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International Journal of Latest Research in Science and Technology ISSN (Online):2278-5299

Volume 6, Issue 3: Page No.64-68 ,May-June 2017


SuhailMushtaqBhat1,DrRakesh Gupta2
M.Tech Scholar, Civil Department, SRMIET, Bhurewala, Ambala.
Professor and Director,CivilEngineeringDepartment, SRMIET, Bhurewala, Ambala

Abstract – Bituminous Concrete (BC) normally used in construction projects like road surfacing, airports, parking lots etc is a composite
material . It consists of asphalt or bitumen (used as a binder) and mineral aggregate which are mixed together & laid down in layers then
compacted.In these days the large increment in high traffic intensity in terms of commercial vehicles, and the compelling variation in
daily and seasonal temperature put us in a demanding situation to think of some alternatives for the improvisation of the pavement
characteristics and quality by applying some necessary modifications which shall satisfy both the strength as well as economical
aspects.Also considering the environmental approach, due to excessive use of polythene in day to day life the pollution to the environment
is increased significantly . Since the polythene is non-biodegradable the need of the current hour is to use the waste polythene in some
beneficial purposes .This paper presents a research conducted to analyse the behavior of BC mix modified with waste polythene. Various
percentages of polythene are used for preparation of mixes with a selected aggregate grading as given in the IRC Code. By preparing
Marshall samples of the concrete mix the role of polythene in bituminous is studied for various engineering properties BC mixtures with
and without polymer. Marshall properties such as stability, flow value, unit weight, air voids are used to determine optimum polythene
content for the given grade of bitumen (80/100).

Keywords – Bituminous concrete ,polythene ,marshal stability value , flow value

I. INTRODUCTION Function of Coarse aggregates is also to resisting wear due to

Surveying in India and other countries around the world abrasion. That portion of the mixture according to the Asphalt
havebring to light that properties of bitumen and bituminous Institute retained on 2.36 mm (No. 08) sieve is termed as
mixes can be improved to meet requirements of pavement Coarse aggregates. Coarse aggregate used was Basalt rock.
with the incorporation of certain additives or a blend of
2.2. Fine Aggregate
additives. These additives are called “Bitumen Modifiers”
and the bitumen mixed with these modifiers is known as Voids which remainunfilled in the coarse aggregates are
“Modified Bitumen”. Modified bitumen is considered to have filled by the fine aggregates. So the function of fine
longer life period than un modified bitumen mix. Modified aggregates is to fill the voids of coarse aggregates. Fine
Bitumen is expected to give 50 to 100 per cent higher life of aggregates consist of crushed stone or natural sand.
surfacing depending upon degree of modifications and type of Aggregates that passed through 2.36 mm sieve and retained
additives used. Polymer modified bitumen is emerging as one on 0.075 mm sieve were selected as fine aggregate. The
of the fruitfull construction material used in flexible source of fine aggregates used was River sand.
pavements. The polymer modified bitumen show better
properties for road construction and waste polythene can find 2.3.WastePolythene
its use in this process providing improved performance of The polythene amul milk packets is used as raw material for
flexible pavements and this can help solving problem of preparation of the samples. These polythene was washedafter
pollution due to waste polythene too. collectingand cleaned by putting them in hot water for 3-4
hours. They were then dried.
Specific Gravity of polythene = 0.905
A bituminous concrete mix is generally composed of
aggregate and bitumen. On the basis of particles size of
aggergate,the aggregates are usually divided into coarse
aggregates, fine aggregates and filler fractions. The following
portion covers the description of the coarse aggregate, fine
aggregate, bitumen and waste polythene used in the study.
2.1. Coarse Aggregate
The coarse aggregates should annex goodimpact value
abrasion value, and also crushing strength. The function of
coarse aggregates is to deliver the stresses due to wheels. Amul milk packets

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International Journal of Latest Research in Science and Technology.
2.4. Bitumen compacted. The specification of this hammer, the
height of release etc. are given in Table – 4.1.
Asphalt binder 60/70 and 80/100 is used in this research.
10. 75 no. Of blows were given per each side of the
The bitumen used must have the following properties.
sample so subtotal of 150 no. of blows was given per
a. Grade of bitumen used in the pavements must be
selected on the basis of climatic conditions and their
11. Then these samples were marked and kept separately
performance in past.
and marked
b. It is recommended that after certification by the
supplier the bitumen shell be accepted (along with the
testing results) and the State project, verification
This study consists of three stages: -
Collection of waste polythene,mixing of waste polythene
with the required bitumen concrete and finding the required
results by testing the sample .Waste plastic bags were
collected from roads, garbage trucks, dumpsites and compost
plants, rag pickers, waste-buyers .House hold polythene was
also collected for the project work, like emptymilk bags, used Fig 3.1 Prepration of marshall sample
polythene bags etc.The collected polythene waste was sorted
as per the required thickness and then cleaned by washingin
hot water for 3-4 . The dried polythene packets were cut into
tiny pieces of size 2 mm maximum. This is because when the
polythene is to be added with aggregate it is to be ensured
that the mixing will be proper. The smaller the size of the
polythene, the more is the chance of good mixing.
Bitumen was heated up to its melting point .The preheated
aggregates were kept in pain and heated on controlled gas
stove for a few minutes the polythene was added to the
aggregate and mixed for few minutes Polymer-bitumen
mixtures of different compositions were prepared and used
for carrying out tests i.e. Marshall Stability value test and
Marshal flow test.

3.1. Laboratory Tests for the calculation of results Fig 3.2 closed view of marshall sample

3.1.1 Mixing Procedure 3.1.1 MARSHALL TESTING

As per the following procedure The mixing of ingredients
was done (STP 204-8). The procedure outlined in ASTM D6927 – 06was used for
1. suitable quantities of fine aggregate coarse aggregate, Marshall test .
& mineral fillers were taken in an iron pan.
2. This was kept in an oven at temperature 1600C for 2 Marshall stability value
hours.since preheating is required.This is because the
aggregate and bitumen are to be mixed in heated state. It is defined as the maximum load at which the specimen
3. Prior to the mixing bitumen was also heated up to its fails under the application of the vertical load. It is the
melting point. maximum load supported by the test specimen at a loading
4. The required amount of shredded polythene was kept rate of 50.8 mm/minute (2 inches/minute). Generally, the
in a separate container and weighed . load was increased until it reached the maximum & then
5. The required amount ofaggregateskept in the pan were when the load just began to reduce, the loading was stopped
heated on a controlled gas stove for a few minutes and the maximum load was recorded by the proving ring.
maintaining the above temperature
6. The polythene was added to the aggregate and was Marshall Flow Value
mixed for 2 minutes.
7. Now bitumen (60 gm), i.e. 5% was added to this mix It is defined as the deformation undergone by the specimen
and the whole mix was stirred uniformly and at the maximum load where the failure occurs. During the
homogenously. This stirring was continued for 15-20 loading, an attached dial gauge measures the specimen's
minutes till they were properly mixed which was plastic flow as a result of the loading. Atsame time when the
evident from the uniform colour throughout the mix. maximum load was recorded.The flow value was recorded in
8. Then the bitumin mix was transferred to a casting 0.25 mm (0.01 inch) increments . Two readings were taken
mould. from the dial gauge i.e. initial reading (I) & final reading (F)
9. with the help of Marshall Hammer This mix was then The Marshall Flow Value (f) is given by

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International Journal of Latest Research in Science and Technology.

4. Results and Discussions

The results of the Marshall test of specimens prepared with

varying waste polythene content and Bituminous concrete
mixhave been presented in tables
For each % of polythene, 3 samples have been tested. So the
average value of the 3 were taken. The mean values are
shown in Table
Table3.1 Calculation of flow value and stability value
Mean flow
Polythene Mean stability
content0 value value
4.1333 14.4

1 3.5 14.55 Fig 4.2 Marshal flow value Vs Polythene content

2 3.2 14.6

3 2.9666 15.6

4 2.8666 17.76

5 2.733 15.96

Table 3.2 Calculation of voids filled with bitumen (VFB)

Vs polythene content %
Polythene Mean VFB Mean VA
0 69.877 4.897
1 74.864 3.794
2 78.88 3.021
3 79.563 2.838
4 79.93 2.739
5 81.273 2.479
Fig 4.3Air voids Vs Polythene content

Fig 4.1Marshal stability value Vs polythene content Fig4.4 Voids filled with bitumen % (VFB) Vs polythene
content %

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International Journal of Latest Research in Science and Technology.
Table 3.3 calculation of unit weight(Gmb) and Voidsin 4.1.6 Marshal Flow curve
mineral aggerate
The curve shown in fig 4.2 drawn between Marshall flow
value and polythene content is known as Marshall flow
Polythene Unit Mean VMA curve. Fig shows the variation of Marshall flow value with
0 2.669 16.245 polythene content. After plotting the graph it was observed
1 2.619 15.081 that there is a rapid decrease of Marshall flow value with
2 2.589 14.214 increase in polythene content upto 2 % and then it starts
decreasing slowly
3 2.561 13.874
4 2.523 13.613 4.1.7 VMA curve
5 2.458 13.214
After analyzing graph shown in fig 4.5 it was observed that
voids in mineral aggregate starts decreasing with increasing
in polythene content

4.1.8 VA curve

After plotting graph between air voids and polythene it was

observed that there is a sudden decreasing of air voids upto
2% polythene content and then it starts decreasing slowly

4.1.9 VFB curve

The curve drawn between voids filled with bitumen Vs

polythene content shows that there is a suddent increase in
VFB upto 2 % polythene content and then it starts increasing
slowly upto 4 % polythene content and then there is again
sudden increase in VFB

Fig4.5 voids in mineral aggerateVs polythene content 5. Conclusions and Future Scope
5.1 Conclusions

 After studing thebehaviour of polythene modified

BC.It wasnoted that Marshall stability value hike
with polyethylene content upto 4% and thereafter
reduces. Also it was observed that the marshall flow
value decreases upon addition of polythene i.e the
resistance to deformations under heavy wheel loads
increases. Also the values of the parameters like
VMA, VA, VFB are within the required
specifications for this limit of 4% polythene content.
 By Considering these factors we can certify that we
can obtain a more duirableand stable mix for the
pavements by polymer modifications. This small
technique not only utilizes beneficially the waste
non-degradable plastics but also provides us an
improved pavement with better strength and longer
life period.
 Polymer modified pavements would be a gift for
Fig 4.6 unit weight (Gmb) Vs polythene content % India’s hot and extremely humid climate, where
temperatures frequently rises past 50°C and frequent
4.1.5 Marshal stability curve rains create havoc, leaving most of the roads with
heavy distresses. This mostly affects the life of the
Fig 4.1 shows the variation of marshall stability with pavements. The polymer modified bitumen show
polythene content .It was observed that with the increase in improved properties for pavement constructions.
polythene content marshall stability value starts decreasing This also can decrease the amount of plastics waste
upto 4 % polythene content and then it starts decreasing which otherwise are considered to be a threat to the
.After analysing the graph it was observed that 4% is the hygiene of the environment.
optimum polythene content of bituminous concrete mix

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International Journal of Latest Research in Science and Technology.
5.2 Future scope
After analyzing modification of bituminous concrete mix
by adding waste polythene few more waste materials like
waste rubber glass strips e.t.c. should be studied and used
for bituminous concrete mix modification in near future


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