Electrical Circuit Analysis Lecture No.2

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Electrical Circuit Analysis Lecture No.2

© All Rights Reserved

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Electrical Power Technical Engineering Dept.

In this chapter, we want to see how nodal analysis, mesh analysis,

Thevenin’s theorem, Norton’s theorem, superposition, and source

transformations are applied in analyzing ac circuits. Since these techniques

were already introduced for dc circuits, our major effort here will be to

illustrate with examples. Analyzing ac circuits usually requires three steps.

1. Transform the circuit to the phasor or frequency domain.

2. Solve the problem using circuit techniques (nodal analysis, mesh analysis,

superposition. 3. Transform the resulting phasor to the time domain.

Nodal Analysis

The basis of nodal analysis is Kirchhoff’s current law. Since KCL is

valid for phasors, we can analyze ac circuits by nodal analysis. The

following examples illustrate this.

Example 10.1 : Find ix in the circuit of Fig. 10.1 using nodal analysis.

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Using nodal analysis, find v1 and v2 in the circuit of Fig. 10.3.

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Middle Technical University Electrical Circuit Analysis

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Example 10.2

Compute V1 and V2 in the circuit of Fig. 10.4.

Solution:

Nodes 1 and 2 form a supernode as shown in Fig. 10.5. Applying KCL

at the supernode gives

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Calculate V1 and V2 in the circuit shown in Fig. 10.6.

Mesh Analysis

Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL) forms the basis of mesh analysis. The

validity of KVL for ac circuits was shown in Section 9.6 and is illustrated in

the following examples. Keep in mind that the very nature of using mesh

analysis is that it is to be applied to planar circuits.

Example 10.3

Determine current in the circuit of Fig. 10.7 using mesh analysis.

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Find in Fig. 10.8 using mesh analysis.

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Middle Technical University Electrical Circuit Analysis

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Example 10.4

Solve for Vo in the circuit of Fig. 10.9 using mesh analysis.

Solution:

As shown in Fig. 10.10, meshes 3 and 4 form a supermesh due to the current

source between the meshes. For mesh 1, KVL gives

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Middle Technical University Electrical Circuit Analysis

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Middle Technical University Electrical Circuit Analysis

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Calculate current in the circuit of Fig. 10.11.

Superposition Theorem

Since ac circuits are linear, the superposition theorem applies to ac circuits

the same way it applies to dc circuits. The theorem becomes important if the

circuit has sources operating at different frequencies. In this case, since the

impedances depend on frequency, we must have

a different frequency domain circuit for each frequency. The total response

must be obtained by adding the individual responses in the time domain. It is

incorrect to try to add the responses in the phasor or frequency domain.

Why? Because the exponential factor is

implicit in sinusoidal analysis, and that factor would change for every

angular frequency It would therefore not make sense to add responses at

different frequencies in the phasor domain. Thus, when a circuit has sources

operating at different frequencies, one must add the responses due to the

individual frequencies in the time domain.

Example 10.5

Use the superposition theorem to find in the circuit in Fig. 10.7.

Solution:

Let

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theorem.

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Find vo of the circuit of Fig. 10.13 using the superposition theorem.

Calculate Vo in the circuit of Fig. 10.15 using the superposition theorem.

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Source Transformation

source transformation in the frequency domain involves transforming a

voltage source in series with an impedance to a current source in parallel

with an impedance, or vice versa. As we go from one source type to another,

we must keep the following relationship in mind:

Example 10.7

Calculate in the circuit of Fig. 10.17 using the method of source

transformation.

Solution:

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We transform the voltage source to a current source and obtain the circuit in

Fig. 10.18(a), where

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Middle Technical University Electrical Circuit Analysis

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Find in the circuit of Fig. 10.19 using the concept of source

transformation.

Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems are applied to ac circuits in the same way

as they are to dc circuits. The only additional effort arises from the need to

manipulate complex numbers. The frequency domain version of a Thevenin

equivalent circuit is depicted in Fig. 10.20, where a linear circuit is replaced

by a voltage source in series with an impedance. The Norton equivalent circuit

is illustrated in Fig. 10.21, where a linear circuit is replaced by a current source

in parallel with an impedance.

Keep in mind that the two equivalent circuits are related as:

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is the short-circuit current. If the circuit has sources operating at different

frequencies (see

Example 10.6, for example), the Thevenin or Norton equivalent circuit must

be determined at each frequency. This leads to entirely different equivalent

circuits, one for each frequency, not one equivalent circuit with equivalent

sources and equivalent impedances.

Example 10.8

Obtain the Thevenin equivalent at terminals a-b of the circuit in Fig. 10.22.

Solution:

T. Salam Ibrahim & A.T. Mohammed D. Altamemi

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We find ZTh by setting the voltage source to zero. As shown in Fig.

10.23(a), the 8-Ω resistance is now in parallel with the -j6 reactance, so

that their combination gives

Similarly, the 4-Ω resistance is in parallel with the j12 reactance, and

their combination gives

To find VTh, consider the circuit in Fig. 10.23(b). Currents I1 and I2 are

obtained as

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Or

Find the Thevenin equivalent at terminals a-b of the circuit in Fig. 10.24.

Example 10.9

Find the Thevenin equivalent of the circuit in Fig. 10.25 as seen from

terminals a-b.

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Figure 10.26

Solution of the problem in Fig. 10.25: (a) finding VTh, (b) finding ZTh.

To obtain ZTh, we remove the independent source. Due to the presence of

the dependent current source, we connect a 3-A current source (3 is an

arbitrary value chosen for convenience here, a number divisible by the sum

of currents leaving the node) to terminals a-b as shown in Fig. 10.26(b). At

the node, KCL gives

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Determine the Thevenin equivalent of the circuit in Fig. 10.27 as seen from

the terminals a-b.

Example 10.10

Obtain current Io in Fig. 10.28 using Norton’s theorem.

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Solution:

Our first objective is to find the Norton equivalent at terminals a-b. ZN is

found in the same way as ZTh. We set the sources to zero as shown in Fig.

10.29(a). As evident from the figure, the (8 - j2) and (10 + j4) impedances

are short-circuited, so that

mesh analysis. Notice that meshes 2 and 3 form a supermesh because of the

current source linking them. For mesh 1,

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from terminals a-b. Use the equivalent to find Io.

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Electrical Power Technical Engineering Dept.

Summary

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