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CALCULATIONS FOR SHORT CIRCUIT WITHSTAND CAPABILITY

INTRODUCTION
The short circuit test is carried out to verify the integrity for stresses, primarily
mechanical, developed when short circuit current flows through the transformer.
The tests must be carried out on a new transformer ready for service.

Routine tests must be conducted on the transformer prior to the short circuit
test. There are many agreed, different ways of calculating the short circuit
withstand capability of Power Transformers. But for distribution transformers,
for the combinations of the type of windings we are using (i.e., Rectangular
copper / Round wire, Rectangular copper / Rectangular copper), there are no
agreed standard methods.

Even though the high voltage winding is symmetrically placed with respect to
the low voltage winding, for calculations certain asymmetry is assumed, which
in reality is not true. By the very nature of this assumed asymmetry, the
calculated figures are purely hypothetical and since the stresses are lower even
at this assumed asymmetry, they will be much lower under practical conditions.

RATING OF THE TRANSFORMER

All electrical systems are susceptible to short circuits and the abnormal current
levels they create. These currents can produce considerable thermal and
mechanical stresses in electrical distribution equipment.
KVA Rating 2500 ( Single Ratio )

Primary 11KV / Delta / 131.22 (L) / 75.8 (Ph.)Amps

Secondary 433 V / Star / 3333.5 Amps

As per Standards IS 1180 (Part 1) 2014

Vector group Dyn1

Basic Insulation Level HV = 75 KVP / 28 KVRMS

Volts per turn 17.85714

Flux 8.04376 C Wb

Flux Density 1.65 Tesla

Core Area 488 Sq.Cm


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Core Diameter 262 mm

LV Turns 14

Tapping Range +5% to -5% of HV on HV in 4 X 2.5% Steps…OFF Load

HV Turns +5 % 646

2 X 15 Turns = 30

Normal 616

2 X 15 Turns = 30

-5% 586

Guaranteed Figures Total Losses @ 100% Load……….20000 Watts

Total Losses @ 50% Load………….6500 Watts

100% Load 50% Load

Guaranteed Calculated Guaranteed Calculated

No Load Losses 1900 Watts 1800 Watts 1900 Watts 1800 Watts
Max. Max.

Load Losses 18100 Watts 16250 Watts 4600 Watts 4065 Watts
Max. Max.

Total Losses 20000 Watts 18050 Watts* 6500 Watts 5865 Watts

% Impedance 13.0 % 12.30 % 6.5 % 6.15 %

(IS Tol.) (IS Tol.)

Temperature Rise 40 / 45 Degrees over an ambient of 50 Degrees

Assume 35 / 45 degrees for Cooling Calculations

Core to LV insulation 3.0 mm Radially

LV ID 268 mm

Gradient LV = 16.5 Degrees / HV Main = 14.0 Degrees


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Coil No. Conductor Turns Ax.Ht. Depth ID OD Resistance


Per Phase

1. 3.8 X 1.5 14 826 51 268 370 0.00016643

LV ----------------

3.9 X 1.6
Spiral (12
Bunches
1777.14 in
Parallel)
0.1 mm
Sq.mm
Radial =
Enamel 23.3
∂ = 1.876
Covering Axial =
A/Sq.mm 8.46
CTC

2.

HV Main 10.0 X 1.8 586 800 67 438 572 0.3704


Continuous ------------

Disc 10.4 X 2.2

52.91 0.4mm

Sq.mm DPC

∂ = 1.43 Covering

A/sq.mm 3 in

Parallel

% X = 12.83 % (Busbar Reactance……= 0.4% Assumed)

% R = 0.69 %

% Z = 12.85 % (Tested Value)

CALCULATIONS OF THE SHORT CIRCUIT PARAMETERS


ASYMMETRICAL SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT
Short circuit current normally takes on an asymmetrical Characteristic during
the first few cycles of duration. The asymmetrical short circuit current for the
HV and the LV windings are calculated as given below.
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Isc = √2 (1 +e –ΠR/X)x(Iph / Ez )

where,

Iph -- Rated Phase Current


R -- % Resistance
X --% Reactance
Ez -- Per unit impedance
R/X = 0.69 / 12.83 = 0.0538

For HV Winding (@ Minimum Tap)

Isc = √2 (1 + e –Π0.0538) * (79.8 / 0.1285)


Isc = 1619.7 A
For LV Winding

Isc = √2 (1 +e –Π0.0538) (3333.5 / 0.1285)


Isc = 67659.3 A

HOOP STRESS

The radial forces produced by the axial leakage field act outwards on the outer
winding tending to stretch the winding conductor, producing a tensile stress
(also called as hoop stress). The Hoop stress for the HV and the LV windings
are calculated.

σ mean = K copper x (Iph2 x Rdc) / (Hw x EZ2) kg/cm2

where,

Iph - Rated Phase Current


Rdc - Resistance per phase at 75°C
Hw - Winding Height
Ez.......Per unit impedance
K copper = 0.031 x{( 1 +e –ΠR/X)/1.8}2 = 0.031x(1 + e –Π 0.161414)/1.8}2
= 0.0246

For HV Winding

σ mean = 0.0246 x 79.82 x 0.3704 / (80.0 x 0.12852) = 76.65 Kg/cm2


(Maximum Allowed = 700 Kg/cm2)
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For LV Winding

σ mean = 0.0246 x 3333.52 x 0.00016643 / (82.6 x 0.12852) = 62.05Kg/cm2


(Maximum = Allowed 700kg/cm2)

RADIAL BURSTING FORCE

In a transformer with concentric windings, the axial component of leakage flux


density interacts with the current in the windings, producing a radial force (Fr).
This is a well known phenomenon responsible for the mutual axial repulsion
between the inner and outer windings. The radial flux component interacts with
the winding currents, producing an axial force which acts in such a way to
produce an axial compression or expansion of the winding coils. With the
transformer operating under normal conditions, the forces are small. However,
during external fault situations, the currents and fluxes reach high values,
producing extreme radial forces. In general, transformers are designed to
withstand the maximum current peak of three-phase short circuits calculated as
if the transformers were connected to an infinite busbar.

For HV Winding

2 π (ni)2 Dw

Transverse Force Pw = ------------------------ Tons

h * 1011

where Dw = Mean diameter of HV in mm = 505mm

(ni)2 = (HV Turns per phase at Min.Tap)2 X (HV Short-circuit current)2

= (586)2 X (1619.7)2

h = HV Coil height in mm = 800mm

Pw = (2 π (586)2 X (1619.7)2 X 505) / (800 * 1011) = 35.73 Tons

Area = 2 X Turns in HV X (Xn area of HV conductor in Sq.in.)

= 2 * 586 * (52.91) / (25.4)2 = 96.12

σ hv = Pw / Area = 35.73 (2240 = ConversionFactor) / 96.12 = 833 PSI

(Maximum Permitted Stress = 10 000 PSI)


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For LV Winding

2 π (ni)2 Dw

Transverse Force Pw = ------------------------ Tons

h * 1011

where Dw = Mean diameter of LV in mm = 319mm

(ni)2 = (HV Turns per phase at Min.Tap)2 X (HV Short-circuit current)2

= (586)2 X (1619.7)2

h = HV Coil height in mm = 800mm

Pw = (2 π (586)2 X (1619.7)2 X 319) / (800 * 1011) = 22.6 Tons

Area = 2 X Turns in LV X (Xn area of LV conductor in Sq.in.)

= 2 * 14 * (1777.14) / (25.4)2 = 77.13

σ lv = Pw / Area = 22.6 * (2240 = ConversionFactor) / 77.13 = 657 PSI

(Maximum Permitted Stress = 10 000 PSI)

SUPPORTS TO BE PROVIDED IN AND FOR LV WINDING


(HYPOTHETICAL)

The spacers are inserted to provide the necessary strength to the winding against
the radial forces. Every conductor has radial oil flow due to the use of radial
spacers for conductor support.

Spacer thickness can be changed to allow improved cooling and decreased


winding rise or directed oil flow within the winding can be applied to improve
the effectiveness of the winding conductor cooling.

N1 = (Dm / (TN)) x √ {12 σ mean /E}...........Nos.

where,

Dm - Mean Diameter of winding...in Cm


T - Copper Thickness...in Cm
N - No. of Turns per phase
E - Young's Modulus for copper - 1.13x106

N1 = (31.90 / (0.15 * 14) * √{12 x 62.05 / 1.13x1000000} = 0.4 Nos


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Here no supports are necessary. Actual supports provided in the form of


Elephantide cylinder which is continuous. LV cooling ducts are provided and
are spaced 16 to circle. Hence support for LV winding is more than adequate.

INTERNAL COMPRESSIVE FORCES ON WINDING

The inner winding experiences radial forces acting inwards tending to collapse
or crush it, producing a compressive stress. Due to the fringing of the leakage
field at the ends of the windings, the axial component of the field reduces
resulting into smaller radial forces in these regions.

Fc = 1.256 X 10-6 (N Isc)2 X (π X Hilo Mean Dia.) (LV Depth + HV Depth)


--------------------------------------------------------- X ------------------------------- + Hilo Depth)
2 X (Hw)2 X (9806.6...Constant) 3

where,

Hw - Winding Height
All dimensions in Meters
The internal compressive forces on the winding was found to be

Fc = 1.256 X 10-6 (586)2 X (1619.7)2 X (π X 0.404) (0.051 + 0.067)


--------------------------------------------------------- X --------------------- + 0.034) = 8.4 MT
2 X (0.8)2 X 9806.6 3

Force in LV winding, Fc = 5.6 MT around (2/3) of the compressive forces on


the winding
Force in HV winding, Fc = 2.8 MT around (1/3) of the compressive forces on
the winding

EXTERNAL AXIAL IMBALANCE FORCE DUE TO AXIAL


ASYMMETRY

Fa = 6.4 (Factor) * (Isc x N)2 * (X/Hg) * Lg * 10(-11)


--------------------------------------------------
Lrg

where,

Isc = 1619.7
N = 586
X/Hg........ Assumed asymmetry is........0.015 (1.5%)
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Lg.............Mean length of winding (Hilo)............126.92 cm


Lrg = Hw/π + (Radial Depth HV + Radial Depth LV + H-L Gap)/2 + Core to
LV clearance

= 33.37 cm (Length of Radial Stray Path)

Fa = 3.3 MT

TENSILE STRESS IN TIE ROD

In the order to prevent deformation under short-circuit forces windings are


compressed under top and bottom clamping members with the help of tie rods.
The axial end thrust under fault conditions is minimized by the suitable balance
of the ampere-turns over the length of windings. In case of bigger transformer,
the HV tapping leads are taken out from two positions to balance the
shortcircuit forces in a much better way.

Pt = (Fa -1/3Fc) X 1000/ (Nt X At) Kg/cm2

where,

No of Tie Rods.........(Nt)..............8 Nos........Provided


Diameter of Tie Rod (Dt)..............2.4 cm.......Provided
Area of Tie Rod (At) = (π/4)x (Dt)2 cm2
At =4.524 cm2

Pt = (3.3 – 2.8) X 1000 / (8 X 4.524)


= 13.82 Kg/Cm2,

(Maximum Allowed Stress for Mild Steel..........1100 Kg/Cm2 )


(Maximum Allowed Stress for Stainless Steel..........1435 Kg/Cm2 )

CAPABILITY OF WITHSTANDING THERMAL EFFECTS

The thermal affect of the short circuit currents on winding temperatures is


critical during a short circuit event. Fault winding currents are significantly
higher than for normal loads and extremely high winding temperatures are
possible unless these conditions are also considered during the conductor
selection of the transformer. During the short circuit event, heat transfer through
the cooling arrangement is not considered since the thermal time constants of
windings are much longer (usually several minutes) than the fault duration. For
this reason, the winding temperatures during the fault shall be calculated.
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Ѳ1= Ѳ0 +2(Ѳ0 +235)/A

where,

A= {106000 / (J2 X t)}-1


Normal Current Density (Jn).........1.80 for LV & 1.43 for HV
Duration of short circuit (t) = 2 Seconds
Short circuit Current density (J) = Jn/Ez A/mm2 .................14.0 for LV & 11.13
for HV
Initial winding temperature (Ѳ0) = Winding Temperature + Ambient
Temperature
Initial winding temperature = 45 + 50 = 95°C

For HV Winding

Ѳ1= Ѳ0 +2(Ѳ0 +235) / A


Ѳ1 = 95+ 2 X (95 + 235) / 426.8;
Ѳ1= 96.6°C

where:
A = {106000/ (11.132 X 2)}-1; A = 426.8

This value of 144.4°C is below the permissible 250°C as per IEC 60076-5.
Hence the cross sectional area of winding is sufficient as regards the short
circuit.

For LV Winding

Ѳ1= Ѳ0 +2(Ѳ0 +235) / A


Ѳ1 = 95+ 2 X (95 + 235) / 269.4;
Ѳ1= 97.5°C

where:
A = {106000/ (142 X 2)}-1; A = 269.4

This value of 140.3°C is below the permissible 250°C as per IEC 60076-5.
Hence the cross sectional area of winding is sufficient as regards the short
circuit.
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COMPARISON OF STRESSES OF A REGULAR LOW %Z & HIGH %Z JOBS

Description 2500KVA 2500KVA Maximum


(%Z = 12.85%) (%Z = 6.25%) Permitted Value
Hoop Stress in HV 76.65 Kg./Cm2 326 Kg./Cm2 700 Kg./Cm2
Hoop Stress in LV 62.05 Kg./Cm2 215 Kg./Cm2 700 Kg./Cm2
Radial Bursting Force 833 PSI 4613 PSI 10000 PSI
in HV Pounds Per Sq.In. = PSI

Radial Bursting Force 657 PSI 3185 PSI 10000 PSI


in LV Pounds Per Sq.In. = PSI

Axial Force in LV 5.6 Metric Tons 8.0 Metric Tons


Coil
Axial Force in HV 2.8 Metric Tons 4.0 Metric Tons
Coil
Tensile Stress in Tie 76.65 Kg./Cm2 76.65 Kg./Cm2 1100 Kg./Cm2 for
Rod (Stainless Steel (Mild Steel Rods) Mild Steel
Rods) 1435 Kg./Cm2 for
Stainless Steel

CONCLUSION

All thermal and dynamic mechanical stresses occurring during short-circuits are
within VERY SAFE limits.

SINCE THE ABOVE STRESSES ARE EXTREMELY LOWER THAN THE PERMITTED
VALUES, THIS TRANSFORMER SHOULD HAVE PASSED THE SHORT-CIRCUIT
TEST VERY SMOOTHLY.

IT IS UNBELIEVABLE THAT IT HAS BEEN DECLARED BY THE RENOWNED CPRI


AS FAILED. I DOUBT THEIR TESTING AND MEASURING METHODS VERY MUCH.
THERE IS A BIG BLUNDER ON THE TEST BENCH OF CPRI.

PLEASE VERIFY ALL THEIR TEST CIRCUITS. IT IS A VERY SERIOUS MATTER


AND IT HAS CAUSED A HEAVY LOSS TO THE MANUFACTURER AS WELL AS TO
OUR VALUABLE CUSTOMER.

References :

1. International Journal of Engineering (Year 2011) (ISSN 1584 – 2673)


By....Geno P.Peter
2. The Short-circuit Strength of Power Transformers
By.....M.Waters
3. Large Power Transformers
By......K.Karsai, D.Kerenyi & L.Kiss

Prepared By...E.R.Ravikumar
Date...............14th July 2018