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3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION 67

Table of Contents

Diagnostic Trouble Code Detection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69


Continuous Monitor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
Engine Events. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70

Diagnostic Trouble Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70


Using EST. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
Accessing Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
Reading DTCs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
Clearing DTCs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
Using Cruise Switches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
Accessing DTCs (CF). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
Accessing DTCs (Stripped Chassis). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
Reading DTCs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
Clearing DTCs (CF). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
Clearing DTCs (Stripped Chassis). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73

Diagnostic Tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73


Key-On Engine-Off Tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
Standard Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
Standard Test Using EST. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
Standard Test Using Cruise Switches (CF). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
Standard Test Using Cruise Switches (Stripped Chassis). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
Injector Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
Continuous Monitor Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
Output State Low Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
Output State High Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
Glow Plug/Inlet Air Heater Output State Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
Key-On Engine-Running Tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Standard Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Continuous Monitor Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
Air Management Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Injector Disable Tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
Automatic Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
Manual Test - Engine Cold. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
Relative Compression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91

Reset Service Interval Lamp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93


Using EST. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
Using Cruise Switches (CF). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94
Using Cruise Switches (Stripped Chassis). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95

EGES-305-2
Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
68 3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION

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Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION 69

Diagnostic Trouble Code Detection

Figure 56 Diagnostic fault detection and tests

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Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
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70 3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION

Continuous Monitor Engine Events


Continuous Monitor is a series of continuous
Standard Engine Events
diagnostic tests done by the Electronic Control
Module (ECM) to detect failure modes (Out-of-Range, Standard engine events include excessive coolant
In-Range, and System Faults). During Continuous temperature, low oil pressure and engine rpm
Monitor the ignition switch is on. (over-speed).
• Out-of-Range High (Voltage over normal
Engine Event Hours/Odometer
operating range)
The ECM records engine events in two ways, hours
• Out-of-Range Low (Voltage under normal
and odometer readings.
operating range)
Examples
• In-Range (In normal operating range but not
correct for conditions) • Overheat Hour 1
• System Malfunction (System is not operating • Overheat Hour 2
according to conditions)
• Overheat Odometer 1
If an input signal is out-of-range (over or under normal
• Overheat Odometer 2
operating range), the ECM logs a fault and sets a
Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC). The ECM monitors The ECM stores the two most recent events. Two
the operation of systems for in range conditions events could happen in the same hour, and two events
to determine if systems are working in a normal could happen in the same mile.
operational range. If the ECM detects that a system
falls outside a predetermined range, it will log a fault
and set a DTC.
Each DTC has a three digit number to identify the Diagnostic Trouble Codes
source of a malfunction measured or monitored
electronically. A fault is a malfunction measured or
monitored electronically.
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
The ECM continuously monitors the Injection Control death, shift transmission to neutral or park, set
Pressure (ICP) system and the Air Management parking brake, and block wheels before doing
System (AMS). If the ECM detects that a system falls diagnostic or service procedures.
outside a predetermined range, the ECM logs a fault
and sets a DTC.
During normal engine operation, the ECM
automatically performs several tests to detect faults. Using EST
When a fault is detected, the ECM often runs a fault
Accessing Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs)
management strategy to allow continued, though
sometimes degraded, vehicle operation.
With the engine running, engine events are
permanently recorded in the ECM. Engine events WARNING: To prevent personal injury, use
can be retrieved with the Electronic Service Tool care to prevent contact with the door edge when
(EST). the cab is up and the door is open.

NOTE: When opening VIN+ session to fill out form


heading, the DTC window automatically appears.
1. Turn ignition switch to ON.

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Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
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3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION 71

• Active/Inactive: With the ignition switch on,


active/inactive indicates a DTC for a condition
currently in the system and was present in a
Figure 57 Menu bar Code/Com previous ignition switch cycle, if the code was not
cleared.
Description: Defines each DTC
2. Select Com from the menu bar in the main
window, then select Open.
Clearing DTCs

Figure 58 Menu bar Code/View

Figure 60 Menu bar Code/Clear


3. Select Code from the menu bar, then View for the
Diagnostic Trouble Code window.
1. Select Code from the menu bar, then select Clear.

NOTE: If unable to clear inactive DTCs, be sure


Diagnostic Trouble Code window is active by
clicking in the window area.

Using Cruise Switches


Accessing DTCs (CF)
Figure 59 Diagnostic Trouble Code window
NOTE: Read and be familiar with all steps and time
limits in this procedure before starting.
Reading DTCs
1. Set parking brake.
ATA code: Codes associated with a Subsystem
Identifier (SID), Parameter Identifier (PID), and 2. Turn ignition switch to ON. (Do not crank the
Failure Mode Indicator (FMI) engine.)
DTC: Diagnostics Trouble Codes
Status: Indicates active or inactive DTCs
• Active: With the ignition switch on, active
indicates a DTC for a condition currently in the
system. When the ignition switch is turned off,
an active DTC becomes inactive. (If a problem
remains, the DTC will be active on the next
ignition switch cycle and the EST will display
active/inactive.)
• Inactive: With the ignition switch on, inactive
indicates a DTC for a condition during a previous
ignition switch cycle. When the ignition switch
is turned to OFF, inactive DTCs from previous
ignition switch on cycles remain in the ECM
memory until cleared.
Figure 61 Cruise switches (CF)

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72 3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION

3. Press and release the top of CRUISE RPM and 3. Count the flashes of the amber lamp in sequence.
RESUME+ switches simultaneously, within 3 After each digit of the code a short pause will
seconds of turning the ignition switch on. occur.
• Example: Two amber flashes, a pause, three
NOTE: The top of CRUISE RPM switch is not
amber flashes, a pause, and two amber
labeled. Pressing the top of CRUISE RPM will
flashes and a pause indicate code 232.
latch the switch and illuminate a small red light at
the top, indicating that cruise is on. 4. For more than one DTC, the red lamp will flash
once indicating the beginning of another active
4. Codes will flash on red warning lamp and amber
DTC.
caution lamp in the instrument panel.
5. After all active DTCs have flashed, the red lamp
will flash twice to indicate the start of inactive
Accessing DTCs (Stripped Chassis) DTCs. Count the flashes from the amber lamp.
If there is more than one inactive code, the red
lamp will flash once between each DTC.
6. After all DTCs have been sent, the red lamp
will flash three times indicating end of DTC
transmission.
To repeat DTC transmission (for CF), press bottom
CRUISE RPM switch to unlatch. Cycle the ignition
switch and press and release the top of CRUISE
RPM and RESUME+ switches simultaneously, within
3 seconds of turning the ignition switch on. The ECM
Figure 62 Cruise switches (Stripped Chassis) will re-send stored DTCs.

1. Set parking brake. Clearing DTCs (CF)


2. Turn ignition switch to ON. (Do not crank the
engine.) NOTE: Read and be familiar with all steps and time
limits in this procedure before starting.
3. Move slide switch from OFF to R/A and then
release within 3 seconds. 1. Set parking brake.

4. Codes will flash on red and amber lamps in the 2. Turn ignition switch to ON. (Do not crank the
instrument panel. engine.)
3. Press and hold the top of CRUISE RPM and
RESUME+ switches simultaneously.
Reading DTCs
1. The red lamp will flash once to indicate the NOTE: The top of CRUISE RPM switch is not
beginning of active DTCs. labeled. Pressing the top of CRUISE RPM will
latch the switch and illuminate a small red light at
2. The amber lamp will flash repeatedly, signaling the top, indicating that cruise is on.
active DTCs.
4. Press and release the accelerator pedal three
NOTE: All DTCs are three digits. For DTCs, see times within six seconds of ignition switch on.
Appendix B in this manual or form CGE310-1. 5. Release the RESUME+ switch and press the
Code 111 indicates that no faults were detected. bottom of CRUISE RPM switch to unlatch. The
inactive DTCs will clear.

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3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION 73

NOTE: Completing this procedure within three During the KOEO Standard test, the ECM does
seconds of ignition switch on without turning the an internal test of its processing components and
ignition switch off, will start “Reading DTCs”. memory followed by an Output Circuit Check (OCC).
The OCC evaluates the electrical condition of the
circuits, not the mechanical or hydraulic performance
Clearing DTCs (Stripped Chassis) of the systems. By operating the ECM output circuits
and measuring each response, the Standard test
NOTE: Read and be familiar with all steps and time detects shorts or opens in the harnesses, actuators,
limits in this procedure before starting. and ECM. If a circuit fails the test, a fault is logged
and a DTC is set.
1. Set parking brake.
2. Turn ignition switch to ON. (Do not crank the ECM checks circuits for the following:
engine.)
Injection Pressure Regulator (IPR)
3. Move slide switch from OFF to R/A and hold.
Inlet air heater relay
4. Press and release accelerator pedal three times
Glow plug relay
within 6 seconds.
Horizontal Fuel Conditioning Module (HFCM) fuel
5. Move slide switch from R/A to OFF and codes will pump relay
then clear.
Engine Fan (EFAN) (optional)
Air Conditioning Clutch Control (ACC)

Diagnostic Tests When the OCC is done, the DTC window will display
DTCs, if there are problems.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or Standard Test Using EST


death, shift transmission to neutral or park, set
parking brake, and block wheels before doing
diagnostic or service procedures.
WARNING: To prevent personal injury, use
care to prevent contact with the door edge when
the cab is up and the door is open.
Key-On Engine-Off Tests
Standard Test 1. Set parking brake.
The KOEO Standard test is done by the ECM. The 2. Turn ignition switch to ON. (Do not crank the
technician runs this test, using the EST. engine.)

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Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
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74 3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION

Standard Test Using Cruise Switches (CF)

Figure 64 Cruise switches (CF)

NOTE: Read and be familiar with all steps and time


limits in this procedure before starting.
1. Set parking brake.
Figure 63 Standard test

3. Select Diagnostics from the menu bar. WARNING: To prevent personal injury, use
4. Select Key-On Engine-Off tests from the drop care to prevent contact with the door edge when
down menu. the cab is up and the door is open.

5. From the KOEO Diagnostics menu, select


Standard and Run to start the test. 2. Turn ignition switch to ON. (Do not crank the
engine.)
NOTE: When using the EST to do KOEO or KOER 3. Press and release the top of CRUISE RPM
diagnostic tests, Standard test is always selected and RESUME+ switches simultaneously, press
and run first. If the ignition switch is not cycled, the and release RESUME+ switch again, within 3
Standard test does not have to be run again. seconds of turning the ignition switch on.
• The ECM will begin the Output Circuit Check
(OCC).
When the OCC is done, the ECM will flash
the red warning and amber caution lamps to
signal the DTCs.

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Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
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3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION 75

NOTE: The top of CRUISE RPM switch is not During the Injector test, the ECM requests the IDM
labeled. Pressing the top of CRUISE RPM will actuate the injectors in numerical order (1 through 6),
latch the switch and illuminate a small red light at not in firing order. The IDM monitors the electrical
the top, indicating that cruise is on. circuit for each injector, evaluates the performance
of the injector coils, and checks the operation of the
NOTE: There could be as much as a 60 second electrical circuit. If an electronic component in the
delay from the time switches are pressed to the injector drive circuit fails the expected parameters, the
time DTCs are flashed. IDM sends a fault to the ECM. The ECM logs the fault,
a DTC is set and sent to the EST.
4. Press the bottom of CRUISE RPM switch to
unlatch.
NOTE: The technician can monitor injector operation
by listening to the sound of each injector when
activated by the IDM. During Hard Start and No Start
Standard Test Using Cruise Switches (Stripped
conditions, when oil is very cold and thick, injectors
Chassis)
may be hard to hear.
The DTC window will display DTCs, if there are
problems.

Figure 65 Cruise switches (stripped chassis)

1. Set parking brake.


2. Turn ignition switch to ON. (Do not crank the
engine.)
3. Move slide switch from OFF to R/A and then
release.
4. Move slide switch to R/A within three seconds and
standard test will run.

Injector Test

NOTE: The Injector test can only be done with the


EST; MasterDiagnostics® software is required. The
Standard test must be done before doing the Injector Figure 66 Injector test
test.
The Injector test diagnoses electrical problems in IDM
1. Select Diagnostics from the menu bar.
wiring or injectors.
2. Select Key-On Engine-Off Tests from the drop
NOTE: Before doing the Injector test, DTCs should down menu.
be accessed, noted, and cleared. This allows DTCs
found to be displayed as Active DTCs.

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Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
76 3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION

NOTE: When using the EST to do KOEO or KOER


diagnostic tests, Standard test is always selected
and run first. If the ignition switch is not cycled, the
Standard test does not have to be run again.
3. From the KOEO Diagnostics menu, select Injector
and click Run to start the test.

NOTE: During the Injector test, injector solenoids


should click when actuated. If a series of clicks are
not heard for each injector, one or more injectors are
not activating.

Continuous Monitor Test


Figure 67 Continuous Monitor session
NOTE: This test can only be done with the EST;
MasterDiagnostics® software is required.
The Continuous Monitor test troubleshoots
intermittent connections between the ECM and WARNING: To avoid personal injury, use
sensors. The engine can be off or running. care to prevent contact with the door edge when
the cab is up and the door is open.
EST monitors circuits for the following :
Accelerator Position Sensor (APS) 1. Select D_ContinuousMonitor.ssn from the Open
Session File window and select Open to open the
Barometric Absolute Pressure (BAP)
session.
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT)
Engine Coolant Level (ECL)
Engine Oil Pressure (EOP)
Engine Oil Temperature (EOT)
Intake Air Temperature (IAT)
Injection Control Pressure (ICP)
Manifold Air Temperature (MAT)
Mass Air Flow (MAF)
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP)

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Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
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3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION 77

interrupted, the EST will display DTCs related to


the condition.
6. Correct problem causing active DTCs.
7. Clear DTCs.

Figure 69 Close session

8. When finished with this test, select Session from


menu bar, then Close.

Output State Low Test

NOTE: This test can only be done with the EST;


MasterDiagnostics® software is required.
The Output State Low test allows the technician to
Figure 68 Continuous Monitor test
diagnose the operation of the output signals and
actuators.
2. Select Diagnostics from the menu bar. In the Output State Low test mode, the ECM pulls
down the output voltage to the low state. This
3. Select Key-On Engine-Off Tests from the drop
actuates the output components controlled by the
down menu.
ECM, grounding the circuits.
4. From the KOEO Diagnostics menu, select
During Output State Low test, the output of the circuit
Continuous Monitor and select Run to start
in question can be monitored with a Digital Multimeter
the test.
(DMM). The DMM measures a low voltage state as
the outputs are toggled. The actual voltage will vary
with the circuit tested.
WARNING: To prevent personal injury
ordeath, be careful around rotating parts (belts NOTE:
and fan) and hot engine surfaces. • A Breakout Box or Breakout Harness and a DMM
are required to monitor the suspected circuit or
actuator.
5. Wiggle connectors and wires at all suspected
problem locations. If circuit continuity is • DTCs are not set by the ECM during this test.

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Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
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78 3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION

The following actuators are activated when


toggled low:
Injection Pressure Regulator (IPR) (electrical circuit
only)
Engine Fan (EFAN) relay (optional) (electrical
circuit and inspect if clutch is engaged)
EGR (audible and visual inspection only)
continuous monitoring by EGR valve drive module.
Boost Control Solenoid (BCS) (electrical circuit
only) visual inspection of actuator arm movement
when pressurized with regulated air source. When
in low, air is directed to the pneumatic actuator, air
bypasses the pneumatic actuator when toggled
high.
Air Conditioning Control (ACC)
Glow plug lamp (CF only - amber WAIT TO START)
Warn engine lamp (CF only - amber engine outline
with check mark)
Oil/water lamp (CF only - red engine outline with
exclamation mark)
Water In Fuel (WIF) lamp (CF only - fuel pump
Figure 71 Output State Low test
next to a fuel tank)

2. Select Diagnostics from the menu bar.


3. Select Key-On Engine-Off Tests from the drop
down menu.

NOTE: When using the EST to do KOEO or KOER


diagnostic tests, Standard test is always selected
and run first. If the ignition switch is not cycled, the
Standard test does not have to be run again.
4. From the KOEO Diagnostics menu, select Output
State Test Low and select Run to start the test.
5. Toggle between the Low and High tests in the
Output State Test. Listen and observe actuator
control or circuit operation.
Figure 70 Output State Test Session

1. Select D_OutputStateTest.ssn from the Open


Session File window, select Open to open the
session.

Figure 72 Close session

EGES-305-2
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© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION 79

6. When finished with this test, select Session from


menu bar, then Close.

Output State High Test

NOTE: This test can only be done with the EST;


MasterDiagnostics® software is required.
The Output State High test allows the technician
to diagnose the operation of the output signals and
actuators.
In the Output State High test mode, the ECM pulls up
the output voltage to the high state. This actuates the
output components controlled by the ECM, energizing Figure 73 Output State Test Session
the control circuits.
During this test, the output of the circuit in question is
monitored with a DMM. The DMM measures a high 1. Select D_OutputStateTest.ssn from the Open
voltage state, as the outputs are toggled. The actual Session File window, select Open to open the
voltage will vary with the circuit tested. session.

NOTE:
• A Breakout Box or Breakout Harness and a DMM
are required to monitor the suspected circuit or
actuator.
• DTCs are not set by the ECM during this test.
The following actuators are activated when toggled
high during the test:
• Boost Control Solenoid (BCS) (electrical circuit
only) visual inspection of actuator arm movement
when pressurized with regulated air source.
When in low, air is directed to the pneumatic
actuator, air bypasses the pneumatic actuator
when toggled high.
• Horizontal Fuel Conditioning Module (HFCM) fuel
pump

Figure 74 Output State High test

2. Select Diagnostics from the menu bar.


3. Select Key-On Engine-Off tests from the drop
down menu.

EGES-305-2
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Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
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80 3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION

NOTE: When using the EST to do KOEO or KOER


diagnostic tests, Standard test is always selected
and run first. If the ignition switch is not cycled, the
Standard test does not have to be run again.
4. From the KOEO Diagnostics menu, select Output
State Test High and Run to start the test.
5. Toggle between the Output State Test Low and
the Output State Test High. Listen and observe
actuator control or circuit operation.

Figure 76 Output State Test Session

1. Select D_OutputStateTest.ssn from the Open


Figure 75 Close session Session File window, select Open to open the
session.

6. When finished with this test, select Session from


menu bar, then Close.

Glow Plug/Inlet Air Heater Output State Test

NOTE: This test can only be done with the EST;


MasterDiagnostics® software is required.
The Glow Plug/Inlet Air Heater Output State test
allows the technician to determine if the Glow Plug
System and the Inlet Air Heater System are operating
correctly.
Selecting this test activates the glow plug relay
immediately and it stays on for a period of 120
seconds; a DMM and current clamp are used to
measure the time the relay is on and the amperage
that is drawn for the glow plugs.
The inlet air heater relay operation is activated for
30 seconds. After a three second delay a DMM and
current clamp are used to measure the time the relay
is on and the amperage that is drawn for the inlet air
heater.

Figure 77 Glow Plug/Inlet Air Heater Output


State test

2. Select Diagnostics from the menu bar.

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3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION 81

3. Select Key-On Engine-Off tests from the drop signal values from the ICP sensor and compares
down menu. those values to the expected values. When the
Standard test is done, the ECM returns the engine to
NOTE: When using the EST to do KOEO or KOER the normal operation and transmits DTCs set during
diagnostic tests, Standard test is always selected the test.
and run first. If the ignition switch is not cycled, the
Standard test does not have to be run again. NOTE: Before doing this test, confirm the following
conditions:
4. From the KOEO Diagnostics menu, select Glow
Plug/Inlet Air Heater and select Run to start the • Problems causing active DTCs were corrected,
test. and active DTCs were cleared.
• Engine coolant temperature must be at least
NOTE: This test can only be run twice for each ignition
70 °C (158 °F).
switch cycle
• Battery voltage must be higher than 10.5 volts.
• Transmission in park or neutral

Figure 78 Close session

5. When finished with this test, select Session from


menu bar, then Close.

Key-On Engine-Running Tests


Standard Test
Figure 79 KOER Standard session
NOTE: The KOER Standard test can only be
done with the EST; MasterDiagnostics® software
is required.
1. With the engine running, select
During the KOER Standard test, the ECM commands D_KOER_Standard.ssn from the Open
the IPR through a step test to determine if the ICP Session File window, select Open to open the
system is performing as expected. The ECM monitors session.

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82 3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION

The ECM increases engine idle to a predetermined


value and commands the IPR valve to set ICP to rated
speed pressure. If the performance of the ICP system
is acceptable, the ECM will control the IPR valve
and reduce the pressure in steps, while continuing to
monitor the ICP system.
When the test is done, the ECM restores normal
engine operation, and the Diagnostics Trouble Code
window will display DTCs, if there are problems.
5. Correct problem causing active DTCs.
6. Clear DTCs.

Figure 81 Close session

7. When finished with this test, select Session from


Figure 80 Standard test menu bar, then Close.

NOTE: When using the EST to do KOEO or KOER


2. Select Diagnostics from the menu bar. diagnostic tests, Standard test is always selected
and run first. If the ignition switch is not cycled, the
3. Select Key-On Engine-Running Tests from the Standard test does not have to be run again.
drop down menu.
4. From the KOER Diagnostics menu, select
Standard and select Run to start the test.

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3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION 83

Continuous Monitor Test 1. Select D_ContinuousMonitor.ssn from the Open


Session File window, select Open to open the
NOTE: This test can only be done with the EST; session.
MasterDiagnostics® software is required.
The Continuous Monitor test troubleshoots
intermittent connections at sensors and actuators.
The engine can be off or running.

EST monitors the following circuits:


Accelerator Position Sensor (APS)
Barometric Absolute Pressure (BAP)
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT)
Engine Coolant Level (ECL)
Engine Oil Pressure (EOP)
Engine Oil Temperature (EOT)
Intake Air Temperature (IAT)
Injection Control Pressure (ICP)
Manifold Air Temperature (MAT)
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP)
Mass Air Flow (MAF)

Figure 83 Continuous Monitor test

2. Select Diagnostics from the menu bar.


3. Select Key-On Engine-Running tests from the
drop down menu.
4. From the KOER Diagnostics menu, select
Continuous Monitor and select Run to start
the test.

Figure 82 Continuous Monitor session


WARNING: To prevent personal injury
ordeath, be careful around rotating parts (belts
and fan) and hot engine surfaces.

WARNING: To avoid personal injury, use 5. Wiggle connectors and wires at all suspected
care to prevent contact with the door edge when problem locations. If circuit continuity is
the cab is up and the door is open. interrupted, the EST will display DTCs related to
the condition.
6. Correct problem causing active DTCs.

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84 3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION

7. Clear DTCs. 8. When finished with this test, select Session from
menu bar, then Close.

Figure 84 Close session

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3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION 85

Air Management Test

NOTE: When using the EST to do KOEO or KOER


diagnostic tests, Standard test is always selected
and run first. If the ignition switch is not cycled, the
Standard test does not have to be run again.

NOTE: The Air Management test can only be


done with the EST; MasterDiagnostics® software
is required. The Standard test must be done before
doing the Air Management test.
The Air Management test checks the operation of
the Air Management System and the Exhaust Gas
Recirculation (EGR) valve.
During the Air Management test, the ECM commands
the EGR actuator through a step test sequence, to
determine if the valve is performing as expected.
If a fault is detected the test will end, engine operation
will return to normal, and a DTC will be set.
If a fault is not detected the test will be completed and
engine operation will return to normal.

Figure 86 Air Management test

2. Select Diagnostics from the menu bar.


3. Select Key-On Engine-Running Tests from the
drop down menu.

NOTE: When using the EST to do KOEO or KOER


diagnostic tests, Standard test is always selected
and run first. If the ignition switch is not cycled, the
Standard test does not have to be run again.
4. From KOER Diagnostics menu, select Air
Figure 85 KOER Air Management session Management and select Run to start the test.
5. Correct problem causing active DTCs.
1. With the engine running, select 6. Clear DTCs.
D_KOER_AirManagement_V6.ssn from
the Open Session File window, select Open to
open the session..

Figure 87 Close session

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86 3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION

7. When finished with this test, select Session from


menu bar, then Close.

Figure 88 Air Management diagnostic readout for engine rpm, EGR position, and MAF

The ECM commands the EGR valve to close and decrease. If the MAF is not below the expected flow,
increases the engine idle speed to 900 rpm. The ECM DTC 346 is set and the test is cancelled.
allows the Manifold Air Flow (MAF) to stabilize. The
The ECM commands the EGR valve to close, and
ECM monitors and compares the MAF to the expected
allows MAF to stabilize. The ECM monitors MAF and
values; flow is expected to increase. If the MAF does
compares it to the expected flow; flow is expected to
not exceed the expected flow or there is a MAF sensor
increase. If the MAF does not exceed the expected
fault, the test is cancelled and “Engine Not In Testing
flow, DTC 346 is set and the test is cancelled.
Range” is displayed.
The ECM returns engine speed to low idle. If all flow
The ECM commands the EGR valve to open, and
comparisons meet requirements, no DTC is set and
allows MAF to stabilize. The ECM monitors MAF and
the engine is returned to normal operation.
compares it to the expected flow; flow is expected to

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Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
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3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION 87

Injector Disable Tests Automatic Test


The Automatic test is best used when comparing
NOTE: The Injector Disable tests can only be
cylinder to cylinder test data.
done with the EST; MasterDiagnostics® software
is required.
The Injector Disable tests allows the technician to
shut off injectors to determine if a specific cylinder is WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
contributing to engine performance. Injectors can be death, shift transmission to neutral or park, set
shut off one at a time. parking brake, and block wheels before doing
diagnostic or service procedures.
Firing order: 1-2-5-6-3-4
When all cylinders are active, the contribution of
each cylinder is 17% of its overall effect to maintain NOTE: If any injectors are removed and reinstalled or
governed speed. The technician should monitor fuel replaced, test drive vehicle for 32 km (20 mi) before
rate and engine load. checking for misfire or rough idle.

NOTE: The Relative Compression test should be


done in conjunction with the Injector Disable test
to distinguish between an injector or mechanical
problem.

NOTE: Before doing the Auto Test make sure


Performance Diagnostics tests 1 through 8
were completed and the following conditions are
maintained:
• Make sure accessories are turned off (for
example: fan and air conditioning). If these items
were to cycle during this test it could corrupt the
test results.
• Maintain engine idle. Figure 89 KOER injector disable session

• Keep EOT within a 2 °C (5 °F) range from the


beginning to the end of the test. EOT affects 1. While engine is running, open
injection timing; too much of a change in EOT D_KOER_IDT_V6.ssn in the Open
temperature could corrupt the test results. Session File window, select Open to monitor
engine operation.
NOTE: If any injectors are removed and reinstalled or
replaced, test drive vehicle for 32 km (20 mi) before
checking for misfire or rough idle.

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88 3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION

NOTE: While running the engine listen for sound


variations from cylinder to cylinder.

NOTE: If any injectors are removed and


reinstalled or replaced, test drive vehicle for
32 km (20 mi) before checking for misfire or
rough idle.

Figure 91 V6 Injector Disable test results (Auto


Run - Text View)

Figure 90 Injector Disable Tests

2. Select Diagnostics from menu bar.


3. Select V6 Injector Disable Tests from drop down
menu.
Figure 92 V6 Injector Disable test results (Auto
NOTE: The EOT indicator will change from Run - Graph View)
red to green when engine temperature reaches
70 °C (158 °F) or higher.
During Auto Run, injectors are shutoff one at a time (1
• If the EOT indicator is red, erroneous through 6 in numerical sequence). Base line data and
comparisons are likely from cylinder to results for each cylinder is displayed in the window
cylinder. (Text View) for V6 Injector Disable test results. Test
• When the EOT indicator is green and the data for each injector can also be viewed by selecting
engine is at 70 °C (158 °F) or higher, fuel the (Graph View). When finished the engine will return
rate and timing are more stable, making to normal operation.
comparisons from cylinder to cylinder more
accurate. Overall engine operation is more
stable.
4. Select Auto Run.

Figure 93 Close session

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3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION 89

5. When finished with this test, select Session from


menu bar, then Close.
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death, shift transmission to neutral or park,
Manual Test - Engine Cold set parking brake, and block wheels before
doing diagnostic or service procedures.
The Manual test is best used when diagnosing each
cylinder for cold misfire, considering EOT changes.
The EOT indicator will change from red to green when 2. Select Diagnostics from menu bar.
engine temperature reaches 70 °C (158 °F) or higher.
• If the EOT indicator is red, erroneous
comparisons are likely from cylinder to cylinder.
However, when diagnosing a cold misfire, a
technician can listen to tone changes from
cylinder-to-cylinder.
• When the EOT indicator is green and the engine
temperature is 70 °C (158 °F) or higher, fuel rate
and timing are more stable, making comparisons
from cylinder to cylinder more accurate. Overall
engine operation is more stable.
Shut off one injector at a time and listen for changes
in exhaust tone.

NOTE: If any injectors are removed and reinstalled or


replaced, test drive vehicle for 32 km (20 mi) before
checking for misfire or rough idle.

Figure 95 Injector Disable Tests

3. Select V6 Injector Disable Tests from drop down


menu.
4. Select cylinder number and select Run. (Injector
selected will be disabled and engine noise should
change.)
Figure 94 KOER injector disable session
5. Select Normal Operation. Injector will be enabled
and engine noise should return to previous state
1. While engine is running, open D_ of operation.
KOER_IDT_V6.ssn. in the Open Session 6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 for the remaining cylinders.
File window, select Open to monitor engine
operation.

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90 3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION

NOTE: Listen for sound variations from cylinder to


cylinder.

NOTE: If any injectors are removed and reinstalled or


replaced, test drive vehicle for 32 km (20 mi) before
checking for misfire or rough idle.

Figure 96 Close session

7. When finished with this test, select Session from


menu bar, then Close.

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Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION 91

Relative Compression About 30 degrees after TDC, crankshaft speed should


be fastest because compression has dissipated. On a
NOTE: During this test the IDM shuts off the injectors cylinder that has low compression, crankshaft speed
so no fueling occurs. will be close to, or less than crankshaft speed at TDC.
At TDC of each power cylinder, and about 30 degrees
NOTE: The Relative Compression test can only be
past TDC, the IDM collects data for crankshaft speed.
done with the EST; MasterDiagnostics® software is
required.
NOTE: If not cranked long enough to collect data, the
EST will display 255. 255 represents an erroneous
NOTE: This test is used in conjunction with the
rpm value
Injector Disable test to distinguish between an injector
problem or a mechanical problem. The TDC value is subtracted from the value about 30
degrees after TDC and records for each cylinder.
Test data displayed in this test should be compared
with data collected from the injector disable test
Example
to distinguish between an injector or mechanical
problem. 200 rpm (30 degrees after TDC) - 180 rpm (TDC) = 20
rpm
The EZ-Tech® will display a value on the screen for
each cylinder.
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death, after clicking Run, turn the ignition switch,
within 5 seconds, to crank the engine; if not done
in 5 seconds, the EST will cancel the test and the
engine will start.

NOTE: The engine may start if you continue cranking


beyond 15 seconds.
The relative compression test provides the difference
between the fastest and slowest crankshaft speed
during the power stroke of each cylinder.
Figure 97 Example
As the engine is cranked, the IDM uses the CMP and
CKP sensor signals to measure crankshaft speed,
as piston reaches two points: Top Dead Center Compare the compression values of each cylinder
(TDC) compression and about 30 degrees after TDC with the other cylinder values. A cylinder with
compression. compression lower than the other cylinders indicates
a suspect cylinder. Test value of 31 for cylinder five
When the piston approaches TDC, crankshaft speed
indicates a suspect cylinder.
should be slower because of compression resistance.
As the piston passes TDC, compression resistance If a cylinder value is zero or a much lower than
dissipates and crankshaft speed increases. other cylinders and this cylinder is a non-contributor
(identified in the injector disable test), check for a
At TDC compression, the cylinder reaches its highest
mechanical problem.
compression and resistance to crankshaft rotation -
Crankshaft speed is the slowest. A cylinder with low
compression will have less resistance to crankshaft
rotation. Crankshaft speed will be faster than normal.

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92 3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION

Figure 98 Example

If TDC rpm is greater than rpm 30 degrees after TDC,


the EST will display 0.
If the test value for a power cylinder is 0, the cylinder
is suspect.
If the test value for a power cylinder is significantly
below 50 rpm or above 80 rpm, the cylinder is suspect.
Test value 35 for cylinder 1 indicates a suspect
cylinder. Test value of 0 for cylinder 6 indicates a Figure 99 Relative Compression Test
suspect cylinder.
When the Relative Compression test is done, the EST
1. Select Diagnostics from the menu bar.
indicates, stop cranking the engine, and will display
test values. 2. Select Relative Compression Test from the drop
down menu.
Test data displayed in this test should be compared
with data collected from the Injector Disable test. 3. Follow the messages at the bottom of the window.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or WARNING: To personnel personal injury,


death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety use care to prevent contact with the door edge
Information” section of this manual. when the cab is up and the door is open.

NOTE: Batteries must be fully charged before doing • Turn ignition switch to ON.
this test. Use battery charger during this test, if • Select Run.
multiple tests are needed; battery drain can be
extensive.

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© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION 93

2. Select PP_EngineService.ssn from the Open


Session File window, and select OPEN to access
WARNING: To prevent personal injury Vehicle Programming.
or death, after clicking Run, turn the ignition
switch, within 5 seconds, to crank the engine;
if not done in 5 seconds, the EST will cancel
the test and the engine will start.

• Within 5 seconds of selecting run, crank


engine for 15 seconds. Another message
will read Stop Cranking within 5 seconds. Do
not turn ignition switch to OFF. If the ignition
switch is turned to OFF, test results will be
lost.
Figure 101 Select Program
NOTE: If test results are identical to previous test
results, the current test failed and the previous
3. Select SI: Service Interval Reset, click the right
results were displayed.
mouse button and select Program.
4. Interpret results.
• If a Relative Compression test and Injector
Disable test identify a suspect cylinder, check
for a mechanical problem.
• If a Relative Compression test does not
identify a suspect cylinder, but the Injector
Disable test does, replace suspect injector(s).

Reset Service Interval Lamp


Using EST
1. Turn ignition switch to ON.
Figure 102 Change Edit Parameters to New

4. Change the Edit Parameter dialog box to NEW,


and select OK.

Figure 100 Select Engine Service session

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94 3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION

2. Turn ignition switch to ON. (Do not crank the


engine.)

Figure 103 Verify module value change

5. Note Module Value has changed to Yes and Pr...


number has increased. Select the red X at the top
of the box to close Change Parameter box. Figure 105 Cruise switches (CF)

3. Press and release the top of CRUISE RPM and


RESUME+ switches simultaneously.

NOTE: The top of CRUISE RPM switch is not


labeled. Pressing the top of CRUISE RPM will
latch the switch and illuminate a small red light at
Figure 104 Close session the top, indicating that cruise is on.
4. Press and release RESUME+ switch three more
times.
6. When finished, select Session from menu bar,
then Close. 5. Press and hold RESUME+ switch for three
seconds.
6. Release the RESUME+ switch and press the
Using Cruise Switches (CF) bottom of CRUISE RPM switch to unlatch.
Service Interval Lamp is reset.
NOTE: Read and be familiar with all steps and time
limits in this procedure before starting.

NOTE: Steps 2 and 3 must be completed with three


seconds of ignition switch on.
1. Set parking brake.

EGES-305-2
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Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION 95

Using Cruise Switches (Stripped Chassis) 1. Set parking brake.


2. Turn ignition switch to ON. (Do not crank the
engine.)
3. Move slide switch from OFF to R/A and then
release within three seconds.
4. Move slide switch to R/A three more times.
5. Move slide switch to R/A and hold for three
seconds.
6. Move slide switch from R/A to OFF and service
Figure 106 Cruise switches (stripped chassis) interval lamp will reset.

EGES-305-2
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Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
96 3 DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE OPERATION

EGES-305-2
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Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
4 ENGINE SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSTICS 97

Table of Contents

Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99

Test Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99


Combustion Leaks to Coolant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
Combustion Leakage Test using Low Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
Combustion Leakage Test using High Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
Combustion Leaks to Fuel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102
Combustion Leak to Fuel Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102
Coolant in Lube Oil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
Inspection for Lube Oil Contamination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
Coolant Leak to Exhaust. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106
Coolant Leak to Exhaust Test Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106
Coolant Over-Temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109
Inspection for Coolant Over-Temperature Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109
ECM Reset/IDM Reset (Intermittent Engine Stumble). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
Diagnostics for Engine Stumble. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
Excessive Fuel Consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112
Verifying Excessive Fuel Consumption Complaints. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112
Fuel in Coolant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113
Fuel in Coolant Leakage Test using High Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113
Fuel in Coolant Leakage Test using Low Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114
Fuel In Lube Oil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115
Verifying Oil Dilution from Fuel System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115
Water In Fuel (WIF). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
Drain Water from HFCM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
Low Oil Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119
Low Oil Pressure Diagnostics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119
Rough Idle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123
Diagnostics for Verifying Rough Idle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123
Smoke. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126
Black Smoke. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126
White Smoke. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126
Blue Smoke. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128

EGES-305-2
Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
98 4 ENGINE SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSTICS

EGES-305-2
Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
4 ENGINE SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSTICS 99

Description Combustion Leakage Test using Low Pressure


Diagnostic test procedures help technicians find
problems systematically and quickly to avoid
unnecessary repairs. In this section, diagnostic
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
and test procedures help identify causes for known
death from hot coolant or steam scalding, use the
problems and conditions.
following procedure to remove the pressure cap
from the cooling system. Allow the engine to cool.
Wrap a thick cloth around the cap. Unscrew cap
slowly, then pause to allow pressure to release.
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death, shift transmission to neutral or park, set
parking brake, and block wheels before doing 1. Follow procedure in the above warning to remove
diagnostic or service procedures. cooling system pressure cap.
2. Install radiator Vacuum Pump and Gauge
(ZTSE7559) with appropriate adapter.
3. Plug in cylinder block heater, if available, to warm
Test Procedures coolant.
4. Pressurize cooling system to 96 kPa (14 psi).
5. Remove glow plug harnesses and glow plugs for
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or all cylinders.
death, read all safety instructions in the foreword 6. Clean glow plug sleeves with cotton swabs.
of this manual. Follow all warnings, cautions, and
notes.

Combustion Leaks to Coolant

Causes
Injector sleeve failure
Figure 107 Cutaway of Cylinder Head Showing
Glow plug sleeve failure Glow Plug Sleeve
Head gasket failure
Porous cylinder wall 7. Verify that cooling system is still pressurized at
96 kPa (14 psi).
Combustion leaks can be identified by combustion
gas observed in engine coolant deaeration tank. The 8. Bar engine over by hand and check for coolant
most probable cause of combustion gas leakage to flooding the top of piston and flowing out glow plug
the cooling system is past injector or glow plug sleeves sleeve bore.
in the cylinder head. A failed head gasket or porous
• If leak is slight, pressure may have to be left
cylinder wall is possible, but should not be suspected
on overnight and inspect cooling system for
unless there is evidence of engine overheating or high
leakage in morning. Leave cylinder block
engine mileage without proper coolant.
heater, if available, plugged in.
• If leak is found, go to step 8.
• If no leakage is found, go to “Combustion
Leakage Test using High Pressure (page
100)” in this section.

EGES-305-2
Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
100 4 ENGINE SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSTICS

Figure 108 Cutaway of Cylinder Head Showing


Injector Sleeve

NOTE: International chassis do not need to remove


the cylinder heads to remove and replace the injector
and glow plug sleeves.
9. Remove cylinder head from engine as described
in the Engine Service Manual. Perform all
inspections and pressure test cylinder head to
verify leak path. Inspect cylinder head gasket for
coolant leaks and verify crankcase and cylinder
head surface flatness using a straight edge and
feeler gauge.
• It is recommended to replace both the injector
and glow plug sleeves for a cylinder that Figure 109 Deaeration tank fill position (CF)
shows combustion leakage.
10. If the injector and glow plug sleeves were
replaced, retest the cylinder head with pressure
test plate to verify repair.
11. Reinstall cylinder head on the engine as
described in the Engine Service Manual.
12. Return coolant to operating level in the deaeration
tank.

Combustion Leakage Test using High Pressure


1. Plug in cylinder block heater, if available, to warm
engine coolant.
2. Remove glow plug harnesses and glow plugs for
all cylinders.

Figure 110 Deaeration tank fill position (stripped


chassis)

EGES-305-2
Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
4 ENGINE SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSTICS 101

5. Bar engine over so that valves are shut on cylinder


to be tested. Apply shop air for a minimum of
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or three minutes to ensure leaking air can arrive at
death from hot coolant or steam scalding, use the deaeration tank.
following procedure to remove the pressure cap
6. Observe deaeration tank for escaping air. If there
from the cooling system. Allow the engine to cool.
is a leak in the pressurized cylinder, bubbles of air
Wrap a thick cloth around the cap. Unscrew cap
will be seen in the deaeration tank.
slowly, then pause to allow pressure to release.
7. Depressurize shop air, bar engine over so that
the next set of valve are shut on a cylinder to be
3. Follow procedure in the above warning to remove tested. Continue steps 5 through 7 until all six
cooling system pressure cap. Remove pressure cylinders have been tested.
cap or radiator Vacuum Pump and Gauge
(ZTSE7559) from deaeration tank and fill tank • If leak is found, continue with step 8.
with coolant to a point above the deaeration inlet • If no leak is found, remove each cylinder
line to tank. head one at a time following the procedures
described in the Engine Service Manual. Do
all inspections and pressure test cylinder
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or head to further investigate leak path. Inspect
death, wear safety glasses with side shields when cylinder head gasket for coolant leaks and
using compressed air. verify crankcase and cylinder head surface
flatness using a straight edge and feeler
gauge.
• If cylinder head leak is found, repair as
necessary and retest to confirm repair.
• If no leak is found, inspect cylinder bores.
8. Remove cylinder head from engine as described
in the Engine Service Manual. Perform all
inspections and pressure test cylinder head to
verify leak path. Inspect cylinder head gasket for
coolant leaks and verify crankcase and cylinder
head surface flatness using a straight edge and
Figure 111 Compression Test Adapter feeler gauge.
• It is recommended to replace both the injector
and glow plug sleeves for a cylinder that
4. Install the Compression Test Adapter in the glow shows combustion leakage.
plug bore and adapt gauge end to accept shop air
pressure 690 to 1100 kPa (100 to 160 psi). 9. If the injector and glow plug sleeves were
replaced, retest the cylinder head with pressure
NOTE: Verify that O-ring is on compression test plate to verify repair.
adapter when it is installed and removed from 10. Reinstall cylinder head for engine as described in
glow plug bore. the Engine Service Manual.
11. Return coolant level in the deaeration tank to
normal operating range.
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death, be aware that engine may rotate sharply
when cylinder is pressurized.

EGES-305-2
Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
102 4 ENGINE SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSTICS

Combustion Leaks to Fuel

Causes WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, comply with the following:
Loose fuel injector hold down
• Read all safety instructions in the “Safety
Missing or damaged copper injector gasket
Information” section of this manual.
Combustion leaks to fuel Engine stall during
• When draining fuel, dispose of fuel according
will exhibit one or more operation
to local regulations in the correct container
of these characteristics:
White to black smoke clearly marked DIESEL FUEL.
during cranking
• DO NOT smoke.
Rough running engine
• Keep away from open flames and sparks.
Extended engine crank
time (hard start)
Fuel pressure slow to
build while cranking
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
Excessive fuel pressure death, do not allow engine fluids to stay on your
while cranking skin. Clean skin and nails with soap and water, or
Pulsating fuel pressure a good hand cleaner. Wash or properly dispose of
during crank or engine clothing or rags containing engine fluids. Engine
running at idle. fluids contain elements that may be unhealthy for
skin and could cause cancer.

Combustion Leak to Fuel Test


NOTE: Engine fluids, oil, fuel, and coolant, are a threat
1. Verify operator complaint. to the environment. Recycle or dispose of engine
fluids according to local regulations. Never put engine
2. Deactivate the fuel pump by pulling the fuel pump
fluids in the trash, on the ground, in sewers, or other
relay.
bodies of water.

EGES-305-2
Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
4 ENGINE SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSTICS 103

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, be aware that engine may start from fuel in
the system. Stay clear of moving components.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, use care to prevent contact with the door
edge when the cab is up and the door is open.

Figure 112 Secondary fuel filter


WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
1. Fuel return to fuel pump death, comply with the following:
2. Fuel supply from fuel pump
• Disposing of fuel according to local
3. Fuel pressure test port plug
regulations in the correct container clearly
4. Conditioned fuel to left cylinder head
marked DIESEL FUEL.
5. Conditioned fuel to right cylinder head
• DO NOT smoke.
• Keep away from open flames and sparks.
NOTE: When removing the cylinder head connections
from the secondary fuel filter, fuel will leak out. Put in a
suitable container to collect this leakage. Collect and 4. Turn ignition switch to START to crank the engine.
dispose of this fuel according to local regulations.
5. Crank engine for 3 to 5 seconds while checking
3. Remove the left and right cylinder head fuel supply lines for the following:
connections from the secondary fuel filter
following the procedures in the Engine Service • Fuel forced back through lines from
Manual. Drain the secondary fuel filter in to the combustion
container. • Combustion gasses or smoke coming from
lines
• Audible sound of air or compression from
lines
6. If diagnostic tests confirm a combustion leak to
fuel, remove valve cover on the suspected side
following the procedures in the Engine Service
Manual. Inspect for loose injector clamps on side
of engine that is suspect of combustion in fuel.
Repair if necessary and retest.

EGES-305-2
Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
104 4 ENGINE SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSTICS

Coolant in Lube Oil

Causes
Glow plug sleeve leak
Injector sleeve leak
Cylinder head cup plug failure
Cylinder head gasket leak
Oil filter base assembly and oil cooler bundle failure
Front cover gasket damage
Figure 113 Cylinder Head Cup Plug Locations
Front cover, cylinder head, or crankcase porosity

• Inspect entire cylinder head area for leaks at


Inspection for Lube Oil Contamination the cup plugs.
1. Check coolant level and oil level gauge to verify • Inspect oil filter housing for coolant leaks from
oil contamination complaint. oil cooler.
• If no leaks are found in above areas do step
The presence of coolant in the oil will generally
8 to inspect for upper crankcase leakage.
cause the oil to thicken and coagulate giving a
gray black chunky appearance. • If coolant system pressure is dropping and no
coolant is leaking from oil pan, do step 6.
If coolant in the oil can not be verified, an oil
sample can be taken for analysis. 6. Bar engine over by hand and check for coolant
flooding the top of piston and flowing out of the
2. When oil contamination is verified, plug in cylinder glow plug bore.
block heater, if available, to warm coolant.
• If leaks are found, do step 7.
3. Remove glow plug harnesses, glow plugs, and
valve covers. Drain engine oil and remove oil • If leaks are not found, do step 8.
filter. 7. Remove cylinder head from engine following
the procedures in the Engine Service Manual.
Leave oil drain plug out of pan and oil filter cap Perform all inspections and pressure test cylinder
off. head to further investigate leak path. Inspect
cylinder head gasket for damage at sealing areas
4. Pressurize cooling system to 96 kPa (14 psi). which may have caused leak. Verify crankcase
5. If coolant is leaking from oil pan, do the following: and cylinder head surface flatness using a straight
edge and feeler gauge.
• If glow plug or injector sleeve was replaced,
retest cylinder head with pressure test plate
to verify repair.
8. Remove upper and lower oil pans following the
procedures in the Engine Service Manual.
9. Inspect for leakage in crankcase.
• Verify 96 kPa (14 psi) pressure is maintained
on radiator pressure tester.
• If no leakage is found, do step 10.

EGES-305-2
Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
4 ENGINE SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSTICS 105

10. Remove oil cooler and oil filter housing from the
engine following the procedures in the Engine
Service Manual.

Figure 115 Remove the front cover

12. Check the front cover coolant sealing surfaces as


follows:
Figure 114 Air pressure leakage test
• Remove front cover and inspect gaskets and
1. Air pressure regulator
sealing surfaces following the procedures in
2. Air adapter (make locally)
the Engine Service Manual.
3. Test plate
• Check front cover and crankcase following
the procedures in the Engine Service Manual.
11. Do oil cooler pressure test following procedures in
• Reinstall front cover following the procedure
the Engine Service Manual.
in the Engine Service Manual.
• If a leak is found, replace oil cooler assembly.
13. Retest cooling system after any repair to confirm
• If no leak is found, do step 12. repair.

EGES-305-2
Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
106 4 ENGINE SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSTICS

Coolant Leak to Exhaust


Causes
• Failed EGR cooler
• Porosity in cylinder head casting

Coolant Leak to Exhaust Test Procedure


1. Verify complaint of coolant leaking to exhaust.

Observation of coolant loss without engine


overheating
Excessive white smoke from exhaust pipe on
start up (hot or cold)
Check for coolant smell in exhaust
Check for coolant leaking from muffler
Severe case - engine hydraulic lock

Figure 117 Turbocharger exhaust tubing


(stripped chassis)
1. Turbocharger to exhaust muffler
2. Exhaust tube assembly
3. Exhaust tube to EGR cooler

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, comply with the following:
• Use caution when removing turbocharger
exhaust tubing, coolant in tubing could splash
or create slippery conditions.
• Allow engine to cool before removing any
components.
• Do not allow engine fluids to stay on your skin.
Clean skin and nails with soap and water, or a
good hand cleaner. Wash or properly dispose
Figure 116 Turbocharger exhaust tubing (CF) of clothing or rags containing engine fluids.
Engine fluids contain elements that may be
1. Turbocharger to exhaust muffler
unhealthy for skin and could cause cancer.
2. Exhaust tube assembly
3. Exhaust tube to EGR cooler

NOTE: Engine fluids, oil, fuel, and coolant, are a threat


to the environment. Recycle or dispose of engine
fluids according to local regulations. Never put engine
fluids in the trash, on the ground, in sewers, or other
bodies of water.

EGES-305-2
Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
4 ENGINE SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSTICS 107

2. Remove turbocharger to exhaust muffler tubing • If no leak is found, continue with step 8.
and the exhaust tube to EGR cooler following the
8. Remove EGR valve and install Intake Manifold
procedures in the Engine Service Manual.
Pressure Test Plug (EGR Valve) (ZTSE4544) and
3. Check for presence of coolant in tubing, exhaust EGR Cooler Test Plate (ZTSE4545) on the EGR
manifolds and EGR cooler exhaust inlet. cooler following the procedures in the Engine
Service Manual.
4. Plug in the cylinder block heater, if available, to
warm coolant. 9. Remove radiator pressure tester from coolant
deaeration tank and fill tank with coolant to a
point above the deaeration inlet line to tank.
Leave radiator cap off.
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death from hot coolant or steam scalding, use the
following procedure to remove the pressure cap
from the cooling system. Allow the engine to cool.
Wrap a thick cloth around the cap. Unscrew cap
slowly, then pause to allow pressure to release.

5. Follow procedure in the above warning to remove


cooling system pressure cap.
6. Pressurize cooling system to 96 kPa (14 psi) using
the radiator pressure tester.

Figure 119 EGR Cooler Test Plate, air regulator


and test gauge installed

Figure 118 EGR cooler exhaust inlet

7. Check EGR cooler exhaust inlet for the presence Figure 120 Intake Manifold Pressure Test Plug
of coolant. (EGR Valve) installed
• If coolant is present, replace EGR cooler
following the procedures in the Engine
10. Apply regulated air pressure of
Service Manual.
172 to 414 kPa (25 to 60 psi) at the
• If no leak is found but pressure is dropping EGR Cooler Pressure Test Plate.
rapidly, inspect the exhaust manifolds for
coolant. Repair as necessary following the
procedures in the Engine Service Manual.

EGES-305-2
Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
108 4 ENGINE SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSTICS

11. Observe coolant deaeration tank for air bubbles. • If air bubbles are observed and EGR cooler
Air pressure must be left on EGR cooler for a passes additional testing, remove and
minimum of 5 minutes. pressure test the intake manifold following
the procedures in the Engine Service Manual.
• If air bubbles are observed in the tank,
remove EGR cooler and retest following the • If no air bubbles are observed or EGR
procedures in the Engine Service Manual to cooler and intake manifold have passed
verify EGR cooler is inoperative. Replace if testing, contact Technical Services for further
necessary. assistance.

EGES-305-2
Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
4 ENGINE SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSTICS 109

Coolant Over-Temperature 3. Install Electronic Service Tool (EST) and check


for active and inactive Diagnostic Trouble Codes
Causes (DTC) related to engine coolant over-temp
conditions.
Low engine coolant level
• Using the EST, compare Engine Coolant
External coolant leaks
Temperature (ECT), Engine Oil Temperature
Internal or external radiator blockage (EOT), Manifold Air Temperature (MAT), and
Broken/worn drive belt Intake Air Temperature (IAT) with Key On
Engine Off. All of the sensors should read
Belt tensioner failure within 2 °C (5 °F) of each other.
Coolant thermostat missing or stuck (closed)
NOTE: This is only accurate if done after a cold
Slipping cooling fan drive clutch soak of at least eight hours on the engine.
Water pump failure 4. Run engine up to an operating temperature of at
Cooling fan blade assembly wrong or damaged least 70 °C (158 °F). Monitor ECT using the EST.
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) sensor biased 5. Attempt to duplicate the operator’s concern of
Incorrect radiator coolant over-temperature.

Internal coolant leak


Chassis effects, transmission, or after-market CAUTION: To prevent radiator damage, when
equipment using high pressure washer, be careful not to get
wand too close to radiator fins.

Inspection for Coolant Over-Temperature • If concern cannot be duplicated, clean


Conditions radiator fins (if not done previously). Flush
the radiator fins with water on the cooling fan
1. Check coolant deaeration tank for correct fill level.
side of the radiator. Do not continue further
• If coolant level is low, look for external leaks with diagnostics.
at radiator, engine, and all coolant related
• If coolant over-temperature is duplicated,
hoses.
continue with step 6.
2. Inspect the condition of the following items:
cooling fan blade, shroud, accessory drive belt,
accessory drive belt tensioner, cooling fan drive
clutch, and radiator. WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death from hot coolant or steam scalding, use the
• If vehicle is new or recently repaired, verify
following procedure to remove the pressure cap
the correct part number for any component
from the cooling system. Allow the engine to cool.
related to the cooling system.
Wrap a thick cloth around the cap. Unscrew cap
• Verify that the cooling fan blade, cooling fan slowly, then pause to allow pressure to release.
drive clutch, and radiator are clean of debris
and dirt build-up. Clean areas as required.
6. Follow procedure in the above warning to remove
cooling system pressure cap.
CAUTION: To prevent radiator damage, when 7. Install the radiator Vacuum Pump and Gauge
using high pressure washer, be careful not to get (ZTSE7559) on the deaeration tank and run
wand to close to radiator fins. engine at elevated idle. Monitor the pressure
in the system using the tester gauge to see if

EGES-305-2
Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
110 4 ENGINE SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSTICS

pressure rises above normal value of deaeration • If thermostat passes test, continue with step
tank cap. 9.
• If pressure is higher than the pressure rating 9. Use vehicle diagnostics manual to review
of the cooling system cap, continue with automatic transmission diagnostics.
“Combustion Leak to Coolant (page 99)” in
10. If over-temperature condition remains, remove
this section.
radiator and have flow checked at radiator shop.
• If pressure gauge reading is below pressure
• Retest engine for over-temperature condition
rating of system, continue with step 8.
with repaired or replaced radiator.
8. Remove and inspect thermostat following the
procedure in the Engine Service Manual. Check
for opening temperature.
• Replace as needed. Retest for condition after
repair.

EGES-305-2
Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
4 ENGINE SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSTICS 111

ECM Reset/IDM Reset (Intermittent Engine Diagnostics for Engine Stumble


Stumble)
1. Using the EST, check for DTCs for both the engine
and chassis modules.
Indications
• If DTC 626 (unexpected reset fault) or 534
WAIT TO START lamp cycles ON while engine
(IDM relay voltage low) are present as active
running
or inactive codes, continue with step 4.
Glow plugs recycle while engine running
• If any other engine DTCs are active, perform
Engine stumbles and dies appropriate diagnostics and repairs before
Loss of accelerator pedal authority continuing with these procedures.

Miles driven are not logged if ECM reset occurs • If any chassis DTCs are active when checking
during current key cycle the Electronic System Controller (ESC),
perform appropriate diagnostics and repairs
before continuing.
Causes
2. Do “Test 5. Fuel Supply System Test (page 224)”
An Electronic Control Illuminate the WAIT TO in the “Performance Diagnostics (page 211)”
Module (ECM) reset START lamp section of this manual.
occurs when the ECM
Enable glow plugs See the “Electronic Control Systems Diagnostics
momentarily reboots
or is turned OFF and Enable Inlet Air Heater (page 279)” section of this manual or the applicable
ON while the engine is (IAH) truck Circuit Diagram Manual and Service Manual
operating. when performing the following steps.
Validate the accelerator
If a reset occurs, the pedal position 3. Check all ECM and IDM related fuses.
engine will momentarily 4. Check all Battery, VIGN and ground connections
stumble and the ECM for the ECM and IDM.
will go through a normal
KEY ON cycle. This 5. Monitor ECM powers and grounds with breakout
includes: box under operator complaint conditions.

If the pedal is not at idle Poor fuse connection 6. Monitor IDM powers and grounds with 12-Pin
position when the reset Breakout Harness under operator complaint
Intermittent open at conditions.
occurs, a DTC is set
connectors
and engine speed goes 7. If root cause has not been identified in previous
to low idle. The ECM Poor battery power feed
steps, continue diagnosis by doing the remaining
will not allow accelerator harness connection
tests in “Performance Diagnostics (page 211)”
pedal authority until Poor ground connection section of this manual.
the Accelerator Pedal
Sensor (APS) is Poor power relay
released. connection

Momentary loss of Open power or ground


power to the ECM or circuit
IDM may be caused by: Poor module
connection, corrosion,
or water inclusion

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112 4 ENGINE SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSTICS

Excessive Fuel Consumption Verifying Excessive Fuel Consumption


Complaints
Causes
1. Review operator records and fueling procedures.
Operator effects Inaccurate record Measurement errors are common. Fuel
keeping or tank filling consumption taken only from one tank of use
is susceptible to significant error because of filling
Winter blend or No. 1
procedures and vehicle application differences
fuel
during operation. Accurate fuel consumption
Unrealistic expectations must be measured over time with a record of what
Application effects Heavy loading Gross the vehicle was doing during the measurement
Vehicle Weight (GVW) period.

Low rear axle ratio 2. Loss of fuel economy is normal if winter blend fuel,
kerosene or No. 1 diesel fuel is being used.
Large frontal area
3. Review vehicle specifications to determine if fuel
Accessory usage consumption is normal for type of application
(Power Takeoff, etc.) and use of vehicle. Compare consumption with
Additional equipment similar vehicles in the same application and
drawing fuel from TCAPE report.
vehicle fuel tanks
4. Do all tests on Performance Diagnostic form or in
Extended idle “Performance Diagnostics(page 211)” section of
applications this manual.
Tire size, tire condition,
These tests will verify the operating condition of
or air pressure
the following engine and chassis systems:
Chassis effects Brake drag
Intake system
Cooling fan clutch
locked ON Exhaust system

Transmission Fuel delivery and filtration


slippage/shifting High pressure fuel system
Fuel tank plumbing or Injector operation
venting
BCS operation
Intake or exhaust
Oil aeration
restriction
Base engine condition
Engine effects Incorrect or inoperative
thermostat Electronic control system condition
Failed Turbocharger
If all tests are passed, the engine is operating
Boost Control (TCBC)
normally.
system
Oil aeration
Fuel system leaks
Base engine
performance loss

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Fuel in Coolant
Causes
• Leaking or cracked injector sleeve with injector
O-ring failure
• Cracked or porous head casting in fuel rail area

Fuel in Coolant Leakage Test using High Pressure

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death from hot coolant or steam scalding, use the
following procedure to remove the pressure cap
from the cooling system. Allow the engine to cool.
Wrap a thick cloth around the cap. Unscrew cap
slowly, then pause to allow pressure to release.

1. Follow procedure in the above warning to remove


cooling system pressure cap.
2. Verify coolant contamination.
• Check for diesel fuel odor in coolant.
Figure 121 Deaeration tank fill position (CF)
• Coolant may be discolored if diesel fuel is
present.

Figure 122 Deaeration tank fill position (stripped


chassis)

3. Fill deaeration tank with coolant to a level above


the deaeration inlet line to tank.

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4. Plug in the cylinder block heater, if available, to Fuel in Coolant Leakage Test using Low Pressure
warm coolant.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death from hot coolant or steam scalding, use the
following procedure to remove the pressure cap
from the cooling system. Allow the engine to cool.
Wrap a thick cloth around the cap. Unscrew cap
slowly, then pause to allow pressure to release.

1. Follow procedure in the above warning to remove


cooling system pressure cap.
2. Verify coolant contamination.
• Check for diesel fuel odor in coolant.
• Coolant may be discolored if diesel fuel is
Figure 123 Secondary fuel filter present.
1. Fuel return to fuel pump 3. Plug in the cylinder block heater, if available, to
2. Fuel supply from fuel pump warm coolant.
3. Fuel pressure test port plug
4. Fill with coolant to a level above the deaeration
4. Conditioned fuel to left cylinder head
inlet line to tank.
5. Conditioned fuel to right cylinder head
5. Install radiator pressure tester at the coolant
deaeration tank. Pressurize cooling system to
NOTE: When removing the cylinder head connections 96 kPa (14 psi).
from the secondary fuel filter, fuel will leak out. Put in a
6. Remove fuel line banjo fittings/check valves from
suitable container to collect this leakage. Collect and
front of cylinder heads following the procedures in
dispose of this fuel according to local regulations.
the Engine Service Manual.
5. Remove the left and right cylinder head
7. Observe fuel rail bores at cylinder heads for air or
connections from the secondary fuel filter
coolant leaks.
following the procedures in the Engine Service
Manual. Drain the secondary fuel filter in to the • If leak is found, remove valve cover and fuel
container. injectors from the suspect cylinder head,
following procedures in the Engine Service
6. Individually pressurize both fuel supply lines to
Manual. Observe injector bores for leakage.
cylinder heads to 550 to 690 kPa (80 to 100 psi)
Repair cylinder head, as necessary. After
using the Fuel Line Test Adapter. Observe
repair, pressurize cooling system to confirm
deaeration tank for air bubbles or loss of pressure
repair.
at gauge.
• If no leak is found, remove each cylinder
• If leak is found, do all inspections and test
head one at a time following the procedures
cylinder heads to verify leak path. Repair
as described in the Engine Service Manual.
cylinder head, as necessary. If an injector
Perform all inspections and pressure test
sleeve was replaced, retest .
cylinder head to check for leak paths.
• If no leak is found, continue with “Fuel in
Coolant Leakage Test using Low Pressure
(page 114)” in this section.

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4 ENGINE SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSTICS 115

Fuel In Lube Oil NOTE: When removing the cylinder head connections
from the secondary fuel filter, fuel will leak out. Put in a
Causes
suitable container to collect this leakage. Collect and
• Leaking fuel injector or injector O-ring. A dispose of this fuel according to local regulations.
leaking injector sleeve or injector tip could cause
2. Remove the left and right cylinder head
contaminated engine oil, but would most likely be
connections from the secondary fuel filter
identified as a performance problem.
following the procedures in the Engine Service
• Porous cylinder head (most likely on low mileage Manual. Drain the secondary fuel filter in to the
vehicles) container.
3. Individually pressurize both fuel supply lines to
cylinder heads to 550 to 690 kPa (80 to 100 psi)
Verifying Oil Dilution from Fuel System
using the Fuel Line Test Adapter (ZTSE4607).
1. Verify oil contamination. Oil contaminated with
4. Once a loss of pressure or leak is determined,
diesel fuel will have diesel fuel odor and will cause
remove valve cover at suspected head and
the oil level in engine to rise.
inspect for leak at injector areas.

Figure 124 Secondary fuel filter


1. Fuel return to fuel pump
2. Fuel supply from fuel pump
3. Fuel pressure test port plug
4. Conditioned fuel to left cylinder head
5. Conditioned fuel to right cylinder head

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Water In Fuel (WIF)

Cause WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, comply with the following:
Water in fuel supply system
• Do not mix gasoline, gasohol, or alcohol with
Ice in fuel lines
diesel fuel. This practice creates a fire hazard
Short circuit and is potentially explosive.
Damaged connection • Do not allow engine fluids to stay on your skin.
Corrosion on connector, sensor, or cover plate Clean skin and nails with soap and water, or a
assembly good hand cleaner. Wash or properly dispose
of clothing or rags containing engine fluids.
Failed ECM Engine fluids contain elements that may be
Failed WIF sensor unhealthy for skin and could cause cancer.

Tools
NOTE: Engine fluids, oil, fuel, and coolant, are a threat
• Clean drain pan, flat with a wide opening
to the environment. Recycle or dispose of engine
fluids according to local regulations. Never put engine
fluids in the trash, on the ground, in sewers, or other
Drain Water from HFCM
bodies of water.
1. Determine if the WIF lamp is on. If the lamp is on,
2. Put a clean flat drain pan under the HFCM drain
the fuel is probably contaminated with water.
plug
3. Wipe down the frame around and under the drain
plug or the HFCM and drain plug.
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death, comply with the following:
• Read all safety instructions in the “Safety
Information” section of this manual.
• Dispose of fuel according to local regulations
in a correct container clearly marked DIESEL
FUEL.
• DO NOT smoke.
• Keep away from open flames and sparks.

Figure 125 HFCM drain plug

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Figure 127 Drain plug remove and hanging from


Figure 126 HFCM drain plug stem

1. Area to be wiped down before draining


2. Drain plug 4. Loosen and remove the drain plug from the
threads and hang it from the stem. Drain HFCM
to the clean flat drain pan.

NOTE: Flow out of the drain should be as steady a


stream as possible. When running down the side
of the frame with the plug fully removed, or just
running down the plug while it is hanging, use your
best judgement if it is a steady flow. An unsteady
flow could indicate fuel system problems.
5. Check the O-ring on the drain plug. The drain
plug will have to be removed to replace the O-ring.
Install and hand tighten the drain plug.
6. Check the fuel in the drain pan for contamination.
Dispose of the contents in the drain pan properly
in accordance with local requirements.

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Excessive water or contaminants may indicate If the WIF lamp is off, the procedure is
that the tank and fuel system need to be complete, do not continue.
flushed and cleaned.
If the WIF lamp is still on, continue with step 9.
Some sediment and water may be present
if the fuel filter has not been replaced for a
NOTE: If the WIF indicator stays on after the water
prolonged period of time, or if the sediment
has been drained, the WIF sensor, the WIF sensor
and water have not been drained recently.
connector, or the cover plate assembly may be
The fuel should be clear, not cloudy. Cloudy corroded, the condition should be corrected and
fuel indicates that the fuel is not a suitable retested.
grade for cold temperatures.
9. Check the WIF sensor connector, do “WIF (Water
The fuel should not be dyed red or blue, these In Fuel) Sensor (page 526)” in “Electronic Control
colors indicate off-highway fuel. Systems Diagnostics (page 279)” section of this
The fuel should not indicate evidence of manual.
waxing or gelling. Waxing or gelling in some 10. Remove the HFCM to service the WIF sensor or
fuels in cold weather could clog fuel filters and check for corrosion on the cover plate assembly.
the fuel pump and cause restrictions in the fuel
or low fuel pressure. 11. Install the HFCM, and redo steps 4, 5, and 6. Turn
the ignition switch to ON to start the HFCM fuel
7. Turn the ignition switch to ON, determine if the pump, determine if the WIF lamp is off.
WIF lamp is off.
If the WIF lamp is off, the procedure is
If the WIF lamp is off, the procedure is complete, do not continue.
complete, do not continue. If the WIF lamp is still on, replace the HFCM.
If the WIF lamp is still on, continue with step 8.

8. Redo steps 4, 5, and 6. Turn the ignition switch to


ON to start the HFCM fuel pump, determine if the
WIF lamp is off.

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4 ENGINE SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSTICS 119

Low Oil Pressure Low Oil Pressure Diagnostics

Causes
Low oil level: oil leak, oil consumption or incorrect WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
servicing death, comply with the following;
High oil level: incorrect servicing, fuel in oil or
• When routing test line do not crimp line, run
coolant in oil
line too close to moving parts, or let line touch
Incorrect oil viscosity hot engine surfaces.
Fuel in oil • Before running engine for diagnostic or
Stuck oil pressure regulator service procedures, set parking brake, shift
transmission to park or neutral, and block
Scored or damaged oil pump wheels.
Engine Oil Pressure (EOP) switch biased
Missing oil gallery cup plugs (front or rear)
Broken, missing or loose piston cooling tube(s)
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
Missing, damaged or worn bearing inserts or death, do not allow engine fluids to stay on your
camshaft bushings skin. Clean skin and nails with soap and water, or
Lifter missing (will also have performance a good hand cleaner. Wash or properly dispose of
problems) clothing or rags containing engine fluids. Engine
fluids contain elements that may be unhealthy for
Aeration (cracked pickup tube, missing O-ring) skin and could cause cancer.

NOTE: Engine fluids, oil, fuel, and coolant, are a threat


to the environment. Recycle or dispose of engine
fluids according to local regulations. Never put engine
fluids in the trash, on the ground, in sewers, or other
bodies of water.
1. Verify oil level in engine using oil level gauge while
vehicle is parked on level ground. Check to see if
oil is contaminated with fuel or coolant.
• Engine oil level will vary depending on
temperature of engine
• If oil is contaminated, go to “Fuel in Lube
Oil (page 115)” or “Coolant in Lube Oil (page
104)” in this section.
2. Connect fitting on test line with Fuel/Oil Pressure
Test Coupler to a 0 to 1723 kPa (0 to 250 psi)
gauge.

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Figure 128 Lube oil pressure test


Figure 129 Oil pressure regulator components
1. End cap and O-ring
3. Remove EOP switch and install Fuel Pressure 2. Oil pressure bypass spring
Test Fitting. 3. Piston poppet
4. Connect Fuel/Oil Pressure Test Coupler to Fuel
Pressure Test Fitting
6. Remove and inspect oil pressure regulator as
5. Start the engine and measure oil pressure at described in the Engine Service Manual.
both low and high idle, under no load conditions.
Engine must be at normal operating temperature. • The oil pressure regulator piston should move
freely in its bore in the front cover.
• If oil pressure reads within specification
listed in “Appendix A: VT 275 Performance • If oil pressure regulator is functional and
Specifications (page 571)” and the instrument passes visual inspection, reinstall regulator
panel indicator indicated low pressure, following the procedures in the Engine
perform “EOP (Engine Oil Pressure) Switch Service Manual. Redo the “Low Oil Pressure
(page 396)” diagnostics in the “Electronic Diagnostics” procedures starting with step 5.
Control Systems Diagnostics (page 279)“ If oil pressure remains low, continue with step
section of this manual, and repair or replace 7.
the oil pressure indicator as required.
• If oil pressure does not read within the
specification, continue with step 6.

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10. Reinstall the oil filter, the oil filter cap, the oil pump,
and oil pump cover.
11. Connect regulated shop air line to the ICP system
test adapter in the lube oil filter base.
12. Slowly apply air pressure in 34.5 kPa (5 psi)
increments to 345 kPa (50 psi).
13. Inspect for gross leaks internally.
• If a major leak is observed from the front cover
area, continue with step 14.
• If a major leak is observed from the rear cover
area, continue with step 16.
• If a major leak is not observed, remove
Figure 130 Inspect the lube oil pump engine from vehicle. Disassemble engine
and perform full inspection of all components
1. Gerotor oil pump cover
following procedures in the Engine Service
2. O-ring
Manual.
3. Dowel pin (2)
4. Gerotor assembly 14. Remove the front cover from the engine following
procedures in the Engine Service Manual and
complete inspection of the lube oil pump.
7. Remove and inspect the lube oil pump following
the procedure in the Engine Service Manual.
• Inspect the lube oil pump housing and cover
for gouging or deep scratches.
• Inspect the gerotor gears for excessive wear
or damage.
• If no excessive damage is found continue with
step 8.
8. Drain oil from engine using a clean drain pan.
Inspect oil drain plug magnet, drained oil and oil
filter for foreign debris.
• An oil sample should be taken to determine
level of engine wear metals and contaminants
in the oil.
Figure 131 Main oil gallery cup plug locations
9. Remove both the upper and lower oil pans
following the procedure in the Engine Service
Manual. Inspect for missing, loose or damaged 15. With front cover removed from the engine, verify
oil pickup tube, O-ring, piston cooling tubes, that the front main oil gallery cup plugs are in
bearing inserts, and cam bushings. position and not damaged.

CAUTION: To prevent damage to the engine, verify


the oil filter is intact. Running the engine with a failed WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
oil filter could cause rapid deterioration of the engine death, the engine must be supported before
due to dirty oil. removing rear cover of engine.

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16. Remove the rear cover from the engine as


described in the Engine Service Manual. Verify
the rear main oil gallery cup plugs are in position
and not damaged.

Figure 132 Rear main oil gallery cup plug


locations

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4 ENGINE SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSTICS 123

Rough Idle Complete the following tests on the Performance


Diagnostic Form. See the “Performance Diagnostics
Causes (page 211)” section in this manual for specific details
on each test.
Engine oil (aerated, incorrect grade, low oil level,
extended drain interval) 3. Do “Test 1. Diagnostic Trouble Codes (page 213)”
in the “Performance Diagnostics (page 211)”
Poor fuel quality
section of this manual or on the Performance
Low fuel pressure Diagnostics Form. Intermittent sensor, injector,
Aerated fuel or wiring harness faults can affect engine idle
conditions. The ECM may have detected and
Electronic control system faults (ECM and IDM) recorded these conditions.
Injection Control Pressure (ICP) system problems 4. Do “Test 2. KOEO Standard Test (page 218)”
Fuel injectors not working properly in the “Performance Diagnostics (page 211)”
section of this manual or on the Performance
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve stuck open Diagnostics Form. The KOEO Standard test will
Power cylinder problems verify electrical operation of actuators.
Valve train problems 5. Do “Test 3. KOEO Injector Test (page 220)” in the
“Performance Diagnostics (page 211)” section of
Engine or flywheel balance problems
this manual or on the Performance Diagnostics
Exhaust system to cab or chassis ground out Form. This test will verify that the injectors are
Loose or worn engine mounts working properly electronically.

Mismatched balance shaft 6. Do “Test 4. Engine Oil (page 222)” in the


“Performance Diagnostics (page 211)” section of
this manual or on the Performance Diagnostics
Form. Check engine oil level. Verify correct
Diagnostics for Verifying Rough Idle oil grade for ambient temperature. See Engine
1. Verify complaint. Confirm conditions when Operation and Maintenance Manual, Engine
complaint is present. Lubrication Requirements section. Confirm oil
meets correct API specification for model and
When does engine rough idle occur? year of engine.

Hot - operating temperature 7. Do “Test 5. Fuel Supply System (page 224)”


in the “Performance Diagnostics (page 211)”
Cold section of this manual or on the Performance
After high speed operation Diagnostics Form. Verify quality and quantity
of diesel fuel, fuel aeration, and fuel pressure.
Over entire engine speed range
Poor quality fuel or low cetane rating can cause
Combination of the above conditions white smoke, engine misfire, and low power.
Is there chassis vibration or any other See Engine Operation and Maintenance Manual,
conditions or observations present when Fuel Requirements section for model and year
engine idles rough. of engine to determine minimum necessary fuel
grade and cetane rating.
2. Inspect exhaust system for contact with frame or 8. Do “Test 7. KOER Standard Test (page 237) in
body of vehicle. the “Performance Diagnostics (page 211)” section
Engine exhaust pipe contact with cab may of this manual or on the Performance Diagnostics
transmit engine vibrations to cab, especially Form.
on acceleration or engine shifts. This condition 9. Do “Test 8. Injection Control Pressure (page 239)”
may be incorrectly diagnosed as a rough idle in the “Performance Diagnostics (page 211)”
complaint. section of this manual or on the Performance

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Diagnostics Form. This test will verify the of this manual or on the Performance Diagnostics
functionality of the ICP system. The engine form.
must be at operating temperature 70 °C (158 °F)
to do this test.
10. Do “Test 9. Injector Disable (page 242)” in the WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
“Performance Diagnostics (page 211)” section of death, support the vibration damper during
this manual or on the Performance Diagnostics mounting bolt removal. The damper can slide off
Form. This test will confirm if the ICP system is the nose of the crankshaft very easily.
functioning properly and verify ICP stability.

NOTE: Test 9 is used in conjunction with Test 10 to


distinguish between an injector and a mechanical
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, replace all
problem.
vibration mounting bolts when installing the vibration
11. Do “Test 10. Relative Compression (page 247)” in damper. Do not use anti-seize compounds, grease,
the “Performance Diagnostics (page 211)” section or any lubricants. Lubricants have a adverse effect on
of this manual or on the Performance Diagnostics torque results.
Form. The primary function of this test is to show
the contributions of the individual power cylinders.
The test will detect a weak cylinder which could be
the result of an injector or base engine problem. CAUTION: To prevent damage to the engine, do not
run engine for an extended period with the accessory
NOTE: Test 10 is used in conjunction with Test 9 to drive belt removed.
distinguish between an injector and a mechanical
problem.
14. Inspect for engine and flexplate balance. Engine
12. Do “Test 11. Air Management (page 250)” in the roughness at idle that gets worse with a no load
“Performance Diagnostics (page 211)” section of acceleration may be caused by an out of balance
this manual or on the Performance Diagnostics condition. Remove the accessory drive belt to
Form. The test will verify EGR valve movement isolate the accessories during balance testing.
and MAF.
13. Do “Test 14. Crankcase Pressure (page 262)” in
the “Performance Diagnostics (page 211)” section

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4 ENGINE SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSTICS 125

Engine and Flexplate Balance Inspection


Isolate the engine from transmission by removing the transmission and torque converter. Start the
engine and evaluate for roughness. If the engine runs smooth, diagnose the torque convert and
transmission, see applicable truck Service Manual.
Following the procedures in the Engine Service Manual, remove the vibration damper and inspect the
elastomer layer for cracks and misalignment. If no problem is found, reinstall the vibration damper
following the exact assembly procedure in the Engine Service Manual. Verify that locating dowel at the
end of the crankshaft is aligned with the locating hole in the balancer for proper installation.
Following the procedures in the Engine Service Manual, remove the flexplate and verify proper
orientation. If orientation is correct, replace or rebalance flexplate. When removing or installing the
flexplate, ensure that the locating dowel is in the right place and that the flexplate is located properly on
the dowel.
Following the procedures in the Engine Service Manual, remove the front cover, inspect the primary
balancer shaft to ensure it is properly installed.
Following the procedures in the Engine Service Manual, remove the rear cover, to see if the balance
shaft is linked correctly.
Following the procedures in the Engine Service Manual, remove the lower and upper oil pan and inspect
the crankshaft counterweights to ensure balance holes exist.

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Smoke White Smoke


Black Smoke
Causes
Causes Cold engine
Air intake or exhaust restriction No glow plug operation
Failed turbocharger or a turbocharger wheel stuck No inlet air heater operation
Biased Barometric Absolute Pressure (BAP) Aerated oil
sensor Poor quality fuel
Loose injector EGR stuck open on startup in colder ambient
Charge Air Cooler (CAC) system leakage temperatures
Altitude (black smoke on hard acceleration or Biased Barometric Absolute Pressure (BAP)
snap acceleration may be pronounced at higher sensor
elevations) Coolant leak to combustion from exhaust side
Biased Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor Loose fuel injectors
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor failed Inoperative fuel injectors
EGR valve stuck open in warm ambient Bent connecting rods
temperature
Worn piston rings
Black Smoke Diagnostics Low compression

1. If engine has fuel knock or there is evidence of Coolant leaking into combustion chamber
fuel in the exhaust, remove exhaust manifolds Intake manifold porosity
and inspect for fuel in the exhaust ports. Suspect
a loose injector, missing or damaged O-ring and
gasket on bottom of an injector. White Smoke Diagnostics

2. Inspect air inlet system and exhaust system for 1. In cold ambient temperatures, some white smoke
possible sources of restriction. is possible depending on conditions.

3. Visually inspect turbocharger for oil leakage or • Ensure that engine is up to operating
failure. Some oil carryover is expected due to the temperature 88 °C (190 °F) prior to verifying
closed crankcase ventilation system. a white smoke complaint.

4. Do “Test 1. Diagnostic Trouble Codes (page 213)” • If the engine is unable to obtain
on the Performance Diagnostics Form or in the operating temperature during a road
“Performance Diagnostics (page 211)” section of test, verify thermostat opening temperature
this manual. 88 °C (190 °F).

5. Do “Test 6. Intake and Exhaust Restriction (page 2. On a cold engine, the glow plugs and the inlet
235)” on the Performance Diagnostics Form or in air heater may remain on after the engine starts
the “Performance Diagnostics (page 211)” section to assist in cold smoke cleanup. Do “Tests 14.
of this manual. Glow Plug System (page 192)” and “Test 15. Inlet
Air Heater System (page 199)” in the “Hard Start
6. Do “Test 11. Air Management (page 250)” on and No Start Diagnostics (page 131)” section of
the Performance Diagnostics Form or in the this manual or on the Hard Start and No Start
“Performance Diagnostics (page 211)” section of Diagnostics Form to verify glow plug and inlet air
this manual. heater operation.
3. Do “Test 5. Fuel Supply System (page 224)” in
the “Performance Diagnostics (page 211)” section

EGES-305-2
Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
4 ENGINE SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSTICS 127

of this manual or on the Performance Diagnostics • Unfiltered air entering the engine can
Form. Verify quality and quantity of the fuel, cause excessive power cylinder wear and
aeration, and fuel pressure. turbocharger compressor damage. If power
cylinder wear is suspected, identify smoking
4. Do Output State Test Low and High to cycle the
cylinder(s) by removing exhaust manifolds
EGR valve and monitor valve movement with the
and running engine.
Output State Test Continuous Monitor Session.
• If coolant is found in the intake manifold, see
5. If there is coolant loss without engine overheating,
“Coolant Leak to Exhaust” (page 106) in this
check for coolant in exhaust.
section.
• If coolant is leaking from exhaust or can be
smelled in the exhaust, see “Coolant Leak to
Exhaust” (page 106) in this section.
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
6. Do “Test 8. Injection Control Pressure (page 239)” death, visually inspect the turbocharger with the
in the “Performance Diagnostics (page 211)” engine off, and the turbocharger not spinning.
section of this manual or on the Performance Turbocharger components may be extremely
Diagnostics Form. hot and turbocharger wheels are very sharp
7. Do “Test 9. Injector Disable (page 242)” in the and may spin at high speeds. Visually assure
“Performance Diagnostics (page 211)” section of the turbocharger wheels are not turning before
this manual or on the Performance Diagnostics inserting fingers or other body parts.
Form.
8. Do “Test 10. Relative Compression (page 247)” in 11. Do compression test on cylinders that are white
the “Performance Diagnostics (page 211)” section smoke using the compression test adapter.
of this manual or on the Performance Diagnostics Inspect turbocharger for damage.
Form.
12. If engine is overheating with coolant loss, and
9. If engine has fuel knock or evidence of fuel in cylinder head gasket, injector sleeve, or glow plug
exhaust, remove exhaust manifolds and inspect sleeve is suspected for leaking, see “Combustion
for fuel in the exhaust ports. (Suspect loose Leaks to Coolant Test using High Pressure (page
injectors, missing or damaged O-ring and copper 100)” in this section.
gasket on bottom of injector).
10. Inspect air induction system for evidence of water
ingestion or evidence of unfiltered air entering the
engine.
• Water ingestion could have caused a
hydraulic lock and bent connecting rods. If
water ingestion is suspected, identify smoking
cylinders by removing exhaust manifolds and
running engine.

EGES-305-2
Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
128 4 ENGINE SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSTICS

Blue Smoke “Performance Diagnostics (page 211)” section of


this manual.
NOTE: Blue smoke is an indication of oil consumption.
a. If crankcase pressure is high and there
If unable to differentiate between white and blue
is excessive oil consumption, investigate
smoke, determine smoke type by odor. If there is an
air compressor, turbocharger, and power
odor of oil burning it is blue smoke. If there is a fuel
cylinder components.
or coolant smell then it is white smoke.
b. If crankcase pressure is normal and there
Causes is excessive oil consumption remove
Charge Air Cooler (CAC) pipes and
Excessive crankcase pressure
inspect CAC and intake system for
Failed turbocharger excessive oil carryover.
Failed fuel injector 3. Inspect turbocharger high and low pressure stage
Piston oil control ring stuck or inoperative shafts for oil leak at both the compressor and
turbine housings.
Leaking valve stem seals or worn valve guides
4. Remove exhaust manifolds and inspect exhaust
ports for oil residue to pinpoint possible injector
Blue Smoke Diagnostics failure causing oil to mix with fuel injected into the
1. Do oil consumption test on engine. Verify high oil power cylinder.
consumption.
2. Do “Test 15. Crankcase Pressure (page 265)”
on the Performance Diagnostics Form or the

EGES-305-2
Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 129

Table of Contents

Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131
Diagnostic Form Information EGED-315. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131

Test Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133


1. Initial Ignition Key ON (Do not start). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133
2. Engine Cranking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135
3. Diagnostic Trouble Codes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137
Vehicle Information for Form Heading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137
Entering Vehicle Information without using the Electronic Service Tool (EST). . . . . . . . .137
Entering Vehicle Information using the Electronic Service Tool (EST). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138
Accessing DTCs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140
Reading DTCs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141
4. KOEO Standard Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142
5. KOEO Injector Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144
6. Electronic Service Tool (EST) Data List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146
Monitoring Engine Systems using an EST. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146
Monitoring Engine Systems using Breakout Box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149
Monitoring ICP using Pressure Sensor Breakout Harness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151
Monitoring EOP at EOP Switch Port. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152
7. Engine Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153
8. Engine Oil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154
9. Intake and Exhaust Restriction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .156
10. Fuel Supply System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158
10.1. Pressure, Quality, and Aerated Fuel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159
10.2. Fuel Pump Discharge Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165
10.3. Fuel Inlet Restriction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167
11. Main Power Relay Voltage to ECM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169
Voltage Measurement with Relay Breakout Harness at ECM Main Power Relay. . . . . . . .169
Voltage Measurement at ECM with Breakout Box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171
12. Main Power Relay Voltage to IDM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173
Voltage Measurement at 12-Pin Connection with Breakout Harness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173
Voltage Measurement with Relay Breakout Harness at IDM Main Power Relay. . . . . . . . .175
13. Low ICP System Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
13.1. System Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178
13.2. IPR Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180
13.3. Under Valve Cover Leaks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182
13.4. Cylinder Head Isolation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187
13.5 High-pressure Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189
14. Glow Plug System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192
14.1. Glow Plug System Amperage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193
14.2. Glow Plug Harness to Ground. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195
14.3. Glow Plug to Ground. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195
14.4. Engine Harness 3-pin to Relay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196
14.5. Relay Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
15. Inlet Air Heater System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199
15.1. Amperage Draw. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199

EGES-305-2
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Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
130 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

15.2. Voltage at Element. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202


15.3. Resistance of Element. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204
15.4. Wiring Harness Continuity and Resistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205
15.5. Relay Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .206

EGES-305-2
Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 131

Description

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, shift transmission to park or neutral, set
parking brake, and block wheels before doing
diagnostic or service procedures.

Engine diagnostic forms assist technicians in


troubleshooting International® diesel engines.
Diagnostic test procedures help technicians find
problems systematically and quickly to avoid
unnecessary repairs.

Diagnostic Form Information EGED-315

Figure 133 Diagnostic form EGED-315 (Hard Start and No Start Diagnostics side)

EGES-305-2
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Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
132 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

EGES-305-2
Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 133

Test Procedures
1. Initial Ignition Key ON (Do not start) WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety
Information” section of this manual.

1. Turn ignition switch ON. (Do not start the engine.)


Check or listen for the following:
• WAIT TO START indication
• WATER IN FUEL indication (If Water In Fuel
indication comes on, check for water in the
HFCM fuel filter housing.)
Figure 134 • Injector pre-cycle (Shop noise can drown out
the sound of injector pre-cycle).
• Electronic fuel pump, listen for a hum or buzz
Purpose from the electronic fuel pump after initial key
To determine the following: on; the pump should stay on for 60 seconds
(Shop noise can drown out the sound of fuel
• Is the Injector Drive Module (IDM) powered up? pump running).
• Is the Electronic Control Module (ECM) powered 2. If not enough time to listen, do another ignition
up? switch ON.
• Does the electronic fuel pump hum or buzz?
• Is there water in the fuel?
Tools
• None

EGES-305-2
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Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
134 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

Possible Causes
No injector pre-cycle No key power (vIGN)
Failed IDM ground circuit
No power from main power relay to IDM.
CAN2 link is not working.
IDM failure
WAIT TO START indication does not come on No key power (vIGN)
Failed ECM ground circuit
No power from main power relay to ECM
CAN1 link is not working (will not cause hard start
or no start).
ECM failure
Amber WAIT TO START indication is out (will not
cause hard start or no start).
Electronic fuel pump does not run No key power (vIGN)
Wiring failure from ECM to relay or corrosion
Wiring failure from relay to pump or corrosion
Electronic fuel pump failure (will not cause hard start
or no start)
ECM failure
Water in fuel Water in fuel
Corroded housing or connectors (will not cause hard
start or no start).
Electrical circuit failure (will not cause hard start or
no start).

EGES-305-2
Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 135

2. Engine Cranking

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety
Information” section of this manual.

1. See “Appendix A: VT 275 Performance


Specifications (page 571)” for specifications,
and enter data in “Spec” column for rpm and
smoke color on Diagnostic Form.
2. Turn ignition switch to START.
Figure 135 3. Monitor rpm on instrument panel and EST. Record
rpm value on Diagnostic Form.
4. Check for exhaust smoke and record any exhaust
Purpose
smoke color on Diagnostic Form.
To determine:
NOTE: If smoke is seen, typically excess fuel is
• Does the crankshaft rotate?
getting in the cylinders; otherwise, the fuel supply
• Does the instrument panel receive a signal from system is working correctly.
the ECM and is rpm sufficient?
NOTE: The engine may run rough and produce
• Is fuel getting to the cylinders?
white smoke, if air is in the fuel system. This is
Tools normal and should stop after a short time, once
the engine mounted fuel filter has self-purged.
• EST with MasterDiagnostics® software
• EZ-Tech® interface cable

EGES-305-2
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Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
136 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

Possible Causes
Crankshaft will not rotate Low or no battery power
No key power (vIGN)
Insufficient power to ECM
Starting system failure
Circuit fault for Engine Crank Inhibit (ECI)
Cylinder hydraulic lock
Insufficient rpm Low battery power
Starter motor problem
Incorrect oil viscosity
Cold temperature
Excessive exhaust smoke with hard start or no start Glow plug system failure
concern
Failed air heater system
Poor fuel quality
Excessive air inlet or exhaust restriction
Insufficient cylinder temperature
Loose injector
Low compression

EGES-305-2
Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 137

3. Diagnostic Trouble Codes

Figure 136

Purpose
• To determine if the ECM has detected Diagnostic
Trouble Codes (DTCs) indicating conditions that
could cause engine problems
• Fill out Diagnostic Form heading.
• Check for abnormal sensor readings.
Tools
• EST with MasterDiagnostics® software
• EZ-Tech® interface cable

Vehicle Information for Form Heading

Figure 137

NOTE: Before continuing diagnostic tests, fill out the Technician


form heading on Diagnostics Form.
Date (for warranty)
Unit No (dealer’s quick reference for
Entering Vehicle Information without using the customer’s vehicle identification)
Electronic Service Tool (EST) Truck build (date)
1. Enter mechanical information in the form heading: Complaint (for warranty)

EGES-305-2
Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
138 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

2. Enter electronic information in the form heading,


see Entering Vehicle Information using the
Electronic Service Tool (EST). WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety
Information” section of this manual.
Entering Vehicle Information using the Electronic
Service Tool (EST)
1. Connect the EZ-Tech® interface cable to the EST
and the ATA connector.
2. Boot EST.

Figure 138 American Trucking Association


(ATA) connector (typical)
1. ATA connector
Figure 140 International® launchpad

3. Select Engine Diagnostics, then International®


MasterDiagnostics® for Diamond Logic® Control
II.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury, use


care to prevent contact with the door edge when
the cab is up and the door is open.

4. Turn ignition switch to ON.

Figure 139 EZ-Tech® interface cable

EGES-305-2
Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 139

Figure 141 Open VIN+ session

5. Select VIN+ icon to open VIN+ session. VIN (for Information List (cont.)
warranty, ordering parts, and service information).
Engine SN Engine Serial Engine SN (for
The Vehicle Identification Number is also on the
Number ordering parts
door jamb on the operator’s side.
and service
6. Complete the form heading using the on-screen information).
information and the Information List.
The engine serial number is stamped on a
crankcase pad on the rear of the left side
Information List
crankcase below the cylinder head. The engine
Heading VIN+ session Description serial number is also on a separate serial number
Information PID label next to the engine emission label on the left
side valve cover. Compare the Engine SN in the
Miles Odometer For warranty
Vehicle Programming window of the VIN+ session
Hours Engine Hours For warranty with the Engine SN on the engine. The engine
Transmission Transmission Automatic could have been replaced without a programming
Type change to the ECM to upgrade the Engine SN.

Ambient Intake Air Temp Engine HP Rated HP For correct


temperature engine
application
Coolant Coolant Temp
temperature

EGES-305-2
Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
140 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

Information List (cont.)


Engine Family EFRC: Engine For
Rating Code Family Rating troubleshooting
Code
ECM Reference
calibration Number
Figure 142 DTC window
PVVXXXXX
(First group)
1. Record all DTCs from DTC window on the
IDM calibration Reference
Diagnostic Form. See “Appendix B: Diagnostic
Number
Trouble Codes (page 581)” for definitions of the
ANZXXXXX DTCs.
(Second group) 2. Correct problem causing active DTCs before
Fill in the Turbocharger No and Injector No if a continuing.
mismatch of components is suspected. 3. Clear DTCs.
Injector N/A Requires 4. Use EST to check KOEO values for temperature
Number removal of and pressure sensors. Record results on
valve covers Diagnostic Form.
Turbocharger N/A Plate on the
Number inside edge KOEO values for temperature and pressure
of the low sensors
pressure If engine has not been run for 8 to 12 hours
compressor Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT), Engine
housing Oil Temperature (EOT), and Manifold Absolute
Temperature (MAT) should be within 2 °C (5 °F)
of each other. The Inlet Air Temperature (IAT)
Accessing DTCs could be a few degrees higher or lower due to
faster outside engine temperature changes.
Injection Control Pressure (ICP) values
may fluctuate as much as 345 kPa (50 psi).
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) or ground
death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety shift can cause an insignificant voltage shift
Information” section of this manual. that does not indicate a problem.
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) values may
NOTE: When opening VIN+ session to fill out form fluctuate as much as 7 kPa (1 psi). EMI or
heading, the DTC window automatically appears. ground shift can cause an insignificant voltage
shift that does not indicate a problem.
NOTE: If an EST is not available, see “Accessing Barometric Absolute Pressure (BAP) values
DTCs (page 71)” in “Using Cruise Switches (page should equal the barometric reading for your
71)” in the “Diagnostic Software Operation (page 70)” region.
section of this manual.
Are values normal?
If abnormal values are suspected, record on
Diagnostic Form and see Operational Voltage
tables in the “Electronic Control Systems
Diagnostics (page 279)” section of this manual.

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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 141

5. Continue with KOEO Standard test. • Inactive: With ignition switch on, inactive
indicates a DTC for a condition during a previous
key cycle. When the ignition switch is turned
Reading DTCs off, inactive DTCs from a previous ignition switch
cycle, are stored in the ECM memory.
ATA code: Codes associated with a Subsystem
Identifier (SID), Parameter Identifier (PID), and • Active/Inactive: With ignition switch on,
Failure Mode Indicator (FMI) active/inactive indicates a DTC for a condition
currently in the system and was present in
DTC: Diagnostic Trouble Code
previous key cycles, if the codes were not cleared.
Status: Indicates active or inactive DTCs
Description: Defines each DTC
• Active: With ignition switch on, active indicates a
DTC for a condition currently in the system. When Possible Causes
the ignition switch is turned off, an active DTC
Electronics failure
becomes inactive. (If a problem remains, the DTC
will be active on the next ignition switch cycle and Failure of the ICP sensor or ICP system
the EST will display active/inactive.) Failure of the Air Management System (AMS)

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142 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

4. KOEO Standard Test

Figure 143

Purpose
To determine electrical malfunctions detected by the
ECM self-test and Output Circuit Check (OCC)
Tools
• EST with MasterDiagnostics® software
• EZ-Tech® interface cable

NOTE: For CF only: If an EST is not available,


see “Standard Test Using Cruise Switches (Except Figure 144 KOEO Standard test
Stripped Chassis) (page 74)” in the “Diagnostic
Software Operation (page 70)” section of this manual.
3. Select Diagnostics from the menu bar.
4. Select Key-On Engine-Off Tests from the drop
down menu.
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety 5. From the KOEO Diagnostics menu, select
Information” section of this manual. Standard, then select Run to start the test.
The ECM will complete an internal self-test and
an OCC. When the OCC is completed, the DTC
window will show DTCs, if there is a problem.
WARNING: To prevent personal injury, use
NOTE: This test initially takes up to 60 seconds. Look
care to prevent contact with the door edge when
at the bottom of the diagnostic screen, the screen will
the cab is up and the door is open.
display Diagnostics Running while the test is running.
Each subsequent test performed without a key-off will
1. Set parking brake. take less than five seconds.
2. Turn ignition switch to ON. (Do not crank engine.) NOTE: When using the EST to do KOEO or KOER
diagnostic tests, Standard test is always selected
and run first. If the ignition switch is not cycled, the
Standard test does not have to be run again.
6. Record all DTCs on Diagnostic Form. See
“Appendix B: Diagnostic Trouble Codes (page
581)” for a definition of the DTCs.

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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 143

7. Correct problem causing active DTCs. Possible Causes


8. Clear DTCs. Failed electrical components or circuitry
9. When finished with this test, continue with KOEO OCC fault for the Injection Pressure Regulator
Injector Test. (IPR) valve
OCC fault for the Inlet Air Heater (IAH) relay
OCC fault for the glow plug relay
OCC for fuel pump control
OCC fault for the Air Conditioning Control (ACC),
this will not cause a hard start no start condition.

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144 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

5. KOEO Injector Test

Figure 145

Purpose
To determine if fuel injectors are working
(electronically) by energizing injectors in a
programmed sequence
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) monitors this
test and transmits DTCs, if injectors or injector circuits
are not working correctly.
Tools
• EST with MasterDiagnostics® software
• EZ-Tech® interface cable Figure 146 KOEO Injector test

NOTE: When using the EST to do KOEO or KOER


WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
diagnostic tests, Standard test is always selected
death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety
and run first. If the ignition switch is not cycled, the
Information” section of this manual.
Standard test does not have to be run again.
1. From the KOEO Diagnostics menu, select
Injector, then select Run to start the test.

NOTE: During this test, injector solenoids should


click in a numerical sequence, not the firing order,
when actuated. If a series of clicks are not heard
for each injector, one or more injectors are not
activating.
The DTC window will show DTCs for electrical
problems.
2. Record DTCs on Diagnostic Form. See
“Appendix B: Diagnostic Trouble Codes (page
581)” for a definition of the DTCs.
3. Correct problem causing active DTCs.
4. Clear DTCs.

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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 145

Possible Causes
Injector wiring harness open or shorted
Failed injector wiring harness connector and the
wiring connection to the injector coil
Failed injector coil
Figure 147 Close session Failed Injector Drive Module (IDM)
Failed ECM

5. When finished with this test, close the VIN+


session. Select Session from menu bar, then Possible Cause - Hard Start No Start Only
Close. Failed wiring at CAN2 connection
Failed wiring at IDM power and ground connection
Failed wiring at IDM relay connection

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146 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

6. Electronic Service Tool (EST) Data List 1. See “Appendix A: VT 275 Performance
Specifications (page 571)” for specifications,
and record on Diagnostic Form.

Figure 149 Hard Start No Start session

2. Select D_HardStart_NoStart_V6.ssn in the Open


Session File window, select Open to monitor
engine operation.
Figure 148 3. Turn ignition switch to ON.
4. Note KOEO readings.
Purpose • After cold soak ECT, EOT, IAT, and MAT
To determine if engine systems meet operating should be within 2 °C (5 °F) of each other.
specifications to start engine 5. Crank engine for 20 seconds and read EST to
measure VBAT, RPM, ICP, EOP, and EGRP.

Monitoring Engine Systems using an EST 6. Record readings on Diagnostic Form.

Tools • Battery voltage must be 7 volts or more. If


voltage to the ECM drops below 7 volts, the
• EST with MasterDiagnostics® software ECM will not remain powered up. If the ECM
• EZ-Tech® interface cable does not get power through the ECM relay,
the engine will not start.
• Engine cranking speed must generate
the required injection control pressure to
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or operate the fuel injectors and create required
death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety compression to ignite the fuel.
Information” section of this manual.

NOTE: Batteries must be fully charged before doing


the following steps.

If an EST is not available, see alternate test


procedures following this test.

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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 147

• If the EST shows 0 rpm during engine • If the EST indicates low or no injection control
cranking, the ECM may not be receiving pressure, do “Test 13. Low ICP System (page
a signal from the Crankshaft Position (CKP) 177)” in this section.
sensor or Camshaft Position (CMP) sensor.
• If oil pressure is low, the ICP system may not
The ECM will not send the fueling command
be receiving enough oil.
to the IDM without a correct CKP or CMP
signal. See “CKP (Crankshaft Position) • If EGR valve is open at start-up, it can disrupt
Sensor (page 329)” and “CMP sensor (page the air fuel mixture enough to inhibit engine
333)” in the “Electronic Control Systems operation.
Diagnostics (page 279)” section of this
manual.

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148 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

Possible Causes
Low battery voltage Failed batteries
High-resistance at battery cable connections or in
wiring to the ECM
Failed ECM power relay
Blown in-line fuse (in battery box) that supplies
voltage to the ECM
Blown fuse in power distribution box
Low cranking rpm Electrical system malfunctions, incorrect oil, or long
oil change intervals in cold ambient temperatures
No rpm indication on the EST while cranking the
engine: Failed CKP sensor, CMP sensor, or circuit
to the ECM. Check DTCs after cranking engine for
20 seconds.
Low Injection Control Pressure A leak in the high-pressure oil system, a Failed ICP
sensor, or inoperative IPR valve
Aerated Oil
Low oil level in the high-pressure oil reservoir
No or low lube oil pressure
Failed high-pressure oil pump or pump drive
Failed IPR valve or electronic controls for the
regulator
Low oil pressure Low oil level: oil leak, oil consumption or incorrect
servicing
High oil level: incorrect servicing, fuel in oil or coolant
in oil
Stuck oil pressure regulator
Failed oil pressure regulator valve
Failed gerotor oil pump
Failed pick-up tube or gasket
Internal lube oil pressure leak
EGR valve Stuck or failed valve
Failed position sensor

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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 149

Monitoring Engine Systems using Breakout Box 1. Remove (X-1, X-2) and (X-3, X-4) connectors
from ECM.
Tools
2. Install breakout box connectors (X-1, X-2) and
• Breakout Box
(X-3, X-4) to ECM.
• Digital Multimeter (DMM)
3. Install wiring harness connectors to breakout box
headers (X-1, X-2) and (X-3, X-4).

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety
Information” section of this manual.

NOTE: Make sure ignition switch is turned off.

Figure 151 Breakout Box

4. Connect DMM leads to Breakout Box.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, when routing DMM leads, do not crimp
leads, run leads too close to moving parts, or
let leads touch hot engine surfaces.

5. Crank the engine for 20 seconds and use DMM to


measure values for the following:

Figure 150 ECM connectors disconnected

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150 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

VBAT (DMM set to DC V) POS X3-3 to NEG X3-7 (VIGN Pwr)


POS X4-1 to NEG X3-6 (ECM PWR)
POS X4-2 to NEG X3-7 (ECM PWR)
rpm (DMM set to DC mV Hz) POS X1-1 to NEG X3-7 (CKP)
rpm (DMM set to DC mV rpm ) 2
POS X1-9 to NEG X3-7 (CMP)
ICP (DMM set to DC V) POS X1-20 to NEG X1-6
EOP (DMM set to DC V) POS X1-13 to NEG X1-6

NOTE: See “Appendix A: VT 275 Performance


Specifications (page 571)” and “ICP (Injection
Control Pressure) Sensor (page 447)” in the
“Electronic Control Systems Diagnostics (page
279)” section of this manual for operational
voltages and values.

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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 151

Monitoring ICP using Pressure Sensor Breakout 1. Remove engine harness connector from ICP
Harness sensor.
Tools 2. Connect Pressure Sensor Breakout Harness to
engine harness and ICP sensor.
• Pressure Sensor Breakout Harness
• DMM

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, when routing DMM leads, do not crimp
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or leads, run leads too close to moving parts, or
death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety let leads touch hot engine surfaces.
Information” section of this manual.

3. Use DMM to measure injection control pressure


while cranking engine for 20 seconds.
• Connect POS to green (signal circuit) and
NEG to black (signal ground).

NOTE: See “Appendix A : VT 275 Performance


Specifications (page 571)” and “EGR (Exhaust
Gas Recirculation) Control (page 375)” in the
“Electronic Control Systems Diagnostics (page
279)” section of this manual for operational
voltages and values.

Figure 152 Pressure Sensor Breakout Harness


installed - ICP

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152 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

Monitoring EOP at EOP Switch Port


Do this test, only if an EST is not available.
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
Tools death, do not allow engine fluids to stay on your
skin. Clean skin and nails with soap and water, or
• 0 to 1723 kPa (0 to 250 psi) gauge
a good hand cleaner. Wash or properly dispose of
• Fuel/Oil Pressure Test Coupler and test line clothing or rags containing engine fluids. Engine
fluids contain elements that may be unhealthy for
• Fuel Pressure Test Fitting
skin and could cause cancer.

2. Remove EOP switch and install Fuel Pressure


WARNING: To prevent personal injury or Test Fitting.
death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety
Information” section of this manual.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


1. Connect fitting on test line with Fuel/Oil Pressure
death, when routing test line, do not crimp line,
Test Coupler to a 0 to 1723 kPa (0 to 250 psi)
run line too close to moving parts, or let line touch
gauge.
hot engine surfaces.

3. Connect Fuel/Oil Pressure Test Coupler to Fuel


Pressure Test Fitting.
4. Monitor EOP while cranking engine for 20
seconds.
5. Record oil pressure reading on Diagnostic Form.

Figure 153 Fuel Pressure Test Fitting in EOP


switch port

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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 153

7. Engine Systems 6. Check battery cable connections for corrosion. All


connections must be seated, in good condition,
and free of damage or corrosion.
7. Check engine wiring harness for correct routing
and protection against rubbing or chaffing.
8. Check air cleaner housing for damage or
distortion that could allow unfiltered air into
the engine.
9. Check air induction system for leaks.
Figure 154
NOTE: Unfiltered air will cause accelerated
engine wear.
Purpose
• If leaks in the air induction system are
To check engine systems for hard start or no start suspected, continue with step 10.
conditions
10. Check for end seal movement inside the housing.
Tools End seal movement is indicated, if the seal
• Inspection lamp contact area is polished. A polished contact area
indicates that unfiltered air has passed by the
• Wrench filter element and into the engine.
11. Check air cleaner element for end cap dents,
holes, damaged seals, and soot.
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
12. Check air intake hoses and clamps for tightness
death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety
and positioning over sealing beads.
Information” section of this manual.
13. Check the chassis mounted Charge Air Cooler
(CAC) and piping.
1. Check fuel supply system (including tanks,
transfer pump, HFCM, and lines) for leaks and Possible Causes
damage.
Loose or leaking fuel supply lines could cause fuel
2. Check engine for oil leaks.
system to lose prime.
3. Inspect cooling system for leaks. Kinked or blocked fuel supply lines can restrict fuel
4. Check sensor, relay, and control module flow.
connections. All connections must be seated, in Excessive fuel or oil leaks
good condition, and free of damage or corrosion.
Coolant leaks could indicate serious engine
NOTE: The engine will not start if the following damage.
components are disconnected or damaged: Damaged, corroded or incorrectly installed
• Injection Pressure Regulator (IPR) valve electronic connectors

• Camshaft Position (CMP) sensor Blockage in the air induction system

• Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensor


5. Remove cover from power distribution box, and
check distribution box, glow plug relay, and IAH
relay for corrosion.

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154 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

8. Engine Oil 1. Park vehicle on level ground.


2. Check oil level with oil level gauge.

NOTE: Never check the oil level when the engine


is running or immediately after engine shutdown;
the reading will be inaccurate. Allow 15 minute
drain down time, before checking oil level.

NOTE: If the oil level is too low, the fuel injectors


will not work correctly. If the oil level is above the
operating range, the engine has been incorrectly
Figure 155 serviced, fuel is in the oil, or coolant is in the oil.
3. Check oil for thickening and odor.
Purpose • Oil contaminated with long life coolant will
cause thickening or coagulation.
To determine if crankcase oil level and oil quality are
correct to ensure operation of the Injection Control • Does oil have a diesel fuel odor?
Pressure (ICP) system
4. Check engine service records for correct oil grade
Tools and viscosity for ambient operating temperatures.
See “Lubrication Requirements” in the Engine
• None
Operation and Maintenance Manual (for engine’s
model number and model year). Confirm that oil
meets correct API category.
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety
Information” section of this manual. CAUTION: Do not use 15W-40 oil below
-7 °C (20 °F). Long oil drain intervals can
increase oil viscosity; thicker oil will make engine
cranking and starting more difficult below freezing
temperatures.
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death, do not allow engine fluids to stay on your
skin. Clean skin and nails with soap and water, or
a good hand cleaner. Wash or properly dispose of
clothing or rags containing engine fluids. Engine
fluids contain elements that may be unhealthy for
skin and could cause cancer.

NOTE: Engine fluids, oil, fuel, and coolant, are a threat


to the environment. Recycle or dispose of engine
fluids according to local regulations. Never dispose
of engine fluids in the trash, on the ground, in sewers,
or in bodies of water.

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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 155

Possible Causes
Low oil level Oil leak
Oil consumption
Incorrect servicing
High oil level Incorrect servicing
Fuel in oil
Coolant in oil
Incorrect oil level gauge
Coolant in oil Cylinder head gasket leak
Cylinder head cup plug leak
Injector sleeve leak
Glow plug sleeve leak
Front cover gasket leak
Failed oil cooler or seals
Front cover, cylinder head, or crankcase porosity
Fuel in oil Injector seal leak
Cylinder head porosity
Inoperative injector

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156 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

9. Intake and Exhaust Restriction

Figure 156

Purpose
To determine if intake or exhaust restriction is causing
hard start or no start conditions

NOTE: High intake or exhaust restriction can cause a


large amount of black or blue smoke.
Tools
• Flashlight
Figure 157 Low restriction (typical)
• Gauge Bar Tool (Magnehelic Gauge)
• Test line

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety
Information” section of this manual.

1. Inspect the following parts for restriction, damage


or incorrect installation:
• Air filter inlet and duct - look inside the duct
for any restrictions. Remove any restrictions
found.
• Air inlet hoses and clamps
• Air filter housing, filter element, and gaskets
• Exhaust pipes
• Chassis mounted CAC and piping
• Air filter restriction indicator (if equipped)

Figure 158 High restriction (typical)

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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 157

NOTE: Intake restriction should be below 6.2 kPa Possible Causes


(25 in H2O) at full load condition. Intake restriction
Snow in air cleaner inlet
performed for this test at high idle should be below
3.1 kPa (12.5 in H2O). Ice in air cleaner inlet
Foreign material in air cleaner inlet
When the filter element reaches maximum allowable
restriction, the indicator will reach the top of the Collapsed, plugged, or dirty air filter
window and automatically lock in this position. On engines recently repaired, rags or cap plugs
may have been left in the intake system.
Tailpipe or muffler may be damaged or collapsed.
Plugged or restricted Catalytic converter - if
equipped
Plugged or restricted Catalyzed Diesel Particulate
Filter (CDPF) - if equipped

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158 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

10. Fuel Supply System NOTE: Breaking any fuel system joints will induce air
in the fuel system.
Tools
• 0-160 psi gauge (on Gauge Bar Tool)
• ICP System Test Adapter
• In-line shut off valve
• 3/8 inch clear sample line
• Clear container with a wide opening
(approximately 1 liter or 1 quart US)

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety
Information” section of this manual.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, comply with the following:
• Do not mix gasoline, gasohol or alcohol with
diesel fuel. This practice creates a fire hazard
and is potentially explosive.
• Do not allow engine fluids to stay on your skin.
Clean skin and nails with soap and water, or a
good hand cleaner. Wash or properly dispose
of clothing or rags containing engine fluids.
Engine fluids contain elements that may be
unhealthy for skin and could cause cancer.
Figure 159

Purpose NOTE: Engine fluids, oil, fuel, and coolant, are a threat
to the environment. Recycle or dispose of engine
• To check the fuel supply system for efficient fluids according to local regulations. Never put engine
engine operation fluids in the trash, on the ground, in sewers, or other
• To check for fuel aeration bodies of water.

• To check for fuel system contamination

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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 159

10.1. Pressure, Quality, and Aerated Fuel 5. Remove air inlet duct on the engine to aid in plug
removal and system testing.
1. See “Appendix A: VT 275 Performance
Specifications (page 571)” for fuel pump pressure
specification and record on Diagnostic Form.
CAUTION: To prevent damage to the engine, take
2. Verify there is fuel in the fuel tank(s). Check fuel precautions to prevent foreign materials from entering
in fuel tank(s) for odors other than diesel fuel, for the air intake system when the air inlet duct is
example: kerosene, alcohol, or gasoline. removed.

NOTE: Low Biodiesel blends (up to 5%) should


not cause engine or fuel system problems. If NOTE: When removing the test plug, there is a
low biodiesel blends are used the odor in the fuel possibility of a small amount of fuel leaking out. Put
tank(s) may not match diesel fuel. in a drain pan or rag to collect this leakage. Collect
3. Turn ignition switch to ON, listen for a hum coming and dispose of this fuel according to local regulations.
from the fuel pump. The ECM turns fuel pump on,
it should run for 60 seconds. After 60 seconds the
ECM turns the fuel pump off unless the engine is
running.

NOTE: Engine may run without the fuel pump, but


damage to the injectors could occur.
• If the fuel pump can be heard running,
continue with step 4.
a. If the fuel pump cannot be heard running,
turn ignition switch to OFF.
b. Disconnect the fuel pump harness
connector and measure voltage between
the power and ground circuits.
c. Turn ignition switch to ON, battery voltage Figure 160 Secondary fuel filter
should be present for 60 seconds.
1. Fuel return to fuel pump
d. If battery voltage is not present, see 2. Fuel supply from fuel pump
“Fuel Pump Pin-Point Diagnostics (page 3. Fuel pressure test port plug
424)” in the “Electronic Control Systems 4. Conditioned fuel to left cylinder head
Diagnostics(page 279)” section of this 5. Conditioned fuel to right cylinder head
manual, and see the applicable truck
Circuit Diagram Manual for relay and
fuse locations. 6. Remove plug from the fuel pressure test port plug
at the bottom of the secondary fuel filter housing.
4. Turn ignition switch to OFF.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury, use


care to prevent contact with the door edge when
the cab is up and the door is open.

EGES-305-2
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160 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

Figure 161 Fuel Pressure Gauge


Figure 163 Fuel pressure setup
1. Test fitting connection (remove to adapt to the ICP
System Test Adapter) 1. Gauge Bar Tool (0-160 psi gauge)
2. Pressure test line 2. In-line shut off valve
3. Pressure gauge 3. Pressure test line
4. In-line shut off valve 4. ICP System Test Adapter (attached to test fitting
5. 3/8 inch clear sample line connection)
5. 3/8 inch clear sample line

Figure 162 ICP System Test Adapter

Figure 164 ICP System Test Adapter installed


with Fuel Pressure Gauge
1. Test line
2. ICP System Test Adapter

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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 161

7. Install the ICP System Test Adapter and assemble Sample should be clear, free of debris, water
and attach Fuel Pressure Gauge. and other contaminates. Sample should not be
cloudy or dyed (blue or red).
• The Fuel Pressure Gauge (Figure 248) is
available through the tool supplier. It is If air bubbles stop with sample flowing, the fuel
recommend this tool be used for pressure is not aerated and if there is no contamination,
and sampling. continue with step 15.
• If the Fuel Pressure Gauge can not be If the air bubbles do not clear before the
obtained. Test setup can be made using tools sample container is almost full, a second
from the dealer supplied Essential Tool Kits sample needs to be taken to determine if air
(Figure 250). bubbles have cleared, continue with step 13.
8. Run the clear test line to clear container If fuel is contaminated with water, debris or
other contaminates, take a second sample.
9. Turn ignition switch to ON (do not crank the Some sediment and water may be present in
engine). the fuel sample if the fuel filter has not been
replaced for a prolonged period of time or if
the sediment and water have not been drained
recently, continue with step 13.
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death: If the fuel sample is cloudy in colder
temperatures, this indicates waxing or gelling.
• Dispose of fuel according to local regulations
Summer fuels are not suitable in colder
in the correct container clearly marked
temperatures. Change to the recommended
DIESEL FUEL.
fuel grade. See “Fuel Requirements” in the
• DO NOT smoke. Engine Operation and Maintenance Manual
(for engine’s model number and model year).
• Keep away from open flames and sparks.
If the fuel sample is dyed, either blue or red,
this indicates off-road use fuel and could
10. Open the in-line shut off valve, drain sample in the cause a performance problem. Change
clear container. As filling, observe the clear test to a recommended fuel grade. See “Fuel
line for indication of air bubbles. Requirements” in the Engine Operation and
Maintenance Manual (for engine’s model
NOTE: Breaking any fuel system joints will induce air number and model year).
in the fuel system, it should clear shortly.
11. Close in-line shut off valve. 13. If a second sample is needed, cycle the ignition
switch to restart the fuel pump, drain sample and
12. Check for contamination and record results on check for air bubbles and contamination in the
Diagnostics Form. fuel.

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162 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

14. Record the results on the Diagnostic Form. NOTE: Any residue or microbial growth in the
tank(s) will compound with the use of biodiesel.
If air bubbles did not clear, check the fuel This can cause serious plugging of filters and
supply system from the fuel tank(s) to the deposits in the fuel system. Fuel tanks should be
HFCM inlet for leaks. Correct the condition thoroughly cleaned and dried before operating
and retest. The check should include wiggling with any biodiesel blends. Adding biocides will
all fuel line connections, checking the primary help minimize growth.
fuel filter cover and the HFCM drain plug for
15. Cycle ignition switch to OFF and back to ON.
leaks with the fuel pump turned off. With the
fuel pump off, the primary fuel filter cover and 16. Check fuel pressure on the fuel pressure gauge
the drain plug may show a slow drip of fuel when the pump starts. Pressure should increase
indicating cover or plug is loose or seals are to specification quickly.
worn, cracked, or broken.
17. Turn ignition switch to OFF.
Excessive water or contaminants may indicate
18. Record the results on the Diagnostic Form.
that the tank and fuel system may need to be
flushed and cleaned. Take a sample from the • If fuel pressure is within specification, do “Test
HFCM drain plug for verification. See “Drain 11. Main Power Relay Voltage to ECM (page
Water from HFCM (page 116)” in the “Engine 169)” in this section.
Symptoms Diagnostics (page 99)” section of
• If fuel pressure is below specification, replace
this manual.
both the primary and secondary fuel filters
If fuel doesn’t clear up, the system may have and retest.
to be flushed to correct the condition. Replace
the primary and secondary fuel filters and verify • If fuel pressure is still below specification,
fuel is the recommended grade and clean. after replacing both primary and secondary
fuel filters, measure fuel pump discharge
pressure. Do “Test 10.2. Fuel Pump
Discharge Pressure (page 165)” in this
section.

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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 163

Possible Causes
Contaminated Fuel Water or contaminants in fuel tank
Ice in fuel lines
Debris in fuel tank(s)
Fuel colored, cloudy, or colored
Fuel is waxy or gelled
Off road fuel red colored or blue colored
Aeration Low or no fuel level in fuel tank(s).
Failed seals for fuel lines between fuel tank(s) and
the HFCM, fuel supply line broken or crimped.
A cracked or restricted pickup tube screen or pickup
tube.
HFCM fuel filter cap seal damaged, HFCM drain plug
loose, or HFCM drain plug O-ring broken or missing
A loose fuel line or fuel line connector on the suction
side of the fuel pump
No Fuel Low or no fuel level in fuel tank(s).
Failed fuel tank transfer pump
A restricted, kinked, bent, loose, cracked, or broken
fuel pickup tube or screen.
Failed seals for fuel lines between fuel tanks, ice
in fuel lines, fuel supply line broken or crimped, or
restriction in the fuel line from the fuel tank to the
HFCM.
Low fuel pressure Debris in tank
Restriction from the fuel tank to the HFCM
A kinked or bent fuel supply line or a blocked pickup
tube screen
A loose fuel line or fuel line connector on the suction
side of the fuel system
Dirty or plugged fuel filters
Failed fuel pump
Debris in the fuel regulator valve
Failed or stuck fuel pressure regulator valve.

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164 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

Possible Causes (cont.)


Fuel Restriction Debris in fuel
A kinked or bent fuel supply line or a blocked pickup
tube strainer
Dirty or plugged filter element
Waxed or gelled fuel in the fuel filter
Ice in fuel lines
High fuel pressure Debris in the fuel regulator valve
Failed fuel pressure regulator valve.
Restriction in the fuel return to the HFCM
Combustion gases leaking into fuel system

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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 165

10.2. Fuel Pump Discharge Pressure NOTE: Use existing copper gaskets for testing.
Replace the copper gaskets on the banjo bolt when
NOTE: This procedure should only be performed testing is over and repairs have been made.
when directed by “Test 10.1. Pressure, Quality, and
Aerated Fuel (page 159)” when fuel pressure is still
below specification or slow to build, after replacing
both primary and secondary fuel filters.

Purpose
To measure fuel pump discharge pressure

NOTE: Breaking any fuel system joints will induce air


in the fuel system.
Tools
• 0-160 psi gauge (on Gauge Bar Tool)
• Fuel Pressure Test Adapter Figure 166 Fuel Pressure Test Adapter

NOTE: When removing the banjo bolt, fuel will leak


out. Put in a suitable container to collect this leakage.
Collect and dispose of this fuel according to local
regulations.

Figure 167 Fuel Pressure Test Adapter installed


in fuel supply from fuel pump
1. Fuel Pressure Test Adapter
Figure 165 Secondary fuel filter 2. Test line
3. Banjo bolt
1. Fuel return to fuel pump
4. Copper gaskets
2. Fuel supply from fuel pump
3. Fuel pressure test port plug
4. Conditioned fuel to left cylinder head 2. Connect the Fuel Pressure Test Adapter to the
5. Conditioned fuel to right cylinder head fuel supply, using the banjo bolt and copper
gaskets.

1. Remove the banjo bolt from fuel supply from fuel 3. Connect the Fuel Pressure Gauge to the Fuel
pump (item 2) at the bottom of the secondary fuel Pressure Test Adapter.
filter housing. 4. Turn ignition switch to ON (do not crank the
engine).

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5. Check fuel pressure on the test gauge 6. Record the results on the Diagnostic Form.
immediately when the pump starts. The fuel
• If the discharge pressure is within
pressure should increase to specification quickly.
specification, turn ignition switch to OFF,
continue with step 7.
• If the discharge pressure is not within
specifications, turn ignition switch to OFF.
Reconnect the fuel line and banjo bolt to
the secondary fuel filter housing, do “Test
10.3. Fuel Inlet Restriction (page 167)” in this
section.
7. Remove the Fuel Pressure Test Adapter.
8. Remove, clean, and inspect the fuel pressure
regulator, see the Engine Service Manual.
9. After reinstallation of the secondary fuel filter
housing and all fuel line. Attach the filter pressure
gauge to the secondary fuel filter test port, and
retest fuel pressure.
Figure 168 Replace two copper gaskets

CAUTION: To prevent possible fire and damage to


the engine from leaking fuel, replace the two copper
gaskets when reattaching fuel supply from the HFCM
to the secondary fuel filter housing.

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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 167

10.3. Fuel Inlet Restriction

NOTE: This procedure should only be performed


when directed by “Test 10.2. Fuel Pump Discharge
Pressure (page 165)” when discharge pressure is
within specification or slow to build.

Purpose
To measure fuel pump inlet restriction

NOTE: Breaking any fuel system joints will induce air


in the fuel system.
Tools
• 0-30 in Hg gauge (on gauge bar tool)
• Fuel Inlet Restriction Adapter
• In-line shut off valve
1. Put a clean flat drain pan under the HFCM drain
plug
2. Wipe down the frame around and under the drain
plug. Wipe down the HFCM area around the drain
Figure 169 Fuel Inlet Restriction Adapter
plug also.
3. Open the drain plug and drain the HFCM to flat
drain pan.

NOTE: When removing the drain plug fuel will leak


out. Collect and dispose of this fuel according to local
regulations.

Figure 170 Fuel inlet restriction test setup


(typical)
1. Gauge Bar Tool
2. Fuel Inlet Restriction Adapter
3. Catch pan

4. Remove the HFCM drain plug, install the fuel inlet


restriction adapter, hand tighten only.

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NOTE: Inspect the drain plug O-ring for damage from 7. Record results on Diagnostic Form.
removal. Care must be taken when installing drain
• If vacuum indication is above the
plug to prevent damaging the O-ring.
specification, check for restrictions in
5. Connect to 0-30 in Hg gauge on the gauge bar the fuel supply lines from the fuel pickup tube
tool through an in-line shut off valve. Make sure in the fuel tank to the HFCM. Visually inspect
the shut off valve is in the closed position. for bent, crimped, or damaged fuel supply
lines and connections from the fuel tank(s)
NOTE: The fuel pump runs for 60 seconds when to the HFCM. Correct any restrictions and
ignition switch is turned on. The in-line shut off valve retest fuel pressure at the secondary fuel
must be closed before the fuel pump shuts off. This filter housing test port.
will prevent the gauge from filling with fuel.
• If vacuum indication is below the specification
6. Turn ignition switch to ON. Open the in-line shut and fuel pump discharge pressure is low,
off valve and check for restriction indication on the replace the fuel pump and retest fuel pressure
test gauge. Close the in-line shut off valve. Turn at the secondary fuel filter housing test port.
ignition switch to OFF.

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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 169

11. Main Power Relay Voltage to ECM

Figure 171

Purpose
To determine correct power supplied to operate the
ECM. The ECM requires 7 volts minimum for correct
operation.

Voltage Measurement with Relay Breakout


Harness at ECM Main Power Relay
Tools
• Relay Breakout Harness
• DMM Figure 172 Relay breakout harness connected
to main power relay (CF)

Figure 173 Relay Breakout Harness connected


to main power relay (Stripped chassis)

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WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety
Information” section of this manual.

NOTE: Batteries must be fully charged before doing


the following steps.
1. Turn ignition switch to OFF.
2. Install Relay Breakout Harness between ECM
main power relay and power distribution center.
3. Connect DMM POS to lead 87 and NEG to ground
post on cowl.
4. Crank engine for 20 seconds, measure voltage.
5. Record the lowest voltage on Diagnostic Form.
• If the voltage is below 7 volts, the ECM power
relay may be due to resetting low voltage
and current from the batteries or problems
in the ignition circuit or power feed circuits.
See “ECM PWR (Electronic Control Module
Power) (page 355)” in the “Electronic Control
Systems Diagnostics (page 279)” section of
this manual.
• If the voltage is above 7 volts, continue with
Hard Start and No Start Diagnostic tests.

Possible Causes
Low battery voltage Corroded or loose connections
Failed batteries
High-resistance at battery cable connections
Wiring to the ECM
Low or no battery voltage to the ECM The ECM main power circuit fuse in the power test
center may be open.
Corroded or loose connections
High-resistance or an open power feed circuit to the
ECM or ECM power relay.
ECM main power relay may have failed.
Ignition switch circuit problem or fuse
Failed ECM

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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 171

Voltage Measurement at ECM with Breakout Box 2. Remove two white connectors (X3 and X4) from
ECM.
Tools
• Breakout Box
• DMM

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety
Information” section of this manual.

1. Turn ignition switch to OFF.

Figure 175 Breakout Box installed

3. Connect breakout box connectors (X3 and X4) to


connections on ECM.
4. Connect chassis harness connectors to breakout
box header (X3 and X4).

Figure 174 White X3 and X4 connectors

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5. Connect leads of the DMM to the following test


points on the breakout box:
• POS X3-3 to NEG X3-7 (VIGN Pwr)
• POS X4-2 to NEG X3-7 (ECM PWR)
• POS X4-1 to NEG X3-7 (ECM PWR)
6. Crank engine for 20 seconds and measure
voltage.
7. Record the lowest voltage on Diagnostic Form.
• If the voltage is below 7 volts, the ECM main
power relay may be resetting, resulting from
low voltage and current from the batteries
or problems in the ignition circuit or power
feed circuits. See “ECM PWR (Electronic
Control Module Power)” (page 355)” in the
“Electronic Control Systems Diagnostics
(page 279)” section in this manual.
• If the voltage is above 7 volts, continue with
Hard Start and No Start Diagnostic tests.
Figure 176 Breakout Box

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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 173

12. Main Power Relay Voltage to IDM

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety
Information” section of this manual.

NOTE: Batteries must be fully charged before doing


the following procedure.
1. Turn ignition switch to OFF.
2. Disconnect 12-pin connector.

Figure 177

Purpose
To determine correct power supplied to operate the
IDM
The IDM requires 7 volts minimum to operate.

Voltage Measurement at 12-Pin Connection with


Breakout Harness
Tools
• 12-Pin Breakout harness
• DMM
Figure 178 12-Pin Breakout harness (CF)

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3. Connect 12-Pin Breakout harness between both


connectors.
4. Connect leads of the DMM to each of the following
test points:
• POS 12 to NEG 1 (IDM PWR to IDM GND)
• POS 9 to NEG 1 (VIGN to IDM GND)
• POS 9 to NEG 8 (VIGN to MPR)
• POS 6 to NEG 1 IDM Logic PWR to IDM GND)
5. Crank engine for 20 seconds and measurer
voltage.
6. Record the lowest voltage on Diagnostic Form.
• If the voltage is below 7 volts, the IDM main
power relay may be resetting, resulting from
low voltage and current from the batteries
or problems in the ignition circuit or power
feed circuits. See “IDM PWR (Injection Driver
Module) Power (page 466) in the “Electronic
Control Systems Diagnostics (page 279)”
section in this manual.
• If the voltage is above 7 volts, continue with
Hard Start and No Start tests.

Figure 179 12-Pin Breakout harness (stripped


chassis)

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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 175

Voltage Measurement with Relay Breakout


Harness at IDM Main Power Relay
Tools
• Main Power Relay Breakout Harness
• DMM

Figure 181 IDM power relay breakout harness


(stripped chassis)

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety
Information” section of this manual.

NOTE: Batteries must be fully charged before doing


the following steps.
Figure 180 IDM power relay breakout harness
1. Turn ignition switch to OFF.
(CF)
2. Install Relay Breakout Harness between IDM
power relay and power distribution center.
3. Connect DMM POS to lead 87 and NEG to ground
post on alternator.
4. Crank engine for 20 seconds and measure
voltage.
5. Record the lowest voltage on Diagnostic Form.
• If the voltage is below 7 volts, the IDM main
power relay may be resetting, resulting from
low voltage and current from the batteries
or problems in the ignition circuit or power
feed circuits. See “IDM PWR (Injection Driver
Module) Power (page 466)” in the “Electronic
Control Systems Diagnostics (page 279)”
section of this manual.
• If the voltage is above 7 volts, continue with
Hard Start and No Start tests.

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176 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

Possible Causes
Low battery voltage Failed batteries
High-resistance at battery cable connections
Wiring to the IDM
Low or no battery voltage to the IDM The IDM power circuit fuse in the power test center
may be open.
Corroded or loose connections
High-resistance or an open power feed circuit to the
IDM or IDM power relay.
IDM power relay may have failed.
Ignition switch circuit problem or fuse
Failed IDM

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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 177

13. Low ICP System Pressure • EZ-Tech® interface cable


• DMM
• Actuator Breakout Harness
• Pressure Sensor Breakout Harness
• Crankcase Pressure Test Adapter
• ICP System Test Adapter
• ICP Adapter/Plug Kit
- ICP Sensor Adapter
- ICP Leak Test Plug
• Oil fill extension
• Compressed air source 689 kPa (100 psi)

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety
Information” section of this manual.

NOTE: Do the following procedures in sequence or


test results will be incorrect.
Before starting “Test 13.1. System Function (page
178)” make sure the engine lubrication system will
build oil pressure, while the engine is cranking.
Continue Test 13.1., if terminals on the IPR valve and
Figure 182 engine harness are not damaged or corroded.

Purpose
To determine the cause of low injection control
pressure that prevents engine starting
Tools
• EST with MasterDiagnostics® software

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178 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

13.1. System Function NOTE: Do not connect the engine wiring harness
to the Actuator Breakout Harness.

CAUTION: If the engine harness is connected to the


Actuator Breakout Harness, the ignition switch fuse
will blow or cause damage to wiring harness.

Figure 183 IPR valve coil in weather protected


position

1. Rotate IPR valve coil counterclockwise 90


degrees. Do not loosen valve. (Tools are not
required.)

NOTE: After repairs are made, return IPR valve


coil to weather protected position as shown
above.
2. Disconnect engine wiring harness from IPR valve
and inspect engine wiring harness connector and Figure 184 Actuator Breakout Harness, power,
IPR valve terminal for corrosion. Inspect for bent and ground from alternator
pins, or pushed back pins.
1. Ground
• If there is corrosion on either the IPR valve 2. Power feed
or the wiring harness connector for the IPR
valve, be sure to replace both the IPR valve
and wiring harness connector for the IPR 4. Apply B+ volts and ground to the IPR valve.
valve. Retest ICP pressure.
• If the wiring harness connector and IPR valve
are not corroded or damaged, continue with CAUTION: Do not leave IPR valve energized
step 3. longer than 120 seconds. This can damage the
IPR valve.
3. Connect Actuator Breakout Harness to the IPR
valve.

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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 179

6. Record results on Diagnostic Form.


• If ICP increases above
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
3.45 MPa (500 psi) (0.82 volts), the
death, understand and comply with the following:
mechanical system is operating correctly for
the engine to start. Do not continue with ICP
While cranking the engine, the engine could start.
system diagnostics.
Before cranking the engine do the following: • Check DTCs recorded during test 4. (Make
sure problems were corrected.)
• Set parking brake.
• For problems in the electrical circuit, see “IPR
• Shift transmission to park or neutral.
(Injection Pressure Regulator) (page 484)” in
• Block wheels. the “Electronic Control Systems Diagnostics
(page 279)” section of this manual.
5. Crank the engine and monitor ICP pressure using • If 3.45 MPa (500 psi) (0.82 volts ) can not
the EST or DMM and Pressure Sensor Breakout be reached, continue with “Test 13.2. IPR
Harness. Function (page 180).”

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180 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

13.2. IPR Function

NOTE: Before doing this test, inspect O-ring on the


ICP System Test Adapter. Replace O-ring, if worn,
cracked or cut.

Figure 186 ICP System Test Adapter

6. Install the ICP System Test Adapter.


7. Assemble a test hose, shutoff valve, and air
chuck; connect air chuck to the ICP System Test
Adapter.
8. Connect the shop air supply line to test hose.
Make sure the shutoff valve is closed.
9. Apply 689 kPa (100 psi) of pressure, open shutoff
valve, and use Crankcase Pressure Test Adapter
to listen for an air leak.

NOTE: When air pressure is applied for the first time,


Figure 185 Shop air supply and oil fill stand it may take up to 5 minutes before an air leak can be
tube (right side of engine) heard. This allows air pressure to displace the engine
oil in the ICP system. Once engine oil is displaced, an
1. Crankcase Pressure Test Adapter air leak can be heard almost immediately.
2. Oil fill extension (Part No. 1830971C91)
3. Air chuck • A faint air leak should be heard. Air should be
4. In-line shutoff valve passing through the IPR valve and returning to the
5. ICP System Test Adapter crankcase when the IPR valve is not energized.
10. Record the results on Diagnostic Form.
1. Remove the oil fill cap from valve cover. 11. Connect the Actuator Breakout Harness to the
IPR valve and apply B+ and ground. (Shop air
2. Insert oil fill extension into valve cover.
supply should still be applied to the ICP system.)
3. Insert Crankcase Pressure Test Adapter into oil fill Use Crankcase Pressure Test Adapter to listen for
extension. an air leak.

NOTE: The Crankcase Pressure Test Adapter will


magnify the sound of an air leak. CAUTION: Do not leave IPR valve energized
longer than 120 seconds. This can damage the
4. Disconnect engine harness from ICP sensor.
IPR valve.
5. Remove ICP sensor from the right oil rail.

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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 181

12. Record results on Diagnostic Form. • If a leak is still heard after replacing the IPR
valve, continue with “13.3. Under Valve Cover
• When the IPR valve is energized, the air leak
Leaks (page 182).”
should stop.
• If an air leak is not heard when the IPR
• If a faint air leak is still heard, replace the IPR
valve is energized, continue with “13.5.
valve. Follow the procedures in the Engine
High-pressure Pump (page 189).” This test
Service Manual. Repeat step 11 to verify if
result indicates no leaks in the high-pressure
the IPR valve is functioning correctly.
oil system.

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182 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

13.3. Under Valve Cover Leaks 7. Use the Actuator Breakout Harness to apply B+
and ground to the IPR valve.
NOTE: Before doing this test, inspect the D-rings
for the ICP Sensor Adapter and ICP Leak Test Plug.
Replace D-rings if worn, cracked or cut. CAUTION: Do not leave IPR valve energized
1. Close shutoff valve in test hose before longer than 120 seconds. This can damage the
disconnecting shop air. IPR valve.

2. Remove test hose.


8. Record results on Diagnostic Form.
3. Remove the left and right valve covers. Follow the
procedures in the Engine Service Manual. • Repair any defects found in the area under
the valve covers. If more detailed instructions
NOTE: This will help you hear where the leak is are needed to isolate a leak in the oil rail
coming from. area, see “13.4. Cylinder Head Isolation
(page 187).” Retest after repairs to verify
mechanical operation of the ICP system.
• If leaks are not detected in areas under the
valve covers, but air leaks are coming from
the crankcase, continue with step 9.
9. Remove test hose and ICP System Test Adapter
from right oil rail.
10. Install the ICP sensor into right oil rail.

Figure 187 ICP System Test Adapter with test


hose (right cylinder head)
1. ICP System Test Adapter
2. In-line shutoff valve

4. Reconnect test hose and ICP System Test


Adapter.
5. Connect the shop air supply line to test hose.
Make sure the shutoff valve is closed.
6. Apply 689 kPa (100 psi) of pressure, open shutoff
valve, and listen for an air leak.
• A faint air leak should be heard. Air should be
Figure 188 ICP Adapter/Plug Kit
passing through the IPR valve and returning
to the crankcase when the IPR valve is not 1. ICP Sensor Adapter (Threaded hex head)
energized. 2. ICP Leak Test Plug (Solid hex head)

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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 183

NOTE: Understand and comply with the following:


• This will block air flow to the right oil rail and
injectors.
• When case-to-head tube plug is removed,
the case-to-head tube may be still attached.
Remove tube from plug. A new case-to-head
tube assembly must be installed, to leak test
plug or sensor adapter.
If case-to-head tube plug has a square drive,
the replacement case-to-head tube is no
longer supported. A case-to-head tube with
a hex drive in the plug must be used as a
replacement.
Both the left and right side case-to-head tubes
and plugs must be replaced.
• If the wrong diagnostic tool is used, a
misdiagnosis will result. If the case-to-head
tube plug has a hex drive in the head, use
ICP Adapter/Plug Kit (ZTSE4690) only.

Figure 189 Case-to-head tube plug and ICP


Leak Test Plug
1. Case-to-head tube plug
2. ICP Leak Test Plug

11. Remove the case-to-head tube plug in the rear


of right side oil rail and install the ICP Sensor
Adapter in this port.

Figure 190 ICP Sensor Adapter with test hose


1. ICP System Test Adapter
2. ICP Sensor Adapter
3. In-line shutoff valve
4. Air chuck
5. ICP sensor

12. Connect test hose and ICP System Test Adapter


to ICP Sensor Adapter.
13. Remove the case-to-head tube plug from the rear
of the left side oil rail. Install the ICP Leak Test
Plug in this port.

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184 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

NOTE: Understand and comply with the following:


• This will block air flow to the left oil rail and CAUTION: Do not leave IPR valve energized
injectors. longer than 120 seconds. This can damage the
IPR valve.
• When case-to-head tube plug is removed,
the case-to-head tube may be still attached.
Remove tube from plug. A new case-to-head 17. Listen for an air leak.
tube assembly must be installed, to leak test • If an air leak is heard coming from the
plug or sensor adapter. crankcase, continue with step 18.
If case-to-head tube plug has a square drive, • If an air leak is not heard, one or more injector
the replacement case-to-head tube is no O-rings or oil rail O-rings are the cause of
longer supported. A case-to-head tube with leak. If unable to tell which side is leaking, do
a hex drive in the plug must be used as a “13.4. Cylinder Head Isolation (page 187).”
replacement.
18. Disconnect the shop air supply from test hose.
Both the left and right side case-to-head tubes
and plugs must be replaced.
• If the wrong diagnostic tool is used, a
misdiagnosis will result. If the case-to-head
tube plug has a hex drive in the head, use
ICP Adapter/Plug Kit (ZTSE4690) only.
14. Connect shop air to test hose in right side. Make
sure the shutoff valve is closed.
15. Apply 689 kPa (100 psi) of pressure, open shutoff
valve, and listen for an air leak.
• A faint air leak should be heard. Air should be
passing through the IPR valve and returning Figure 191 Case-to-head tube plug and
to the crankcase when the IPR valve is not case-to-head tube
energized. 1. Case-to-head tube plug
2. Case-to-head tube
16. Use the Actuator Breakout Harness to apply B+
and ground to the IPR valve.
19. Remove and replace questionable case-to-head
tube or tubes. Follow procedures in the Engine
Service Manual.

EGES-305-2
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© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 185

Figure 193 High-pressure pump cover

20. Remove the high-pressure pump cover. Follow


procedures in the Engine Service manual .
21. Connect the shop air supply line to the ICP
system test adapter. Make sure the shutoff valve
is closed.
• Apply 689 kPa (100 psi) of pressure, open
shutoff valve, and listen for an air leak.
• A faint air leak should be heard. Air should be
passing through the IPR valve and returning
to the crankcase when the IPR valve is not
energized.
Figure 192 Case-to-head tube and Case-To-Head
22. Use the Actuator Breakout Harness to apply B+
Tube Removal Tool
and ground to the IPR valve.
1. Case-to-head tube
2. Case-To-Head Tube Removal Tube
CAUTION: Do not leave IPR valve energized
longer than 120 seconds. This can damage the
NOTE: If case-to-head tube is not attached to the IPR valve.
leak test plug or sensor adapter, use Case-To-Head
Tube Removal Tool (ZTSE4694) to remove tube from
crankcase.

NOTE: If the leak test plug has a square drive in


the head, both side case-to-head tubes, plugs, and
adapters must be replaced.

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186 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

23. Check for air leaks in the Branch Tube Assembly


connection to the discharge port of high-pressure
pump and the Branch Tube Adapter.

Figure 194 Possible leak areas in Branch


Tube Connection to the discharge port of
high-pressure pump
1. Quick disconnect
2. Branch Tube Adapter
Figure 196 Possible leak areas under
high-pressure pump
1. High-pressure pump inlet O-ring seal
2. Branch tube
3. Branch tube adaptor O-ring seal

24. Listen for air leaks in both O-ring areas under the
high-pressure pump,
• If an air leak is not detected in the area under
the high-pressure cover, but an air leak is
heard, replace the Branch Tube Assembly.
• If an air leak is located or detected, repair or
replace as required.

Figure 195 Possible leak areas in Branch Tube


Assembly
1. Left branch tube block
2. Right branch tube block
3. Quick disconnect
4. Branch Tube Adapter
5. Center branch tube block

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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 187

13.4. Cylinder Head Isolation 1. Remove the case-to-head tube plug from the rear
of the oil rail. Install the ICP Leak Test Plug in this
NOTE: Before doing this test, inspect the D-rings for port.
the ICP Leak Test Plug. Replace D-rings if worn,
cracked or cut. NOTE: Understand and comply with the following:
Depending on which rail is being tested, the complete • This will block air flow to the oil rail and
test setup must be on the same side. injectors.
• When case-to-head tube plug is removed,
the case-to-head tube may be still attached.
Remove tube from plug. A new case-to-head
tube assembly must be installed, to leak test
plug or sensor adapter.
If case-to-head tube plug has a square drive,
the replacement case-to-head tube is no
longer supported. A case-to-head tube with
a hex drive in the plug must be used as a
replacement.
Both the left and right side case-to-head tubes
and plugs must be replaced.
• If the wrong diagnostic tool is used, a
misdiagnosis will result. If the case-to-head
tube plug has a hex drive in the head, use
Figure 197 ICP Leak Test Plug and ICP System
ICP Adapter/Plug Kit (ZTSE4690) only.
Test Adapter (right cylinder head)
2. Install ICP System Test Adapter into ICP sensor
1. ICP Leak Test Plug
port.
2. In-line shutoff valve
3. ICP System Test Adapter • ICP sensor removed from right cylinder head
• Plug removed from left cylinder head
3. Connect the shop air supply line to the ICP
System Test Adapter. Make sure the shutoff
valve is closed.
4. Apply 689 kPa (100 psi) of pressure, open shutoff
valve, and listen for an air leak.

NOTE: When air pressure is applied for the first


time, it may take up to 5 minutes before the leak
can be heard. This allows the air pressure to
displace the engine oil in the ICP system. Once
the engine oil is displaced, an air leak should
be heard almost immediately after applying air
pressure.

Figure 198 ICP Leak Test Plug and ICP System


Test Adapter (left cylinder head)
1. ICP Leak Test Plug
2. ICP System Test Adapter
3. In-line shutoff valve

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188 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

5. Record results on Diagnostic Form • If an air leak is detected, repair as needed and
verify the integrity of the repairs.
• If an air leak is not detected, the air leak may
be coming from the crankcase or opposite
cylinder head. Verify previous test results and
repeat procedure for opposite cylinder head.

EGES-305-2
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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 189

13.5 High-pressure Pump

NOTE: Do this test only if Test 13.2 did not have leaks
and Test 6 had low ICP.

NOTE: Before doing this test, inspect the D-rings


for the ICP Sensor Adapter and ICP Leak Test Plug.
Replace D-rings if worn, cracked or cut.
1. Close shutoff valve in test hose before
disconnecting shop air.
2. Remove test hose.
3. Remove the left and right valve covers, following
procedures in the Engine Service Manual.

Figure 200 Case-to-head tube plug and ICP


Leak Test Plug
1. Case-to-head tube plug
2. ICP Leak Test Plug

4. Remove the case-to-head tube plug in the rear


of right side oil rail and install the ICP Sensor
Adapter in this port.

Figure 199 ICP Adapter/Plug Kit


1. ICP Sensor Adapter (Threaded hex head)
2. ICP Leak Test Plug (Solid hex head)

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190 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

NOTE: Understand and comply with the following: 6. Connect the engine wiring harness to the ICP
sensor. Use the Pressure Sensor Breakout
• This will block oil flow to the right oil rail and
Harness as an extension, if needed.
injectors.
• When case-to-head tube plug is removed,
the case-to-head tube may be still attached.
Remove tube from plug. A new case-to-head
tube assembly must be installed, to leak test
plug or sensor adapter.
If case-to-head tube plug has a square drive,
the replacement case-to-head tube is no
longer supported. A case-to-head tube with
a hex drive in the plug must be used as a
replacement.
Both the left and right side case-to-head tubes
and plugs must replaced.
• If the wrong diagnostic tool is used, a
misdiagnosis will result. If the case-to-head
tube plug has a hex drive in the head, use Figure 202 ICP Leak Test Plug (left cylinder
ICP Adapter/Plug Kit (ZTSE4690) only. head)

7. Remove the case-to-head tube plug from the rear


of the left side oil rail. Install the ICP Leak Test
Plug in this port.

NOTE: Understand and comply with the following:


• This will block oil flow to the left oil rail and
injectors.
• When case-to-head tube plug is removed,
the case-to-head tube may be still attached.
Remove tube from plug. A new case-to-head
tube assembly must be installed, to leak test
plug or sensor adapter.
If case-to-head tube plug has a square drive,
the replacement case-to-head tube is no
longer supported. A case-to-head tube with
Figure 201 ICP sensor with ICP Sensor Adapter a hex drive in the plug must be used as a
(right cylinder head) replacement.
1. Pressure Sensor Breakout Harness Both the left and right side case-to-head tubes
2. ICP sensor and plugs must be replaced.
3. Engine harness
4. ICP Sensor Adapter • If the wrong diagnostic tool is used, a
misdiagnosis will result. If the case-to-head
tube plug has a hex drive in the head, use
5. Install ICP sensor into ICP Sensor Adapter. ICP Adapter/Plug Kit (ZTSE4690) only.

EGES-305-2
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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 191

NOTE: This blocks oil flow to both rails and


all injectors; only the branch tube assembly, CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, we
case-to-head tube, and the high-pressure pump recommend replacing case-to-head tubes each time
will be tested. they are removed. The D-rings are not replaceable.
8. Use the Actuator Breakout Harness to apply B+ Inspect each D-ring carefully for cuts, abrasion, and
and ground to the IPR valve. twisting; do not reuse a case-to-head tube having any
of these conditions

CAUTION: Do not leave IPR valve energized 11. Crank the engine and monitor the ICP pressure
longer than 120 seconds. This can damage the (right side isolation).
IPR valve.
• If unable to build ICP pressure above
3.45 MPa (500 psi) (0.82 volts), the problem
9. Crank the engine and monitor ICP pressure. is on left side. Do “Test 13.4. Cylinder Head
Isolation (page 187)” and check for leaks.
10. Record results on Diagnostic Form.
• If able to build ICP pressure above
• If unable to build the ICP pressure above
3.45 MPa (500 psi) (0.82 volts), remove
3.45 MPa (500 psi) (0.82 volts), check branch
ICP Test Adapter from right side oil rail and
tube, case-to-head tubes use of proper
re-install case-to-head-tube plug. Re-install
diagnostic tools or faulty high pressure pump.
ICP sensor. Reconnect ICP sensor to engine
Follow the procedure in the Engine Service
wiring harness. Continue with step 12.
Manual. Retest to verify repairs.
12. Crank the engine and monitor ICP pressure.
• If able to build ICP pressure above
3.45 MPa (500 psi) (0.82 volts), check • If unable to build the ICP pressure above
previous test results. Remove the ICP Leak 3.45 MPa (500 psi) (0.82 volts), the problem
Test Plug from the left side oil rail and re-install is on the right side. Do “ 13.4. Cylinder Head
case-to-head-tube plug. Continue with step Isolation (page 187)” and check for leaks.
11.
• If able to build pressure the engine should
start and run. Install valve covers, following
procedures in the Engine Service Manual.

EGES-305-2
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192 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

14. Glow Plug System Purpose


To determine if the glow plug system is operating
correctly to start the engine

Tools
EST with MasterDiagnostics® software
EZ-Tech® interface cable
DMM
Amp clamp
Glow Plug Test Lead

Possible causes
Poor wiring harness connection
Poor ground connection
Failed glow plug relay
Failed glow plugs
Failed ECM

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety
Information” section of this manual.

Figure 203

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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 193

14.1. Glow Plug System Amperage

Figure 204 Amp Clamp around feed wire loom


for left side glow plugs

1. Install Amp Clamp around the feed wire loom for


glow plugs in the left side.
2. Turn ignition switch to ON. (Do not start the Figure 206 Glow Plug/Inlet Air Heater Output
engine.) State Test

4. Select Diagnostics from the menu bar.


5. Select Key-On Engine-Off Tests from the drop
down menu.

NOTE: When using the EST to do the KOEO or KOER


diagnostic tests, Standard Test is always selected
and run first. If the ignition switch is not cycled, the
Standard Test does not have to be run again.
6. From Key-On Engine-Off Diagnostics menu,
select Glow Plug/Inlet Air Heater Output State
Test and click run to start the test.

Figure 205 Output State Test Session NOTE: The Glow Plug/Inlet Air Heater Output
State Test will command the glow plugs on for
120 seconds. Both sides can be tested during
3. Select D_OutputStateTest.ssn in the Open this time. The Glow Plug/Inlet Air Heater Output
Session File window, select Open to detect State Test is limited to two requests per key cycle.
possible DTCs. 7. After 40 seconds, measure amperage.
8. Record the amperage reading for the left side on
Diagnostic form.

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194 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

• If amperage is not to specification and DTCs


were not set, do “Test 14.2. Glow Plug
Harness to Ground (page 195).”

NOTE: DTC 251 can only be set during the KOEO


Standard Test.
• If amperage is 0 and DTC 251 was set, see “GPC
(Glow Plug Control) Circuit (page 415)” in the
“Electronic Control Systems Diagnostics (page
279)” section of this manual. DTC 251 can be
set if there is an open or short in the GPC circuit,
relay ground circuit or a failed glow plug relay.
• If DTC 375 was set, DTC 251 was not set, and
amperage is 0 for right and left glow plugs, see
relay operation.
Figure 207 Amp Clamp around feed wire loom
for right side glow plugs

9. Install Amp Clamp around the feed wire loom for


glow plugs in the right side.
10. Record the amperage reading for the right side on
Diagnostic Form.
Figure 208 Close session
• If amperage is to specification and DTCs
were not set, the glow plug system is working
correctly and is not the starting problem. 11. When finished with this test, select Session from
menu bar, then Close.
• If amperage is to specification and DTC
375 was set, check for corroded wires and
loose connections on relay terminals. If
wires are not corroded and connections
are tight, see “GPC (Glow Plug Control)
Circuit (page 415)” in the “Electronic Control
Systems Diagnostics (page 279)” section of
this manual. DTC 375 can be set if there is
an open in the GPD circuit.

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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 195

14.2. Glow Plug Harness to Ground 14.3. Glow Plug to Ground


1. Select the feed wiring loom for the glow plug side 1. Disconnect glow plug harness from suspect glow
that failed. plug.
2. Disconnect glow plug 3-pin connector. 2. Connect glow plug test lead.
3. Use DMM to measure glow plug resistance to
ground.
4. Record result for each suspect glow plug on
Diagnostic Form.
• If resistance is greater than 5 ohms, replace
glow plug.
• If resistance is less than 5 ohms, replace glow
plug harness.

Figure 209 DMM negative lead (ground)

3. Use DMM to measure resistance between glow


plug 3-pin harness and alternator ground.

NOTE: This checks glow plug harness and glow


plugs.
4. Record result on Diagnostics form.
• If any reading is not within 0.1 - 6 ohms, do
test “14.3 Glow Plug to ground (page 195).”
• If all readings are within 0.1 - 6 ohms, do test
“14.4 Engine Harness 3-pin to Relay (page
196).”

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196 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

14.4. Engine Harness 3-pin to Relay 1. Use DMM to measure resistance of wire between
the glow plug relay and all three circuits in the
3-pin connector.

NOTE: Engines could be wired differently, having


wiring harness connectors secured to different
relay terminals. Trace wiring harness from 3-pin
connector to the glow plug relay (the shortest) to
be sure that the correct relay terminal is being
tested.
2. Record results on Diagnostic Form.
• If resistance is greater than 5 ohms, check for
loose connections and terminals. Repair or
replace wiring between glow plug relay and
3-pin connector.
• If resistance is less than 5 ohms and DTC
251 was not set, check for corroded wires and
Figure 210 Resistance between glow plug relay loose connections on relay terminals. If wires
and glow plug are not corroded and connections are tight
and do “Test 14.5. Relay Operation (page
197).”

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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 197

14.5. Relay Operation 2. Connect DMM negative lead to alternator ground.


3. Use DMM to measure voltage.
4. Record result on Diagnostic Form.
• If voltage at relay supply terminal is B+,
continue with step 5
• If voltage at relay supply terminal is less than
B+, repair or replace wire from battery to glow
plug relay.
5. Connect DMM positive lead to glow plug relay
output terminal.

NOTE: Engines could be wired differently, having


wiring harness connectors secured to different
relay terminals. Trace wiring harness from 3-pin
connector to the glow plug relay (the shortest) to
Figure 211 Typical glow plug relay be sure that the correct relay terminal is being
tested.

1. Connect DMM positive lead to battery supply 6. Turn ignition switch to ON. (Do not start engine.)
terminal (battery to glow plug relay).

NOTE: Engines could be wired differently, having


wiring harness connectors secured to different
relay terminals. Trace wiring harness from battery
to the glow plug relay (the shortest) to be sure
that the correct relay terminal is being tested.

Figure 213 Output State Test Session

7. Select D_OutputStateTest.ssn in the Open


Session File window, select Open to detect
possible DTCs.

Figure 212 DMM negative lead (ground)

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198 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

NOTE: The Glow Plug/Inlet Air Heater Output


State Test will command the glow plugs on for
120 seconds. The Glow Plug/Inlet Air Heater
Output State Test is limited to two requests per
key cycle.
11. Use DMM to measure voltage.
12. Record result on Diagnostic Form.
• If voltage was not detected and DTC 251 was
not set, check for corroded wires and loose
connections on relay terminals. If terminals
are clean and connections were tight, replace
the relay.
• If voltage was not detected and DTC 251
was set, see “GPC (Glow Plug Control)
Circuit (page 415)” in the “Electronic Control
Systems Diagnostics (page 279)” section of
this manual. DTC 251 can be set if there is an
open or short in the GPC circuit, open relay
ground circuit or a failed glow plug relay coil.

Figure 214 Glow Plug/Inlet Air Heater Output


State Test

8. Select Diagnostics from the menu bar.


9. Select Key-On Engine-Off Tests from the drop Figure 215 Close session
down menu.

NOTE: When using the EST to do the KOEO or KOER 13. When finished with this test, select Session from
diagnostic tests, Standard Test is always selected menu bar, then Close.
and run first. If the ignition switch is not cycled, the
Standard Test does not have to be run again.
10. From the KOEO Diagnostics menu, select Glow
Plug/Inlet Air Heater, then select Run to start the
test.

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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 199

15. Inlet Air Heater System 15.1. Amperage Draw

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety
Information” section of this manual.

NOTE: Inspect for damaged, loose or corroded


terminals. Repair if necessary.

Figure 216

Purpose
To determine if the Inlet Air Heater system is operating
correctly

Tools
EST with MasterDiagnostics® software
Figure 217 Amp Clamp
EZ-Tech® interface cable
DMM
1. Install Amp Clamp around feed wire next to
Amp Clamp element.
2. Turn ignition switch to ON. (Do not start engine.)
Possible causes
Poor wiring harness connection
Poor ground connection
Failed relay
Failed element
Failed ECM

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200 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

5. Select Key-On Engine-Off Tests from the drop


down menu.

NOTE: When using the EST to do the KOEO or KOER


diagnostic tests, Standard Test is always selected
and run first. If the ignition switch is not cycled, the
Standard Test does not have to be run again.
6. From the KOEO Diagnostics menu, select Glow
Plug/Inlet Air Heater, then select Run to start the
test.

NOTE: Voltage should be present for 30 seconds


after a 3 second delay. The Glow Plug/Inlet Air
Heater Output State Test is limited to two requests
Figure 218 Output State Test Session per key cycle.
7. After 5 seconds, measure amperage.
3. Select D_OutputStateTest.ssn in the Open
Session File window, select Open to detect 8. Record result on Diagnostic Form.
possible DTCs. • If amperage is to specification and DTCs were
not set, the IAH system is working correctly
and is not the starting problem.
• If amperage is to specification and DTC 373
was set, check for corroded wires and loose
connections on relay terminals. If wires are
not corroded and connections are tight, see
“IAH (Inlet Air Heater) Circuit (page 431)”in
the “Electronic Control Systems Diagnostics
(page 279)” section of the manual, for DTC
373. DTC 373 can be set if there is an open
in the IAHD circuit.
• If amperage is not to specification and DTCs
were not set, do “15.2. Voltage at Element
(page 202).”

NOTE: DTC 238 can only be set during the KOEO


Standard Test.
• If amperage is 0 and DTC 238 was set, see
“IAH (Inlet Air Heater) Circuit (page 431)” in
the “Electronic Control Systems Diagnostics
(page 279)” section of this manual. DTC 238
can be set if there is an open or short in the
IAH control circuit, open relay ground circuit
Figure 219 Glow Plug/Inlet Air Heater Output or a failed relay.
State Test
• If DTC 373 was set, DTC 238 was not set,
and amperage is 0, do “Test 15.5. Relay
4. Select Diagnostics from the menu bar. Operation (page 206).”

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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 201

9. When finished with this test, select Session from


menu bar, then Close.

Figure 220 Close session

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202 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

15.2. Voltage at Element 2. Connect DMM negative lead to the alternator


ground.
3. Turn ignition switch to ON. (Do not start engine.)
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety
Information” section of this manual.

Figure 221 DMM positive lead at element


terminal Figure 223 Glow Plug/Inlet Air Heater Output
State Test

1. Connect DMM positive lead to IAH element


terminal. 4. Select Diagnostics from the menu bar.
5. Select Key-On Engine-Off Tests from the drop
down menu.

NOTE: When using the EST to do the KOEO or KOER


diagnostic tests, Standard Test is always selected
and run first. If the ignition switch is not cycled, the
Standard Test does not have to be run again.
6. From the KOEO Diagnostics menu, select Glow
Plug/Inlet Air Heater, then select Run to start the
test.

NOTE: Voltage should be present for 30 seconds


after a 3 second delay. The Glow Plug/Inlet Air
Heater Output State Test is limited to two requests
per key cycle.
Figure 222 DMM negative lead (ground) 7. After 5 seconds, use DMM to measure voltage.

EGES-305-2
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5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 203

8. Record result on Diagnostic Form. • If voltage is not B+, do “Test 15.4. Wiring
Harness Continuity and Resistance (page
• If voltage is B+, do “Test 15.3. Resistance of
205).”
Element (page 204).”

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204 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

15.3. Resistance of Element

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety
Information” section of this manual.

1. Turn ignition switch to OFF

Figure 225 DMM negative lead (ground)

3. Connect DMM negative lead to alternator ground.


4. Use the DMM to measure resistance (Continuity).
5. Record result on Diagnostic Form.
• If element resistance is greater than 5 ohms,
replace the element, following the procedure
in the Engine Service Manual and retest.
• If element resistance is less than 5 ohms,
Figure 224 DMM positive lead at element verify “Test 15.2. Voltage at Element (page
terminal 202)” and do “Test 15.4. Wiring Harness
Continuity and Resistance (page 205)” to
check for corrosion and loose connections.
2. Connect DMM positive lead to IAH element
terminal.

EGES-305-2
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Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 205

15.4. Wiring Harness Continuity and Resistance

WARNING: To avoid personal injury, death,


including damage to the engine or vehicle, read
all safety instructions in the “Safety Information”
section of this manual.

1. Turn ignition switch to OFF.

Figure 227 Relay terminal

3. Connect DMM negative lead to IAH relay terminal.

NOTE: Engines could be wired differently, having


wiring harness connectors secured to different
relay terminals. Trace wiring harness from
element to the IAH relay (the tallest relay), to be
sure that the correct relay terminal is being tested.
4. Use DMM to measure resistance.
5. Record result on Diagnostic Form.
• If the wiring resistance is greater than 5 ohms,
Figure 226 DMM positive lead at element
check for loose connections and terminals.
terminal
Repair or replace wire between element and
relay.
2. Connect DMM positive lead to IAH element • If wiring resistance is less than 5 ohms and
terminal. DTC 238 was not set, check for corroded
wires and loose connections on relay
terminals. If wires are not corroded and
connections are tight and do “Test 15.5.
Relay Operation (page 206).”

EGES-305-2
Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
206 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

15.5. Relay Operation 4. Record result on Diagnostic Form.


• If voltage at relay supply terminal is B+,
continue with step 5.
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or • If voltage at relay supply terminal is less than
death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety B+, repair or replace wire from battery to IAH
Information” section of this manual. relay.
5. Connect the DMM positive lead to the IAH relay
1. Connect DMM positive lead to battery supply output terminal.
terminal (battery to IAH relay).
NOTE: Engines could be wired differently, having
NOTE: Engines could be wired differently, having wiring harness connectors secured to different
wiring harness connectors secured to different relay terminals. Trace wiring harness from
relay terminals. Trace wiring harness from battery element to the IAH relay (the tallest relay), to be
to IAH relay (the tallest relay), to be sure that the sure that the correct relay terminal is being tested.
correct relay terminal is being tested.
6. Turn ignition switch to ON. (Do not start engine.)

Figure 229 Output State Test Session


Figure 228 DMM negative lead (ground)

7. Select D_OutputStateTest.ssn in Open Session


2. Connect DMM negative lead to alternator ground. File window, select Open to detect possible DTCs.
3. Use DMM to measure voltage.

EGES-305-2
Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS 207

10. From the KOEO Diagnostics menu, select Glow


Plug/Inlet Air Heater, then select Run to start the
test.

NOTE: Voltage should be present for 30 seconds


after a 3 second delay. The Glow Plug/Inlet Air
Heater Output State Test is limited to two requests
per key cycle.
11. After 5 seconds, use DMM to measure voltage.
12. Record result on Diagnostic Form.
• If voltage was not detected and DTC 238 was
not set, check for corroded wires and loose
connections on relay terminals. If terminals
are clean and connections were tight, replace
the relay.
• If voltage was not detected and DTC 238
was set, see “ IAH (Inlet Air Heater) Control
Circuit (page 431)” in the “Electronic Control
Systems Diagnostics (page 279)” section of
this manual. DTC 238 can be set if there is an
open or short in the IAH control circuit, open
relay ground circuit, or a failed IAH relay coil.
Figure 230 Glow Plug/Inlet Air Heater Output
State Test

8. Select Diagnostics from the menu bar.


9. Select Key-On Engine-Off Tests from the drop
down menu.

NOTE: When using the EST to do the KOEO or KOER Figure 231 Close session
diagnostic tests, Standard Test is always selected
and run first. If the ignition switch is not cycled, the
Standard Test does not have to be run again. 13. When finished with this test, select Session from
menu bar, then Close.

EGES-305-2
Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation
208 5 HARD START AND NO START DIAGNOSTICS

EGES-305-2
Read all safety instructions in the "Safety Information" section of this manual before doing any procedures.
Follow all warnings, cautions, and notes.
© 2006 International Truck and Engine Corporation