transformer short circuit forces

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transformer short circuit forces

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INTRODUCTION

The short circuit test is carried out to verify the integrity for stresses, primarily

mechanical, developed when short circuit current flows through the transformer.

The tests must be carried out on a new transformer ready for service.

Routine tests must be conducted on the transformer prior to the short circuit

test. There are many agreed, different ways of calculating the short circuit

withstand capability of Power Transformers. But for distribution transformers,

for the combinations of the type of windings we are using (i.e., Rectangular

copper / Round wire, Rectangular copper / Rectangular copper), there are no

agreed standard methods.

Even though the high voltage winding is symmetrically placed with respect to

the low voltage winding, for calculations certain asymmetry is assumed, which

in reality is not true. By the very nature of this assumed asymmetry, the

calculated figures are purely hypothetical and since the stresses are lower even

at this assumed asymmetry, they will be much lower under practical conditions.

All electrical systems are susceptible to short circuits and the abnormal current

levels they create. These currents can produce considerable thermal and

mechanical stresses in electrical distribution equipment.

KVA Rating 2500 ( Single Ratio )

Flux 8.04376 C Wb

2

LV Turns 14

HV Turns +5 % 646

2 X 15 Turns = 30

Normal 616

2 X 15 Turns = 30

-5% 586

No Load Losses 1900 Watts 1800 Watts 1900 Watts 1800 Watts

Max. Max.

Load Losses 18100 Watts 16250 Watts 4600 Watts 4065 Watts

Max. Max.

Total Losses 20000 Watts 18050 Watts* 6500 Watts 5865 Watts

LV ID 268 mm

3

Per Phase

LV ----------------

3.9 X 1.6

Spiral (12

Bunches

1777.14 in

Parallel)

0.1 mm

Sq.mm

Radial =

Enamel 23.3

∂ = 1.876

Covering Axial =

A/Sq.mm 8.46

CTC

2.

Continuous ------------

52.91 0.4mm

Sq.mm DPC

∂ = 1.43 Covering

A/sq.mm 3 in

Parallel

% R = 0.69 %

ASYMMETRICAL SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT

Short circuit current normally takes on an asymmetrical Characteristic during

the first few cycles of duration. The asymmetrical short circuit current for the

HV and the LV windings are calculated as given below.

4

Isc = √2 (1 +e –ΠR/X)x(Iph / Ez )

where,

R -- % Resistance

X --% Reactance

Ez -- Per unit impedance

R/X = 0.69 / 12.83 = 0.0538

Isc = 1619.7 A

For LV Winding

Isc = 67659.3 A

HOOP STRESS

The radial forces produced by the axial leakage field act outwards on the outer

winding tending to stretch the winding conductor, producing a tensile stress

(also called as hoop stress). The Hoop stress for the HV and the LV windings

are calculated.

where,

Rdc - Resistance per phase at 75°C

Hw - Winding Height

Ez.......Per unit impedance

K copper = 0.031 x{( 1 +e –ΠR/X)/1.8}2 = 0.031x(1 + e –Π 0.161414)/1.8}2

= 0.0246

For HV Winding

(Maximum Allowed = 700 Kg/cm2)

5

For LV Winding

(Maximum = Allowed 700kg/cm2)

density interacts with the current in the windings, producing a radial force (Fr).

This is a well known phenomenon responsible for the mutual axial repulsion

between the inner and outer windings. The radial flux component interacts with

the winding currents, producing an axial force which acts in such a way to

produce an axial compression or expansion of the winding coils. With the

transformer operating under normal conditions, the forces are small. However,

during external fault situations, the currents and fluxes reach high values,

producing extreme radial forces. In general, transformers are designed to

withstand the maximum current peak of three-phase short circuits calculated as

if the transformers were connected to an infinite busbar.

For HV Winding

2 π (ni)2 Dw

h * 1011

= (586)2 X (1619.7)2

6

For LV Winding

2 π (ni)2 Dw

h * 1011

= (586)2 X (1619.7)2

(HYPOTHETICAL)

The spacers are inserted to provide the necessary strength to the winding against

the radial forces. Every conductor has radial oil flow due to the use of radial

spacers for conductor support.

winding rise or directed oil flow within the winding can be applied to improve

the effectiveness of the winding conductor cooling.

where,

T - Copper Thickness...in Cm

N - No. of Turns per phase

E - Young's Modulus for copper - 1.13x106

7

Elephantide cylinder which is continuous. LV cooling ducts are provided and

are spaced 16 to circle. Hence support for LV winding is more than adequate.

The inner winding experiences radial forces acting inwards tending to collapse

or crush it, producing a compressive stress. Due to the fringing of the leakage

field at the ends of the windings, the axial component of the field reduces

resulting into smaller radial forces in these regions.

--------------------------------------------------------- X ------------------------------- + Hilo Depth)

2 X (Hw)2 X (9806.6...Constant) 3

where,

Hw - Winding Height

All dimensions in Meters

The internal compressive forces on the winding was found to be

--------------------------------------------------------- X --------------------- + 0.034) = 8.4 MT

2 X (0.8)2 X 9806.6 3

the winding

Force in HV winding, Fc = 2.8 MT around (1/3) of the compressive forces on

the winding

ASYMMETRY

--------------------------------------------------

Lrg

where,

Isc = 1619.7

N = 586

X/Hg........ Assumed asymmetry is........0.015 (1.5%)

8

Lrg = Hw/π + (Radial Depth HV + Radial Depth LV + H-L Gap)/2 + Core to

LV clearance

Fa = 3.3 MT

compressed under top and bottom clamping members with the help of tie rods.

The axial end thrust under fault conditions is minimized by the suitable balance

of the ampere-turns over the length of windings. In case of bigger transformer,

the HV tapping leads are taken out from two positions to balance the

shortcircuit forces in a much better way.

where,

Diameter of Tie Rod (Dt)..............2.4 cm.......Provided

Area of Tie Rod (At) = (π/4)x (Dt)2 cm2

At =4.524 cm2

= 13.82 Kg/Cm2,

(Maximum Allowed Stress for Stainless Steel..........1435 Kg/Cm2 )

critical during a short circuit event. Fault winding currents are significantly

higher than for normal loads and extremely high winding temperatures are

possible unless these conditions are also considered during the conductor

selection of the transformer. During the short circuit event, heat transfer through

the cooling arrangement is not considered since the thermal time constants of

windings are much longer (usually several minutes) than the fault duration. For

this reason, the winding temperatures during the fault shall be calculated.

9

where,

Normal Current Density (Jn).........1.80 for LV & 1.43 for HV

Duration of short circuit (t) = 2 Seconds

Short circuit Current density (J) = Jn/Ez A/mm2 .................14.0 for LV & 11.13

for HV

Initial winding temperature (Ѳ0) = Winding Temperature + Ambient

Temperature

Initial winding temperature = 45 + 50 = 95°C

For HV Winding

Ѳ1 = 95+ 2 X (95 + 235) / 426.8;

Ѳ1= 96.6°C

where:

A = {106000/ (11.132 X 2)}-1; A = 426.8

This value of 144.4°C is below the permissible 250°C as per IEC 60076-5.

Hence the cross sectional area of winding is sufficient as regards the short

circuit.

For LV Winding

Ѳ1 = 95+ 2 X (95 + 235) / 269.4;

Ѳ1= 97.5°C

where:

A = {106000/ (142 X 2)}-1; A = 269.4

This value of 140.3°C is below the permissible 250°C as per IEC 60076-5.

Hence the cross sectional area of winding is sufficient as regards the short

circuit.

10

(%Z = 12.85%) (%Z = 6.25%) Permitted Value

Hoop Stress in HV 76.65 Kg./Cm2 326 Kg./Cm2 700 Kg./Cm2

Hoop Stress in LV 62.05 Kg./Cm2 215 Kg./Cm2 700 Kg./Cm2

Radial Bursting Force 833 PSI 4613 PSI 10000 PSI

in HV Pounds Per Sq.In. = PSI

in LV Pounds Per Sq.In. = PSI

Coil

Axial Force in HV 2.8 Metric Tons 4.0 Metric Tons

Coil

Tensile Stress in Tie 76.65 Kg./Cm2 76.65 Kg./Cm2 1100 Kg./Cm2 for

Rod (Stainless Steel (Mild Steel Rods) Mild Steel

Rods) 1435 Kg./Cm2 for

Stainless Steel

CONCLUSION

All thermal and dynamic mechanical stresses occurring during short-circuits are

within VERY SAFE limits.

SINCE THE ABOVE STRESSES ARE EXTREMELY LOWER THAN THE PERMITTED

VALUES, THIS TRANSFORMER SHOULD HAVE PASSED THE SHORT-CIRCUIT

TEST VERY SMOOTHLY.

AS FAILED. I DOUBT THEIR TESTING AND MEASURING METHODS VERY MUCH.

THERE IS A BIG BLUNDER ON THE TEST BENCH OF CPRI.

AND IT HAS CAUSED A HEAVY LOSS TO THE MANUFACTURER AS WELL AS TO

OUR VALUABLE CUSTOMER.

References :

By....Geno P.Peter

2. The Short-circuit Strength of Power Transformers

By.....M.Waters

3. Large Power Transformers

By......K.Karsai, D.Kerenyi & L.Kiss

Prepared By...E.R.Ravikumar

Date...............14th July 2018

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