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FEEDBACK CONTROLLER

Proportional, Integral,
Derivative (PID)

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FEEDBACK CONTROLLERS
•Controller – brain of the control loop
– performs the decision (D) operation in the
control system

•Operation
1. Compares the process signal it receives
- the controlled variable with the set point.
1. Sends an appropriate signal to the control valve (or
any other control element) in order to maintain the
controlled variable at its set point.

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SP

Steam in TC
(Manipulated variables)
TT
Fluid in Fluid out
Heat Exchanger
Ti T desired
(Load disturbances )
Steam out
(Uncontrolled variables)

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Action of Controllers

• reverse action
– When an increase in signal to the controller
requires a decrease in controller output

• direct action
– When an increase in signal to the controller
requires an increase in controller output

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Action of Controllers
Case 1: heat exchanger
control loop

• Signal from the temperature transmitter increase, indicating the outlet


temperature has increased above the set point.
• To return the temperature to the set point, the controller must close the
steam valve by some amount. The controller must reduce its output
signal to the valve.
• When an increase in signal to the controller requires a decrease in
controller output, the controller must be set reverse action.
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Case 2: level control loop

• Signal from the level transmitter increase, indicating that the level in
the tank has increased above the set point.
• To return the level to the set point, the controller must open the steam
valve by some amount. The controller must increase its output signal
to the valve.
• When an increase in signal to the controller requires an increase in
controller output, the controller must be set direct action.
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Type of Feedback controllers
The feedback controllers make a decision is by solving an
equation based on the difference between the controlled
variables and the set point.

In feedback control, the objective is to reduce the error signal to


zero where
e  t   ysp  t   ym  t  (8-1)

and
e t   error signal
ysp  t   set point
ym  t   measured value of the controlled variable
(or equivalent signal from the sensor/transmitter)

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Conventional block diagram representation for the
controller

Ysp(s), %TO E(s), %TO P(s), %CO


Gc(s)

Ym(s), %TO

• P(s) - controller output


• Gc(s)- transfer function that describes how the
controller acts on an error

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Proportional Control
For proportional control, the controller output is proportional to
the error signal,

p  t   p  Kc e  t  (8-2)
where:

p  t   controller output
p  bias (steady-state) value (usually set at mid-scale 50%CO)
K c  controller gain (usually dimensionless)
p is controller output when the error is zero

-The proportionality is given by the controller gain, Kc


-The controller gain determines how much the output
from the controller changes for a given change in error 9
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The key concepts behind proportional control are the following:
1. The controller gain can be adjusted to cause a quick change to the
control valve upon a load disturbance or a change at the set point.
2. the sign of Kc can be choosed to make the controller output increase
(or decrease) as the error signal increases.
3. If the process response is within the quality limits, then the controller
setting is considred acceptable.

Reverse or Direct Action


• The controller gain can be made either negative or positive.
• For proportional control, when Kc > 0, the controller output p(t)
increases as its input signal ym(t) decreases

p  t   p  Kc  ysp  t   ym  t  (8-22)


• This controller is an example of a reverse-acting controller.
• When Kc < 0, the controller is said to be direct acting because the
controller output increases as the input increases.
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A high proportional gain results in a large change in the controller
output for a given change in the error.
If the proportional gain is too high, the system can become
unstable.
In contrast, a small gain results in a small output response to a large
input error, and a less responsive (or sensitive) controller.
If the proportional gain is too low, the control action may be too
small when responding to system disturbances. 12
Advantage
One tuning parameter, Kc

Disadvantage
Pure proportional control will not settle at its target value, but will
retain a steady state error that is a function of the proportional gain and
the process gain
The controlled variables operates with an offset (steady state
deviation of the controlled variables from set point)

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Some controllers have a proportional band setting instead of a
controller gain. The proportional band PB (%) is defined as
100%
PB  (8-3)
Kc

transfer function for an ideal proportional controller

P  s 
 Kc (8-6)
E s

Proportional band, PB (%) and Controller gain, Kc


(unitless)

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Question

The controller is a proportional only controller with the gain


of 2.5, its bias value is set at mid-scale. The set point of the
controlled variable is 20%TO. Calculate the controller output
if the input signal to the controller is 30%TO.

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Integral Control
For integral control action, the controller output depends on the
integral of the error signal over time,
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p t   p  0 e t *dt *
t
(8-7)
τI
where τ I , an adjustable parameter referred to as the integral time
or reset time, has units of time.

Integral control action is widely used because it provides an


important practical advantage, the elimination of offset.

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•Integral control action is normally used in conjunction with
proportional control as the proportional-integral (PI)
controller :

 1 t 
p  t   p  K c  e  t    e  t * dt *  (8-8)
 τI 0 
•When the error is introduce at t=0, the controller output
changes immediately by an amount equal to Kc. This is the
response due to the proportional mode
•Under PI controller as long as the error is present, the
controller keeps changing its output (integrating the error).
Once the error disappears (goes to zero), the controller do
not change the output anymore (integrates a function with a
value of zero).

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•The corresponding transfer function for the PI controller in is
given by
P  s   1   τI s 1 
 K c 1    Kc   (8-9)
E s  τ I 
s τ
 I  s

•The PI controller has two parameters, Kc and τ I

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Unit 3: Characteristics of PB, I & D
Characteristic of I in PI & PID mode

• Integral time, I (time)


• To drive the process toward the set point.
• Decrease I makes controller action faster (aggressive)
(Steady state errors are eliminated more quickly)

Decreasing I
Ideal I is not strong enough to drive
response the process toward SP2
PV2

I is too strong. Process


PV1 becomes oscillatory.

SP2

SP1

Time
© Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2009)
Unit 3: Characteristics of PB, I & D
Characteristic of I in PI mode & PID mode

• Integral time, I (time)


• To drive the process toward the set point.
• Decrease I makes controller action faster (aggressive)

Decreasing I
Ideal I is not strong enough to drive
response the process toward SP2
PV2

I is too low. Process


PV1
becomes oscillatory.

Observe! The steepnest of response curve increases with


decreasing I. Be alert that too low I’s may result in
instability.

Decreasing too much I can cause the present value to


overshoot the setpoint value

© Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2009)


•The PI controller has two parameters, Kc and τ I
•The smaller value of τ I the faster the controller integrates.
•Reset time: 1
 R

1
I

Disadvantage
An inherent disadvantage of integral control action is
phenomenon known as reset windup.

•When a sustained error occurs, the integral term becomes quite


large and the controller output eventually saturates.
•Further buildup of the integral term while the controller is
saturated is referred to as reset windup or integral windup.
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• Inlet temp drops will reduce the outlet temp.
• The PI will ask the steam valve to open.
• The signal from the controller will increase
until the outlet temp equal to the set point.
• The controller integrates up to 100% because
the inlet pressure drop is too large.
• So the valve is fully open but the outlet temp
is not at the set point.
• The controller will try to correct by further
increasing the output (integrating the error)
even though the valve will not open more
after 100%.
• At the point where the controller cannot
P(t),% increase the output – saturated (reset windup)
• When inlet temp is increasing, the outlet
temp will start to increase.
• The valve remains wide open and not closing
because the controller must integrate from
107% to 100% before is starts closing.
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Derivative Control
•The function of derivative control gives the controller the
capability to anticipate where the process is heading by
calculating the derivative error (slope of the error curve)
• Thus, for ideal derivative action,
de  t 
p t   p  τD (8-10)
dt
where τ D , the derivative time, has units of time.
•Derivative control is used to reduce the magnitude of the
overshoot produced by the integral component and improve the
combined controller-process stability
•Recommended to be used in slow processes (processes with
long time constant)
•The derivative term slows the rate of change of the controller
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PID control for heat exchanger

• The outlet temp start to decrease when the


inlet temp decreases.
• At time ta, the amount of the error is positive
and small. The control correction provide by
P and I is small.
• However the derivative of this error ( slope
of error curve) is large and positive. Control
correction provide by D is large.
• By looking at the derivative of the error, the
controlled variable is heading away from set
point and use this fact to help controlling
• At tb, the error is still large and positive.
• However, the derivative of this error is
negative and the error is decreasing. The
variable has started to come back to set point

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Unit 3: Characteristics of PB, I & D
Characteristic of D in PI & PID mode
• Derivative time, D (time)
• To accelerate the process.
• Increase D makes oscillation period shorter.

Ideal
response Increasing D
PV2

PV1

SP2

SP1

Time
© Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2009)
Unit 3: Characteristics of PB, I & D
Characteristic of D in PI & PID mode
• Derivative time, D (time)
• To accelerate the process.
• Increase D makes oscillation period shorter

Ideal
response
Increasing D
PV2

PV1

With increasing D, oscillation period becomes shorter,


decrease overshoot, but slow down transient response (the
rate of change of the controller output)

For noisy process, avoid using D (or use lower value).

Good for slow process.

© Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2009)


Unit 3: Characteristics of PB, I & D
Characteristic of D in PI & PID mode

• Good for slow processes such as temperature control.

Ideal Increasing D
PV response
2

PV
1
Be alert. Too much D make controller action faster and may
result in instability.

© Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2009)


Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) Control
Now we consider the combination of the proportional, integral,
and derivative control modes as a PID controller.

Form of PID Control


The form of the PID control algorithm is given by

 1 t de  t  
p  t   p  K c e  t    e  t * dt *  τ D  (8-13)
 τ I
0 dt 
Expanded Form of PID Control
de  t 
p  t   p  K c e  t   K I  e  t * dt *  K D
t
(8-16)
0 dt
The corresponding transfer function is:

P  s   1 
 K c 1   τDs (8-14)
E s  τI s  29
PD controller
For example, an ideal PD controller has the transfer function:
P  s 
 K c 1  τ D s  (8-11)
E s
• By providing anticipatory control action, the derivative mode
tends to stabilize the controlled process.

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Controller Comparison

P - Simplest controller to tune (Kc).


- Offset with sustained disturbance or setpoint
change.

PI - More complicated to tune (Kc, I) .


- Better performance than P
- No offset
- Reset windup
PID - Most complicated to tune (Kc, I, D) .
- Better performance than PI
- No offset
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Typical Response of Feedback Control Systems
Consider response of a controlled system after a
sustained disturbance occurs (e.g., step change in
the disturbance variable)

Typical process responses with feedback control.

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Proportional
Larger values typically mean faster response since the
larger the error, the larger the proportional term
compensation. An excessively large proportional gain will
lead to process instability and oscillation.

Integral
small values imply steady state errors are eliminated more
quickly. Excessively small integral term cause the present
value to overshoot the setpoint value.

Derivative
Larger values decrease overshoot, but slow down transient
response and may lead to instability.

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Question

1. Consider the temperature control system. The controller is a


proportional only controller with the gain of 2.5. Develop the block
diagram with the transfer function of this controller.

2. Now, Assume the controller is proportional- integral (PI) and a


gain of 3 %CO/%TO, integral time is 5 min. Develop the block
diagram with the transfer function of this controller.

3. Now, Assume the controller is proportional- integral-derivative


(PID) with a gain of 3 %CO/%TO, integral time is 5 min and
derivative time is 0.2 min. Develop the block diagram with the
transfer function of this controller.

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