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THE EFFECT OF FLY ASH LEVELS AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR A NUMBER OF

CEMENT IN HIGH QUALITY FLOW CONCRETE

Flying ash is a coal burning waste with the grain is finer than Portland cement which
has hydraulic properties. Initially, fly ash was used as a cement enhancer material with levels
of 5% - 20% with the aim of increasing the plasticity of concrete mixtures and adding concrete
tightness (Suhud, 1993). Because of the smoothness and round shape of the granules, the use
of fly ash on the concrete mixture can increase the slack on the concrete mixture. The use of
10-15% fly ash as a substitute for cement can add to the strength of concrete (Surya, 2002,
Udin, 1994).
This study aim is determining the effect of fly ash levels as a substitute for a number of
cements in high quality flow concrete against stirring performance (ASTM C 143), binding
time (ASTM C 403), volume weight (ASTM C 138) and concrete compressive strength (ASTM
C 39).
The design of the concrete mixture uses the ACI 211-4R-93 method combined with the
Hashimoto method, with the provisions of the compressive strength of> 190 mm maximum
aggregate size of 20 mm. Flying ash used as a substitute for cement is 0%, 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%,
and 15% of the weight of cement. The number of specimens in each element and each fly ash
content is 4 pieces. Compressive strength testing was carried out at 7, 14, 28, and 36 days as
shown in Table 1.
Measurements of concrete mixtures are used with a slump test. For testing the binding
time, the mortar and concrete mixture is separated by using a 4.75 mm filter. inserting the
mortar into the 150 mm side cube test then testing the binding time in accordance with ASTM
C 403.
Before the test object is tested for compressive strength, then the test object is capped
first by using sulfur and use Universal Testing Machine with loading speed of 0.14-0.34 MPa
per second according to ASTM C39.
Research in the laboratory includes testing of aggregate material, concrete mortar
clearance, concrete binding time, concrete volume weight, and the result of concrete
compressive strength.
1. Aggregate Testing
The results of specific gravity and volume in Table 2 are in dry conditions in accordance
with the provisions of the concrete mixture design method AC1- 211-4R-93
Table 2. Results of Testing for Coarse Aggregates and Fine Aggregates
Results
No Checking Type Coarse Fine
Aggregates Aggregate
Aggregate Gradation (Filter
1 Good Good
Analysis)
2 Fineness Modulus 6.6 2.65
3 Dry Specific Gravity 2.5336 2.5431
4 Dense dry volume weight 1.553 kg/m2 1335 kg/m2
5 Absorption 31% 0.40%
6 Sludge levels 2.20%
7 Organic Ingredients No. 2 (Good)

From the results of coarse aggregates and fine aggregates testing, concrete mixture
design calculations were carried out. Then the max trial is done to find out whether the slump
plan has been reached which is more than 190 mm, whether the existing mixture is cohesive
and whether the compressive strength at the age of 7 days has been reached when converted at
28 days. After a max trial of 5 times, the material requirements in 1 m3 of concrete can be seen
in Table 3.
Table 3. Material Requirements for 1 m3 of Concrete
Flying Ash Cement Water Broken Sand Abuter Viscocrete
No
Level (%) (kg) (kg) Stone (kg) (kg) (kg) 10 (kg)
1 0 566.200 205.08 770.37 727.45 0 4.53
2 5 549.214 205.08 770.37 727.45 16.986 4.53
3 10 532.228 205.08 770.37 727.45 33.972 4.53
4 15 515.242 205.08 770.37 727.45 50.958 4.53
5 20 498.256 205.08 770.37 727.45 67.944 4.53
6 25 481.266 205.08 770.37 727.45 84.93 4.53
2. Slackness

Measurements of concrete mixtures were performed using a slump test. Furthermore, the
measurement results are presented in Table 4. The slump that occurs in all levels of the airway
is a collapse slump (Neville, 1987) with a slump value of 190 mm. Each mixture looks
cohesive, there is no segregation. During mixing occurs bleeding, this is due to the relatively
large use of water which is 205.08 kg / m3 and the use of viscoctese-10. The greater percentage
of the fly ash added to the concrete mixture, the more mixture will increase.
Table 4. Slump Value of Concrete Mixes
Slump
Flying Ash Level (%)
(mm)
0 260
3 270
6 275
9 280
12 285
15 290

3. Concrete Binding Time


The measurement of time early binding and late binding is done with time tool
penetration resistance. Time binding occurs at the beginning of the penetration resistance of
3.5 Mpa and binding end time occurs on the penetration resistance of 27.6 Mpa. Next time
early binding and late binding time on each composition is presented that like a progressive
chart.
The bigger the fly ash as a replacement for a number of cement mortar on the concrete then
compounds C3S, C2S, C3A, and C4AF, will be reduced anyway. This will cause reduced heat
hydration. The reduced heat hydration will slow down the reaction time slows down so it will
be binding.

Table 5 Results of Testing Concrete Binding Time

600

Binding Time (minutes) 400

200

0
0 3 6 9 12 15
Precentage of Fly Ash (%)

Early Binding time Late Binding time

4. The Weight Of The Concrete Volume

The weight of the concrete volume is a comparison between the concrete weight (the weight
of the cylinder test objects) with concrete volume (the volume of the cylinder test objects). The
measurement of the weight of the concrete is done by considering the test objects at the time
of the test surfaces had dried up from the marinade. Further heavy concrete volume for each of
the levels of ash flying presented that the greater levels of fly ash will lowering the volume
weight.
5. Strong Stress
Fly ash concrete stress strongly on 7 day, 14-day and 28-day still lower compared with
the strong stress concrete without fly ash with the same age. This happens because the
compounds that form the early strength of cement on the C2S is aided by the heat of hydration
of C3A compounds. After age 28 days then fly ash concrete press strong shows strong increase
in press. This is due to the reaction between calcium hydroxide compound.
Reducing the calcium hydroxide compound in concrete due to reacting with SiO2 to
the airplane will increase the strength of the concrete. In this study, the compressive strength
was only monitored until the age of 56 days, where an increase in compressive strength above
56 days can still take place.
6. Conclusion
a. slump value that occurs in fly ash is greater than 190mm so that it meets the
requirements as flowing concrete
b. The replacement of fly ash against a number of cement on high quality concrete slabs
proved to be able to increase the feasibility of concrete mortar
c. The greater the percentage of flights, the faster the start or end time
d. The use of fly ash as a substitute material has not given an increase in compressive
strength under the age of 28 days. But after 28 days, replacing cement with fly ash can
increase concrete compressive strength