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# 1.

Given:
Depth of water, d = 10 mm
Temperature of water, tw = 200C
Shear stress,  = 0.01 N/m2

## Newton’s Law of Viscosity:

It states that the shear stress between adjacent layers is proportional to
the velocity gradients between the two layers.


=
Where,  = Shear stress
 = dynamic viscosity, and
As we know, the dynamic viscosity of water is 1.002 × 10−3 Pa. s.

## 0.01 = 1.002 * 10-3

= 9.98
du = 9.98*10*10 -3
= 9.98*10-2 m/s

2. Given:
Height of inlet, h1 = 0.7 m
Height of outlet, h2 = 0.1 m
Assume that the pressure at both inlet and outlet are same, equal to
atmospheric pressure. So, P1 = P2 = Patms= 0 (gauge pressure).
Velocity at inlet, u = 0 m/s
Velocity at outlet, V =?
Density of water = 1000 kg/m3
According to Bernoulli equation, we get
P1 + gh1+ ½ u2 = P2 + gh2 + ½ V2
Therefore,
0 + 1000*9.8*0.7 + ½ 1000*0 = 0 + 1000*9.8*0.1 + ½ 1000*V 2
1000*9.8*0.7 = 1000*9.8*0.1 + ½ 1000*V2
V2 = 11.76
V = 3.429 m/s
3. Given:
Diameter of hose, d = 20 mm = 0.02 m
Steady discharge through hose, Q = 2 x 10 -4 m3/s
Viscosity of water,  = 1 x 10-3 Pa. s
Density of water,  = 1000 kg/m3

## a) Reynolds number (ReD or NR)

The Reynolds number is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces.
It is a dimensionless number comprised of the physical characteristics
of the flow. An increasing Reynolds number indicates increasing
turbulence of flow. It is defined as:

## Flow velocity of water, V = Discharge/ Area

Area of flow, A = /4 D2
A = 3.141 x 10-4 m2
Velocity, V = = 0.636 m/s
.
Therefore,
( ∗ . ∗ . )
ReD = = 12720
Hence, the flow is turbulent flow because the Reynolds number higher
than 4000 is turbulent.
b) Friction factor
The friction factor is a function of different terms:
     VD    VD  
f  F  R e ,   F  ,   F  , 
 D   D    D
As the roughness factor is neglected (e/D = 0), the friction factor
is equal to
0.316
f 1/ 4
NR

f = 0.316/ (12720)1/4
= 0.316/10.61
= 0.029

## Head loss per unit length, hL = 𝑓

( . )
= 0.029 ∗
. ∗ ∗ .

= 0.0299
c) Change in pressure through the hose of the diameter of 20 mm.
According to Poiseuille’s law,

Q=-

( . ) ∆
Q=-
∗ ∗

Q = - 1.25*10-7 P
2 x 10-4 = - 1.25*10-7 P
Or, P = - 1.6*103 Pa
Therefore, the change in pressure over a 10 m length of hose is 1.6 x 103
Pa drop.

4. Given:
Lava characteristics
Density, 
L = 2700 kg/m3
Viscosity,  =1 x 103 Pa.s

## Circular conduit characteristics

Diameter, d = 1.0 m

Q=-

∗ . ∗( )
Q=-
∗ ∗

## For validating laminar flow, ReD 2000

Reynolds number is defined as:

## Flow velocity of water, V = Discharge/ Area

Area of flow, A =  /4 D2
A = 0.78 m2
.
Velocity, V = = 6.28 x 10-5 m/s
.
Therefore,
( ∗ . ∗ ∗ )
ReD = = 1.69 x 10-4
5. Given:
Rectangular channel characteristics at upstream station
Depth of water flow, d= 1.5 m
Wide, L= 3 m
Discharge, Q = 1.5 m3/s
Specific discharge, q = Q/A
q = 1.5/ (3*1.5)
q = 0.33 m/s
Specific Energy, Es = h +
.
Es = 1.5 +
∗ . ∗ .
= 1.5 + 2.46*10-3
= 1.50246 m

## Rectangular channel characteristics at downstream station

Depth of water flow, d= 1.6 m
Wide, L= 3 m
Discharge, Q = 1.5 m3/s
Specific discharge, q = Q/A
q = 1.5/ (3*1.6)
q = 0.3125 m/s
Specific Energy, Es = h +
.
Es = 1.5 +
∗ . ∗ .
= 1.5 + 2.46*10-3
= 1.5019 m