Kayanna Sayre

Research Proposal- The Effects of Ginseng on Lumbriculus variegatus
Introduction What affect will ginseng have on the pulsation rate, locomotion, and chemotactic of Lumbriculus variegatus? Ginseng comes from the root of several different plants. Initial research showed that ginseng helps regulate blood pressure. 1 Thus, ginseng could either cause an increase or decrease in pulsation rates. The unknown affect intrigued me, resulting in my desire to experiment with ginseng. Ginseng is considered to be an antioxidant, have a restorative effect on the body, and help the body adapt to physical and mental stress. 1 I, with the help of my co-examiners Nicole Loughry and Johnna Price, will conduct three experiments to analyze the effect of ginseng on the California black worms (Lumbriculus variegatus). These experiments include a test on pulsation rate, locomotion, and a drop test. However, I will not be testing the proper dosage or side effects. The independent variables in my experiments include the concentration of solution, the time that the worm will be soaked in the treatment, and the number of pokes per minute. The dependent variables are the pulsation rates, the locomotion of the worm, and whether or not the worm is attracted to or retracts from the ginseng solution. I hypothesized that if ginseng was added to the spring water that Lumbriculus variegatus was in then there would be a decrease in pulsation rates, increased in locomotion, and a negative chemotactic response. Literature Review Kiefer’s article states that ginseng comes from the root of several different plants. Ginsenosides are the active compounds in ginseng. Many cultures use ginseng for therapeutic or medical reasons. Ginseng is believed to have many beneficial results, and although it is well tolerated, dosage has to be regulated. It is also believed to affect the immune system, psychological function, and physical performance.1 This article has many facts about ginseng. Kiefer explained the use and effects of ginseng. Having a good base of ginseng knowledge is essential to having a successful experiment. Understanding the chemical components of ginseng will help in analyzing the effect that it has on the worm. Sardo’s article states that Lumbriculus variegatus is a type of worm that is commonly used to perform a number of toxicity tests. The experiment in this article used different types of soil while monitoring the worms’ behavior and growth to determine the most suitable soil for reproduction. The study showed that fine sediment was best. It optimized health, activity, and reproduction rates.2 This article provided basic information about Lumbriculus variegatus, along with its natural habitat. In my biology experiment, I will be performing a test where the worm is obviously not in its original habitat. Seeing how Sardo’s experiments affected the worm may be useful for future reference. Drewes’ article has many useful facts about Lumbriculus variegatus. It stresses the precautions that should be taken while handling the worms. This lab describes a

Kayanna Sayre

number of different forms of locomotion that are possible. Most importantly, it elaborates on the pulsation of Lumbriculus variegatus. Dorsal and ventral vessels are the largest vessels that run length wise down the worm. The dorsal vessel is the one that pulsates.3 This article is very useful for my experiment because it has detailed facts about two of my three experiments. Hypothesis If ginseng is added to the spring water that the Lumbriculus variegatus is in then it will have a decrease in pulsation rate, increase locomotion, and will produce a negative chemotactic response on Lumbriculus variegatus. Methods To conduct all of my experiments, I have to make the ginseng solutions that will be used. I will dilute 12 mg and 24mg of ginseng in 100 mL of water to make the correct percent solutions for my first experiment. For the remaining experiments, I will use these two concentrations to make my other test solutions. After making my solutions for the pulsation rate experiment, I have to place 1 mL of each solution (ginseng 12ug, ginseng 24 ug, and spring water) into twelve separate wells. For this experiment I will use 36 worms. I will place one worm in each well of solution. Each group will contain twelve worms. Six of the worms will be soaked for ten minutes and the remaining six will be in the solution for twenty minutes. After the worm has been in the solution for the correct amount of time, it must be put under a microscope and have the pulsation rate counted. I will count and record the pulses for ten seconds and multiply by six to get the beats per minute. Once each worm has been recorded, I will calculate the mean, standard deviation, and T-Test for both treatment groups and the control group. For the locomotion experiment, I will have to assemble a race track. To make the racetrack, place a piece of wet filter paper in the bottom of a Petri dish. Then, make a mark every centimeter around the outside of the dish. Lastly, a cardboard ring must be constructed and placed in the middle of the dish. This ring will be secured by rubber bands. For this experiment, I am going to use 6ug% and 12ug% solutions of ginseng. I will use the 12ug% from the last experiment. To make the 6 ug%, I will use 25mL of the 24ug% and add 75mL of spring water. Once again, each solution must be placed into 12 separate wells. This experiment will also use 36 worms. One worm must be added to each well. After ten minutes of soaking, the worms will individually be placed on the race and probed accordingly. Six worms from each solution will be probed every five seconds, and six worms from each solution will be probed ever ten seconds. After each worm has been tested, I will calculate the mean, standard deviation, and T-Test for all the groups. The drop test experiment is less complex than the other experiments. To perform this test, I will use the same concentrations as the last experiment. This experiment will use 60 worms. I will use the same concentrations as the last experiment (6ug% ginseng, 12ug% ginseng, and spring water). First, I will place one worm on a Petri dish.

Kayanna Sayre

I will have to make sure that all the excess water is removed from around the worm. Then, I will add one drop of the solution to the tail of the worm and see if the worm is attracted to or repelled from the solution. Timeline • • • • June 19- practice measuring the pulsation rates June 26- perform pulsation rate experiment July 3- construct racers and perform locomotion experiment July 10- perform drop test experiment

Discussion/problem I am testing to see if ginseng affects the pulsation rate, locomotion, and chemotactic of Lumbriculus variegatus. These experiments will show if ginseng increases or decreases heart rate, whether ginseng increases movement in the worms, and whether or not the worm is attracted to ginseng. This experiment will only allow me to try and draw conclusions about these aspects of ginseng and its effect on California black worms. Any other conclusions that I would try to make would be incorrect. Furthermore, since the worms have such a small mass, the worms may not be receiving the correct dose of ginseng. Working Bibliography [Anonymous] Panax, American, Korean, Siberian ginseng benefits and side effects compared [Internet]. Cell Health Makeover web site. Available from: http://www.cellhealthmakeover.com/ginseng-benefits-side-effects.html#american. Accessed 2008 June 20. [Anonymous]. Ginseng: the mystical healer [Internet]. Disabled World web site. October 23, 2006. Available from: http://www.disabled-world.com/artman/publish/ginseng.shtml. Accessed 2008 June 18. Dr Crapo, Mark and Herb Encyclopedia. Ginseng [Internet]. 1995/2002. Available from: http://www.symmetry4u.com/Ingredients/ginseng.htm. Accessed 2008 June 19. Drewes, C. Biology facts about blackworms [Internet]. 2004. Available from: http://www.eeob.iastate.edu/faculty/DrewesC/htdocs/Lvfacts.htm. Accessed 2008 June 19. Drewes, Charles PhD. Those wonderful worms. Lumbriculus variegatus Lab. Department of Zoology and Genetics University of Iowa. Available from: http://64.233.169.104/search?q=cache:4aTmL0PAFh4J:mhsib.com/Lumbriculus%2520v ariegatus%2520infor%2520sheet%2520(1).doc+pulsation+rate+lumbriculus+variegatus &hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=6&gl=us. Accessed 2008 June 18.

Kayanna Sayre

Hai Rim Shin, Joon Youn Kim, Taik Koo Yun, Gareth Morgan, Harri Vainio. Cancer causes & control, Vol. 11, No. 6 (Jul., 2000), pp. 565-576. Available from EBSCOhost [online database]. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3553787?&Search=yes&term=ginseng&list=hide&searchUri= /action/doBasicSearch?Query%3Dginseng%26gw%3Djtx%26prq%3DLumbriculus%2B variegatus%252C%2Bginseng%26hp%3D25&item=3&ttl=1111&returnArticleService=sh owArticle. Accessed 2008 June 26. Kiefer D, Pantuso T. Panax ginseng. American Family Physician [serial online]. October 15, 2003; 68(8):1539-1542. Available from: EBSCOhost [online database]. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=2&hid=103&sid=ddadac3b-e87f-4dd0-a694331471e370af%40sessionmgr103. Accessed 2008 June 25. Sardo, Soares, Gerhardt. Behavior, growth, and reproduction of Lumbriculus Variegatus (Oligochaetae) in different sediment types. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 13:519-526, 2007. Available from EBSCOhost [online database]. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdf?vid=2&hid=115&sid=738bb84c-6cc9-4817-8081abb4a107d779%40sessionmgr103. Accessed 2008 June 26.

Kiefer D, Pantuso T. Panax ginseng. American Family Physician [serial online]. October 15, 2003; 68(8):1539-1542. Available from: EBSCOhost [online database]. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=2&hid=103&sid=ddadac3b-e87f-4dd0-a694331471e370af%40sessionmgr103. Accessed 2008 June 25.
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Sardo, Soares, Gerhardt. Behavior, growth, and reproduction of Lumbriculus Variegatus (Oligochaetae) in different sediment types. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 13:519526, 2007. Available from EBSCOhost [online database]. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdf?vid=2&hid=115&sid=738bb84c-6cc9-4817-8081abb4a107d779%40sessionmgr103. Accessed 2008 June 26.
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Drewes, Charles PhD. Those wonderful worms. Lumbriculus variegatus Lab. Department of Zoology and Genetics University of Iowa. Available from: http://64.233.169.104/search?q=cache:4aTmL0PAFh4J:mhsib.com/Lumbriculus%2520varieg atus%2520infor%2520sheet%2520(1).doc+pulsation+rate+lumbriculus+variegatus&hl=en&ct =clnk&cd=6&gl=us. Accessed 2008 June 18.
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