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Errol Chester S. Cabading

Rick Anthony A. Battung
Laureana Josefina C. Caliguiran
Pearl Justine C. Pasion

Activity #1
Internal Structure of Young Stems

Objective: To examine the internal structures of a young dicot stem and monocot stem.
Mayana stem (Coleus blumei)
Sharp blade

1. Make a thin cross-sectional cut of a young stem of mayana. Make several cuts until good cross sections are
2. Mount the specimen on a clean glass slide. Add water using the medicine dropper. Put the cover slip over the
3. Examine the specimen under the LPO of the microscope.
4. Sketch or capture a photo of the cross section of the specimens.
5. Identify and label the following parts:
a. epidermis- the outermost layer of cells
b. cortex- the tissue beneath the epidermis
c. stele- the central part of the stem consisting of:
1) pericycle- outermost part of the stele
2) vascular bundle- made up of the phloem and the xylem
3) cambium- meristematic tissue that separates the phloem and the xylem
4) pith- the central tissue of the stele
5) rays- tissues extending between bundles to the pith and within bundles

pidermis Cortex



Dicot Stem Monocot Stem

Guide Questions
1. Give the functions of the main tissues.
Epidermis- it protects against water loss, regulates gas exchange, secretes metabolic compounds and absorbs
water and mineral nutrients.
Cortex- It is responsible for the transportation of materials into central cylinder of the root through diffusion and
may also be used for food storage in the form of starch.
Stele- it is the central part of the root or stem containing the tissues derived from the procambium.
2. Compare the internal structures of the specimens observed.
Answer: The interior construction of monocot system has a phloem and xylem, vascular tissues and ground
tissues while the interior structure of bundles a dicot stem has an epidermis (exterior layer), xylem, phloem,
cortex, pith, vascular bundle and the collenchyma (layers below epidermis).
3. Why are the fibrovascular bundles of monocots called “closed bundles”?
Answer: Bundles in monocotyledons are measured enclosed because an bundle cover encircle each bundle,
cambuimis is not present, there are no vessel with puncture and xylem is surrounded all around by phloem.
Vascular bundles of monocots do not restrain a layer of merismatic tissue closely vascular bundles, hence, the
vascular system is also called closed bundles.
4. Why are the vascular bundles of dicots called “open bundles”?
Answer: Vascular bundles of herbaceous plants are called indirect and open because xylem and phloem repel
and split by fascicular cambium of usually several layers of thickness. Circular scheme of vascular bundles can be
watch very well in cross-sections of the stem. The vascular bundle of dicot stem is said to be open bundle since it
dominate a combial stripand cambium’s present between xylem and phloem.

Monocot and Dicot have their own features and character most especially in the interior
structures. Some of them has the same parts and in common but there are also part which they
don’t have the same in structure. With regards with this topics, if we compare both of them, we
can understand it deeper. This activity helps us in comprehending the different physiological
purpose of organ system. This activity (monocot and dicot) stem has a numerous role and
different work in making the stem of a plant.

Activity #2
Modified Stems
Objective: To explore the different modified stems

 tendrils of squash
 thorns of bougainvillea
 green stem of pobreng kahoy
 rhizome of ginger
 tuber of irish potato
 corm of gabi
 spine of cactus
 uncutinized stem of hydrilla or elodea
Examine or research the specimens cited for the modified stem.

Guide Questions:

1. Describe the modified stems.

2. Complete the table below.

Nature of Specimens Specialized Part Functions

1. Squash Tendrils Use to hold themselves to
anything that meets its way
by, in most cases, rolling
around it.
2. Bougainvillea Thorns Protection (defense) and
also serves as a climbing
organ of the plant.

3. Pobreng Kahoy Green stem Photosynthesis

4. Ginger Rhizome store food materials

5. Potato Tuber storage organ

6. Gabi Corm for overwintering and

drought resistance

7. Cactus Spine They protect cactus from

predators their sharp
spines to turn away most
animals with, but not all.

8. Hydrilla Uncutinized stem Absorbtion


We learned that there are various ways to examine the different modified stem. In this
activity, we discover and investigate the instance that is said for the modified stems through
its nature, specialized function and other parts. We were also able to examine the qualify
stems and finish the table that was in the activity.


How are gingers planted?

 Start in early spring

 Choose your ginger plant
 Cut the rhizome into pieces (optional)
 Choose a location
 Plant the ginger

Activity #3
The External Structure of Roots
Objective: To identify the external structure of roots

Materials/ Equipment:
 root of calamansi/other dicot plant
 root of grass

1. Study the root systems of citrus plant and grass.
2. Identify the following parts:
a. primary root- the first root to develop from the seedling. It originates from the radicle. The primary
root can enlarge to form a tap root.
b. secondary roots – roots branching from the primary root
c. tertiary roots- roots branching from the secondary root
d. rootlets – tiny roots branching from the tertiary root
3. Sketch or capture a photo of the two kinds of root systems. Label the parts.
4. Sketch the cross section of the root and label the parts.
Guide Questions
1. What is the function of root hairs?
Answer: The function of the root hairs is to collect water and mineral nutrients present in the soil and take this
solution up through the roots to the rest of the plant.
2. What tissues are involved as water moves to the xylem from the time it is absorbed by the roots?
Answer: Xylem vessels are involved in the maneuver of water through a plant.
3. What are the three main tissues of roots?
Answer: Collenchyma, sclerenchyma and parenchyma cells are common in the ground tissue. Vascular tissue
includes xylem, phloem, cambium cells and parenchyma.

4. Compare the internal structure of the roots with that of the stem.
Answer: The following parts are the internal structure of roots; vascular tissue (xylem and phloem), epidermis,
cortex and the root cap while the stem is the transverse section of herbaceous stem made up of 4 main tissue
namely, pith, cortex, epidermis and vascular bundle.


The external structure of roots allows us to see and uphold the parts of the roots of the plant so that
we can identify them more. We we’re also be able to make a comparison between the root system and the
kinds of stems in various kind of plants so we discover their similarities and their differences. Overall, we
we’re able to perform and observed with the small amount of time that is given.

Why are there slender roots and stout roots?

 Roots have two types, the fibrous and taproot. Taproots system have a stout main root because it has a
limited number of side-branching roots while fibrous root systems have many branched roots.

Activity #4
The Growing Root Tip

Objective: To describe the growth of root tip

 5 corn seeds
 5 mongo seeds
 hand lens
 ruler
 tissue paper
 water
 2 petri dishes/ cover of bottle
 forceps
1. Soak the seeds in water for six hours.
2. Transfer the mongo seeds to a petri dish layered with moistened tissue paper. Do the same for the corn seeds.
Cover and let them stand for two days.
3. Examine the mongo and corn seeds using the hand lens.
4. Measure the length of the root tip and the root hair.
5. Sketch /capture a photo of the sprouted seeds. Label the growing region, elongation, and maturation including
the root hair zone.

Guide Questions
1. How long is the root tip?
Answer: 0.1 cm

2. How long is the root hair?

Answer: 0.02 cm
3. What is the function of the root tip?
Answer: The function of the root tip is that the cells at the tip of the root are constantly dividing for the root to
grow and the terminal portion of the root or root branch usually including the root cap and the meristematic
region behind it and often regions of differentiation, elongation and root hair formation.
4. What is the function of the root cap?
Answer: The root cap is a small structure but one that serves a very important function for a plant. Protecting
the root apical meristem allows for primary growth in the root, which paves the way for lengthening of the
plant as well as cell specialization.
5. Describe the root hair.
Answer: It is a thread-like extension of a single epidermal cell. A hairlike outgrowth of a plant root that
absorbs water and minerals from the soil A hairlike outgrowth of a plant root that absorbs water and minerals
from the soil


We as a group concludes that the growing plant roots, the cells at the tip of the roots are the ones who
are constantly dividing for the roots to grow because each of the cells are divided independently on the other
cells wherein a root tip contains the cells at different stages that results for the root tip to be an excellent
tissue to study.

Plants must have water in order to survive and grow. What vegetative organ performs the function of
absorbing water? anchorage?

The anchorage keeps the plant in the soil, another one is to prevent soil erosion and also it holds the stem in
place and one of the major roles of plant roots is to anchor the plant firmly in the soil, and prevent it being
blown over. Roots provides the stability of a plant or keeping it fixed to the soil which really needs.