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FIGURE

1. LOCKAND DAMON MONONGAHEW


RIVER

Corrosion and FERD DIEFFENBACH


U. S. Engineer Office, War Department, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Erosion in T HE War Department, in particular the Corps of Engi-


neers of the United States Army, is vested with the juris-
diction, development, and maintenance of the internal
navigable waterways of the United States. The work carried
on in the Pittsburgh Engineer District consists primarily of
the construction, maintenance, and operation of various

River and navigation aids and flood control projects. Navigation aids
consist primarily of a series of locks and dams and also arti-
ficial or constructed river channels, making navigation pos-
sible on waterways that normally would not be suitable for it.
Flood control projects a t this time consist of two dams under
construction and one dam finished and in service. The flood
Harbor control dams have a dual purpose; the primary function is to
control flood waters, and the secondary function is to provide
make-up water in the dry seasons.
The Pittsburgh Engineer District includes the Allegheny
River, the Monongahela River, and the Ohio River from Pitts-

Structures burgh to Wheeling, W. Va., their tributaries, and respective


watersheds. This district comprises industrial or metro-
politan Pittsburgh, and the river banks within this area are
lined with mills, mines, factories, and other industries. These
factors have made the Monongahela River the greatest freight-
bearing river in the world but have also contributed greatly to
Very severe corrosion-erosion condi- the problem of construction and maintenance of the naviga-
tion aids, including locks, dams, and the various pieces of
tions exist in the Monongahela River as floating plant required in this work. The Monongahela River
the result of highly acid sand-bearing has one of the most acid conditions that exist in any of the
water. The cost of such corrosion-ero- navigable rivers of the United States. The most difficult
sion is so great as to warrant the develop- maintenance problem consists of the prevention of corrosion
ment of a means of preventing it. This and erosion of various structures and machines required to
operate part or all of the time in this acid-polluted water.
corrosion-erosion is best corrected in Figure 1 shows a typical lock and dam on the Monongahela
most cases by the use of corrosion-erosion River in an industrial district.
resisting materials, such as fortified
paints or enamels, corrosion-resisting Examples of Corrosion and Erosion
wrought and cast iron and steel, nickel- It is practically impossible to classify the many types of
copper alloy (Monel metal), and similar corrosion and erosion existing in this work. Corrosion and
materials. erosion are closely associated and in most instances exist and
act together in a combination that proves to be much more
destructive than either one alone.
1014
SEPTEMBER, 1938 INDUSTRIAL AND ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY 1015

Figure 2 shows the lower portion of a typical Monongahela blade proper, and the remaining piece may be seen on top
River lock gate as it appears when the lock chamber of Figure of the blade. Each lock with this type of equipment has four
1is unwatered for repairs. T h e butterfly valves at the bottom to eight such blades, and each blade costs approximately
are a t times used as a n auxiliary in controlling the flow of $2500, exclusive of installation cost. Upon the basis of a
water in and out of the lock chamber. Figure 2 shows how 2-year life the valve depreciation cost due to corrosion-erosion
the valves have been destroyed by corrosion and erosion. I n is more than $100 per month per valve, or a total of $400-
most cases erosion is caused by the scouring effect of the flow $800 per month per lock. These figures demonstrate the
of water bearing suspended sand, silt, and debris which keep necessity of research and experimentation for corrosion-
the surfaces clean and thus provide a n ideal surface for con- erosion r'esisting materials.
tinuous corrosion by the acid water. The valves were in Figure 6 shows a dipper handle used on a dipper dredge.
service about 24 months. They were constructed of wrought This is similar to the dipperhandle ohtheordinarysteamshovel,
iron and failed in a manner typical of ferrous metals and except that dredges are used for underwater excavations with
alloys, such as cast iron, cast steel, and wrought steel of the lower part of the dipper handle alternately exposed to the
nonalloy or low alloy compositions. river water and then to the atmosphere. The handle as
Gate-timber bolts of structural-grade carbon steel are used shown is subject to impact and reversible stresses resulting
to attach white oak gate timbers to structural-steel lock gates. from both torsional and quadrilateral deflection in actual
These bolts are often badly corroded after only one month of service. The ultimate failure of the handle is due to the frac-
service on a lock gate of the type shown in Figure 2. The ture of the corner angles which are made of mild carbon steel.
predominant reason for the extremely high rate of corrosion- The hypothesis is that loads imposed upon the angles in actual
erosion cannot be definitely determined. Probably stress service are such that the unit stress in the edge of the angle
corrosion is a large factor because the worst corrosion is evi- is greater than that in the corner of the angle; as a result,
dent on the threaded section under the nut. When the nut a difference of potential is set up within the angle. This differ-
is drawn up and the bolt stressed, the threaded section, with ence of potential then causes stress corrosion, which later de-
a smaller root diameter than the bolt proper, has a higher velops into hairline cracks a t the edge of the angle and ulti-
unit stress than the remainder of the bolt and possibly sets mately ends in completed fracture as shown.
u p an electrical potential difference. This potential difference
would have a tendency to cause accelerated corrosion. An- Corrosion and Erosion Conditions
other condition that would lend itself to increasing the rate of
corrosion. is the contact of the white oak timber with the bolt. The chief sources of acid water pollution causing the de-
Some wood, particularly white and red oak, have been found structive corrosion and erosion are mine water waste, waste
to cause accelerated corrosion when used with steel. Figure pickle solution, and discharge and waste from iron and steel
3 shows the destructive effect white oak timber has on mild mills, rolling mills, oil refineries, paper mills, tanneries, and
carbon steel in the presence of acid river water. This bolt was oil wells. The largest single source of pollution is probably
used t o fasten a white oak timber to a concrete sill in the abandoned and operating coal mines from which flow abun-
Monongahela River. The schematic background illustrates dant supplies of subterranean, highly acid water. It is im-
the manner in which the bolt was installed. T h a t portion of possible to give a typical Monongahela River water analysis
the bolt which was most severely attacked was surrounded by because of the tremendous variation in the quality of water
the oak timber; that portion embedded in the concrete was from time to time and a t various locations as a result of the
destroyed only a t the section in contact with the oak. The many sources of pollution. The acid content may even vary
section of the bolt most distant from the wood and embedded greatly a t different widths of the river.
in the concrete still retains its original mill scale. The hy-
pothesis in this particular case is that the steel and oak set up
a distinct electrical cell with the oak as the cathode and the
steel as an anode with acid river water as the electrolyte to
the detriment of the steel.
The equipment a t the left-hand side of Figure 4 shows the
acute corrosion of an iron hydraulic turbine runner. The
failure of this runner was due to graphitic corrosion and
erosion by the acid river water bearing suspended sand
and probably to some cavitation effect. Erosion of such
equipment as this is greatly increased by the large amount
of sand in the water which is kept well dispersed by the
churning action of the boats passing through the lock cham-
bers.
Figure 5 (top) shows a butterfly valve blade, prior to instal-
lation, of the type commonly used on the Monongahela River
locks for the control of water flow in and out of the lock cham-
ber. This type of valve blade pivots on the two trunnions of
cast steel. The valve proper was constructed of carbon steel
made approximately according to S. A. E. Specification 1020.
The trunnions were constructed of medium-grade commercial
cast steel and designed to pivot in phosphorus bronze bearings,
composed of about 80 per cent copper, 10 per cent tin, and 10
per cent lead. Figure 5 (right) shows this same design of
butterfly valve blade after 2-year servioe. The valve blade
proper was damaged beyond repair by corrosion-erosion on all
sealing surfaces. I n this type of in@llation the ratedof corro-
sion is very high because of wire drawing a t the sealiQ surface. FIGURE
2. LOWERPORTION
OF A TYPICAL
MONONGAHELA
This particuba trunnion was entirely corroded-erob36 off the RIVERLOCKGATEWHENUNWATERED FOR REPAIRS
1016 INDUSTRIAL AND ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY VOL. 30, NO. 9
Figure 7 is an acidity-alkalinity chart of the Monongahela An ultimate water analysis of the Monongahela River (at
River a t Duquesne, Pa. (near Pittsburgh) for the years 1930 McKeesport, Pa.) is as follows (in parts per million) :
to 1937, inclusive. Curve A shows the maximum, and curve
Color Tan FeaOa 1.6
B the minimum acidity or alkalinity that occurred during Appearance Clear ~ 1 ~ 0 8 7.4
5.0 Cas04 157.0
each month. The ordinates between curves A and B represent ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ h e n o l p h t h a l e i n ) 45.0 MgSOa 69.0
the range of the acidity-alkalinity condition of the water for Free acid as H z S O ~(methyl orange) 11.O SOa 166.0
Chlorides as C1 , 1o
15.0 Total solids 287.0
the specified period. The values used in these curves were F~
Si 13 0

Another miscellaneous source of water pollution is the


absorption of acid anhydrides from the air. Anhydrides such
as sulfur dioxide are given off in smoke by industries in-
volving large-scale chemical reactions with waste fumes, such
as the iron and steel industries, coke and coal industries,
lead works, galvanizing plants, paper plants, etc. So acute
is air pollution in some industrial sections that hot-dipped
galvanizing on steel lasts only for 3 to 6 months.

Prevention of Corrosion and Erosion


The prevention of the corrosion and erosion just described
is as essential as i t is difficult. I n determining the degree of
prevention of corrosion and erosion to be used, the cost must
be in proportion to savings effected.
Paints are considered an adequate means for the preven-
tion of ordinarv corrosion under normal or usual conditions.
FIGURE
3. EFFECTOF WHITE OAK TIMBERON CARBON However, ordinary paints are of very little value in preventing
STEEL I N ACID RIVER
WATER combined corrosion and erosion under the conditions de-
scribed. After considerable experimentation and research
determined by methyl orange indicator and do not include over a period of several years the Pittsburgh Engineer Dis-
the corrosive effect of hydrolyzed salts also included in the trict has found that paint made in accordance with the follow-
water. The abscissa of the curve represents a neutral solu- ing specifications is far superior to any other for the preven-
tion, as far as free acid is concerned; the positive ordinates tion of corrosion and erosion of ordinary iron and steel struc-
represent the acidity measured as free grains of sulfuric acid, tures in the Monongahela River; the specifications are for
and the negative ordinates represent alkalinity measured as a China wood and varnish oil paint fortified by polymeriza-
free grains of calcium carbonate. A paradoxical condition tion with phenol-formaldehyde resin.
exists in the Monongahela River; that is, a t certain periods PRIMECOATI.The prime coat shall have the following
the water is highly acidic, and a t other times i t is slightly composition in per cent by weight:
alkaline which is a natural condition of unpolluted water. Red lead 16.45 Pine oil 1.08
Periods of high acidity are usually preceded or succeeded by Iron oxide 38.25 n-Butyl alcohol 0.23
Raw linseed oil 4.64 Vehicle 27.85
a period of alkalinity because high acidity is usually caused Zinc yellow 5.58 -
by heavy rain which washes out more or less stagnant pools Diatomaceous silica 5.92 100.00
and localized collections of highly acid water from the tribu- Sufficient drier shall be added to make the prime coat dry hard
taries of the Monongahela River. Whether the alkalinity in 4 hours or less.
precedes or follows the acidity depends primarily upon the FINISHCOAT. The finish coat shall have the following
amount and location of the rainfall. From a chart such as
composition in per cent by weight:
Figure 7 it is possible to determine in many instances the
reason for exceptional corrosion. For example, between June Carbon black 5.0
and December, 1930, highly acid river conditions existed ;
Vehicle -95.0
100.0
during this period an iron hydraulic turbine runner, similar
to one shown in Figure 4 was destroyed beyond repair t o th2 Sufficient drier shall be added to make the finish coat dry hard
same degree as the runner shown in Figure 4. in 4 hours.

FIGURE 4. CORROSION OF IRON HY-


DRAULIC TURBINE RUNNER(Left) AS
COMPARED WITH THE SAME TYPEOF
STRUCTURE MADE OF CORROSION-
RESISTING BRONZE (Right)
SEPTEMBER, 1938 INDUSTRIAL AND ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY 1017

VEHICLE. The vehicle used in both the prime coat and not more than 5 per cent of lime or sulfur in any form nor
finish coat shall have the following composition in per cent shall it contain any organic coloring matter. It shall be red
by weight: in color.
Mineral Spirits shall be in accordance with the following
Mineral spirits 28.12 Ethylene glycol monoethyl
Varnish oil 17.15 ether 3.84 specification; :
Phenol-formaldehyde resin 16.65 Toluene 2 38
China wood oil 25.98 High-flash naphtha 1.21 Gravity, Be. 43-47
Dipen tine 4.67 ioo.oo Flash point (closed cup), F. 100 min.
Initial b. P . , ~ ' F. 300-310
E n d Doint. F. 405 max.
MATERIALSPECIFICATIONST h e materials used in the A. S.'T. M . c w r e r strip test Negative
41-43
Solvency ( kauri-butanol method) a t 77' F., cc.
manufacture of the paint shall be in accordance with the
following specifications:
Raw Linseed Oil. Federal Specification JJ J-0-336. Phenol-Forvaldehyde Resin shall be 100 per cent phenol-
Drier. Federal Specification TT-D-651. formaldehyde in acceptance with the following specifications:
Red Lead. Federal Specification TT-R-191 (95% grade).
Specific gravity 1.19-1.22 (Westphal balance).
Pine Oil. Navy Specification 52-0-12. Melting point 195-225' F. (modification of the A. S. T. M. ball
Varnish Oil. The varnish oil shall be a n alkali-treated and ring method. For comparison, WW rosin by this method melts
linseed oil, All traces of soap shall be removed by washing a t 1 7 4 O F., low-acid ester gum a t 185' F.).
t h e oil continuously with hot water. The oil shall be neutral- Color 1L-2 (Hellige comparator on solution of 50% toluene by
weight).
ized, bleached, and chilled to a low temperature to eliminate Resin-Nil (Liebermann-Storch test).
vegetable waxes. The oil shall have the following properties: Coned. &SO4 resistance-A piece of the resin immersed in concd.
H2S04(66' BB., 93.2y0) in a test tube a t 60-70' F. shall show no dis-
Color (Standard Lovibond tintometer) 30 yellow, 3-5 red coloration or other visible change in 72 hr.
Drying time, hours 60-80
Acid value (neutral) 0.1-0.3 Water immersion-A piece of the resin immersed in distd. water in
Iodine No. 175-190 a test tube at 68-70' F. shall show no discoloration or other visible
Saponification value 188-196 change in 72 hr.
Specific gravity 0.931-0.935
Refractive index a t 25" C. 1.4779 Gasoline resistance-A piece of resin immersed in aviation-grade
Color (Gardner
(Gardner, Dermanent
permanent color standards) 4 gasoline in a test tube a t 68-70' F. shall show no visible change in
Absoluto viscosiiy
viscosity (Gardner-Holt). poise A , 0.50 72 hr.
Distillation-The resin shall show not over 673 volatile matter
This oil shall be bodied by heating in a n open kettle for 2 when heated a t 560' F. (293' C . ) for 15 min. A IO-gram sample i n
250-cc. beaker is placed in an air circulating oven a t 560° F. and
hours at 560-590" F. to obtain a body Q with limits of P to held for 2 min., thus allowing 5 min. to come to temp. I t is taken
R (Gardner-Holt scale). out, cooled, and reweighed.
Iron Oxide shall contain not less than 85 per cent ferric Auxiliary tests-In case of any uncertainty with regard t o resins
oxide and shall be derived from natural ore. It shall contain passing the foregoing 8 tests, the following 2 auxiliary tests may be
run in order to define more exactly the type and
aualitv of resin reauired.
1018 INDUSTRIAL AND ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY VOL. 30, NO. 9

6 . FRACTDRE
FIGURE OF DREDGE
DIPPERHANDLE ing shall be on 3 roll mill or a pehble mill a t
temperatures that will not cause polymeriza-
tion; stone mills shall not be used for this
drier is addad to &e 1.6 grams lead and 0.2 gram cobnit as metal per purpose. Skinning shall be negligible when made and also
gal. varnish. Maple expmure panels me brushed with 3 coats of for 24 hours afterwards in a tightly closed %ounce glass
varnish, allowing a4 hr. between coats. These panele are exposed.
preferably at 4 5 O south in Miami, Pia.. and examined monthly for jar containing 6 ounces of paint and exposed to daylight.
inilum. The 25-gal. varnish sball show better integrity than the 33- Vehicle. Phenol-formaldehyde resin and the heahtreated
gal., md tho lntter botter than the 50-gal. varnish oil are placed in the varnish kettle. The mixture is
run to approxirnately 565- F. and held for 3 minutes; the
Ethglene Glgcol Monoethyl Ether shall be in aceordance with China wood oil is added and the temperature is run hack to
A. S. T. hl. Standard Specifications, Serial Designation D- approxirnately 465' F., where i t is held for 5 minutes and
331-35. then cooled to approxiniateiy 420" F. The thinners are added
Dipentine shall he in accordance with the following proper- in the order given in the specifications. The finished vehicle
ties: shall be purified by removing all visible foreign solid material
by use of a centrifuge. The vehicle shall have the following
Mar. Min
properties:
sp.+io .. g'"V';v ht,ij:?/'5.5"
I c.
Appoaranee--CIcur and transparent.
Color-Not darker than B soin. of 1.25 gram8 KCrsOv on 100 ml.
" ".~. w r e H B O r (SP.gr., 1.84).
, Lovibond 500 amber Viscosity at 2 5 O C.-Betwecn C and II (Gaidner-Holt scale).
Appeai&nCe Clear and free from suspendrd matter Toughness---Shall pajg a 140% kauri reduction test ac 2 4 O C.
( 7 5 O F.1.
Toluene shall be in accordance with A. S. T. M. Standard
Specifications, Serial Designatinn D-362-36
High-FhSh, Nuphtha shall be in aceordance with the follow- This paint has been used successfully in the prevention of
ing specificat.ions: moderate corrosion and erosion on structures such as the lock
gates. Paint made in accordance wit11 t.hese specifications
Speoific gmvity at 15.5" C.-Betwcen 0.855 and 0.875. has an original cost less than red lead-linseed oil paint, and
Colo-Not darker than B3. costs less to apply because of the free-flowing properties
Wash tout-Not darker than W14. resulting from the flowing agents incorporated in the vehicle.
Flash point (Tag closed cup tester), F.--Not brlow 95.
Distillation, C.: The vehicle used in this paint has been adopted as standard
Initiiil-Between 145 arid 155. by the Pittsburgh Engineer District for all paints except
45% ore-Not above 190. white. The vehicle alone has been adopted as the standard
End point-Not above 2?0. spar varnish for both indoor and outdoor work.
Color-To prepare the B3 standard, 85 cc. water :ire added to 15
PC. of the following 8olution: 15 gmme FeCh crystals +
10 grams In more severe conditions, where meohanical wear and
CoCls crystal6 + 50 ec. coned. c. P. ACI are diluted in 2 liters with abrasion exist atid where mechanical strength is 3 prerequisite
=at.er. Compare eaud dopt.hs of standard soin. and naphtha in D for preventing corrosion and erosion, it is necessary to use
pair of 50-ec. Nessler tuhcs for intmsity of color. materials with corrosion-erosion resisting properties and other
Wash Test-21 ee. o f naphtha a m shaken 15-20 8%. with 7 ce. of
ti0 fji. HA04. Tho acid layer i s cornparod with the wasli standard prerequisite pliysical properties.
aftor standing for 5 mil?. 1-oz. glass-rtoppered, French sqiiare For the lock gate valves shown in Figure 2, copper-niolyb-
hottlev are uscd. W14 standard: 1 vol. of X G ~ O soln. T said. at denuni cast iron with the following composition has been
?lo C., dil. with 1 vol. water. found to give materially better results than east gray iron or
Distillation-DurroLt iipparatua for distn. o f benzene, using 2-in.
hole in heating pad and A . S. T. M. low-dintn. ttmrmometer. First
cast stecl; it. has been used in this service for 2.5years with-
drop io 4 to 5 min.. rate 5 to 7 cc./min. Specificorions refer to temp. out aiiy noticeable corrosion-erosion:
cor. for emergent Stem and for herometric presmre (0.5" C. for each
ern. divergenee from 76 rm. E g ) .
Chemical anslysir,%:
Tots1 carbon 2.40-2.60
Zinc Yellow shill1 he of a commercial grade in accordance Combined rarhon 0.60-0.80
with the following specifications (per cent) : siiioon l.Pl+2.10
Manpaneas 0 90-0.96
sulfur 0.04-0.08
Mia. ?dsx
I'hhoaphorus 0 154.10
copper 0.8"-1.00
Total Zi"O e.8 zno 36.0' 38.0 Molybdenum 0.30-0.40
Tots1 ohroniium 89 CrOr 42.0 44.0
'rotst soa 2.0 3.0
AIhali metals (N&and K) s8 KrO 10.0 12.0
Conxbined wnter 5.0 7.0
'4. 8".
K-Bulgl Alcohol shall he in accordance with A. S. T: M. ,d bar. lb./se. in.
Standard Specifications, Serial Designation D-304-33.
SEPTEMBER, 1938 INDUSTRIAL AND ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY 1019

Chemical analysis,%:
For use in hydraulic turbine runners, valve frames, speed 0 . 0 7 max.
rings, and other similar applications, nickel-copper-chromium Carbon
Chromium 16.00-20.00
Nickel 7.00-14.00
cast iron of the following composition has given excellent Molvbdenuma 2.00- 4 . 0 0
Physical properties:b
results : Tensile strength lb./sq. in. 90,000-100,000
Yield point, Ib./'aq. in. 40,000-50,000
Chemical analysis, yo: Elongation in 2 in., % 50-60
Total carbon 2.30-3.00 Reduction of area, % 60-7 5
Silicon 1.00-2.00 Brinell hardness No. 170-2 00
28,000,000-30,000,000
Sulfur 0 . 1 2 max. Modulus of elasticity, lb./sq. in.
Phosphorus 0 . 3 0 max.
5 Molybdenum is included to prevent graphitic precipitation.
Manganese 1,OO-1.50
Nickel 13.0-16 . O b Material shall be cold-drawn and pickle-finished.
Copper, 5.00-7.00
Chromium 2.0-3.5
Physical proper tie^:^ Valve stems were made of this material and installed in
Ultimate tensile strength, !b./sp. in. 21rooo min. the Monongahela River for 3 years without any noticeable
Transverse strength (1.20-111. diam., 18-in. centers), lb. 1750 min.
Deflection, in. 0 . 2 0 min.
120 min.
corrosion or erosion effects.
Brinell hardness No.
The corrosion-resisting steel just described cannot be hard-
0 Test bars t o be made in accordance with dimensions given in Federal
Specification QQ-1-651. ened by heat treatment, and in cases where it is necessary
to have corrosion resistance combined with uniform and rela-
Corrosion-resisting steel is used for many applications to tively high hardness, such as is required in a gate pintle rotat-
prevent corrosion-erosion. The austenitic types have been ing in bronze, the following martensitic type of corrosion-
found very resistant to corrosion because of their stainless resisting steel is used:
properties; and to erosion because it work hardens and the Chemical analysis,%: 0 . 1 2 max.
scouring effect of the suspended sand in the water seems to Carbon
Sulfur 0.45 max.
harden the steel with use. This material is also available Chromium 12.00-15.00
rolled in thin sections clad to mild carbon steel; it has been Molybdenum 0.50 max.
used to good advantage on the valve blades of the type shown Physical properties:a
65,000 min.
Proportional elastic limit, lb./sq. in.
in Figure 5 on surfaces where severe corrosion-erosion occurs. Yield point, lb./sq. in. 120,000 min.
This material can be obtained rolled, forged, or cast. The Ultimate tensile,strength, lb./sq. in. 160,000 min.
Elongation In I n , , %
specification for this particular type of steel as used by the Brinell hardness NO. 310
5 min.
min.
Pittsburgh Engineer Department is as follows: Q This material may be obtained in rolled, forged, or cast form.

FIGURE
7. ACIDITY-ALKALINITY
CHARTOF RIVERWATER
1020 INDUSTRIAL AND ENGINEERIKG CHEMISTRY VOL. 30, NO. Y

Determination of Suitability of Material


An important phase of corrosion and erosion prevention is
the determination of the adapt,ability and suitability of cor-
rosion-erosion resisting materials for specific applications.
For the approximate determination of the suitability of
corrosion-erosion resisting material, such as paint and metals,
the I'ittsbivgh Engineer Department has developed the test-
ing machine shown in Figure 8. It consists essentially of a
t.ank equipped with a series of nozzles connected t.o a circu-
lating pump witli the suction connected to the drain of the
tank. In operation the testing machine is filled with a sul-
furic acid solution and some sharp river sand. The pieces to
be tested are fixed to a liar and submerged helow the solution.
The pump causes a rontiniious circulation of the acid solution
and sand thrnogk the machine. The solution impinges upon
the test specimcnr by way of the nozzles and t h u s duplicates
to a certain degree the action of moving acid- and sand-bearing
river water on underwater st,riict.iirei;.
The accuracy of any swh accelerated test is more or less
qiiestiooablt:. Hovrever, so far it has been found that any
material t h t s i m e illy rc&s corrosion and erosion in the
testing nraaliine will resist the actital corrosion and erosion
in the Mnnongahela River. This type of test is used for check-
ing ser~i~:eaIiilit.vof mtitcrirtls where e does not permit
actual service or other rompmhve t This type of test
is also uscil for clmking paint.; to deterniiiic whether thoy
comply witli thr maoufactririiiq ipecificntions.

For bearings operating vith steel in acid river water, wit!&


little or no lubrication other than the water, a bronze has
given excellent results: it is centrifugally cast from virgin
metals to give the following propcrtirs:
Chemical snalyais. % by weight:
Copper 79.26-.50.23
Tir, 9.50--10.60
Lesd 8.50-10.30
Phosnhurus 0.30- 0.60
Other elemente 0 . 2 5 mar.
Physical pmpertie8:
Ultimate te?~ilestpngth. Ib./sq. in. 30,000mi".
Yield p?int?n tensLon, Iiwsq. in. 22,000 min.
Elonpation ~n 2 in. % 6-8
Brinell hardness Nb. 75--80
Compression deformstion limit Ib./sq. in, 18.000 mi".
Perrnsoent set ~n 1 111. under Ido.0oo-lb. load, in. 0.20-0.30 msx

The corrosion of steam boilers using raw acid river water


without a treatment system is best retarded or prevented by
means of compounds suitable for use directly in the boiler. A
boiler compound which has been siiccessfully employed in the
prevention of acid corrosioii is as follows (in per cent by
weight) :
Sodimn oeibonsbc GI Sodium hydroxide 13 9. SPECIXENS
FIGURE FOR RWERT s s ~ s
ON SPOOLS
Sodium phosphate monohydrate IS Tanmateas - 8
100 A second type of test is made by placing actual specimens
* Tha tannates shall have suffioiant oxygen absorption espscity so that in spool form on rods as shown in Figure 9. These specimens
1 ED. of o x y m ~ nw i l l beabmibed per liter 01 k e d water per piuin oi tannates
per gallon i f feed water. are submerged on fixed frames in the river in a position that
u4l he subjected t o corrosion-erosion tests or to corrosion-
Although it would be impractical to treat the water passing erosion-galvanic couple tests. These tests shorn t o a certain
through each lock, many of the mills neut.ralize the river degree the actual properties of materials.
water taken into the mills for cooling and similar purposes. The only test that is 100 per cent accurate for corrosion-
A great percentage of this water is pat back into the river, erosion resisting materials is the actual test in the particular
which helps a great deal because many of the plants treat as service contemplated. Figure 4 shows the result of an actual
much as 50,000,000 gallons of water per day. service test of two hydraulic turbine runners under similar
Frequently it is necessary to alter 01' change the design of conditions for approximately the same length of time. The
a structure where stress corrosion is involved; for example, runner on t.he left was constructed of ordinary iron, that on
the dipper handle shown in Figure 6 was improved by % the right, of corrosion-resisting bronze.
reduction in stress differential. H E C E ~ EApril
D 28. 1938.