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Q1: is literature everything that is written from enceinte prays to graffitis?


A1: Literature is a term used to describe written and sometimes spoken material.
Derived from the Latin Litteratura meaning "writing formed with letters," literature
most commonly refers to works of the creative imagination, including poetry, drama,
fiction, nonfiction, journalism, and in some instances, song.i

In the attempt to define the term 'literature', one can distinguish between two general
directions: a broad and a narrow definition. The broad definition incorporates
everything that has been written down in some form or another, i.e., all the written
manifestations of a culture (hence, there are terms such as 'research literature', 'the
literature on civil rights', etc.). Needless to say that such a broad definition is
problematic as it does not really facilitate communication about the topic.
Furthermore, this concept neglects the fact that in many cultures in the past and for a
number of indigenous peoples today, literature has not been captured in written
media but has been passed down in a long oral tradition of storytelling, myths, ritual
speeches, etc. Attempts to come up with a narrow definition have, however, led to
such a diversity of approaches that one can hardly talk about 'the' narrow definition.
Nevertheless, it is possible to sift out some of the criteria scholars have applied in
order to demarcate 'literary texts' from 'non-literary texts'. These criteria include:

• fictionality
• specialised language
• lack of pragmatic function
• ambiguity.ii

Now let’s talk about the wall writings also known as graffitis which are very hard to
know if they are either literature or not starting from the previous definitions. We have
seen that literature is concerned with creativity and imagination, so should we than
consider all what is written to be literature?

The question is not whether wall-writing is literature or not, but how some wall-writing
may become literature. Social media is instrumental for such becoming.

The writings on the city's three-dimensional walls often mingle with the metaphorical
walls of social media feeds as inhabitants of the city are engaged in poetic, transient
conversations and commentary on their phones while they move through their city.
Sometimes the different poetics and materialities of wall-writing also converge when
social media memes reproduce photos of wall-writing. During the intense days of
revolutionary political contestation, photos of expressive messages on walls were
often shared and distributed to underline one's stances. I first encountered them as
images of wall-writings in Alexandria or Cairo that were photographed and circulated
on Facebook by people who lived in those cities. Increasingly, messages on walls
have become distributed online as aphoristic texts out of context. This growing online
circulation of wall-writings has in turn inspired new ways of writing on open-air walls.
As the mood has become more subdued and fearful in the recent years, and political
wall-writing rarer, a different genre has become more visible: poetic messages –
often songlines by popular bands:

The writings are sometimes religious, philosophical or political, but most importantly
romantic. They often have clear literary ambitions, tending towards an aphoristic or
poetic form. Many are also signed, thus laying a claim to individual authorship.
Talking about facebook postes of wall writings
Q2: Does literature include songs and stories that were not written down until
many years?

i
https://www.quora.com/What-is-literature-4

ii
https://www2.anglistik.uni-freiburg.de/intranet/englishbasics/Basic01.htm