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PI, PID controller

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Proportional, Integral,

Derivative (PID)

1

FEEDBACK CONTROLLERS

•Controller – brain of the control loop

– performs the decision (D) operation in the

control system

•Operation

1. Compares the process signal it receives

- the controlled variable with the set point.

1. Sends an appropriate signal to the control valve (or

any other control element) in order to maintain the

controlled variable at its set point.

2

SP

Steam in TC

(Manipulated variables)

TT

Fluid in Fluid out

Heat Exchanger

Ti T desired

(Load disturbances )

Steam out

(Uncontrolled variables)

3

Action of Controllers

• reverse action

– When an increase in signal to the controller

requires a decrease in controller output

• direct action

– When an increase in signal to the controller

requires an increase in controller output

4

Action of Controllers

Case 1: heat exchanger

control loop

temperature has increased above the set point.

• To return the temperature to the set point, the controller must close the

steam valve by some amount. The controller must reduce its output

signal to the valve.

• When an increase in signal to the controller requires a decrease in

controller output, the controller must be set reverse action.

5

Case 2: level control loop

• Signal from the level transmitter increase, indicating that the level in

the tank has increased above the set point.

• To return the level to the set point, the controller must open the steam

valve by some amount. The controller must increase its output signal

to the valve.

• When an increase in signal to the controller requires an increase in

controller output, the controller must be set direct action.

6

Type of Feedback controllers

The feedback controllers make a decision is by solving an

equation based on the difference between the controlled

variables and the set point.

zero where

e t ysp t ym t (8-1)

and

e t error signal

ysp t set point

ym t measured value of the controlled variable

(or equivalent signal from the sensor/transmitter)

7

Conventional block diagram representation for the

controller

Gc(s)

Ym(s), %TO

• Gc(s)- transfer function that describes how the

controller acts on an error

8

Proportional Control

For proportional control, the controller output is proportional to

the error signal,

p t p Kc e t (8-2)

where:

p t controller output

p bias (steady-state) value (usually set at mid-scale 50%CO)

K c controller gain (usually dimensionless)

p is controller output when the error is zero

-The controller gain determines how much the output

from the controller changes for a given change in error 9

10

The key concepts behind proportional control are the following:

1. The controller gain can be adjusted to cause a quick change to the

control valve upon a load disturbance or a change at the set point.

2. the sign of Kc can be choosed to make the controller output increase

(or decrease) as the error signal increases.

3. If the process response is within the quality limits, then the controller

setting is considred acceptable.

• The controller gain can be made either negative or positive.

• For proportional control, when Kc > 0, the controller output p(t)

increases as its input signal ym(t) decreases

• This controller is an example of a reverse-acting controller.

• When Kc < 0, the controller is said to be direct acting because the

controller output increases as the input increases.

11

A high proportional gain results in a large change in the controller

output for a given change in the error.

If the proportional gain is too high, the system can become

unstable.

In contrast, a small gain results in a small output response to a large

input error, and a less responsive (or sensitive) controller.

If the proportional gain is too low, the control action may be too

small when responding to system disturbances. 12

Advantage

One tuning parameter, Kc

Disadvantage

Pure proportional control will not settle at its target value, but will

retain a steady state error that is a function of the proportional gain and

the process gain

The controlled variables operates with an offset (steady state

deviation of the controlled variables from set point)

13

Some controllers have a proportional band setting instead of a

controller gain. The proportional band PB (%) is defined as

100%

PB (8-3)

Kc

P s

Kc (8-6)

E s

(unitless)

14

Question

of 2.5, its bias value is set at mid-scale. The set point of the

controlled variable is 20%TO. Calculate the controller output

if the input signal to the controller is 30%TO.

15

Integral Control

For integral control action, the controller output depends on the

integral of the error signal over time,

1

p t p 0 e t *dt *

t

(8-7)

τI

where τ I , an adjustable parameter referred to as the integral time

or reset time, has units of time.

important practical advantage, the elimination of offset.

16

•Integral control action is normally used in conjunction with

proportional control as the proportional-integral (PI)

controller :

1 t

p t p K c e t e t * dt * (8-8)

τI 0

•When the error is introduce at t=0, the controller output

changes immediately by an amount equal to Kc. This is the

response due to the proportional mode

•Under PI controller as long as the error is present, the

controller keeps changing its output (integrating the error).

Once the error disappears (goes to zero), the controller do

not change the output anymore (integrates a function with a

value of zero).

17

•The corresponding transfer function for the PI controller in is

given by

P s 1 τI s 1

K c 1 Kc (8-9)

E s τ I

s τ

I s

18

19

Unit 3: Characteristics of PB, I & D

Characteristic of I in PI & PID mode

• To drive the process toward the set point.

• Decrease I makes controller action faster (aggressive)

(Steady state errors are eliminated more quickly)

Decreasing I

Ideal I is not strong enough to drive

response the process toward SP2

PV2

PV1 becomes oscillatory.

SP2

SP1

Time

© Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2009)

Unit 3: Characteristics of PB, I & D

Characteristic of I in PI mode & PID mode

• To drive the process toward the set point.

• Decrease I makes controller action faster (aggressive)

Decreasing I

Ideal I is not strong enough to drive

response the process toward SP2

PV2

PV1

becomes oscillatory.

decreasing I. Be alert that too low I’s may result in

instability.

overshoot the setpoint value

•The PI controller has two parameters, Kc and τ I

•The smaller value of τ I the faster the controller integrates.

•Reset time: 1

R

1

I

Disadvantage

An inherent disadvantage of integral control action is

phenomenon known as reset windup.

large and the controller output eventually saturates.

•Further buildup of the integral term while the controller is

saturated is referred to as reset windup or integral windup.

22

• Inlet temp drops will reduce the outlet temp.

• The PI will ask the steam valve to open.

• The signal from the controller will increase

until the outlet temp equal to the set point.

• The controller integrates up to 100% because

the inlet pressure drop is too large.

• So the valve is fully open but the outlet temp

is not at the set point.

• The controller will try to correct by further

increasing the output (integrating the error)

even though the valve will not open more

after 100%.

• At the point where the controller cannot

P(t),% increase the output – saturated (reset windup)

• When inlet temp is increasing, the outlet

temp will start to increase.

• The valve remains wide open and not closing

because the controller must integrate from

107% to 100% before is starts closing.

23

Derivative Control

•The function of derivative control gives the controller the

capability to anticipate where the process is heading by

calculating the derivative error (slope of the error curve)

• Thus, for ideal derivative action,

de t

p t p τD (8-10)

dt

where τ D , the derivative time, has units of time.

•Derivative control is used to reduce the magnitude of the

overshoot produced by the integral component and improve the

combined controller-process stability

•Recommended to be used in slow processes (processes with

long time constant)

•The derivative term slows the rate of change of the controller

output 24

PID control for heat exchanger

inlet temp decreases.

• At time ta, the amount of the error is positive

and small. The control correction provide by

P and I is small.

• However the derivative of this error ( slope

of error curve) is large and positive. Control

correction provide by D is large.

• By looking at the derivative of the error, the

controlled variable is heading away from set

point and use this fact to help controlling

• At tb, the error is still large and positive.

• However, the derivative of this error is

negative and the error is decreasing. The

variable has started to come back to set point

25

Unit 3: Characteristics of PB, I & D

Characteristic of D in PI & PID mode

• Derivative time, D (time)

• To accelerate the process.

• Increase D makes oscillation period shorter.

Ideal

response Increasing D

PV2

PV1

SP2

SP1

Time

© Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2009)

Unit 3: Characteristics of PB, I & D

Characteristic of D in PI & PID mode

• Derivative time, D (time)

• To accelerate the process.

• Increase D makes oscillation period shorter

Ideal

response

Increasing D

PV2

PV1

decrease overshoot, but slow down transient response (the

rate of change of the controller output)

Unit 3: Characteristics of PB, I & D

Characteristic of D in PI & PID mode

Ideal Increasing D

PV response

2

PV

1

Be alert. Too much D make controller action faster and may

result in instability.

Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) Control

Now we consider the combination of the proportional, integral,

and derivative control modes as a PID controller.

The form of the PID control algorithm is given by

1 t de t

p t p K c e t e t * dt * τ D (8-13)

τ I

0 dt

Expanded Form of PID Control

de t

p t p K c e t K I e t * dt * K D

t

(8-16)

0 dt

The corresponding transfer function is:

P s 1

K c 1 τDs (8-14)

E s τI s 29

PD controller

For example, an ideal PD controller has the transfer function:

P s

K c 1 τ D s (8-11)

E s

• By providing anticipatory control action, the derivative mode

tends to stabilize the controlled process.

30

Controller Comparison

- Offset with sustained disturbance or setpoint

change.

- Better performance than P

- No offset

- Reset windup

PID - Most complicated to tune (Kc, I, D) .

- Better performance than PI

- No offset

31

Typical Response of Feedback Control Systems

Consider response of a controlled system after a

sustained disturbance occurs (e.g., step change in

the disturbance variable)

32

Proportional

Larger values typically mean faster response since the

larger the error, the larger the proportional term

compensation. An excessively large proportional gain will

lead to process instability and oscillation.

Integral

small values imply steady state errors are eliminated more

quickly. Excessively small integral term cause the present

value to overshoot the setpoint value.

Derivative

Larger values decrease overshoot, but slow down transient

response and may lead to instability.

33

Question

proportional only controller with the gain of 2.5. Develop the block

diagram with the transfer function of this controller.

gain of 3 %CO/%TO, integral time is 5 min. Develop the block

diagram with the transfer function of this controller.

(PID) with a gain of 3 %CO/%TO, integral time is 5 min and

derivative time is 0.2 min. Develop the block diagram with the

transfer function of this controller.

34

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