88/96 88/96 83/91
–– Cylinder temperature inlet/outlet °C 84/91 79/87 80/87 80/88 80/87 80/83 84/91 80/87 80/87 80/88 80/88 80/83
Low temperature circuit inlet/outlet °C 34/47 38/49 38/49 38/49 38/49 42/55 34/48 38/49 38/49 38/49 38/49 42/55
–– Lubrication oil circuit inlet/outlet °C 63/78 63/77 63/78 63/78 63/79 63/80 63/77 63/77 63/78 63/78 63/79 63/80
–– LTCAC temperature inlet/outlet °C 34/44 38/43 38/43 38/43 38/43 42/47 34/44 38/43 38/43 38/43 38/43 42/47

Charge air flow ± 5% kg/s 3.5 10.2 13.6 15.3 17.0 31.6 3.3 9.7 13.0 14.6 16.2 31.6
Exhaust gas flow ± 5% kg/s 3.6 10.5 14.0 15.7 17.5 32.5 3.4 10.0 13.3 15.0 16.7 32.7
Exhaust gas temperature ± 15 °C 303 347 348 349 349 346 302 352 352 354 354 344

Exhaust gas heat ± 10% kW 1052 3629 4849 5472 6082 11212 991 3515 4698 5306 5897 11222
High temperature circuit-energy ± 10% kW 371 1891 2453 2726 3030 5135 345 1805 2427 2654 2949 5141
–– HTCAC energy ± 10% kW 1044 1319 1443 1604 3484 971 1309 1388 1543 3490
–– Cylinder cooling energy ± 10% kW 371 847 1134 1283 1426 1651 345 834 1118 1266 1407 1651
Low temperature circuit-energy ± 10% kW 832 1246 1668 1885 2093 3750 776 1205 1623 1829 2032 3753
–– Lubrication oil energy ± 10% kW 246 657 877 988 1097 2249 221 646 862 972 1080 2249
–– LTCAC energy ± 10% kW 586 589 791 897 996 1501 556 559 761 857 951 1504
Heat losses by radiation ± 20% kW 68 185 247 278 308 451 68 180 240 270 300 451
Note: Heat and mass balances are dependent on ambient conditions and plant application, above given figures * Adjustable NOX range according to local requirements. Heat rates given at the marked NOX optimization level. Heat rates
are for guidance only and calculated at ISO 3046 reference conditions; 25°C ambient temperature, 100m above at other NOX optimization levels to be checked case by case.
sea level and 30% relative humidity. Note! 1 ppm-v dry @ 15% O2 » 2.054 mg/Nm3 dry @ 15% O2, NOX calculated as NO2, Nm3 defined at NTP (273.15 K
1) Electrical output at generator terminals, including engine-driven pumps at 100% load. ISO conditions and LHV and 101.3 kPa).
(42700 kJ/kg). Tolerance 5 %. Power factor 0.8.
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01.2010 / Bock´s Office / Litoset
Wärtsilä is a global leader in complete lifecycle power solutions for the
marine and energy markets. By emphasising technological innovation
and total efficiency, Wärtsilä maximises the environmental and economic
performance of the vessels and power plants of its customers.

In 2008, Wärtsilä’s net sales totalled EUR 4.6 billion with 19,000 employees.
The company has operations in 160 locations in 70 countries around the
world. Wärtsilä is listed on the NASDAQ OMX Helsinki, Finland.

WÄRTSILÄ® is a registered trademark. Copyright © 2005 Wärtsilä Corporation.

WÄRTSILÄ® is a registered trademark. Copyright © 2010 Wärtsilä Corporation.