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Contractor

Report

4750

Handbook Composites

Brian N. Cox Science Center Rockwell Gerry

of Analytical

Methods

for Textile

• Thousand

Oaks,

California

Flanagan Sciences Corporation • Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Materials

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center • Hampton, Virginia 23681-0001

Prepared for Langley Research Center under Contract NAS1-19243

March

1997

Printed

copies

available

from the following: Information National Technical Information Road Service (NTIS)

NASA Center 800 Elkridge

for AeroSpace Landing Road

5285 Port Royal Springfield, (703) 487-4650

Linthicum Heights, (301) 621-0390

MD 21090-2934

VA 22161-2171

lo

**INTRODUCTION 1.1 Scope 1.2 Layout 1.3 Historical 1.4 Internet
**

1

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1-1 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-3 2-1 2-3 2-3 2-3 ............... 2-4 2-5 2-5 ............... 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9 2-10 2-12 ..................... 2-15 2-15 2-15 2-15 2-16 2-20 2-21 ................... geometry to 2-22

. ................

of the Handbook Origins Access

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OVERVIEW 2.1 Textile 2.1.1

OF TEXTILES Processes Categorizations

.......................................... ....................................... ................................... and Nonlaminar Textiles

2.1.1.1 2.1.1.2 2.1.2

Dimensionality Quasi-Laminar

Preforms 2.1.2.1 2.1.2.2 2.1.2.3 2.1.2.4 2.1.2.5 2.1.2.6 Weaving

............................................. ......................................... from Cylindrical Mandrels

Flat Braiding 31) Braiding Uniweaves Warp Knits Stitching

...................................... ....................................... ....................................... .........................................

2.1.3 2.2 2.3

Molding

............................................. ................................................ of Textile Reinforcement

Materials The Geometry 2.3.1 Ideal 2.3.1.1 2.3.1.2 2.3.1.3 2.3.1.6 2.3.1.7

geometry Unit Cells 2D Weaves 2D Braids

........................................ ....................................... ....................................... ....................................... Weaves ..............................

3D Interlock 3D Braids

....................................... Nonwoven Composites

2.3.1.80rthogonal 2.3.2

2-21

**The relation of volume fraction and fabric process parameters ......................................... 2.3.2.1 2.3.2.2 2.3.2.3 2.3.2.4 2D Weaves 2D Braids 3D Weaves 3D Braids
**

........... . . . . , ......

2-22 2-24 2-24

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2-26 2-28

2.3.3

Irregularity Structures made by Textile Processes

2.4 Integral

2-31

iii

..................... ..........2 3.........3 Monotonic 4......................... ......... ...................................4 2D Weaves Stitched and Stitched-Knitted 3D Weaves 3D Braids Tension ........6.......1 4......................................... 4........... ..3..................2................. .................2 3. 2-33 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-5 3-6 3-8 3-10 3-11 Resistance ..... ........................ iv ..2 Delamination Sensitivity Cohesive Splitting in Bending .... 2D Weaves 3D Interlock References ..................... THE 3.... 3D Weaves and Braids StitchedWoven....................................... ...................................................................................... ..............................1 4................................2...........1 4.7...4......4 3. at a Notch 4............................................... and Braids Weaves .................. ....................................... Zones ...4......................2 4... ..................................................4 4...... BETWEEN TEXTILES AND TAPE LAMINATES ..... Compression and Braids ................3 3............... 4-8 4-8 4-9 4-9 4-11 Laminates ....................................... References 4.. ....2..3 4...................................................5 4........6 Delamination under Through-Thickness (Curved Structures) ....................1 3........................... 3-12 3-12 3-13 4-1 4-1 4-3 4-6 ..............References 3.......................4..................7...3.1 3......... Shear Notch 4. ......... Laminates Monotonic 4...................... of Fracture and Notch .......... FAILURE 4.................... Delamination Sensitivity and Impact 2D Weaves 2D Braids Stitched Laminates Weaves 319 Interlock Out-of-Plane Work Strength.......... g.........7 Fatigue 4......... and Stitched-Knitted 4......4 CHOICE Handling Consistency Stiffness In-Plane 3......2 4.................6 ........... ................5 3.......... Strength ....3 2D Weaves Stitched.........12 4-12 Tension 4-13 4-16 4-16 4-16 4-18 4-19 4-19 4-20 4-20 and FabricabiHty of Fiber Content ...1 4. ........3.............2 .................. MECHANISMS ..........3 3.4......2 ..................... ...2..............................1 Shear 4.....6..........

1.......... Elastica .........1................1 6.......1 5.1..............4................... .......................................... ................6 5....4................3 Tensile Shear Plastic Calibration Fiber Matrix Dominated Dominated Predictions for Plain Woven ............ Elastic Elasstic constants Constants Fraction ......1 5............ Tensile Strength ..1 Nonlinearity 6........ . STRESS-STRAIN Beyond BEHAVIOUR Limit Cracking AND STRENGTH .......... .........................................5.Axial Loads V ......................................... ................2...........3 Ultimate 6. NONLINEAR 6............2 5... Conditions .......................3................................2 5.....3...1...1. 6-1 6-1 6-2 6-2 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-4 6-5 6-7 6-7 the Proportional Matrix ...........3 5...........2 5.. or Axial Shear? Geometrical Irregularity Codes 5........... 5-5 5-6 5-8 Unit Cells and Periodic Macroscopic Fundamentals Orientation Bending Length ......................2 Summary 5....1 5...........................1 6.................1 Concepts 5.......................... PREDICTION OF ELASTIC THERMAL EXPANSION 5.......... of Heterogeneous Averaging 5-11 5-14 5-16 5-18 ............... Thermo-Elastic Properties .........2 6..1...........3 6. .........1.2 6.. 5-33 5-34 5-34 5-35 5-35 Calibrating Calibrating the Fiber Fiber Volume Waviness ....... ...... .1.. .4 5......3 of Available 5-19 5-20 5-21 Quasi-laminar Geometry Modeling and Nonlaminar .4 References 6..1... Strength Ultimate Compressive Shear Strength Strength ...........................................................1..3.......2 Tessellation 6......... 5-1 5-1 5-1 5-2 ....7 5...........4.......... 5-25 5-30 5-33 5............ Tow Straightening Models 6. for Analyzing Textiles Stiffness ..4 ............................3............ .3 Comparison of Code Textile Composite 5.....3 5..........1........... and Isostress ...................................................... Tow Properties Fiber Packing ........................1......9 Isostrain CONSTANTS AND ...2.4 Code 5............................. (Transverse) Deformation ......................8 5... and Resin Pockets Boundary Scales ............. Multi.......................... .......2... .......5 5.............................4................

..... ° ..... 7-3 7-4 ..............6 CCM-TEX 8. SUMMARY 8.....2 pTex-20 8............... Behaviour 6-8 6-8 6-9 6-10 6-11 7-1 Fatigue .. . .............................................. 7-1 7-3 ................... FATIGUE 7.4... ............1 _Tex-10 8...........4 PW.......................................2 Tension-Tension 7.............................. 8............................................. ........................................ OF AVAILABLE CODES .. .............................. ....... 8-1 8-2 ... 6.......5 Notched References 7............. 8-5 8-7 8-10 ......................................................... SAT8 Analysis ................................ Composites Growth in Quasilaminar .. in Compression-Compression Fatigue Crack and Load Ratio Effects Textile 7........... ......... ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY SELECTIVE v:i...............................1 Kink LIFE Formation Nonlinearity Ultimate Strength strength .............................5 SAWC (Stress 8-12 8-15 8-17 8-19 9-1 8......3 TEXCAD 8....4 Codes for Predicting Nonlinear Stress-Strain and Ultimate Strength ..4..........3 Delamination References 8.....1 6........7 WEAVE 8.........8 BINMOD t .. ° .... of Woven Composites) .........................................2 6........................................................6.. SAT5...

.......... 3-1 ..3 5. Predicted and measured ultimate strengths of some braids and 3D carbon/epoxy interlock weaves Code capabilities for predicting nonlinear and strength ..........1 Fiber Properties ... 6-10 vii ..............1 2.... ......1 5.....7 5... property model property parameters quasi-laminar input used in code comparisons for code comparisons assumed Comparison of homogenized......................................... Comparison of Unnotched Various AS4/1895 Triaxial Compression Some models Data for Gr/Ep Tensile Braids Table 3...................... and Dimensions ... used in code comparisons plates .........1 5.........2 3... Braids composites (from [4.......16]) ....... .........Tables Table Table Table 2.................. 3D elastic constants for a plain weave fabric..6 5.... 2-13 2-14 Typical Yarn Weights Braid and Equivalent Tape Laminate Fig.. ............ Comparison coefficients of homogenized............. using various codes .............8 Triaxial fiber of unidirectional properties Estimated Summary Constituent How codes Constituent Geometric mechanical of code of tows capabilities input ....10 Comparison of plate stiffnesses for a plain using vaarious codes .....2 5.......................... 5-32 Table 5. using various codes .............4 5.......... 5-32 triaxial glass/urethane ........9 5-32 Table 5.... woven composite.......5 5. 5-31 5-31 Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table 4.................2......1.... Table 6............. 5-24 5-29 ............. Specifications for 3-5 Strengths for .........2 3-10 4-7 5-4 5-4 5-20 ................ behaviour 6-5 Table 6............. for a plain weave 3D thermal expansion fabric......

............... 2D braid patterns weave composite patterns ....... 2-17.. 2................. Waviness in nominally axial tows in a triaxial Waviness induced in warp weavers in a 3D interlock compression during processing ..... of the diagonal weave common patterns formed 2-18 2-18 2-19 2-21 2-22 2-25 2-27 ........ 2-16........ 2-21... 2-3 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9 Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 2-3............ 2-31 Figure 2-23.... ................. knit ................................. . 2-7.....10............... Three-dimensional 3D orthogonal ..... in textiles ........... Steps in the production of a textile composite structure .. Maypole Two-step Four-step Multi-axial Types Resin braider braiding braiding warp for production process process of 2D bias braid .................. Tracings of yarn cross-sections in a 3D braided 2-31 .......... braid weave .................. cycle length for lxl..... (a) Yam volume fraction versus (a) inner yarn angle of inclination and (b) normalized cycle length for lxl.......... Ratio of outer (surface) yams straight to inner yams ...... 2-12..... 2-28 Figure 2-19.............. by 2-29 2-29 2-30 Figure Figure Figure 2-20..... .................... weave 4-step Inner yarn angle of inclination versus 4-step braid ...... braid . reinforcement .............................. 2-22........ 2-14........................................................... used for through-thickness ..... 2-2................... 2-6..........................Figures Figure Figure 2-1.... 2-18......................... 2-4.............................. by exchange locations ............. .................................... 2-8... 2-15... 2-2 Some of the textile forms available for high performance composite structures ........... composite viii ... 2-11.... A unit cell for a plain 3D unit cell for lxl...................... 2-5............. 2-9. 2-13..... 4-step braid ............. of stitching infusion 2-11 2-12 2-13 2-17 techniques Techniques Commonly Angles Triaxial Some for using thermoplastics patterns used 2D weave .....

................... Stitching Map bridging Figure4-9.............. (b) Notched Stress-strain tension 4-7 Figure 4-6.... 3-11 Figure 4-1....... 3-1..... hole tensile strengths tape laminates . Tensile strengths of stitched and unstitched IM7/3501-6 laminates.................. crack panel in a curved . Stitching with 0.... 2-26. 4-4 Figure 4-4.. part ...........Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 2-24. Use of 3D weaving An integrally A stitched The Moduli woven to create a branched structure ........ 2-25......................... Stress-strain curves for plain (a) Unnotched... Micrograph of a typical kink band in an aligned tow in an AS4/1895 3D interlock weave ................ The fiber direction is parallel to the bands of microcracks ...... Arrays of ogive microcracks in (a) an AS4/1895 tape laminate (from [4........... weave tested in uniaxial 4-11 Figure 4-7............................................ (5................. skin/stiffener of 2D Braids ........125 in................................. 4-13 4-14 4-15 Figure 4-8........ 2-32 2-32 2-33 skin/stiffener assembly preform ................ events in 4-2 Figure 4-2..... data for a 3D interlock with the stuffers a delamination for a curved aligned ... Schematic of delamination and shear failure a typical 2D weave ............... Comparison of unnotched and open for two triaxial braids and equivalent weaves.1]) and (b) a glass/urethane triaxial braid (from [4....................... 3-2.......... (a) AS4/1895 tape laminate (b) AS4/3501-6 plain weave .......1 mm) pitch (between penetrations within a row) and 0.0 mm) spacing between the stitching rows . 4-6 Figure 4-5. and Equivalent 3-5 Comparison of (a) unnotched and (b) notched strengths of 5-harness satin weave laminate and equivalent tape laminate ..............20 in..... of failure modes ix ........ Schematic following of buckling delamination under in-plane due to impact compression ... (3..........................2])........... woven carbon/eopxy laminate. Tape Laminates .... Typical stress-strain response of a polymer composite when the deviatoricstress in plies is pure shear..... Comparison of shear strengths of various T300/934 showing effect of crimp . Compression strengths and CAI data for stitched unstitched laminates ....... (d = 4 mm) .. 3-9 Figure 3-5. 3-7 Figure 3-3................. 4-2 Figure 4-3........ 3-8 Figure 3-4.. and 3-11 Figure 3-6.........

.............. 5-19 Figure 5-11..... The numbers at the right show the sequence of occurrence of warp weaver tows encountered on progressing into the plane of the figure .......... 5-3 Figure 5-3. Choices of unit cell in quasi-laminar textile composites.. ...... for 4-18 Figure 4-11....Figure 4-10...... (b) When stiff throughthickness reinforcement restricts lateral deflections to the intervals between successive through-thickness tows ............. The smaller...... Gauge sizes shown in inches in inset................... 5-10 5-15 Figure Figure 5-7.... Coordinates for transformation Three orthogonal symmetry planes (two marked by dashed lines and the third being the plane of the figure) in a stack of woven plies......... 5-8 Schematic of a 3D interlock weave. (a) When relatively soft through-thickness reinforcement acts as a soft elastic foundation.... 5-8.................... A simple paradigm shear and bending for estimating to the deflection the contributions of of a tow . 5-17 Figure 5-10........ 5-2.... 4-20 5-2 Figure Figure 5-1.......................... Schematic of a nonlinear damage band growing from a stress concentrator in a textile composite .. 1 in............................... (b) Variant of whole thickness cell in (a) for analyzing stacking effects ...... cells in a larger Figure 5-5......... allowing deflections over relatively long wavelengths. implying orthotropy over gauge lengths that are larger than the ply thickness and the period of the weave .. 5-7 Figure 5-4.... Schematic of two unit array ...... Schematics of buckling of an aligned tow under compression.. (a) Two approaches to modeling laminate properties. 5-22 x .. of tow properties .. solid-lined rectangle (lower right) shows a reduced cell that takes advantage of reflection symmetry about a vertical plane ........... Comparison of the elastic constants predicted tows in an AS4/1895 composite using various models from the literature ....... A kink band formed in fatigue in a misaligned segment of a stuffer in an AS4/1895 layer-to-layer interlock weave Translationally invariant 2D laminate .......... --....25........ Coefficient of variation of Young's modulus measurements as a function of the size of the gauge used relative to the unit cell dimension in that direction.. Alternative unit cells (short and long dash lines at upper left) in a plane woven laminate..... 5-16 Figure 5-9....4 mm ..... Nonperiodic nonuniform strains in a periodic structure under external loads... 5-9 Figure 5-6........

The axes are not to scale ..Figure 6-1.. (b) Combined transverse and axial shear loads.... (a) Combined aligned and axial shear loads.. 6-9 x± ..... Failure loci for individual tows or plies in terms of the local stress state. The x-axis is aligned with local fiber direction... Measured compressive strengths of 3D interlock weaves compared with predictions based on measurements of misalignment angles and the critical shear flow stress .. 6-6 Figure 6-2..

S. in collecting and checking source codes and preparing a scanned compendium of user's guides. and John Whitcomb cooperated very graciously in supplying codes and documentation. Bhavani Sankar. C. Raju. George Sherrick. Ms. Kishore Pochiraju. Tulsa. North American Aircraft Division.C. and Ms. They are especially indebted to Dr. Charles E. Drs.Acknowledgments The authors acknowledge with pleasure the assistance of Dr. whose vision in assembling the Textiles Working Group within the Advanced Composites Technology program provided the background out of which the handbook grew. Ramesh Marrey. who worked for many hours with unflagging good humour in editing the final version. Chris Pastore. and Mr. Harris and Mr. Barbara Burg of Rockwell Science Center. (Buddy) Poe of NASA Langley. Rajiv Naik. Ron Martin of Rockwell. Mafia Lee. Tsu-Wei Chou. their xii . I.

in aircraft many structures. textiles with limited is that they many the deals mainly attention promise with models panels. for textile composites Yet one of the longer net shape.0 INTRODUCTION 1. matrix Models is not as high assuming Readers as it is for stiff fibers would in a high anisotropy working with not be appropriate or metals for ceramic exercise composites.1 Scope The predicting best suited stiffness regime superior purpose of this handbook is to introduce models and computer interest ranked detail codes for the properties to applications of textile composites. limit. manufactured term integral as flat of to curved a method and attractions structures. But textile therefore composites includes failure.INTRODUCTION 1. However. ceramics should accordingly. are also favoured several models The handbook all the way for predicting work of of the stress-strain fracture failure. attendant possibility of debonding 1-1 . and predict damage and models are therefore the elastic for their the proportional tolerance. The composites This of primary are those high in is first to say those discussed which and strength. The fiber and matrix particular the degree polymeric or metal caution material. The handbook panels. mechanisms such as delamination. and design by proper for avoiding design. The textile classes receiving at least some treatment are: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 2D woven 2D braided laminates stitched laminates laminates of knitted plies laminates weaves (v) (vi) (vii) 3D interlock 3D braids 3D nonwoven composites. and cutting saving material the waste. and notch response to ultimate rules textile methods certain for assessing critical sensitivity. in service. of manufacturing steps failures eliminating preventing machining joining in manufacture. materials many need not be specified models until the models are applied to a if are based on assumptions such that may be invalid as carbon or glass of anisotropy matrix.

whose and exist on its sound accuracy and domain are questions to textiles correct requires understanding of concepts that are peculiar and very recent in their development. of failure are sufficiently in so many ways. and material each with the latter composites. 1. Therefore textile composites textile textiles Section have processes the handbook before and offers tutorial chapters on the technology 2 surveys and mechanics the rich diversity of of the models are presented. part Unfortunately. Section some products.2 Layout of the Handbook The intended audience for this handbook familiar is the practicing design engineer. It is to be hoped will be included in future of the handbook. new and so unlike that it would at face value how imprudent to use for a designer it. on the verge Some of textile producing available technologies.ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES necessity braiding. for all the 1-2 . controlling present microstructural Sections 5 through of essential the models themselves. of applicability it should be used. Section 3 highlights more familiar of the distinctions should many in cases between remember. those who textile of tape might be assumed composites laminates model work. at least The reader is strongly understanding sections to acquire a rudimentary in modeling textile composites. and user's Source guides codes written by authors are supplied in Section the appendices. of are continual already there though inspection. sample input and output 8 and decks. of which where the 7 and tape laminates 4 details the known that designers mechanisms laminates. shapes. Details the original of the codes. section which prefaced by a summary before With is offered geometrical exercised concepts of models through challenges and modeling over the choice concepts. appraisal any judgment the guidance of the relative advised of the can be of these merits to work special for a particular data. to be very with the mechanics their mechanisms be very and of composites. Whether what answer limits to take any a model will of a textile whether composite proceed it is the best available. of code must be mastered application. However. a critical and available that claim all these experimental to calculate the same quantities. maps of failure and offers parameters being of textile a few are no parallel in traditional failure known. cost especially integral stitching and effective structures. motivation even are almost no models at the time of writing of integral they textile for general the technological advantage structures is a strong editions for their development.

Other handbook's literature. the handbook. key models scope and computer codes have also been population included to ensure that the is representative of the growing of models in the modem At least some of the models of vigorous have been models experimental studied programs. CR-4750. 1. of being conceived in the midst mechanisms realistic than strength.nasa. Instructions handbook for accessing is available at: http://coins.gov/ltrs. on entirely by which theoretical it might grounds. the names of codes are printed in UPPER CASE 1.larc. and damage are more extensively. source codes and user's guides for programs described in this 1-3 . a dozen This research groups was conducted in 1994 by about in universities and industry. have had the advantage in which stiffness. be hoped that they formulated The ACT program has also funded the writing of this first edition of the handbook.3 Historical Origins Many within Langley the of the models Advanced presented were developed (ACT) by the Textiles Working by years Group NASA ending Composites Technology Program over a period sponsored of five Research Center.larc.nasa.INTRODUCTION modelspresented available are platform and verified to perform over the internet.4 lnternet Access This report Server (LTRS) is also available the Uniform in electronic Resource format from the Langley Technical Report using Locator (URL): http://techreports.gov Refer to NASA Contractor Report No. as claimed All codes have been compiled cases. on a Unix in at least a few representative Throughout BOLD TYPE.

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details At the molecular that profoundly and scale. The part shown formed fibers. a mold. A textile composite both the polymer and matrix has internal and the structure exhibit on several structural scales. perhaps the stiffened the textile forms Since part of an engineering structure skin of a wing as small or fuselage. other Matrix things. stresses directions. approximately where the effects heterogeneous structure at the tow level are averaged structure. and strength each tow behaves along a highly transverse with far greater tows are rarely its axis than in arrays. step. the fabrication structure may no longer of the composite be considered the fabrication To fabricate engineering composite operations. Finally. axial stiffness On a coarser strength to the arrangement ~1 mm. is an integrally of yams from 2-1 illustrates in one textile process. strong composites. owe their properties Carbon are determined fibers. out. which and by chain are often morphology the preferred among choice materials. OVERVIEW OF TEXTILES Textile and processes.OVERVIEWOFTEXTILES 2. strong yarns into stiff. the engineering itself usually material distinct and has some dimensions of the as ~ 10 mm. typically lots of 10 3 . the yams of the skin into plain and The cloths to create are then up in the shape Finally. Within solid entity. scale. Figure the textile scales is to fabricate the structure. aerospace atoms fibers stiffness. performance those the processes and architectures structures that can yield composites These with the textiles required for aerospace will be summarized. stitched together an integral in preform. of carbon in oriented are bundled anisotropic graphitic sheets. high composites for engineering structures draw on many traditional textile forms In this section. Because strong the finished stiffness packed composite. the composite part is consolidated by the infiltration of resin and curing 2-1 . say ~ can only be considered 10 mm or higher. laid skin/stiffener In the second assembly. The first processing are woven and stiffener step is the formation woven cloth.. Thus parallel and strains properties are even possess variations from tow to tow. composite uniform of the on mechanical scales that such as elasticity larger still. affect crossin fibers strength linking. often in straight. are generally that most effectively translate stiff.10 4 as into yarns or tows.

in highly than aligning fiber volume and. developed. The 2-1 also exemplifies length of the stitches reinforcement varies that is heterogeneous on the scale of the with the thickness of either the rib itself simultaneously. high volume in-plane can therefore many be expected. Steps in the production of a textile composite structure. this without already distributions programs analyzing such focuses for the external a task on which are geometry still being for computer handbook complicating available. requires Dealing adequately architecture of the part in determining itself. The fabrication axial stiffness method of Figure 2-1 also illustrates fairly high utilization of the and strength and of the fibers. Figure structure.ANALYTICAL METHODSFORTEXTILE COMPOSH'ES Dry Preform Fibers (Thousands _"----I_" Yarn of Fibers) Textile Process v Thickness of order I . can achieve only moderate inadequate for fractions. case so in this fiber they must simultaneously.10 mm Thickness of order 10 iJm Thickness of order 1 mm Assemble reforms Thickness of order 10 mm Molding Final Machine Operations Tooling Resin Transfer i_ P Stitching Taclfiers Figure 2-1. sheets. tested and programs 2-2 . of the openness stiffness fiber mats These of the fabric. Therefore. However. because Composite reasons. them. For example. with the of the flange of the rib and Just as the be their spacing material analyzed stress and is not far below the structure the thickness are fabricated or the flanges. to perform edition shapes. with reasonably The fibers in the skin are arranged fraction. other High approximately composite do not rather in-plane stiffness achieve and straight and strength this. or slabs are in its first external solutions developed skins. unattractive consideration For to discontinuous will are usually from further designers. materials in the handbook. knitted fabrics Certain loop yams traditional curved textiles paths. similar airframe and strength and are consequently reinforcements be excluded airframes.

_.OVERVIEWOF TEXTILES 2. Some of the textile forms available for high performance composite structures... conventional fibers been modified to reduce costs the high modulus automation.1..1. to the have machines been used in creating them. High-performance textile needed composite machinery in airframes structures having and all the processes to handle listed...'_ -'_ Stitching _ Quasi-laminar Tubular Cartesian / _ 2"Step 4-Step Multi-Step -_ / 1 Nonlaminar Non-Woven N-Directional -7 Nonlaminar Figure 2-2..c-s I J / Quasi-Laminar in elastic regime only Orthogonal Interlock Multi-Axial Warp Quasi-Laminar Bias 2D . the most important were investigated etc. The left and created in many through (weaving. _Plaln -7 w. \ / '" Knit \... Interlock . column processes using cases 2-2 introduces many of which braiding. 2.1.1 Dimensionality into 2D and 3D composites of the matrix) can transport is determined loads by whether the fiber preform alone The division (in the absence continuously in three or only two linearly 2-3 .) categorizes groups during textiles of textile NASA's according forms ACT that are candidates Program.1 Textile Processes 2.1 Categorizations Figure for airframes.. TrIaxIe' Angle | _._''-Trlaxlal 1 Braids 3D _/..

with roughly equal load beating will be called to respond capacity "nonlaminar.2.Thiscannotbedonefor a 3D composite. [2. experience modes categorization 1Direction vectors are linearly independent if none of them can be expressed as a simple combination of the others. 2. Thusa2D composite 1 hasdistinctlayers.3]). unacceptable tolerance fibers can to through-thickness for most volume sheet reinforcement applications. category. through-thickness and so much through-thickness character of textiles with damage reinforcement (Sect. the optimal reinforcement Instead." substantial triaxial stresses exist. must without damage thickness laminates composites stiffness few designed for skin or sheet applications When high in-plane relatively and strength be dedicated properties. of throughways like loss of in-plane And indeed modest and delamination (Sect.2 Quasi-Laminar In modeling can be considered nature.ANALYTICAL METHODSFORTEXTILE COMPOSITES independent directions. system. 2-4 . Occasionally.1. textiles textile composites manufactured are often to complex element part geometry beam for example equiaxed the union cross-section. Of course. fibers will will where no longer be arranged be a laminate by some with moderate textile process Such through-thickness reinforcement. 4. Thus three in-plane directions cannot be linearly independent. As the curvature bending delamination moments. may be categorized obliges to that the part loses its laminar how the main classes Figure laminar 2-2 shows as quasi- or nonlaminar. are demanded.2]).as in a w in d laminated plain weave.1.which may be separated without breakingfibers. the majority lie in-plane.but surfaces maybedefinedthroughwhich no towspassand which separatehecomposite t into layers. all 2D and many 3D textile composites their macroscopic to function the routes textile as laminates. even and Nonlaminar Textiles properties. 4.yarns in textilecomposites are def'medto be 2D that maystill follow pathsegments ith components the through-thicknessirection.1. to their with relatively manufacture minor allowance for their textile conventional fall into this of fibers though Most are very different from tape lay-up. of a skin and stiffening But even a curved be considered greater or a short with approximately with through plate designed as a laminate is thickness reinforcement must nonlaminar if its curvature tension is generated is needed sufficiently by applied suppress high. [2. increases." along all three axes of a Cartesian Nonlaminar and triaxial loads. resistance Textile require fractions in most composites that behave will be called In structures "quasi-laminar.

fabrics are created on a multiwarp yarns loom. loom.1. for many years.1. fabric follow 2-3). They offer a low cost of fabricating have large areas with only a small sacrifice of unidirectional (warp same and weft) material by warp tape. either as a dry preform multiple layers or pre-impregnated of 2D weaves strength are and Woven with a B-staged applications. have the warp [2. 2. intersecting that The controls paths so that the yams through the braider a tubular the A mandrel be used relative to control configuration.1 Weaving Weaves method have been used in composites of material. speed of the yam carriers to the transverse speed of the mandrel 2-5 .4) roles in textile composites.2. lift and lower harnesses into layers the warp to form separate lift different while others groups weave of warp yams to different so that some are formed the layers together.which is a muchmore in difficult problem. important been obtained with laminates sets of yarns and use Weaves two or more orthogonal similar hybrid numbers weaves of fibers on a loom.1. 2.2. tape In most laminates. uasi-laminar omposites to Q c cangenerallybe modeled accurately somemodificationof standard by laminatetheory. As in a conventional the interlacing pattern. broadgoods epoxy may be purchased matrix. eventhough in the to elasticregimeit is clearlyquasi-laminar.OVERVIEWOF TEXTILES of a textileas nonlaminarin describingits passage ultimatefailure. the layers laminated stiffness.2. in the properties are made Most and by that would interlacing contain However. As with are oriented to tailor 3D woven harnesses multiwarp alternately loom.2 Preforms 2. In the heights. Whethera textileis quasi-laminar r nonlaminaris a crucialquestionin choosingan o appropriate approach modelingitsproperties. together. 2.2. in both yarns weaves weft.2 Flat Braiding from Cylindrical Mandrels Traditional circular passes rotational braiding involves interlace may a series to form of yam carriers fabric final that (Fig.4] and weaves dominated (Sect. Nonlaminartextiles requirea modelthatcomputes thedistributionof stresses all tows.

ANALYTICAL METHODSFORTEXTILE COMPOSITES . in the cross-sectional to form and more complex of yarn of the final component.. ith the braidedfabric w conformingto themandrelshape (as long as the perimeter is not re-entrant). While columns that move carriers original paths positions by passing after a small number from one track of steps. Fixed. directions. 2-6 . Braiding the tracks can be concatenated exchanging return rows to their complex cross-sections. net layers. section preforms. often in rectangular Multiple proceeds or annular rectangles by alternately yam patterns.e. The braider yarns lock the axial yarns into the fabric.3 in three in-plane sheet can be formed sheet from the mandrel it out flat.he orientationof the yams. carriers.1. yam carriers. the carriers themselves can follow to another. 3D Braiding 3D intertwined are arranged braiding that there can produce thick.Number of d -__ Formation Ring Figure 2-3.Themandrelcanvary in cross-section.2. straight axial yarns can also be introduced at the center of orbit of the braider a triaxial braid. in which the yam tows are so may be no distinct In one process. Maypole braider for production of 2D bias braid. V Ft/Min N. a braid reinforced A flat braided and stretching 2. by cutting the cylindrical forming i. carriers (bobbins) sometimes in a two-dimensional shape grid.

1.OVERVIEW OFTEXTILES Three-dimensional braidscan be characterized s two-step. The braider in opposite the number of movements process required for the in Fig. Step 2 Figure 2-4. four-step. by The two-step along is illustrated diagonals directions alternating formed the axial yarns.o o. in Fig. The four-step shifted a prescribed process relative is shown distance. Two-step braiding process.o. and multia stepprocesses. step involves rows shifting alternate alternate columns rows. controls the which involves distance shifting columns also braid More In a l xl braid. of Magnaweave. machines use a beater variable to control which compaction as the yarns fabric interlace. procedure relative Multistep control and braiding over columns is a generalization and rows. The next and does term braiding.o. complex SCOUDID. In the first step. individual of the distances rows 2-5.o. he numberof stepsrefersto T yarn carrriers 2-4. The degree 2. 0 • Axial Yarn Yarn Braider o /o o\o\o\o\o\o\o\/o/o/o/o/o/o/o/ ovvvvx Step I /o/o/o/o/o/o/o/ o. of strong. stiff fibers with fine yarns of glass or polyester 2-7 . The steps permute the columns bobbin to return the device to its original position in one (although 4-step an individual not return for processes to its original that include process is a general and Cartesian Omniweave. the four-step The pattern. of the rows and columns are equal. to return yams to their original move positions.4 of compaction Uniweaves is a process affects the resulting The uniweave tape with the handling of primary yams concept combines the mechanical property potential of unidirectional Uniweave consists advantages and low-cost woven fabrication together of a fabric.2. braid patterns 3D braiding the shifting are possible. geometry.o. are The third and fourth configuration cycle).o.

ANALYTICAL METHODSFORTEXTILE COMPOSITES thread. a symmetric.The glassor polyesterthreads.45°.2. of the total weight. seven most commonly stack may be preferred twist and bending in the final laminate.The fibers in the primary yarns remaincloseto unidirectional. four oriented layers. The knitted stacks can also be process is operation. in layers which are The with 0 °. 2.which contributearound2% of the total weight. __. threads 2-6). The major advantage of the knitting its low cost compared Stacks layer to conventional contain to control tape lay-up. servemainly tohold theprimaryyarnstogetherduring subsequent handling. amount passed to a small percentage around the primary The knitting is done During with fine polyester knitting. 2-8 . However. and 90 ° orientations. Typical Carrier 'O E • --1 CI E Start Step I 3 El Step 2 o -1 Step 3 • -] IPath of Typical Carrier Step 4 Figure 2-5. yams and one another of layers The desired the polyester loops (Fig.5 Warp Knits The multi-axial warp knit process ties yarns of primary fibers together threads. in interpenetrating mechanical in each laminated stitched properties four of the stack orientations.1. Four-step braiding process.Multiple layersof uniweaveare often stitchedtogetherto form a sheetof anydesiredthickness. can be controlled stacks form by selecting building blocks the yam which weight can be of the knitted to form the thickness together in a secondary for some structure.

the preform between preform is introduced. In addition.1. Stitching resin provides plies usually mechanical allowing stitching must be attached connection to 0/90 ° weaves. to a skin. thicker stitching through material. in recent to stitch It significantly years dry has been enhances damage manufacturing which speed. Less the fiber preform to the final desired in the tool. compression In satisfied volume stitch needed.2. the volume percent minimum latitude in is set by the fabrication lower bound in current there is considerable sometimes exceeds technology properties. damage of stitching process. Multi-axial warp knit. damage tolerance.OVERVIEWOF TEXTILES Carbon Yarns Polyester Knitting Thread Figure 2-6. one to the preform strength and requirements However. the amount thus unnecessarily sacrificing in-plane 2-9 .6 Stitching Stitching reinforcement major has been used for more than 20 years to provide through-thickness tolerance. structure. thickness. mechanical the completed compacts to be handled closer or damage. stitching also aids fabrication. need then be applied many applications. 2. and greatly reduces the in-plane fibers. of resin material. damage The in composite advance allow allows one structures. While tolerance fibers. the would be by less than of stitching density. the introduction rather than prepreg transfer This to processes enhances preforms. before shifting the Many textile bias a As well as enhancing processes generate preforms that cannot serve as the complete or stiffeners elements without For example.

carbon.3 of the completed (compression fabric to impart tolerance Molding strength after impact). Success of injection high quality often and depends venting parts have on having ports. and excess In a successful The part is then cured the preform at elevated is fully Resin temperature wetted flow while still in the mold. uses only one the modified stitching lock thread. and the viscosity high of the resin.1. Vent of the f'mal part. matrix processes suitable have been polymer composites. but achieving RTM process. by the permeability for low fiber of the fiber preform volume fractions. distortion pitch be controlled of stitching. 2- One approach 8a). of Various and stitching successfully most popular. Yam Kevlar. between and the chain the lock the thread rather that parallel of stitching stitch (Fig. laminate. on materials Numerous and methods are available for for this step. with weights for Kevlar 800 and 2000 denier weight Stitching usually that contributes been found around 2% of the satisfactory total areal damage 2.ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES Two forms stitch whereas stitch. demonstrated. is called resin in a mold transfer molding or RTM (Fig. fiber volume is Permeability usually is higher but of course Despite demanded been good to maximize made process structural performance. are of interest 2-7). of the stitching including carbon. with resin. composites. the weight internally. ports. In the modified surface The the is adjusted This so that the knot mim'rnizes include the on the outer of the laminate. lock of the stitching spacing stitch requires tension than may rows bobbin and needle forms threads. to identify the optimum location 2-10 . with fiber volume models exceeding 60%. penetrations. connected A low to a is pumped evacuate in via a series trapped gases of injection resin. A key ability This to infuse handbook technology for making textiles practicable in composite structures is the a dry preform will focus with a matrix. has material. is controlled full wetting can be challenging in a complex part. separate The for structural chain stitch applications. materials Kevlar have between and the stitching have been being been the used. viscosity vacuum resin pump. parameters between yarn. In this process. metal Other technologies and ceramic to matrix the preform such as vapor matrix infusion is placed deposition developed for carbon- matrix. glass. fractions this conflict. with the shape ports.

i". process is called resin film infusion next to the fiber and the resin starts materials (RFI) (Fig. Additional The techniques materials thermoplastic into a preform the matrix.(. 2-9.J l/.zlV l Figure 2-7. the thickness RFI allows of the resin wetting methods through the fibers. Another solid sheets viscosity preform. to produce a hybrid hybrid fibers is woven into a tool. I.'./All/."-.lifl//Ir///AIV///_ I • .'. the of the of of resin material drops are placed dramatically Since for preform. possibility yarn.". 2-8b).. developed the resin prepreg inside the tool. tooling bagging).nate-I___ Knot Bobbin Thread a) Lock Stitch Pitch Surface Loop _r t / !1 .'ilRV//A Lam.5]). are both suitable materials the for thermoset resin.. fibers This (Fig. thread the thermoplastic can be spun over melt and form of the the outside 2-11 . flows At cure temperatures. In this process../ / / / l_" / . processes are being developed can be spun into for thermoplastic fibers./ / J • Im I _II////.1 r///ll/A / Knot b) Chain Stitch Laminate v l'////. full wetting.I ". the use and (single-sided tooling vacuum used in a which The amount of resin is controlled by the number of sheets of resin given area. When the thermoplastic heated... The distance simplifies the problem RTM and the resin needs of obtaining RFI to flow is usually less than in an RTM tool. Types of stitching used for through-thickness reinforcement...ll:" l /. _V"I / / /.OVERVIEW OF TEXTILES Surface Loop J Needle Thread I! !1 I I\\\\NIi\\\"-.. The [2. of Thermoplastic the offers commingling yam and reinforcing and placed Alternatively.

is that most glass. b) Rosin Film Infusion infusion techniques 1 2. fiber damage. In another process. most of the fibers carbon. to the properties transverse micromechanical relations properties of composites. Injection Port Pump Vent Port To Vacuum I I Closed Mold Preform Resin a) Resin Transfer Modling Vacuum Bag Breather Preform Resin Sheets [ Figure 2-8. from by For fiber. there arises they cannot between be measured by conventional mechanical moduli is a relationship from the degree can also the axial and transverse of the graphite by fitting crystals of a carbon of alignment be inferred that make up the fiber. which Nonaxial measured that properties they data are sheets. Resin oo. subject to fiber Machines brittle textile processes to bending have been modified or stiff fibers cannot to minimize be used. aramid. The only and commonly limitation abrasion. since of some transversely The popular fibers are shown Axial in Table 2. properties have been transverse properties techniques.2 Materials Textile structural selection processes have been including adapted to handle and yarns but. used in composites. isotropic. in many processes exceptionally Important assumption manufacturers' various example.1. 2-12 . were estimated with the usual obtained indirectly tests.ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES reinforcing thermoplastic fiber bundle. the reinforcing yarns are coated with powder.

04 OATen MPa 2440 2970 3490 4500 3940 2990 3040 OAComp MPa 700 2690 2700 2700 2700 1570 1050 P k. in a usually m composite.Transverse. 8. or K).Axial thermal conductivity The textile size of the yarn Yarn into which fibers are bundled is a very count (the (the shows The important number parameter of fibers. T .OVERVIEW OF TEXTILES • Carbon Fiber Fiber Powder © Thermoplastic .0 9. oA - Axial strength. is based of or as a linear (length carbon the denier Table 2. nominal (area into See a circular area of the by convention (This volume on an assumed aasumption fractions should should fraction be carded of fibers models Sect. 2-13 .?-.5 9.17 -0.1 Fiber Properties Name Type EA GPa ET GPa 7 14 13 12 12 90 7 GA GPa 22 22 21 19 19 36 3 OfA /zm/m-K -0.2 number the of grams relation diameter in 9000 or the for yield two per unit fibers and mass). an between of over of 5.75.0 10.17 0.! . 0.) these aramid packing not fiber.50 kA W/m-K 520.Thermoplastic a) Commingled b) Spun c) Powder Coated Figure 2-9.g/m 3 2150 1770 i 800 1770 1740 2490 1440 P100 T300 A $4 IM6 IM7 S-2 Kevlar-49 Pitch PAN PAN PAN PAN Glass Aramid 772 231 248 276 276 90 112 A . as a filament either in thousands of yarn) parameters yam circle) properties.17 -0. kA .50 .0 0.Axial.0 10. size is expressed density.17 -0. Techniques for using thermoplastics in textiles. Fiber composite always be measured. Table 2.44 -0.

yams structural are twisted composites.3.71 !. or spinning a PEEK matrix Table is a typical thermoplastic in Section Weights for manufacture 2. and Dimensions via commingling onto yams.12 1.19 2.84 0. or nominally to maximize which coverage.07 0.6 _tm 2-14 . Therefore. to provide in contrast.64 0.15 0. this allows In forming compaction to maximize the total volume twist fraction or flattening the yarns axial with in braids) of yarns.24 0.34 0.3). data fibers. would reduce is paramount in airframe are preferred.22 0.45 Yam with Pd = 0.g. 2.77 0. and Shell RSL-1895. of Circular Fiber Filament count Area of Fibers /mm2) Hercules AS4 Dia = 7. structural softer integrity yarns are to hold shape.35 0.25 0.48 ! .2 Typical as described Yarn Diam. BP Chemical E-905L. including 3M PR-500. structures.1.1 _tm Density = 1850 kg/m 3 3K 6K 12K 30K 75K Hercules Density IM6 = 1800 kg/m 3 3K 6K 12K 30K 75K Du Pont Kevlar Dia= 11.90 I . which is crucial Some for flow epoxies used use resins a low permeability have been used in (see them of the and 3502.1. Section attractive formulated with e. in textile meet composites manufactured of having or RFI for commercial state (100-500 complete Hercules The wetting 3501-6 extensive There are Epoxies the requirement through that a low-viscosity preform prepregs.75 0.44 0.42 2. (especially stiffness minimal since textile industry.74 ! .75 (mm) 0.9 Ixm Density = 1440 kg/m 3 49 1K 2K 3K 4K 0.50 0.98 0. choices.12 0. Furthermore.87 Denier (g/9000m) 1990 3980 7960 19900 49800 1190 2380 4770 11900 29800 1450 2900 4350 5800 Dia = 5.29 0. matrix applications.11 0. 2.45 0.ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES In the traditional and the ability desirable. have also been their of for the RTM has process made available also from in prepregs that have now a number been especially for RTM.62 0. zero twist (tows) Epoxy by RTM resins have been the predominant aircraft cps).

sites also break stretching warp yams.1. so as not to connect. A disadvantage made of the plain frequent crimp the as the The For pattern. In addition. exchange between strains. to shear conformability. 2-10(b). conformability for example. 2D Weaves Weaves plain weave may be classified in Fig. layers satin weave are arranged in Fig. (or drape) face the tool. of rotations symmetry unit Nevertheless. Unfortunately. unit cell is of crystallography that the entire use by the requirement of it.1. or in the case of the crow's- foot pattern so as not to lie on continuous of satin weave fabric diagonals. and (d). ply is Individual predominantly bend yams are asymmetric. One side of the fabric because weave in-plane (Fig. satin the from top to bottom and stiffness by each yarn. is also are not Bending coupling symmetric and symmetry they are in an asymmetric coupled. 2-10(c) has a 4-over.1 Unit Cells The geometry following defined copies the example of a periodic textile is conveniently ([2. the other fill. from The of unit cells.1 The Ideal Geometry geometry of Textile Reinforcement 2. Exchange way. of straight shown of exchanges Of particular pattern and increase interest is defined the lengths segments (known are the satin weaves by the number shown in Fig. There in a satin and consequently because Coupling of thermal between about stretching either in-plane warping laminate shear. 2. widths between (c). by the pattern of interlacing. of a weave The type involves of manufacturing weave affects considerations dimensional Satin as well stability weaves.3.3 2.1. exchanges reduces number "float"). The simplest weave pattern is the is the shown of position 2-10(a).3. suggests a preference.5). see also described section in terms 5.OVERVIEW OF TEXTILES 2. This waviness Other weave patterns of yam or yam reduce strength of the composite. in the textile The usually spatially cell is not translated unique. 1-under weave of yarn example. and as final and the of the fabric over complex good surfaces. resistance 2-15 .6]. the five harness the exchanges (Fig.2 as in crystallography. 2-11).3. locations bending Warping axis during and stretching can be minimized will tend to cause in a multilayer cure because which by considering side of each ply should The mechanical conformability exhibit good selection properties. 2-10(b)). without the textile can be constructed or reflections. exchanges.

the relative the into the braiding crossovers therefore process bias much to create yams. the area covered A less is for full full coverage by the axial yarns. rotated a 1x 1 by 45 °. Wb/COS Full coverage 0 =P/2N of a bias yam as it lies on the mandrel. elasticity.3.1.5]). of resin Applications A large braider for braids can be limited by the size of the braiding has 144 yarn carriers alone and a bed diameter is required is obtained of 2. the actual braid would have complete coverage. However. 2-13(b).) the designation refers to the number of bias yarns between crossover Longitudinal triaxial principle. from a plain Structurally. brads. Often. 2-12. a wide range of final properties Figures show normally can be obtained. machines available. the The axial or axial yarns axial yarns can can be introduced within straight. of a In are trapped remain of the retain yams and their of the properties. These figures (c). would have also been A single ply of triaxial have approximately isotropic in-plane 2D Braids Figure braid 2-13(a) shows the interlacing pattern for a ±0 bias braid. to minimize full coverage gaps and the mandrel pockets by the bias yams on each pass when [2.25 m.7] in the structure. implying in which [2. pattern pattems braid. the braid As with woven (d) show with gaps of crossovers for triaxial can be controlled. directions yams may be may not curved product. orthogonal in the fabricated Most shear angles material 2.3 resistance 2D weaves within involve a single two orthogonal ply.ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES are mutually complex impossible remain exclusive. fabricated directions triaxial (Fig. wb is the width N is the number of bias yam carriers in operation. 2-16 . Thus. between bias yarns coverage is obtained and the longitudinal on a pass including when axis of the structure. the yams to each other. with yams oriented at ±45 ° is indistinguishable "nxn" weave (In a 2D braid. By controlling size of the axial yams and the angle fabrics. In that case. unidirectional the bias yarns. while woven must fabrics are frequently that specified and initially the material material orthogonal of choice for geometries.1) of the the where mandrel. to maintain the designer on a doubly be aware surface. and P is the perimeter 0 is the angle severe constraint (2. of yam. and patterns three possible the between yarns for clarity. points. weak in-plane form 60 ° weaves.

..... e) 2x2 Twill f) 2x2 Basket Weave m__ Figure 2...... 2-17 ... ii._ Cell a) Plain Weave b) Crows-Foot Satin Weave c) Five-Harness Satin Weave d) Eight-Harness Satin Weave llrlrllmllJll:: :...OVERVIEW OF TEXTILES wL +%/cos O= P/2N (2....10......... Commonly used 2D weave patterns.....2) Unit ....

yarn tends an upper maximum to prevent limit width flattening).0 mm. The maximum the linear density width of the yams is controlled by a including of the yarn. for a 12K yam.i!(iii!i N 2 ii!ii_ _ r_rr_ i}:§ f_ ?::gI_. L Ii i ¢ I Figure 2-12. The last factor [2.i ?:I(:AI) ! i_iiii] a) Five-Harness Satin Weave b) Eight-Harness Satin Weave Figure 2-11.5] imposes reports a to the Reference for a 6K carbon yam of 1. the degree of twist (twisting !ii ! _N iili! _i)ii@ . Angles of the diagonal patterns formed by exchange locations. Triaxial weave. width and the size of the carrier of approximately 5 mm guides. 2-18 . of an axial yarn. [2.9 mm.ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES where several WE is the width parameters. and 3.7].

2D braiding.OVERVIEW OF TEXTILES The jamming.._'... The total thickness multiple series passes of nearly of a braided are made similar the layers. Axial Yams at Alternate Crossovers _Rii._ Rectangular lUI'_I]I_ Unit Cell _ b) lxl Trlaxlal Braid. Some common 2D braid patterns. This lays down there to a lamination. for triaxial braids is part may be controlled through the braiding For by overbraiding. machine. is no mechanical connection between notation A convenient 2-19 . Axial Yams at Each Crossover Smallest Rectangular Unit Cell d) 2x2 Trlaxlal Braid Figure 2-13. in which a of the mandrel identical layers. c) lxl Trlaxlal Braid. a fabric.1111. also limits the ratio of the minimum and maximum 0 Rhomboidal Unit Cell Braid Angle Rectangular Unit Cell s) lxl . Jamming minimum which and maximum braid angles shear are limited by the phenomenon of is related to the maximum distortion that can be put on radii of the mandrel. Axial Yams Bias Braid J Smallest ...

collectively connects Various only two planes intermediate of layers. patterns. While for this notation of it suffices estimates properties modified 2. than warp yams used for interlock. common are shown in Fig. +-0mK] Y% Axial yams in thousands of fibers (K). indicates volume many a braid with 30K axial yarns and 6K bias yams. without straight warp They yams Interlock (stuffers) to produce sometimes reinforced manufactured predominantly a composite in one direction. 2-14. a specified the combinations can be with the weavers number weavers In orthogonal orthogonal interlock warp through the thickness to both in-plane weaves directions. weavers Figure a through-the-thickness Figures fabric.6 2D laminate 3D Interlock Weaves A 3D weave are connected classes varied. are as shown in Fig. of introducing additional bias direction yarns at A major to achieve of 3D weaves One solution is the difficulty is to stitch in-plane 2D fabric plies oriented __. details of the fabric theory.ANALYTICAL METHODSFORTEXTILE COMPOSITES [0nK/ where braider) n is the size of the axial yams. may also be fabricated with weft rather limitation isotropy. a given weaver 2-14(b) and (c) show of weft layer interlock the weavers fabricated. 2-14(d). an integral there structure. m is the size of the bias For example. (or and Y is the percentage [030K / -706K] of axial yams 46% Axial in the preform.3. and a braid angle geometry.45 onto the woven ° 2-20 .1. pass though where the entire thickness. with 46% of the does total fiber not convey based on in the axial yarns. pass bind the entire thickness. preform. of 70 °. penetrating weaves. Angle weavers the warp contains multiple planes of nominally straight warp and weft yams The most that together by warp weavers to form each class. but penetrate. Within are several parameters that can be interlock weaves 2-14(a) can be categorized shows by the number of layers interlock that the warp in which layer-toyams.

layers in a 3D braid. Three-dimensional weave patterns.ver b) Layer-Layer Angle Straight-Interlacing Interlock Structure c) Layer-to-Layer Angle interlock Wavy-Interlacing Structure Figure 2-14. forms.7 3D Braids An extension interlock through of braiding technology There is the 3D braid.Stuffer Warp (Straight Weaver Warp) el o| o lo_o 'o_o_o_o_oto_o -y y.3.3. net-shape such matching to the can be set up to produce stiffener cross-sections. near of the final part. braid is also generally yarns may be introduced A 3D braiding cross-section nonlaminar. are no distinct in which the braiding yarns a volume of material.OVERVIEWOFTEXTILES 2. Orthogonal which 3D materials will later are fabricated and around direction planar (or rods be withdrawn directions inserting yarns in the two orthogonal arrangement of fiber bundles remains shows a typical other textile that might be obtained relatively straight in this process.1. Typical as 'T' and "T" shapes can be produced. as with a 2D braid. |o '. by fixing replaced the fixed primarily a series by yams). A 3D • n _% Filler (Weft) .t Iq Interlock Surface Warp Weaver J Body Warp W.8 Orthogonal Nonwoven Composites There carbon one is a long history of 3D. the reinforcement throughout the preform 2-21 .y. yams. 2.1.oiolol• •loi0 a) Through-Thickness Angle Interlock d) Orthogonal I o |q mq -. and strength nominally straight axial the stiffness in one direction. in carbonof yarns and Figure in then 2-15 Unlike in composites. non-woven reinforcements. to improve machine although.

and from and geometry Calculations characteristics 2-22 .2 parameters The relation of volume fraction and fabric geometry to process The properties of all fibers characteristics geometry.3.3.1 2D Weaves and the of textile proportions composites of the with useful depend most of all on the total volume fibers that point by fairly in various simple directions. 2.8]. cross-sectional of these shapes.2. of pure malrix material of shaping to fill and interstitial elements one [2. by the fiber directions The problem while maximizing the volume they occupy is an interesting Figure 2-15. The concept number somewhat with fiber strength of multiple direction linear reinforcement orientations.ANALYTICAL METHODSFORTEXTILE COMtK)S1TES all directions. shear can be significant loading advantages [2.9]. a 4D or 5D material and multidirectional are considered 2. yam paths. 3D orthogonal composite. corners when be created directions of a cube. models fraction These can be predicted accuracy of the fabric Crucial the pattern properties of a 2D weave of exchange include points. his T the substantial arranging straight pattern of reinforcement areas created in several requires volumes bundles. These can be extended are termed a 4D material There nD to a larger (in a of non-orthogonal loose use fiber bundle materials could of the term dimension!) that connect to using the diagonal For example.

8. The path taken portions sinusoidal. Typical df is the filament The yam values diameter. [2.nd_n 4pd (2. Considera 2D plain weavecomposite. yarns in the unit cell consists The curves are commonly as of two assumed straight to be curved 2-16). 2-16 is (2.7 . are in the range 0. the areal weight of the in g/m 2. usually to the cured dry fabric.-9000a (2. the yam width. and pf is the fiber density fraction (g/cm3).5) fiber volume for the unit cell shown Vf -. width. and Pd is the yam packing packing can be measured using photomicrographs of sections.13]. and in this case 2Dy w a -. t. thickness specified specified by the manufacturer. controlled during fabrication by fixing equated the number of yam layer Wa. For full coverage. thereareno gapsbetweenthe yarns. i.4) where Dy is in denier The overall (g/9000 m)..0. must equal the yarn spacing. then Alternatively.e.A.10].3) where density. Often.Assumethat the fabric has full coverage.andthat the yarn spacingand fiber counts are equalin the fill andwarp directions. in Fig.The yarn cross-sectional area. density n is the yam filament count. The following illustrativeformulaefor a plain weavearereproduced from Ref. Dy. is the fabric and H is the cell height. and three by each of the four portions (Fig.6) The yam thickness. with the z-coordinate of the yam centerline expressed 2-23 . is related to H by t = H/2. if one knows Dy A = (9xl05pf pd) (2. the linear density of the dry yam.OVERVIEWOFTEXTILES simple geometricmodels have been presentedin Refs. [2. w. can be determined from A -.2pd A Ha where carriers a is the yam over spacing.10] through [2.

includes at non-orthogonal forms for cross However. [2. eqs. the shape If the area in Fig. description of the unit cell geometry is similar the yarns for a bias and a triaxial for the plain weave braid is The formulation because to that given interlace here.2. However. 2-16).14].2 2D Braids of yarn. shown in Fig.9) The constraint w > Lu imposes a minimum value for 0c. }" (2. 2.2. 3D Weaves Even though for the phases unit cells can be quite weavers. in the the previous equations section. even relatively sections.3. More advanced interactions that must occur models assume They are not reproduced models attempt process between when to predict the yam cross section from the the mechanical twisting advanced 2. angle". at nonorthogonal angles. The yam cross-sections characteristic and crossover is the longer points straight are similar segments for satin weave fabrics.3. One such model angles [2. the crimp must be given by 0_= Tan-_( tz_ / _. with then The yam cross-section lenticular parameter ends. 2-16 of this 2-16) sinusoidal.ANALYTICAL METHODSFORTEXTILE COMPOSITES z c =- ½ Sin L.4) Lu (defined can be determined -- t (2.3 yarns as the textile yarns cross simple is formed.7) where consists shape Xc is measured of a straight is known (from by m -wt from central the cross-over.2L_) (2.10].8) Textile maximum geometric composites are often characterized by the "crimp plane (Fig. The distinguishing 2. geometric large because of the complex for 3D interlock patterns weaves preferred are quite of warp idealizations 2-24 . portion.3 or 2. are more complex. A simplified given in Ref. This From is the angle the yam makes description with respect to the x-y angle the simple just given. 0c.

The volume y_ and yf are the yields of the warp weavers and fillers.10a) V_ = e ns/[Ys .10c) where n wis the number weavers. The idealizationsare relatively simple becausemost nominally straight. In a composite fillers. A unit cell for a plain weave. the volume of thickness t with n s layers of stuffers alternating with nf layers of fractions of fibers in stuffers and fillers are simply (2.Cross-over points ' Lu 2 \ Figure 2-16.10b) and p is the of the can per unit length in the warp direction. • . c. _!z _ rv. warp and weft yarns are -_ X A A I" Section A-A a "1 L. of warp weavers between successive factor. is the fiber density.of t] and Vf =p nf/[yf where number stuffers e is the number of picks (fillers) pft] of ends (stuffers) per unit length in the weft direction (2. fraction be written Vw = e n. is computed length in as the ratio of the integrated path length of a warp weaver to its projected 2-25 . and p.OVERVIEWOFTEXTILES simple. columns of stuffers. W _I •_ Lp . cJ[y w pf tl (2. Yw is the yield of warp simply and c w is a crimp or take-up In principle.

18] axial yarns). in the values near In practice. = arctan(4/hd) Equation predicted.13) of 55 ° (hd = 2. direction. as shown in 4 directions. with m columns and n rows in the a rectangular array.4 3D Braids Various braids step. array of yarn yarns.2. The The 4-step.3 for layer-to-layer weaves. process models have been derived simple to describe the complex were given unit cells of 3D for the 4- (see [2. G = m n/Rmn with Rmn the least as the fabric is assumed common length multiple produced circular. 1x 1 braid (without lxl The following inlaid braiding expressions in [2. to surface These in Fig. of the yarn. finished are % is difficult vary between to predict with and a priori. is given by (2. yarns in the unit cell are inclined to surface angles CDEF. angle versus beyond which jamming is The angle ). surfaces and 2 parallel are cut at 45 ° in the accompanying to the surface Consider of the fabric.16-2. length divided cannot by the diameter be easily predicted. process because parameters. ABDC. is (2.12) is valid up to an angle A plot of the fiber inclination hd is shown in Fig.20]). The normalized cycle length. of m and in one The cycle n. 2-18.ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES the warp weavers determined weaves. the paths of warp product typically greatly 1. angle interlock and between for orthogonal 2.5 for through-the-thickness interlock weaves [2.15].11) N = (m+ l)(n+ 1). The total number of required N.12) hd. because it to remain is a function of the beat-up.3.1 The number positions of machine cycles where required for all the yarn carriers to return to the original is given by N/G. 1. 7. 2-26 . carriers. formed by internal yarns. is def'med which cycle.1 Experimentally angle interlock 2 and 5 1. 2-17. pattern produces the 3D unit cell shown 2 parallel diagram. (2. (2.8).

Furthermore. are onto the plane fl. Figure this relationship 2-27 . tan a = tan _. 3D unit cell for lxl. travel less distance in a given seen on of the apparent angle the surface the surface. y. and the total number of aspect ratios.15a) Vy = 7t'V_ + 16 / (8hd) (2.15b) These relations are shown in Fig. surface of a braid is actually The relations the projection the surface of the angle yam angle of inclination of inclination. and the internal yam angle of inclination./ f8 = tan/3 / 75 (2.14) The yam volume Vy = _r sec(y)/8 or fraction is (2.OVERVIEWOFTEXTILES A D ----- 2d Figure 2-17. N. yarns to internal yarns is a function 2-20 of the aspect shows ratio of the for The ratio of surface rectangle. ct. 4-step braid. a series m/n. 2-19. of carriers. Because cycle. the projected between angle. the surface yarn carriers yarns incline on the surface at different of the rectangle angles.

k.. 2...... the width of the preform of the yarns.. E >¢t_ 30 .. a collection tow spacings complexity them of straight and well- smoothly is never regular rigors formed periodicity..... to damage and of textile to conform has a manufacture to molds measurable fatigue 2.. realized caused in practice..3 Irregularity The ideal geometry tow segments and popularized curved in schematics arcs of tows. Inner yarn angle of inclination versus cycle length for 1 x l... 20 ..... irregularity is manifested in many ways. 30 Length hid t ... Tow spacing. and all properties mechanisms of fracture Geometrical but not exhaustive. The following list is indicative 1. after Inconsistency fabrication is indeed in tow tensioning often results during the textile process spreading when and handling of tows. depends only on the by (2.22- life. t ... 4-step braid. and the diameter d..261.. over a of preforms Uneven in uneven necessary or compacting spreading geometrically a flat preform is draped 2-28 ... and forcing Irregularity significant properties related usually effect on elastic and a dominant and work effect on strength. It is given Wk = (2 I/2 k +1) d so 4o < _--i .2.... I I-- -_ .. I . I0 20 Normalized Cycle L . I-- 0 0 .3.212. with The viz. [2..22].. 40 1 50 Figure 2-18.16) of yarns on a side. by handling geometrical [2.15...ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES Given number the circular arranged yarn assumption.. and the distortions always introduce preforms irregularity... of textiles..

.-. 6 .--It -.-.__ -.. 0 [ .- --T ' -I . hd I I I I I I I t .-t.7 Inner Yarn o.-_-.L __!. oF-... 0.3 0. t 20 4 .-. 20 Normalized Cycle 30 Length. 0 10 i -.----I-.1 I I I i i i ---i----I----i.2 0. (a) Yarn cycle volume length fraction versus (a) inner yarn angle of inclination and (b) normalized for lxl.-.-... .-1t l .-. Ratio of outer (surface) yarns to inner yarns... T Inclined t -50 (a) 0.-.4 -- i _ o....-I -.--t------I : [ 10 0...4 E _ ..._ I. 500 Figure 2-20..OVERVIEW OF TEXTILES surface that possesses of shape).+ r I I -I r L I -II II I r/) 5_ E >4_ t'tO 3_ m/n = 10 2_ O O I I \ 1 I ..• f __i I -.-I1---...-. 100 t_ 200 300 400 Total Number of Yarns (N) ... _o. r I r r r ..l.-... . _ t 30 40 Angle. curvature about more than one axis (requiring a nondevelopable transformation °"71... +____ _.+__ k _' -t '_ E 0. 2-29 .... 40 50 : (b) Figure 2-19. --r-._'r_=1 1 tr- t_ o • .. __ -.. 4-step braid.

2.23.. 3. but waviness by normal are not periodic. Each the tow cross-sectional is subjected aspect to irregular preform ratios of tows are not by uniform axes. Tow waviness. greater spacing misalignments in tape laminates. tows during Each tow both manufacture in different especially tow outlines of the textile directions pronounced sketched form and the consolidation points. [2. of irregularity of nominally straight 2-30 . desirable Fig.ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES 2. Cross-sectional predominantly are also a major tows. stitching pronounced in through-thickness in an interlock pressure volume by before tows weave.24. contain in which nominally are nominally The than stuffers.25] of quasi-laminar and is directly correlated ([2. distributions specimens component 2. Tow parts to enhance tows 2-22).15. can be especially e. textile in through-thickness as nearly as possible be controlled thickness to its desired final consolidation pinching.21. of tows that traverse the subject tow. and Section 4).g. and even direction interlock typical weaves. is often has been described In flat panel the larger 2. pressures imposed neighboring process. variations Fig. some which degree are highly of waviness. 2.27.0509_010496 Fig. in quasiThroughin tows or warp weavers tows are very vulnerable plate-like to the through-thickness the in-plane can only fiber that is favoured fraction forming the (Fig. the consolidating Waviness preform process.2. but in-plane waviness SC. The fine white curves mark the centers of mass of nominally straight axial tows determined by digital image analysis.28]. applications. with The resulting is pinched are shows variations at different in textiles from cross-sectional curved tows. in quasi-laminar waviness are usually considerably with the Tow to be commensurate deflections [2.21 ] and power out-of-plane with tow failure can also Tow misalignment spectra waviness mechanisms be significant. Waviness in nominally straight axial tows in a triaxial braid. Nominally always straight exhibit tows. textiles. 2-21. 2-23 predominantly of a 3D formed a photomicrograph in textiles braid. along their In all textiles. of triaxial which textiles tends braids. Tow laminar thickness waviness textiles. in stiffness 2-21 shows the axial straight critical waviness tows in the through-thickness straight.

are not likely to become More reasonably. parameters. Tracings of yam cross-sections in a 3D braided composite (from [2. Waviness induced in warp weavers in a 3D interlock weave by compression during processing. little attention of future structures are not yet developed A few examples and they therefore are offered in the remainder developments. Measuring it from degrees strength process geometrical models irregularity in textile composites detailed is very difficult.29]). without should accurate an assessment of how irregularity the outcome. of this handbook. it dominates life and therefore Neither be able to be model of a for textile composites be accepted affect as giving to be regarded predictions as reliable.OVERVIEWOFTEXTILES I I 3 mm warp weaver Fig. predicting and probably impossible. knowledge scheme should of types of irregularity and life. here in anticipation 2-31 . 2. irregularity to quantify. receive Unfortunately. 2-22.4 Integral Structures made by Textile Processes of eliminating joints make integral The performance structures models a particularly for integral and manufacturing exciting prospect advantages in textile composite technology. quality control strength the part of any practicable degree of regularity degree for predicting be correlated can be is experimentally guaranteed difficult bounded textile would with process given sufficient so that a maximum in composite and fatigue of irregularity While must any fabrication. Therefore. Fig. 2-23.

Figure 2-25. along it is possible a specified over the entire segments weaving. An integrally woven skin/stiffener preform. Z-Reinforcement 3 Sublaminates Cut Through -/ Continuous j Crossing Rbers of 3D weaving to create a branched structure.45° bias 5C. (Courtesy of Techniweave Inc. approach to fabricate The with continuous reinforcements are difficult passing through the intersection. in the intersection to predict. Planes without Z-Reinforcement Figure 2-24. locked unfolded crossing final yam pattern does not need to be constant the loom.ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES A weaving fabric.53921.) 2-32 . as well as __.. Use Figure stiffener 2-25 illustrates the use of weaving orthogonal technology to produce an integral skin and assembly.052395 yam continuous {hrough inlersections .. breadth of a fabric or length of a By programming through to have After This that are not may be the thickness a branched plane. The skin contains warp and weft. the fiat fabric can be used to create stiffeners paths structure (Fig 2-24).

[2. pp. by Stitching. ed. can be introduced by resin film infusion. the stiffeners The part integral manner... Cox. Cox. Buckling Design..:_ o 1 t111111." "Delamination and Buckling in 3D Composites._ _111111111 l TWO STITCHES EVERY STEP (ONE STITCH ON THE FIRST) 1/8-1N.324) SIX 9-PLY SEGMENTS 3/16-1N. Bohon by Stitching. for example resin transfer Figure stitching. shows a schematic of a skin and stiffener transfer formed molding integrally by finishing can be accomplished resin by resin and curing which is in a net shape the preferred Alternatively. 28 (1994) 1114- 2.. Comp.1 B. A stitched skin/stiffener assembly.. R. 0 ° ROWS (0. SPACE STITCHED. B. Kedward. in the on Suppression Fibrous L.00 0-DEG SPACER • o-x .3 R. M. Composites. Figure 2-26..432) EIGHT 9-PLY SEGMENTS 3/16-1N. Concepts Conf. 2.. process the preform introducing matrix..30]) SPACE STITCHED. of Delamination in Structural Neri. "The Suppression of Delamination in Curved Structures 2-33 . in Proc. The stiffeners are formed continuously Thus skin up and over each stiffener skin are formed finished in the same in turn and back into the skin again. (From Ref. These are all embraced by through-thickness by the bias tows. N. N. 9th "Fundamental DoD/NASA/FAA 1991. to net shape by placing molding." Lake (U. 1105-1110. J. SPACE.o.(0. SCS33S9 . PRE-DENSIFIED 2. in the new McDonnell-Douglas stitched wing program. Dept. Composites November 1992) Soderquist. weaving process in an entirely in a mold. Transportation. Tahoe. 2-26 again. Massabr. in press. Nevada. Once and curing. and K.." J.OVERVIEW OF TEXTILES tows. L. N. tool. and H.S. Mater..2 B. Cox.-. 26. References 2. reinforcement which pass in an interlock from the and is by architecture.

Ishikawa.795-819 (1995). 4.S. Whitney. Ramnath.6 2.S.W. Mater. 43[9]." 2. and Y. Multi-Directional Structure. Vinson and M. Three-Dimensional 2. 29. 2.20 Kang. 2. P. Comp.S 2. NASA Conference 2." J.T. M. Fabrics for Reinforced Composites. J.ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSI'IT_." Acta Metall. Jr. Masters.13 J.J. "Structural Mechanics of 3-D Braided Preforms in Fiber-Tex 1987.. Pederson. R.A.M." NASA CR. 75-89. Du.21 Xu.19 "A Model for the Fiber Geometry and Stiffness of in 3-D Composite Materials. Cox." by Tsu-Wei Chou and Frank K. Multidirectionally Braided Composites.8 2.4 T. New York. NASA Conference Publication 3001.C. ppl 15-133.S.10 N. Hasselbrack. TJ.K. Carter. S." U. 2196-2225 (1992).12 Composite Materials.. B. pp." J. Naik.T.A. Gowayed. Composite 2. Apr. ASTM STP 864.L.R. J. Chou. of Composite Materials E. Ko. G. Eds. T. 1985. 1967. 1180-1201 (1994). Elsevier. pp.A. "Mechanical Properties of Triaxially Braided Composites: Experimental and Analytical Results". M.9 of Woven and Braided Fabric Reinforced Composites. and V. "Analysis June 1994. 112-122 (1993). B. Ko. "Analytical Characterization Braided Composites. 1987.14 J.M. 428-439. Wang.Lamina 2. The Elastic Regime." Publication 2420. Byun. 1985.N." in Textile Structural Composites. "Elastic Behavior of Woven Hybrid Composites.D." J.." Polymer Composites 13[ 1].C. Elsevier. Chou. McGlockton. New York. 1599-1618 (1991). pp. Kostar. of Textile Composites for 2.597. Cox and M. Dow. 289-303 (1994). "Thermo-Elastic Analysis of Triaxially Woven Fabric Composites.15 2. "Elastic Behavior of Woven Fabric Analysis.18 Design of Advanced Multi-Step 28[ 13]. and T. "Structure and Properties of an Integrated 3-D Fabric for Structural Composites. W. of Composite Materials 25. "A Binary Model I1. E! Shiekh. New York. 265-277. Kittel. Patent No. Seferis "Evaluation of Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Matrices in a Flat Braid Process. Taya. and J. "Triaxially Braided Materials for Composites. Skelton.1987.L.W. Camponeschi.194930.W.16 F. M. 1989. in Textile Structural 1989." J. 38-46 (1992)." J. of Composites Technology & Research 1512]. 1980. Maistre. E. "Classical Laminate Theory Models for Woven Fabric of Composites Technology and Research 1614].219. "The Macroscopic Elasticity of 3D Woven Composites. Ko. C." Recent Advances in the United States and Japan. of Composite Materials 26[ 15]. Naik. Composites. "Analysis of Woven NASA Contract Report 178275.F. pp. Philadelphia. N. Dadkhah. and C. J. "Introduction to Solid State Physics. Shembekar. Pastore. and J." J. Foye. R.W.K. Materials 16.N.W. American Society for Testing and Materials. edited 2. Raju. Mater.M.11 I. and T. and T. Crane. Yang. Composites: I . 2. 2-19 (1982).5 S. Composites. - 2-34 . and R. 2. 3511-24 (1995). Li. edited by Tsu-Wei Chou and Frank K. 117-128.Pastore. T." J. "Microstructural Braided Preforms. and A. 2. Chou. "Three-Dimensional August.17 of Two-Step 2.H.N. T." John Wiley and Sons. Chou.7 J. C. and W. 2.

1990.S.27 2. Fleck. Long Beach. Solids." Acta Metall. "Mechanisms in 3D Composites." Acta Metall.. Cox. 4235-45 (1995).29 M. Dadkhah.S. M. and B. Morris and J." J..24 2.28 2. Sankar. Sharma.Cox. 1993. S. of Compressive Failure B." Quarterly Progress Report for the period January .N.V.L. W. 3285-98 (1992). NASA Mechanics of Textiles Working Group.. A." Composites 26. Mater.Flintoff.26 2. pp 93-95. "Visualization of a Unit Cell of 3-D Braided Composite Plate. R. L.March.K. "An Introduction to Random Wiley and Sons. K. W. Roy. 42. and W. in press. and Bending. N. B. New York (1984). D J. "Failure Mechanisms of 3D Woven Composites in Tension. 43112]."Simple ModelsorTriaxially f Braided Composites.25 2. Dadkhah. Mater. T andB.S.E.OVERVIEWOFTEXTILES 2. "Microbuckling Waviness. M. Mech. California. Dadkhah.N. B. 2.A. Compression. D." 2nd Ed. "Compression-Compression Composites." Acta Metall. 3967-84 (1994).22 2. Phys. 91 . . Cox. Kniveton.N.G.30 2-35 .102 (I 995). "In Situ Damage Observation and Failure in Model Laminates Containing Crimping of Woven Composites." Mechanics of Composite Materials and Structures. M. Chen.G. McDonnell-Douglas Aircraft Co.S. 40. Morris. Newland.23 2. Cox. Morris. John of Fiber Composites with Random Initial Fiber S. Slaughter and N. lnman. Fiintoff.L. of 3D Woven Analysis. V. Mater. adkhah. and W. Vibrations and Spectral Fatigue Planar Yam in press.V.

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become strongly automatically or robotic to net shape. the pressed molds. superior are mechanical are properties inferior and the ease and cost of manufacture. be carried. loads must main factors to weigh in deciding whether to use a textile composite or a tape laminate speaking. This is an active and dynamic The preforms main handling advantage when of textiles is that they are manufactured machinery draped without (within any limits as dry polymer fiber or that hold together they leave the textile stored. on the kind finished injection fibers. and their of be prepared merits as research Handling and development and Fabricability progress. be compared to have the with same equal so-called volume to the In the following. by resin reaction film infusion or the melting Separate of commingled can easily thermoplastic be joined by 3-1 are all cost competitive preforms . Estimates of from with the penalty comparisons in stiffness or strength will then be inferred tape laminates. In short. THE CHOICE BETWEEN TEXTILES AND TAPE LAMINATES The conventional Generally applications. textile Their or damage relative have been cost or impact depends tolerance. or the number manufacture substituted for manual and handling.1 fiber volume reflect should the in the former. to failure. As described transfer molding in Section (RTM). and can be shipped. roughly of tows in the textile In other instances. processes. other matrix. including sheet high work of fracture. The textile preform of fabric).THE CHOICE BETWEEN TEXTILES AND TAPE LAMINATES 3. and strength requiring for high when state to sheet strain triaxial which If parts by forming then choice textiles somewhat in any application. very and superior on the much applicable technologies developed for the particular of joints set-up textiles application. into shaped that depend 2. status to update of textiles the relative field. which can be formed resin in the mold (RFI). in stiffness applications."These fibers of in-plane in all orientations of thickness direction. whether on the application and the class of textile textiles are laminates and chosen. reduced can be manufactured integral textiles depends structures. for textiles of aligned remarks The reader with data for unidirectional fraction current due allowance All manufacturing textiles 3. product molding. are the better increasingly cost competitive. "equivalent fraction thickness tape quasi-laminar will frequently configured plies laminates. in the through-thickness data are unavailable associated for equivalent with using a textile tape laminates. of measurements for reduction the following technology.

still a case for preferring But textiles example. Net shape over tape manufacture layup. nonintegral and processes skin and with allow over tape laminates. cost savings integral too. Fiber given correct Consistency Content Since reinforcing manufacture tow spacing.ANALYTICAL co-curing strong. or by COMPOSITES stitching if joints must be very are so considerable structure. to step beyond conventional skin is stiffened process. and strength accurate of polymeric positioning preforms of composites fibers can have fraction are tows dominated during by the of in maintaining Poorly all steps variance mechanical is paramount. this uniformity. manufacture curved prove-out However.g.. debulking.g. product plies. Manufactured fractions as joints. a laminar in a separate ribs. translates made textile considerable and thence those directly into total fiber volume well made preforms. and therefore have 3-2 . fewer characteristics. if joints The handling is intended with no special of moderate advantages METHODS strength of textiles FOR TEXTILE suffice. lower geometries over because their handling (e. have parts should be examined with particular that minimum paid to geometric been met throughout. which must be attached allows of textile preforms Thus the such as RTM the manufacture as one parts to net shape. properties the stiffness fibers. processes. details The problem fabrics are draped. Some The use laminate against concepts. because joining of integral forming steps.2 recalled 2.1]). or distort fiber laying tows. of integral piece. regularly of consistency. especially and manufactured achieve by a well established high degree after textile material such as 2D braiding weaving. potential and is difficult structures because eliminate failure structures parts should in performance as a mechanism of by debonding design. can destroy even in the best cases. of attached of failure. of integral provides shapes via are be structures considerable layup superior eliminated 3. other examples structures complex Integral stiffeners were can be manufactured in Sect. that even when the finished of uniweave there is to be a 2D laminated demand textile for example a laminate for the excellent fabrics delamination resistance of textiles. buckling For by designers tape conventional layup. volume such Uncontrolled closure to establish attention can over tools. [3. textile In contrast. and tool poor handling material spread and processing handling. of maintaining Fabrics the designed often fiber chosen content is most challenging when of are therefore The draping are directly for complex of a fabric flexibility. surface points characteristics to its shear a singly weaves rigidity curved have and are cylindrical) cross-over related Satin shear than a plain weave. which (e.

In a 3D still. one equal volume of is The because waviness another. (3.e. then an aligned its stiffness is knocked by the factor -I (3.. In a 2D inevitable: as a plain weave topologically waviness tows weave.3 without For these textiles. Draping curved surface also (i.2] along of the tow. textile. Ex and Gxy are the axial and shear composites. and amplitude d. significant textile fractions of more or less straight fibers. in the path of an inor the strain remains Suppose plane uniform down tow. in square rises brackets in Eq. as required for most airframe by draping achieved avoiding 3. the waviness takes the form of sinusoidal 2. The fractional moduli of the tow and Vxy is its axial Poisson's factor l-r/. such as braiding via net shape the problems Stiffness onto a mandrel of draping. only mild double However.THE CHOICEBETWEENTEXTILES AND TAPELAMINATES found to be more easily drapedover a cylinder. the anisotropy loss of modulus. 3-3 . tape laminate. will usually textile. waviness such as an interlock greater of throughin in-plane than are nominally But even because is always effects in an equivalent tows. the knockdown which due to tow waviness.1) For carbon/epoxy near 40. in-plane is difficult containing high volume applications. tows but not eliminated. a surface depend that requires nondevelopable coverage) fabrics on in-plane extensibility characterictics transformation This over strains a doubly for snug for and compressibility. waviness. processes.1) where ratio. curvature double can be created curvature (Section can be 2). practice thickness with must be wavy a satin to pass weave under rather can be reduced by selecting weave. takes a value approximately as (d/A) 2. tows such quasi-laminar have slightly textile lower composites in-plane or tfiaxial and than over a plain with stiffness braid. If either under oscillations the stress load with wavelength the length [3. thus loss of fiber regularity. of the disruptive reinforcing Various more or less complicated in composite models stiffness trends will be described in Sections 4 and 5 for rule calculating is presented. and gives Here a simple illuminates the essential a fair estimate. straight. or using flat cross-sections. Compared fractions tow of in-plane to tape fibers laminates.

knockdowns estimated on fiber comparing data or for 3D in for textiles with rule-of-mixtures Knockdowns straight estimates and resin data for unidirectional interlock triaxial weaves braids laminates. 3-4 . architecture would demands high follow reason. and 2-10 straight fillers because stuffers straight axial tows in 2D triaxial are usually weaving the knockdowns during 10 . is higher than are untensioned For bias tows and 50%.2.1.3. the braid weaves less regular knockdowns in triaxially are high braided values are between that bias which paths. average.1-3.5% are found [3. and as that specifications used in these in Table and The is a fractions experiments variation. 10-40% much more in the weft distorted [3.2]. Experimental assuming knockdowns can be estimated over Eq. knockdown factors of just % for in 3D fillers [3. straight stuffers for nominally in well made 3D weaves braids [3. generally have confirm the order of for measurements of elastic stiffness magnitude equivalent measurements predicted tape by Eq. region.3] direction in the warp direction and for the axial with reasonably and being stuffers direction [3. with variance Eq. The braid and laminate were measured for all the panels fraction. For nominally The knockdown [3.ANALYTICAL METHODSFORTEXTILE COMPOSITES Equation(3.1) yields a continuously varying. knockdown waviness. 30% tows of tow waviness. and therefore glass-fiber because for plain significantly composites.2]. There the normalized to 60% fiber volume modulus tensile assuming compression would a proportional (0 ° direction) for tension modulus.1) of a triaxial braid is concluded relative reasonable tape to the stiffness assuming that of quasilaminar the latter have composites stiffness to equivalent due to laminates. than be expected greater of tape waviness all the of the braiding braids is higher It is surprising their transverse the transverse stiffness. Experimentally laminates 3. 3-1. (3. _. This trend is not reported elsewhere.3. (3. exchange weighted wavy Knockdowns be similarly by applying straighter for the same just to the a For a satin weave. random degrees misalignment angle. (3.1) float.1]. agree closely.1).1. While stiffness measurements can be based not been reported by laminates.1) also holds if the wavinesstakes the form of normally distributed For measured a few percent nominally weaves.30%. . from reduction in transverse yarns. of many 3D interlock warp weaves weavers) to be a (the fillers or the bias frequently direction guide by the through-thickness Equation textile negligible (3. compressive even though stiffness the tensile equivalent modulus decreases in compression.2]. _ = x/2ard/A [3.3]. the much and taking For typical knockdowns constants of ~ 10% result. Fiber the results longitudinal larger are compared volume measured moduli for various 2D braids and equivalent are given tape in Fig.3]. no knockdown satin weave.

±4515K] 12% Axial [(±45)2/0/(±45)3/0/(±45)3/0/(±45)2]T [] [] 8O Long. when 4). and part is in textiles. The Moduli of 2D Braids and Equivalent Tape [ii ii i! 3 4 Laminates 3. to tows and generates in the rigors of textile failure off-axis due to damage The role well established. Figure 3-1. 70 60 A Tape Laminate Braid Transverse Tension Transverse Compression.THE CHOICE Table 3. 3-1 Laminate Specifications Braid 1 2 3 4 Braid Designation [036K.__. loads The are aligned load with one for kinking set of tows falls occurs critical in inverse 3-5 . t_ n w I 50 40 30 20 10 0 i iiii:iiill "0 o N 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 Braid No.1 Braid and BETWEEN Equivalent TEXTILES Tape AND TAPE LAMINATES for Fig. of polymer matrix composites is of waviness Compressive formation in the compressive failure (see Sect.4515K] 46% Axial [030K. via kink band sustained manufacture.4 In-Plane Strength Unnotched textiles tensile and compressive strength are usually lower in quasi-laminar than in equivalent which imparts tape laminates.±706K] Equivalent [(45/0/-45/0)2/45/0/-45]s [ (70/0/-70/0)2/70/0/[(70/0/-70/0)2/70/0/-70]s Laminate 46% Axial 70] s [075K.---7015K] 46% Axial [06K. waviness by fibers Part of the reason for this is the tow architecture local stresses.

dominated. quasi-isotropic (Fig. which which is fiber is most is affected Shear is resin dominated. but some experiments waviness to suggest effects identify fiber that it does. weaves angle of a wavy tow.1. by 2D textiles. 4). The and and data equivalent 5with 10% 12-17% are compared fabric represent satin weave systems. above ultimate tensile strengths in Figure manufactured of woven 3-2 (from with had graphite/epoxy [3. How waviness might waviness can be controlled by high lower tensile verified strength models data sets is less clear.6). Knockdowns due to (Sect. 4) damage more in tension than they are in compression and will always 3D laminates. and. strength. (Sect. the interlock processing. 3-2(a)) axis. and were accordingly appears to the tape laminate strength in parenthesis of the textiles the 0 ° fiber (Fig. by The when the load is aligned axial damage.5]). straight in- in tape the compressive strength that permit is likely nominally not be much In 3D architectures of Sect. Notched strength are similar the knockdowns for the 0/90 ° laminates (30-33%).-45° laminate. lower the (15-23%) difference affected less. or superior in notched strength to equivalent tape textiles often equal The large strain damage to failure zones of many next 3D textile composites allows which which the development decreases lack some notch of the process to stress shared concentrators.1 give some are scatter in strength. disappears. 3k yarns a fiber of carbon fraction consolidated approximately The woven laminates volume than in the tape laminates The ratio of the fabric each pair of bars. the is usually However. plane quality higher it need maximum than misalignment laminates. For is significantly a -. This superiority mechanisms is not generally present absorbing 2D in 3D textiles Weaves The tape laminates harness two resin lower thicker. 2.3.ANALYTICAL METHODSFORTEXTILE COMPOSITES proportiont_. although similar to the 0/90 ° laminates.4.4] and laminates [3. waviness Tensile and fiber strength. energy 3. Since waviness in textiles to be lower. of extensive sensitivity. tows (e. The unnotched strength with tow and a higher strength areal weight. 3-6 . in most it is difficult with degree are much of waviness important amidst the noise of the data. greater 3-2(b)) laminates shows have knockdowns trends. on tensile trends Unfortunately. lower. strength.g. are unavailable for tensile for estimating strength.

_ r-.'...ii!i ii_i.67) [] [] .... Comparison of (a) unnotched and (b) notched tensile strengths of 5-harness satin weave laminate and equivalent tape laminate.\i!i!ii!ii.iiiii!iiiiiii!ii \\iii_iiiiiiiiiiii \ \. iiil iiil :iiiiiii!i _!!i_:i!i! \\ \\ \ -.....4] b) Notched Figure 3-2.!i_iiiii :iiiiiiii r\\J . \ iii_im (0..5] '0/90/±45 [0/90/_+45 dia.81).8{ \ \ \ \ \ \ ][[]i \ . \\j _.. ia.\ . ![i!!_!i (0. \\ \\ \\ 'iiiiii_iiiiiill \\ iiii!iiii!i!_!ili _ "" \\ i I I%.iii!iii [O/90]ns [O/90]ns dia. :]:]]]:]]:i d45/-45]n .5] [3. r_J \ _0 _ \ \ \ \ \ _ii ili iiiii_iiiiiii \\iii!i!!ii!iiiiiil (o..!i_ii_. : I ._..i #4 _.4] ..4] [45/-45]ns [±45/0/90]s[0/90+45]s lmm thick[3..... \ iii_..94) -. (0..\ i.!ii! (0... Notched strengths are from open hole tension tests.9. \\ . Material 2: T300/Ciba Geigy BSL914C.. with hole diameters as shown. ii![iil i!ii!iiiiiill \ \ \\ \ \ i.I _ .._Nj r..93) \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ : t 300 200 100 !iiiiiii:ili)]! \\ \ \ i!ii:iiiiiiii \\ \ \ \\ \\ \\ \\..J r\-.5] [3..iiiiiiiiiii_ \ \i_!i..84) 7OO 600 w el iiiiiiiiiiFi| \\ (0.4] \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ [O/90lns [3.\ (Ratio Fabric/T. .\\\ \\ (o......iii!ii \'q_i:ii!!i:iiii! \Jiiiii_ii_iiii \ \ \ \ \ \ x \ :ii: !_iii_ f'--. _ii:i... \\ ii...ii _'%\ : i \\ I \ \.._ \"N x...... Material 1:Gr/MY720 epoxy.J : _ [45/-45]n.77) \\ \\ \\ \\ [] [] Tape Fabric (Ratio Fabric/Tape) (0.5] [3.\ []]]] ] ..iiiiiiiiiii\\ 100 " " iii_i!.4] a) Unnotched 600 (0. \ \ ] ] \ \ \ \ \....iiiii!ii!iii!i _ .. 3-7 .o 400 •. I \ [0/90/+45]s [3.5] [3. ... \ \ \ \ (0...8" 5O0 A m D. .i \ . 200 Z • \ \ \ _!iii.=lO rr [3._:!_ \ % .7( 2 _ 300 _".4] [O/90]ns [O/90]ns [45/-45]ns 2 mm thick 1 mm thick [3.4] [3..5] [3..=lO m [3.. !iiii! \\ ]:]]].iii:ii iiiiii..i.8_ \\iiiiiii!i .=4 mr [3.... Io \\ !i!ii!ii!i!iiii'!il \\ \\ _iii!iii_i_ii!i \ \ i:!ii_iiiii_i \\ \\ \\ ..76) (0.THE CHOICEBETWEENTEXTILESAND TAPE LAMINATES 800 0. \ \ t\ =E 500 m iliii i_!_!_ \\ \\ ....i...99) (1 14) \\ ]i..ii \\iiiiii!i iiiiiiii = u...= 4 mr dia.85) iiii.\1 ]i f'. \\ii!... \\ \\ .---4mn [3.\\ iiiiii!!iiil ?]:: : \\. i:iiiii! i:iiiiiii ... Tape Fabric (0.iiiiiiill \\ \ \ \-_ (0.5] i ... s..4] [+45/0/90 dia.: _ \ilili. .--4 m_ dia.._i_:i_!!i \x \\i!_ii_ii_!i!!H! \.I \\| \ Xl : I : j \\ \\ [45/-45]ns 2mm thick [3...Jr" "..... !!i!_!_!_!!!i '\\ ... v 400 w b} .. dia..=10 n [3._ . \\ \\ \\ii_iii_iiiii.ii _... .4] \ :::... x.

In of waviness variables. braids include further roles are still poorly tows. sizes of inlaid tows and braider of inlaid tows. satin. they can sometimes give consistent Figure cross-over that the length of the float (the uncrimped shear strength. the Oxford satin. tape The axe compared strength strengths 3-4.3.) 3. The with the braids sensitive.2 2D Braids of various T300/934 weaves. are considerably less notch 3-8 . and the size of the unit cell. (From [3. The has the shortest strength increases 140 120 A float.. As for 2D weaves. These must also involve introduce the relative the relationship the degree several between fiber architecture of the primary whose and strength load bearing for 2D tows. followed by the 5-harness and the 8-harness as the float length increases.1. between weave shear crimp 3-3 effecLs shows on shear are small. M Q e- 5-Harness Satin 8-Harness Satin Figure 3-3. The laminates unnotched the notched braids overall tensile strengths in Fig. The braid is defined in Section laminates. Comparison of in-plane shear strengths showing effect of crimp.3.ANALYTICAL METHODSFORTEXTILE COMPOSITES While variations. in one case even being superior. braids addition. r- 100 80 60 40 20 0 Oxford m i.6]. of the braids are much is 10-30% closer. less than that of the tape However. length of yarn points) in satin weaves affects In this figure. of two triaxial carbon/epoxy notation braids and equivalent 2. the spacing understood. III O.4.

..... \ \\ \ . Comparison of unnotched and open hole tensile strengths for two triaxial braids and equivalent tape laminates (from [3....iiiiiiiiiiii.\\\\ ...THE CHOICEBETWEENTEXTILES AND TAPELAMINATES 5OO [] Tape Equivalent [] Braid 400 A . [3. S.4 mm Hole Figure 3-4. indicating This a 30% is in strength in the braided architecture reduction with Fig..iiii_ \ \ \.. .... iiii!iiiiiiiiiiil. % \ \\\\ _\\\\ 200 _\\\'.7]).iiiiiiii!!iiiiiiiii_iiil.. 3-4....iii .. [06k /± 4515k ]12% Axiat- L v 3OO -I_ N\_\ Nti iiiiiiiii!iiii!!ii!ii:ii!ili:i!!ii!i!i .iiiiiii il.. \\\\ \ \\ \\ i:'ii:!iiii!iiii:_:ii::i!iiii! = _i]ili_!_iii_i:i!!_:ii!:!ii: _!ii_!iiiiiiiiiiii_i:iiii:ii: L\\\\ Unnotched 6.iiiii........ 3-9 .i_ii! ii_iiiii!ii?iiiii!i!i!!i_i!!i_i .. \\\\ "-. \\\-...35 mm Hole 25.\\\ Unnotched 6.....!i_ii:iiiiiii:ii!_i'_i_i et_ = ii%iiii:iii'...N :i...1]....ii_ \ i iiii2iiiii2iiiiiiiiiii.ii_iii_iiii!: t \\\\ 100 ___...... ii:iii:ii!ii:i!iii!_iiiii_ii_:iiii:ii:i: _ \_%\ iii_iiiiiil. \ \ ..35 mm Hole 25....ii ii iii!i!iiiii!!iii!iii i _ t \\\\ .. iiii!_iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii!iiiiiiiil iiil iiil i'ii'iiii! ?iiii_ii'ii_iii_!i'i!iiiiiiil iiiiii_iiiiiiiiii_ii_i_ili_i_iiiii! _ii_iiii_iiiiiiii_ii_i_iiiiiiiii.. ---_ _ " . Strength other means.. fail at about reduction consistent knockdowns axial for unnotched tows in triaxial triaxial braids have also been estimated are found by to Aligned 70% glass/urethane braided composites of the strain for the to failure tows of unidirectional tape laminates.iii!i_iiii_iii_i_ii_iiiiiiiii:i!iii _i'i_i!iiiiii_ii!iiii!!_iJiiiiiiiiii !_ ii..i2111i! " \\\\ 200 ii_iiiiiiii!iiii:i!ii_iii:i!iiiil...4 mm Hole 1200 1000 [] Tape Equivalent \N_N\ \\\% %\\% % \ \\ \ _.._ iiiii!iiiiiiiiiiiii!ili_iiiil ..

5% [O° 18k/±66. caused differ No It is more Further can be a for {[0°lSk/±66. impact strengths while (CAI). Misalignment it will also facilitates plies and preform fiber kinking increase debulking plies of fibers. stitching strength. stitching the fabric helps maximize fiber fraction.16 1.10]. Table 3.6% (30%) differences that the small during must braiding define {[0°18k/±70°61d34% distributions by far more significant possible damage research achieved. which side.4. The some 3-6 typical shows stitched data and for are compared compression in Figure after similar that including tensile results show strength more stitching strength.3 Stitched The unstitched compression. [3. dramatically but reduces improves the unnotched the CAI compression being even by 10-20%. in-plane 4). that the tensile braids imply.9].12 Transverse Strength (MPa) 243 288 ± 25 321 -4-39 Tension Ultimate Strain. effective than However. born If it by near the surface entire [3.8]) shows Axial} would correlated or waviness. of Unnotehed Tensile Strengths for Various BRAID Lonl_itudinal Strength (MPa) [O°24k/_63°12k]31. strength the process quality processing.67 0.5°6k]37. the toughened Compression fibers affects resin system strength IM7/8551-7. challenge goal.36 0. % 0. % 1.14 432 _ 25 556 ± 10 394 _-. so that consistent in tape show Bringing in textile control common textiles laminates remains although made that it is an attainable Comparison Triaxial Braids.6% Tension Ultimate Strain. is reduced by stitching always those provides volume because the stitching misaligns (Sect. of Fig.12 ± 0.2 (from that are not readily [3. hardly affects unnotched laminates and open hole tension 3-5. On the positive into a tool.ANALYTICAL METHODSFORTEXTILE COMPOSITES Data for with architecture strengths triaxial braids occasionally For example.07 ± 0. 3-10 .70 ± 0.2 AS4/1895 than the small differences in the degree change of waviness in their fiber were and observed on cut sections tows in orientation packing with of the bias 70 ° bias to the axial tows parameters to the in the braid involved. 10 Laminates [O°18k/±70°6k]34% 3.96 _+0.5 °6k ] 37.13 _ 0. levels well orientation.67 0. soften the stress before straighter is placed plies. Axial} show Table and variations 3.

strengths although based of 3D interlock are aligned stuffers no data are available of for equivalent tape laminates.10]). r-n! IM7 Open Hole Compression Dia.0 mm) spacing between the stitching rows. = 6. strength estimates on the strengths 3-11 . Tensile strengths of stitched and unstitched IM7/3501-6 laminates.35 mm Fig. Compression (from [3. strengths and CAI data for stitched iM7 AS4 Compression After Impact and unstitched irIM7* laminates 3. (from [3.101) [] [] [] [] Unstitched Stitched Stitched Stitched 1600 den..20 in. (3. Kevlar 1250 den S2 Glass Prepreg 54J * IM7/8551-7 46J 54J . Kevlar _' 1- 600 - 400 C - o W e- 200 - I I l 0 I Unnotched Tension Open Hole Tension dia. -.4 3D Interlock Weaves Substantial weaves when loads data exist for the tensile with either Using instead and compressive or fillers.THE CHOICE BETWEEN TEXTILES AND TAPE LAMINATES 800 r---_-- [] Unstitched [] Stitched 1600 den.4. 3-5.125 in. (5.1 mm) pitch (between penetrations within a row) and 0. 3-6. Kevlar 1000 den.6.35 mm Fig. Stitching with 0.

and under by impact for a curved crack. which leads -1/2 It has poor resistance crack to buckling growth to unstable delamination The critical buckling stress again falls as a Through-thickness picture entirely. can be caused in undamaged through-thickness member.16]. Delamination Impact Resistance The Delamination loads. tape laminate in delaminated will still fail all too readily. loads a. a partially of and a. have very especially high values values those of work with 3D reinforcement of fracture 1 MJ/m2 and have higher generally but also some with notch for for 3D tape 2D reinforcement. interlock laminates Work weaves are exceptionally been than reported values of fracture [3. areas. growth. Even if reinforcement delamination growth in a quasi-laminar flaws as long for design.5 Out-of-Plane tapes reduced found METHODS according FOR TEXTILE volume COMPOSITES of stuffers by about or fillers. exist as the the in stress textile composite changes the advance. will arrest which crack their is a material length. grows as a 1/2 to essentially arbitrarily as a Griffith small with the critical Under in-plane values.ANALYTICAL unidirectional characteristically 3. are knocked and 30% [3. ill.15]. 4. part. A delamination through-thickness loads.13]. it is to the fractions down that tow strengths Strength. insensitive. The fractions fractions reinforcement turn out to be at most a few percent for most applications [3.6 Work of Fracture and Notch Sensitivity Many textile composites. which as a stiffener.11-3. By constant proper parts composite delamination independent growth under delamination through-thickness compression volume volume in curved and buckling bounding of delaminated formulae are provided layers in-plane required required can thus be eliminated. a laminate is damaged and contains failure drops even a limited dramatically. forms such arise whenever near holes the laminate is attached in-plane other structural if the laminate or edges. falling to resist delamination crack. 3. crack delamination since the through-thickness toughness stress alone composite on the matrix of length. translates into notch 3-12 .13-3. which exceeding are an order High work of magnitude of fracture or high toughness alloys. remains and crack through-thickness above some critical of driven the by reinforcement value. delaminated the plies failure. of through-thickness Some for the minimum in Sect. Once the critical relies crack stress great failure weakness of tape laminates is their laminates to some loads vulnerability by excessive to delamination.

damage stress Around any BETWEEN stress TEXTILES such AND TAPE as a round LAMINATES hole or sharp notch. 2916].) the latter These (It is fortuitous production clamps the wrapping of through-thickness raising detail in-plane even after they have failed. as the net section lch ~ 10-100 For tape laminates. S. M. Elasticity "Simple Models for Triaxially 3.THE CHOICE insensitivity. falls only weaves. Kniveton. Braided Composites. References 3. and S. the large lengths tow diameter of broken that of most textiles crack deflection the pullout plane. length. S. is much Co.3 P. Minguet. increase fracture Second. 1994. Boeing Defense and Space Group. 785-819 (1995). stress for the onset of the part is notch of damage. J. Two identified. 26. Cox and M. band forms concentration. mechanisms in Sect. is much lch. in a ductile The redistributing band stress in such dictates by the notch a way as to minimize sensitivity. K./ch For 3D mm [3. falls the material insensitive: ~ 1 mm. for These composites applications demanding exceptional damage opportunities have only begun to be explored. the strength lch." The Macroscopic Comp. Bishop. B. material. Dadkhah.M. "An Assessment of Reinforced Plastics for High Performance Applications. P. Philadelphia.2 of 3D Woven Composites. J. Flintoff. of fracture Co. Fedro. Dadkhah. Gunther." J. It has a size of the damage to order characteristic lch=E where When When strength interlock lch.4 the Potential of Woven Carbon FibreComposites 1514]. 3-13 ..1 M. J. and C. T. size." NASA 3. that continue diameter tows pullout tows around stresses to carry also load across lower tows the primary costs. Test Methods for Textile Composites.T. Curtis. given z of magnitude Wf/oc (3. are discussed in more to unusually high values. and B.16]. 4. Mater." Composites. High textile work of fracture in and notch insensitivity will create many opportunities tolerance. Cox. 91-102 (1995). N.2) and greater smaller stress Oc is the critical than than rises. together factors in these high measures typical tows large of damage tolerance favor have already been and First. G. N. Contractor Report 4609. 3. 259-265 (1984). as Co1/2 the Wf is the work the notch the notch size. a concentrator.

Naik. "On the Tensile Failure of 3D Woven 3-14 . "Fundamental Concepts in the Suppression of Delamination Buckling by Stitching. ed. Composites.14 3. N. G. NAG-l-343. J.A. NASA Langley Research Center. F. and Non- 3. Minguet. Masters. Final Report on Textile Composites Modeling. 9th DoD/NASA/FAA Conf. "Failure of Notched 2D Braided LSS and LLS Textile and Tape Equivalent Composite Laminates." in Mechanics of Textile Composites Conference. Gowayed. "Delamination 26.10 3." proceedings. R. Burr. L. Pochiraju and T. R. C.15 B.-W. "In-Plane and lnterlaminar Iosipescu Shear Properties of Various Graphite Fabric/Epoxy Laminates." J. Structures by Stitching.5 P.. E. Cox. Compression. R. 3. Cox. 1992) pp. Performance of Woven 1985. Curtis. L.T. 28 (1994) 1114- 3. Masters. T. Harris. Soderquist. Morris." presented at the NASA Textile Mechanics Working Group Meeting.S. Cox. D.H. Part 2." Acta Metallurgica et Materialia.8 3.T. ! 105-1110. 88-94 (1987). "A Comparison of the Fatigue Woven CFRP Laminates. 42 (1994) 3967-84. on Fibrous Composites in Structural Design. pp. in press. Dadkhah. W. PJ. B. Bohon (U. Comp. Poe. San Diego. Dadkhah. and J.7 3. N. ACT Program. in press." J. Massab6. Composites. Moore. and S.12 3.1994. E. "The Suppression of Delaminations in Curved 3. Cox. "Effects of Preform Architecture on Modulus and Strength of 2-D Triaxially Braided Textile Composites. M. 293-314. N.16 M.A." in Proc. and Y. November 1991.6 D. March 9-11. and M. Walrath. M. 112-122 (1993).E. J. of Composites Technology & Research 913]. Patrick. "Mechanical Properties of Triaxially Braided Composites: Experimental and Analytical Results" J.E. and Buckling in 3D Composites. Flintoff. 1994. N. "Quarterly Progress Report No. and H. Transportation.M. NASA Langley. L." Composites..9 3. Morris. Neri. Chou. ed. B.L. R. Lake Tahoe. L. Nevada. Foye. C. Cox. Jr. Morris. Grant No. N. D. Hampton Va. NASA Conference Publication 3311. Norman..L. C. and D. Pastore. and C.11 3. Dept. and B. and K. S. "Failure Mechanisms of 3D Woven Composites in Tension. J. and W.B. Adams. of Composites Technology & Research 1512]. Mater. K. S.13 B. and Bending. NASA Langley Research Center. ICCM V. pp 349-378. 10: Damage Initiation and Growth in a Braided Composite Subjected to Fatigue Loading"." Kedward. Gaskin. B.ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES 3.

FAILURE MECHANISMS In Section depending of relatively 2.FAILURE MECHANISMS 4. 4-1 matrix begins with arrays of microcracks of fibers and [4. is controlled entirely the properties [4. which These cracks involves grow and sometimes crazing rubble.4. Since such a specimen are pure within the specimen Viewed is over often -rc is proportional relevant to plastic. textile composites were categorized as quasi-laminar modified is and nonlaminar. to that of a single ultimate failure. microplasticity. in the language treated in Section cases of suppression mechanics. of the Thus the geometrical constraints property.3. 2 before proceeding The reader here. with plasticity occurring stress. and The fibril coalesce tearing. which in 2D damage show other related work of fracture by mechanisms that are intimately associated with their 3D nature.4]. appear geometrically characteristics have no parallel extraordinary as obvious quasi-laminates.4.4. mechanisms should still be described of laminate with the effects is therefore of the through-thickness to review reinforcement as a perturbation.1. ply under the axial shear. 4-2(a) linear/perfectly and [4.2]). For composites shear matrix behaviour deforming in which the fibers 4-2(a) have much higher modulus by than the matrix. matrix probably into be At higher the damaged constitutive divides can pieces measured of corresponding macroscopic behaviour conveniently the deviatoric stress/strain the range and fairly representatively stresses response of strains within by loading __. 4. textiles show may the terms quasi-laminar and and and nonlaminar behave elastically should be used with care. This as laminates distinction through-thickness mechanisms.1 Shear Axial ogive shear failure aligned in bundles between amidst of fibers pairs in a polymer (Fig. imposed by the fibers dependence _'cshould be regarded primarily as a matrix with some on parameters 4-1 .1. Some yet damage interlock to the as will encouraged the categorization However. measured above response a threshold approximately (Fig. considerable strains. tolerance of stress A prime and redistribution example properties accumulation weaves. tension. the represented under by Fig. undesirable often particularly was The in discussing introduced these Through-thickness failure mechanisms reinforcement in 2D laminates. be seen in the following. and is 3D stress-strain that mechanisms laminates. by the inclusion useful most in on whether few failure to combat or not they can be considered fibers.45 laminates ° shear in uniaxial all plies.2]).

ANALYTICAL

METHODS

FOR TEXTILE

COMPOSITES

of the fiber arrangement with volume volume fraction, typical resin

such

as volume

fraction. evidence

Little suggests

is known

about

variations

of "rc of

but the available of aerospace Shell

they are small for the ranges values

fraction

composites.

Representative

of 1re are 75 MPa [4.2].

for the aerospace

**1895 [4.1] and 30 MPa for automotive
**

,_>C;P 0689E 1214!."

urethanes

I__J 50pro

(a)

Figure [4.1]) parallel 2OO

120 "1 eee_ m ExDenmenta! Finite element progressive

(b)

microcracks in (a) an triaxial braid (from AS4/1895 [4.21). tape laminate (from The fiber direction is

4-1. Arrays of ogive and (b) a glass/urethane to the bands

of microcracks.

shear data analysis with failure

18

150

A

1

is

100 Stress 5O

8 P=

6 (n

3

00

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

o ....................

0.00 0.02 0.04

o Strain

0.06 0.08 0.10

Straln

(a)

Figure 4-2. Typical stress-strain response of a deviatoric stress in plies is pure shear. (a) AS4/1895

(b)

polymer composite tape laminate (from when [4.1]). the Co)

AS4/3501-6 plain weave (from [4.5]). Textile 4-2(a). Figure composites 4-2(b) laminate under shear loading curve on show stress-strain shear prediction properties specimen based very like Fig. woven,

shows

a typical

for a short

of a plain on

AS4/3501-6

superimposed

a theoretical

a progressive

4-2

FAILURE MECHANISMS failuremodel(both from [4.5]). The modelattributednonlinearityin shearto degradation of thematrix stiffness. ncethematrixhadyielded(criticalmaximumprincipal stress),the O shearstiffness the modelwas reducedto 20% of its original value.This approach in does not specifythephysicalnatureof theresultingcracks. In assessing failure mechanisms textilecomposites in beyondtheproportionallimit, the possibilityof shearfailurecanusuallybe predictedquitewell by comparingthe axial shearstress within individual plies or tows with lrc. In computingthe stress-strain response, reasonableesultscanusuallybe obtainedby regardingindividualplies or tows r aselastic/perfectly lasticin axialshear. p

4.2 Monotonic Quasi-laminar compression often followed Compression textile composites almost always fail under aligned, monotonic which is

by one of two mechanisms: by Euler buckling. is illustrated and ruptures,

kink band formation;

and delamination,

Kind band formation a bundle bundle. of fibers rotates

by Fig. 4-3. It is a local shear causing almost

instability strength

in which for the

total loss of axial

The bulk of data confirms cro = _r_/_

that Argon's

Law [4.6,4.7] (4.1)

is a serviceable the critical

approximation

for kink band formation 1tois the critical

in polymer

composites,

where

_

is

axial stress

for kinking,

shear flow stress

of Fig. 4-2(a),

and _ is

the misalignment

angle of the fibers with respect the crucial manufacturing angle; or, in other

to the applied issue

load (measured compressive

in radians). strength is

As Eq. (4.1) shows, minimizing

in optimizing minimizing

the misalignment

words,

fiber or tow waviness. of shear flow and

Fiber defects fiber rotation; in compression. defects

have a marginal a negligible

effect on the dynamics effect on the critical strength during of tows

and kinetics stress

and therefore In contrast,

for kink band influenced

formation by fiber

the tensile damage

is strongly

and therefore

handling

processing

(see Sect. 4.3).

4-3

ANALYTICAL METHODSFOR

TEXTILE

COMPOSITES

SC P.0,427C.030794

load bearing

tow

load

axis

Figure 4-3. Micrograph of a typical interlock weave (from [4.1]). kink band

0.1 mm

in an aligned

tow

in an AS4/1895

3D

Delamination especially around

has been edges

the most

serious

weakness

of conventional When a stress

tape

laminates, at

or in association limited in-plane

with impact delamination, compression;

damage. failure or by

singularity

an edge or an impact of the delaminated under critical inverse critical shear induced

event causes plies under

can ensue

via Euler buckling crack growth the falls in the to Well

delamination

by bending.

In the absence

of through-thickness under in-plane small either

reinforcement, compression values; case,

load for buckling proportion load for crack

and delamination

crack growth

to the size of the delamination delamination growth crack growth entirely are in

to arbitrarily bending. In

as does resistance

delamination established, polymers increases

depends

on the fracture generally relatively not

resistance very

of the matrix. Even

low-cost

polymer

matrices which

tough.

toughened only modest

and thermoplastics, in toughness. In quasi-laminar

are usually

expensive,

provide

textile resistance

composites is greatly does

such enhanced

as stitched

laminates

or

3D

interlock

weaves, The

delamination

by through-thickness eliminate subsequent

reinforcement. especially loads, it and

through-thickness impact, but by

reinforcement suppressing

not entirely under

delamination, compressive

during eliminates

buckling

the driving

force for delamination

crack growth

under in-plane

compression;

4-4

cos 2 0 t 1I. provide a stiffer foundation transition Equation and even in failure (4. considerably fractions of stitching assumption uniformly interlock in current composites.E. is damaged. Roughestimates the of minimumvolume fraction. provisionof through-thickness reinforcement. for V.2b) (mid-plane delamination) (4.V.10] 2 (9" k E_. were transferred would Thus. 4-4.FAILURE MECHANISMS by bridgingthe delamination crack..2a) where in-plane o"k is the applied stress at which fibers. kinking occurs. or and through-thickness V_ is the volume 0 are defined less than the and the dimensions from Eq. Values in-plane found of the fibers. much perhaps more readily.4. but approaches constantvalue which dependson the a parameters f thethrough-thickness o reinforcement[4.5). crimped for such during situations will occur Design rules have not yet been 4-5 .it greatlyincreasesesistanceo shearoads(Sect. impact. then reinforcement buckling established. = ExE. Vx cos2 0 h (surface delamination) (4. V. (4.2) is based on the simplistic as a linear If loads spring with strain that the through-thickness distributed the through the thickness laminate.. of through-thickness reinforcement required to suppress buckling and assure failure by kinking can be deduced from the theory of buckling plates on an elastic foundation [4. reinforcement Equation behaves (4.8-4. or reinforcement However. r t l The minimumloadfor bucklingor delamination crackgrowthdoesnot fall indefinitelywith increasingdelaminationsize. volume of aligned. ultimatefailure mustrevert to the kink bandmechanism. if conservative by through-thickness manufacture.2) fibers are h and t and the angle ~ 10 3. whichis largelyunaffected delaminations.11 Givenadequate ]. Ex and E. Thus a transition exists in failure mechanismfrom delaminationto kinking depending the efficacyof thethrough-thickness on reinforcement.2) for this particular remains intact. mode should and provided be a the through-thickness estimate. lower of the composite.8-4. ndthe compressive by a strengthis thenusually closetothatof pristinematerial. are the stiffnesses fraction in Fig. by shear into surrounding the through-thickness volume fractions would reinforcement be required.

ANALYTICAL METHODSFORTEXTILE COMPOSITES

(4 ntelpdnm _amim t .,v_rv,_.v.ur_..V.,

_J n i_ _n n_]lrTrTz"

'_, ,,..., .. _

;,, ,, !!!!

• 2h "-1-

(1_ sr Jm dBIntndfon

.._

alg4 I

8c30emr 11_

lock

stitched

Figure 4-4. delamination

Schematic due to impact.

of

buckling

under

in-plane

compression

following

4.2.1

2D

Weaves

and

Braids

Under

aligned

compression, of shear although ensues

2D weaves

and braids

without [4.2,4.12].

prior

damage

typically may of

fail by a combination appear damage in plain [4.2,4.15]. as kink bands,

plasticity

and delamination for kinking Nevertheless,

Shear

failures

the evidence tow failure.

is often

obscured

by the extent

that immediately and satin weaves Large scale

clear evidence straight axial tows

exists for kinking in triaxial braids

[4.12-4.14]

and in nominally occur between

delaminations

plies [4.12]. along

Localized

delaminations (Fig.

may occur between

tows within the same ply, especially

the float in 2D weaves

4-5).

Representative shown in Table 4.1 compression [4.16]. failed strength The braid data for four with shear to Fig. axially which stress-strain a low cracking 4-2 carbon/epoxy percentage triaxial of braids are

axial

yams, with data a in

{[06k/-4515k]12% very nonlinear

Axial}, stress-strain

by extensive similar

in the bias rovings (see also braids similar was

curve

[4.2,4.14,4.17]). by splitting like those failure.

The strength

of the remaining,

dominated presumably curves

controlled kink bands linear to

and buckling reported

of the axial fiber bundles, and the

involved were

in [4.2,4.14,4.15];

nearly

4-6

FAILURE MECHANISMS

/

interRuy d.elamlnatlon _ -

**in mnodh_md otf-a)ds tows
**

SC.4137"I'.110695

band

Figure 4-5. Schematic of delamination and shear failure events in a typical 2D weave. Because bearing Therefore, for plasticity fibers tows suffer in 2D weaves unavoidably stresses leading in principle, loads pass over and under one another, the primary load

large misalignments are high under to kinking)

with respect aligned low.

to the applied loads

load axis. load

axial shear (probably

nominally is relatively

and the critical braids,

In triaxial more

the axial

tows can be straight tape laminate Table 4.1

but in practice for kinking Data for

they are much

wavy

than plies in a

[4.2]. Critical Compression

are again relatively Gr/Ep Triaxial

low [4.2,4.17]. (from [4.16]).

Braids

Braid

[06k/-a515k]12% [036k/±45 ]5k]46%

Modulus (GPa) 32.4 ± 1.0 69.7 ± 1.8 62.0 ± 0.3 63.4 ± 2.1

Ultimate Strength (MPa) 353 ± 37 621 ± 17 503 ± 43 439 ± 752

Ultimate

Strain

1.56 ± 0.22 1.03 ± 0.04 0.86 ± 0.08 0.77 ± 0.14

[030k/±706k]46% [075k/±7015k]46%

Once immediately.

kinking

or other

shear

failure

occurs,

inter-ply

delamination

usually failure

ensues

If inter-ply

delamination

is already

present,

as after impact, kink band otherwise involving

may occur Because 2D weaves in-plane

via delamination the delamination and braids appear

crack growth stress following

and Euler impact choices

buckling

without stress

formation. is low, significant

or the kinking for

to be inferior

applications

compression.

4-7

ANALYTICAL

METHODS

FOR TEXTILE

COMPOSITES

4.2.2

Stitched Stitching,

and either

Stitched-Knitted alone

Laminates with weaving In the (usually absence uniweave of plies) or

or in combination

knitting, failure critical

is very

effective

in suppressing commonly much

delamination. occurs higher

delamination, [4.18]. The

in monotonic stress

compression

via kink band

formation

for kinking fibers

is generally

than in 2D weaves laminates are

and braids, tend

because

the in-plane aligned. applications When thickness immediately 4.2.3 3D of

in stitched uniweave

uniweave and

or stitched-knitted laminates

to be better for

Stitched

stitched/knitted

good

candidates

involving

compression. forms in a stitched The laminate, it propagates capacity of unstably the through the drops

a kink band the specimen

[4.18].

load-bearing brittle failure.

material

to zero; the material Weaves

exhibits

Under [4.1,4.18]. Each kink

aligned

loads, the failure forms

3D

interlock

weaves not nearly

also

fail

by

kink

band

formation laminate. not spread

However, band that

is generally

as brittle aligned

as in a stitched and does

is confined

to a single failure

tow

catastrophically effect of many

into neighboring distinct Strains kinking to ultimate

tows. Ultimate events, failure which

is only achieved over

by the cumulative volume of

may be spread have been

a substantial

the composite. details

of 3-15%

measured,

depending

on the

of the architecture Misaligned

and the test configuration constitute

[4.1,4.18]. flaws, angle with the strength (4.1). The or critical statistics

tow segments

geometrical

local stress

for each flaw depending depend

on the misalignment

via Eq.

of kink formation distributions The fluctuations higher favour peak

on how these kinking stress

flaws are distributed sequences also depends values

in strength

and space. Broader [4.18]. misalignment

delocalized compressive tows.

and high strain on the

to failure of tend the

statistics

in the aligned

The highest

of misalignment weaves

to be somewhat

than in tape laminates,

at least in current

3D interlock

[4.1]. The peak load is

commensurately Local delamination path provided

lower than in equivalent delaminations crack growth the are frequently is limited

tape laminates. observed in 3D weaves under compression. But

and Euler buckling reinforcement

of delaminated is not heavily

tows is not a failure crimped during

through-thickness

4-8

lower loads. This strength When by all flaws on neighbouring in a bundle without of bare any small fibers in a composite fibers. delocalizing expect 4. in textiles tows. When one fiber fails in a polymer acting on its neighbours composite. it sheds is picked excessive surviving higher of them bearing favours there is a bundle strength. up equally loads. of pristine AS4 carbon near fibers tows comparable an internal unidirectional volume weaves fraction [4. flaws significant fibers stress concentration Nearby tends in separate are thus grouped Various into larger flaws and composite to be lower.20].4 3D Braids observations have of the mechanisms been conducted to identify proportions primary of failure in load kink in 3D braids than have not been Detailed reported.17] for the strength of AS4 fibers I while 2 GPa. [4. group the load are coupled fails fibers. aligned tows. control. displacement if the it is By attempts significant bands However. than implied for equivalent imply tow ply strengths composites exceeding Unidirectional data because one fiber have lower strengths by bare fiber by the matrix. With this proviso.3 similar to those to ultimate failure operating in 3D interlock cases. Wilmington. Tow rupture be expected from or shear of the matrix can cause nonlinearity at much strengths the in weaves or braids are usually or with -30-50% lower than would tape of The tape properties example.1]. Delaware. 1) The rigours processing are always likely to damage 1 Data sheets of Hercules Inc. one might again very high strains Monotonic Under aligned in favourable Tension tension. straight. braid architecture very likely contains of nominally mechanism that their kinking mechanisms will be the of composite weaves. fibers. failure.FAILURE MECHANISMS fabrication.2. Their rupture on is the primary failure and determines failures ultimate However. laminates 70% (Sect. mechanism tensile almost all load is borne by the aligned strength. are 2) mechanisms can be conjectured of textile to explain why tow strengths even lower still. Experiments which frustrates control post rather mortem. For have apparently rupture 4 GPa strengths 1. 4-9 . delamination not the strengthlimiting mechanism is even afterimpact[4. depending the fiber architecture.5 Gpa in 3D interlock data manufacturer laminates quotes [4. strength in contrast. 4.. 3).19].

4. with high to achieve 4-10 . can therefore propagate of the the straightening leads to hardening Its progression leads strain to evolution equals can be estimated in _ and simply by calculating the local rotation ceases therefore typ. in the 0/90 ° orientation to failure are exhibited while considerable shows and high strains for off-axis stress Figure loads [4. The tows pronounced the entire [4.24] 4-6(b) trends for open hole specimens. Figure at various orientations. in the plain the problem will be similar weave linear reduces to those to one of deviatoric shown loaded tows.25]. might be tows at _-*45 ° weave shear of in 4- with respect Fig. the critical axial stress for shear plasticity. tow is a continuously for different varying locations and random variable. occurring The authors near this curious specimens. In tubular interfere can come into play when hardening. stresses o_. weave. For tow rupture loading may When give way load is not aligned or transverse with a primary cracking which to failure by shear [4.23]. (1). a tow. on the same tow.which is proportionalto the local misalignment ngle. of tows. 3) Misalignedor pinchedtows may be weakerthan straighttows. One common manifestationof shear plasticity under tensile loads is plastic straightening wavy tows. which trk.The resolvedaxial shear stress. 4) Lateralloads imposedon tows by neighbouring interlaced towsmayreduce their strength. f this will cause strengthknockdownsof up to 10%[4.4. plasticity similar 6(a) shows Response stress-strain for a plain is nearly composite to failure.21]. can be higher attribute braided with one a form work in the notched result interesting at very high to to specimen. mustexceed the shear a 1re. than in the unnotched plastic lockup strains. of the average The contribution angle group to failure rises as the square a tensile misalignment [4. progress ultimate tow straightening mechanisms causing along failure The failure for off-axis of Ref._.leadingagainto Eq. those 4-2(b) to two orthogonal or in a 3D interlock stress-strain curves sets of tows. another the hole. Since tow misalignment at different tow commences kinking. loads. The response in Fig. hardening levels enables of plastic of cold drawing required specimen. The criterionfor the onsetof tow straightening essentially of is the sameas that for kink band formationunder compression.14. 4-2. Tow between straightening when axial plastic the fractional difference the initial arc length to strain of the wavy from tow and its projected this source length in the axial direction.Forthe waviness typicalof 3D interlockweaves.ANALYTICAL METHODSFORTEXTILE COMPOSITES Tow wavinesscreates fluctuationsin the stiffnessof shortsegments f tows. with replacing straightening Unlike along tow.2.22].which results o in unevenloaddistributions. flow stress.or example.

5. (From [4. around often complex estimates interlacing tows of both orientations. I 100 15° o I.-.FAILURE MECHANISMS a) b) 300 - Vf : 0. ° W= 50 mm WEFT . (a) Figure 4-6.24].-0 Vf =0. This mainly is the to failure configuration mechanisms of most under interest loads for a primary applications 4.IJ 1-00 I -1 I 100 45 ° 5° 1 2 I 4 6 STRAIN. stresses straightening 4-11 . satin weaves. in geometry.) The rest aligned with of this section set will be directed of tows. Plastic tow difficult of local of tows. 5). within The systems and transversely tows. loads including is caused plain by weaves. [4. Stress-strain curves for plain woven Unnotched.14]. etc.3. % 0 1 2 3 4 I 5 0 8 10 STRAIN. (b) Notched (d = 4 mm). % carbon/eopxy laminate. =E 200 I !"--90° I 1 _ -_ I J /I I I /. the earliest oriented are with by the aligned microcracking plies. linked and between of microcracks to correlate is inhibited to irregularities (see Sect.. Braids In 2D woven softening under laminates.1 2D such as airframes Weaves and where stiffness and strength are paramount.5 WARP _ WEFT FIBERS WARP 0 ' c_ /_B ER S 400 90° FIBERS_ IBER$ 13.fJ.

22]. aligned the load drop with the at remarkable high typically stuffers 4-12 .22]. loads 2. When one tow fails.2 on nonlinearity the degree prior to peak load. [4. normal crack and Laminates stitched uniweave.1]. the damage tow across rupture sites are broadly fracture a sharp (Fig.1-0.5-4% the attainment sustains strains. transverse cracks exceeding softening (the the first tows develop cracks [4. The principal of microcracks periodic stitched-knitted transverse those plies. plies straightening. 4-1 braids loaded first plastic along the axial tows. much of peak smaller tests. of waviness Whether aligned plastic tows.3 on the ultimate or strain to failure. measurable depends architecture 4. weaves than the majority straightening stitched-knitted to peak load contribute to the strain limiting entities. In 3D interlock applied load between weaves. the stuffers weaves. At loads rare. after occurs in which tow pullout 4-7). in off-axis although Ultimate plies. Other typically significant and fillers the trajectories of warp (interlock half the peak load (~500 occurs because of plastic tows) MPa in typical tow graphite/epoxy Although in interlock of may composites).25% or materials to be substantially laminates. Rather.2].4.1. as in a tape laminate. The strength Tows fail as discrete process in 3D interlock is the rupture of aligned tows.ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES In triaxial in Fig. Stitched-Woven. straight in-plane load beating are nominally more Plastic wavy tow they tend in current in stitched-woven 0. These their shapes are very are similar found in tape influenced in a plies. [4. in the bias straightening rovings. loads However. systems and Stitched-Knitted in stitched cracks prepreg. load and in the to Stitched. leading over 5-10 mm lengths Following the ultimate load. for plane drop does not generally distributed. effect The stitching minimizes strength delamination during this has a minor fibers 4. along observed Cracks usually within the run orthogonal transverse weavers to the tows are comparatively tows). of the microcracking where aligned similar to that depicted stress generate is shear further usually occurs the dominant tows may At higher strains.3. occurs in tensile propagate to tow into neighboring pullout tows. [4. failure accompanies of the aligned large strains. tow straightening which depends is significant strongly on of the and processing. tow straightening is not evident. but complicated much way by the stitches. Because the in-plane lie in approximately 3D Weaves flat plies. laminates are roughly to the systems spacing rupture applied and shear cracks laminates.3.

midplane. the critical 4-13 . on the outer surface magnitude of the panel (Fig.4.22]).FAILURE MECHANISMS specimens well before around with gauge this strain. For polymer near the panel's composites..oa°.15 0.ast. of over which failed tow waviness together [4.1 0. the work of fracture of interlock can exceed 1 MJ/m 2. 1 mm. SC.ne =. lengths Thus of 20-30 mm.----' __ ..ooo i/ e.rnm gauge 0.05 0. 4. which failure (4.22]. load bearing tows have failed loads are act tows the composite further mechanisms It is believed effect sliding for transferring failure sites during substantial that the key factors tows.4 Delamination Through-thickness moments [4. r. 45. of length 2a. and r/is by 17 . o o 800 t/_ hardening phase 2001] f O0 I /pullout phase I/.3) a dimensionless In the presence flaw or damage critical value.1 + 0. or other irregularities a lockup loads near effect the and the clamping which peak restricts load (~ of the interlock displacements are weaves sustained to create Because 1 GPa) nonlinear displacements of . Oo.27.2 Strain Figure 4-7..6h/rm crack + (h/rm) 2 [4. for delamination crack growth. may be a pre-existing if it exceeds the critical value of the stress o(°) will cause Since or1.26]). occurs creates in-plane under Through-Thickness arises in curved Tension panels (Curved Structures) of in-plane 4-8 and tension whenever the sense compression. Stress-strain data for a 3D interlock weave tested in uniaxial tension aligned with the stuffers (from [4.28].c. _rl falls as a 1/2. the maximum can be written of the tensile stress. induced of a delamination by impact.1510E. r m is its median radius. which rm where function h is the half-thickness given approximately of the panel.032295 1200 1(a) h-L-1 . All the primary possesses straining.-. d °).

A simple. Through-thickness shields growth.4. If delamination the volume the latter will probably fibers must satisfy be via kink band I4.28. Since [4. considering such bridging independent can be related critical stitching value fibers the crack tip from reinforcement the applied bound springs stress such load.102695 td Figure 4-8. Then that Cro< cr_ as long as d °_ < Gc. Mode I strain energy where release Es is the modulus of the stitching rate for a delamination crack in an unstitched 4-14 .fs.28]. The maximum in-plane the part can be designed falls commensurately.28] fraction.29]. as stitching and thus effect equal growth can bridges suppress stitches panel delamination delamination can be cracks. M SC. crack by For oh. them to be linear springs.4112T. crc is the critical for in-plane formation. conservative to the of the to the found [4. al. of crack of length for crack thickness a constant the critical length approaches for sufficiently long delaminations of the stitches.4) fibers and Gic is the critical laminate. value. Stitching bridging a delamination crack in a curved part. a design required can be deduced delamination for the minimum growth. bound analytically to the properties rule to the of the of tyo. volume fraction to suppress crack One way of expressing stress rule is to require failure. r/2 of stitching h2 h fs > 4- _c2 r2 EsGIc (4. where is suppressed.ANALYTICAL METHODSFORTEXTILE COMPOSITES o t°) can be arbitrarily stress for which small for sufficiently severe flaws or damage. t_l is a lower The stress.

been assumed and (4. severe shaped risk of of are built up from while textile problems. The transition from failure on the compressive side to failure on the tensile side in Domain I depends on the relative values of the critical stresses for tensile rupture and kinking. If these structures However. delsninaticn crack grcwth o 1 3rl h 4 r m Y 0 c0 sh EsG _ Figure 4-9. 4-9. The critical value of h/r m shown corresponds to a tensile rupture stress that is 50% higher in magnitude than the kinking stress. b/r m <0. Map of failure modes for a curved panel. a second condition (4. tension can also arise around plies. Through-thickness sections.2 : k_k _dl_e ux_r u_r _ _ _ _skn h/r_ > O. % I.5) that the fiber is the more volume stringent parameters where fraction ors is the strength within a stitch of a stitching = 0. 4-15 . _of _Jr_:hL_ III.28]: fs> rl h Oc 3 rmos cannot the stitches must also This be sufficient enforces to ensure that the on throughthe stitch rupture them. depends on the relative failure of the panel and the various part are mapped material The possible modes for a curved in Fig. Which curvature (4. overcoming composites experimental may be the only observations practicable of failure means mechanisms such delamination in parts of general shape with triaxial stresses are still being gathered.4) condition involved.2 : ply n_e II.67.FAILURE MECHANISMS The strengthof thickness density tension [4. laminated is again delamination.5) tow and it has of Eqs. joints there and in thick.

for bridged I delaminations must remain (Sect. In a 2D laminate.5 Shear When Delamination shear stresses in Bending by bending near a free edge mode or notch. Sensitivity composites cohesive are generally remarkably zones notch insensitive. stress the crack growth falling is catastrophic for common configurations. surfaces.ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES 4.4).4. it supports and The cohesive is characterized discontinuity. must also growth will to remain catastrophic delamination but the Mode and break Notch Textile II delamination the stitches will still be enhanced by the work required [4. a steady-state enough cracks. of the delamination Mode length oh. by the relation 2u.30-4. the configuration stitches intact. Like is independent stress. which Both of these mechanisms in textile isolate the material stress fields. toughness limit.30. or nonlinear the stress process form at the notch factor can also in such a way as to reduce ultimate running notch strength.32]. the displacement into the elastic material 4-16 .32]. crack The resulting laminates.6 shear enough Since all delaminations stress. However. it introduces the tractions. p. for delamination propagation crack approaches for long 4.6. of stitched Provided especially remain the end-notch the critical l:ss. In both tension and redistribute the degradation by splitting ahead and loads of compression. with the critical with the length Through-thickness of the initial delamination reinforcement on Mode changes length.1 Cohesive The determined Zones more effective composites. value. crack on the fracture and tests [4. to stretch 4. Td. relatively rss can be used as a design intact. If it fails. effectiveness by mechanisms of a cohesive that permit zone zone in redistributing local loads around without a notch complete is significant displacements between loss of strength. are familiar in tape laminates. the fracture behaviour using well illustrated flexure applied which critical test load. but they can both be much 4. delamination are created pure crack growth can ensue under Mode II or mixed loading conditions. the applied be strong resume. the mechanics bridging of Mode the II delamination and imposing has been in a similar shielding way shear to its effect tractions by models I delamination. Stress concentration factors and minimize be limited concentration cracks of the from the notch from the notch root parallel to the load axis. "rss is a material short for smaller the stitching crack property values of of the composite.

[4.3.22]. of matrix a schematic At the furthest as inferred from the observations damage in the from the notch. are confined (If damage to a band associated is spread with the notch. for example Because the orthogonally low loads effects.22.1]. Pullout since tow lengths strength is probably distribution by tow is scope the extent designing which a favourable into the composite tows.4. tow ends [4.35]). Part of the costs. more or less uniformly zone is no longer traction. Pmax. The notch sensitivity [4. they may be subsumed composite. reason When length.3. by controlling aligned After tows are impinged tow failure by other weaves. zone in nearly volume of aligned of a cohesive distances Figure for 3D interlock band consists disposed tows 4-10 shows weaves. tows will define the maximum cohesive tractions across cohesive Following are pulled pulled tow rupture. distribution crimp and of flaws pinching. which (4. a slip can be exceptionally preferred composites.e. scales debonding from the surrounding as the ratio of the tow's also depend on the spatial impaired of flaws upon area and circumference.) zone. Nearer it makes a relatively contribution and therefore tows to notch occurs. as its diameter in the aligned there tows. is the large a single Is. lengths tow first at the notch large in textile root. in Sect. over the whole large scale yielding Tow rupture and the cohesive an appropriate supported by depiction the of events. As far as in the this is in an interlock weave. are probably an excellent phenomena composites to what to expect in a notched nature of the observed all textile themselves containing also suggests significant that they are likely fractions to be found tows. the notch.33].3.34] of the composite depends mainly on the strength of the tows and the work of fracture Wf = f p du Very notched interlock guide few observations However. small this cracking to Wf occurs at relatively and strains. there friction.FAILURE MECHANISMS around it [4. for to [4. will continue to be supported plane.6) of the detailed mechanisms observations in cohesive during zones uniaxial have tension been tests made of in 3D specimens. The 4. i. When as the broken the tows out of the composite the eventual which occurs fracture are fully out.3. is opposed This dubbed composites is intimately . strong of textile in 3D interlock by unusually peculiarity is an interval an effect where pullout lockup linked of the (Section to the 4-17 broken 4. transverse cracks the earliest between cracking. the plastic straightening and rupture of aligned these effects relation p(u). which diameters in textiles to minimize composite manufacturing occurs over tow breaks. a traction Tow pullout free crack exists. weaves were summarized specimen.

characteristic sensitivity 3. Glc.. are dragged Lockup by one is the impingement another during of irregular the pullout features process. Gs.6. of the cohesive only for notches be . as discussed Notch in Section will be found exceeding For tape laminates.g. Schematic of a concentrator in a textile composite.2 Splitting at a Notch The mechanics have been much studied of splitting (e.. In as it A splitting which crack will be energetically propagate is much the toughness.6. of the material through it must toughness._J zone of stuffer pulleut ---___. while to Wf length. SC 092tE(_93 (a) crack II I ' l 2u c _ -r" i i i Ill I I I III stress S i i i i _. cracks running parallel to the load axis from favoured lower notches when than the load. for propagation Glc is large. composite.. to remain developed. e. tension. since But the arrangement which of fibers also lowers resin rich layers is a subject are easy paths research. generated in in-plane Lockup by the through ihickness reinforcement compression p.100 mm._. [4. allows Through-thickness traction.36]). nonlinear damage band growing from a stress 4. lch. Wf ~ 100 MJm -2 and lch ~ 3 mm at most. The mechanics of splitting cracks of current 4-18 ._ zoneof matrix cracking Figure 4-10. interlock in a 3D composite forces sliding tows value. weaves. into close the cohesive near its peak The resulting The Pmax.g. on It is through-thickness when compression it is loaded contact. composite a textile discussed creates in textile Gs. displacement discontinuities of zone 2u ~ 1 mm are 3D contribution is of the order 1 MJm -2 in some will correspondingly this dimension.YTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES irregularity neighbouring abetted by endemic tows the to textile as they products. above. for fracture.. ~ of a mode I crack normal 3D angle tows to the applied interlock 1 MJm -2 for into discrete weaves.AN_.

cycle. 4-19 . viz. At least in 3D interlock phase of the loading with their distributed weaves. commences microcracking either rapidly become tension during and microcracking on the bias cycles. for tension-tension damage fatigue only with [4. any observations non-aligned for some important survey is correspondingly mechanisms especially imperfect.1 2D spatially control.7 Fatigue Reported accounts of fatigue mechanisms in textile composites are few and of incomplete. in many Nevertheless. the local failure events For cyclic loads the same interply with one primary are much including as they are in monotonic delaminations loading. or shear. bias tows The that may be driven stiffness slows.7. stresses determined In high cycle because below fatigue. In parallel damage fatigue accumulate life beyond 4. microcracking inside damage and by tends aligned to be less tows abundant than in monotonic locations locations (especially at are tow damage the accumulates for at a few favourable The favourable threshold elsewhere.15]. geometrical by the textile architecture imperfections misalignments). Observations For loading aligned in resin for triaxial with pockets the braids axial are available tows. even basic fatigue loading data. This some composites. mechanisms.FAILURE MECHANISMS 4. depending After composite declines further the decline splitting in stiffness but axial tows disbonded from the bias tows. kink band delaminations. loading. tolerance damage. 2. that may turn out to apply aligned to all or at least most cases. 3D textiles gradually extensive fatigue damage accumulates more rapidly on the compressive 4. microcracking. and and intraply in 2D composites. this phase. tensile by fatigue within angle. tow rupture. in monotonic In strain loading. fiber orientation. generalizations 1. formation. classes of the available inviting reveal consistent textiles. they may have the first tow failures Weaves and Braids or the first significant loss of stiffness. or multi-axial data do For 3D textile are unavailable loads. eventually and rupturing. 3. without conditions.

072093 formation.18]. B. Fatigue tows. ac _.2 3D Just weaves Interlock as under Weaves monotonic cyclic loading. L. SCP0314C. within of the shear in subject to aligned formation form in segments Fig. will eventually and kink failure kink band Figure 4-11. N. Mater. Compression. interlock weaves In either case. Dadkhah. compression tows the principal is kink failure band mechanism [4.7. M.4. S.g. of the affected Some segment. interlock Ultimate separate References 4. of nominally damage This straight that have unusually consists of high misalignment to the resin an increase accumulation either apparently rotation of damage and may allow fibers angle. 4-20 .37].37]). The failed crack. of tows. 42 (1994) 3967-84.ANALYTICAL METHODSFORTEXTILE COMPOSITES 4. [4." Acta Metall. Cox. (4. Just as in monotonic unstably into neighbouring matrix loading. distributed act as geometrical subsequent under strain kinking control to be broadly elsewhere a widely in space to occur involve in the composite distributed accumulation kink events.1 which weaves. individual misalignment flow stress. "Failure Mechanisms for 3D Woven Composites in Tension. tends might debonds stress via a peripheral segments. and W.37. for interlock The kinks (e.38].1). the criterion will occur for kink band in the tow.. failure concentrations. Morris. A kink band formed in fatigue in a misaligned segment of a stuffer in an AS4/1895 layer-to-layer interlock weave (from [4. and Bending. be satisfied likely Eq.37]. minimizing flaws. evidence or a gradual indicates that lowering the latter of the critical is more [4. a kink failure tow local tend in one tow does not usually from the surrounding Since propagate composite misaligned in 3D [4. 4-11).

W. J. 1995). "Characterization of 2-Dimensionally Braided Composites Subject to Static and Fatigue Loading. NASA Conference Publication 3311 (NASA. Bohon (U. Cox. of Composites Technology & 4. M. Degradation in K. S. Walrath. Vol. L. 1. R. Boeing Defense and Space Group. Pastore. Tech. 1992) pp. of a Brittle Adhesive D. T. P." Int. N. Tech. 28 4. J. of Woven S. S. Fleck. Argon. "Fundamental Concepts in the Suppression of Delamination Buckling by Stitching.FAILURE MECHANISMS 4. M. "Kinking as a Mode of Structural Composites. A. Foye. 156-64. L. E. 4. G. Budiansky and N. L. K. J. Mater." J. C. Comp. Masters. Mater.A." in Mechanics of Textile Composites Conference." Comp. Zupon. Failure of Fibre Composites. L.14 4. Fleck. 222-32 (1995)." W. Morris. and J. 55-76 (1991). Harris. Z. Soc. A. Transportation. Pennsylvania. and Buckling in 3D Composites." J. Cox. Mech. 1105-1110. Eng. Hetfnyi. Sci. T. NASA Contractor Report 4610. 116. ed." J. D. Xia and J. Roy.-W. S.18 4-21 . ed. on Materials A. Solids 41. "Delamination (1994) 1114-26. M." in Proc." J. Minguet and C. in Treatise Press. 1946. Soderquist.11 4. Beams Michigan. Mai. November 1991. and Weave Fabric-Reinforced Composite Research 1512]. 26. Lake Tahoe.S. and Tech. 3285-3298 (1992). Neri. L.9 Science and Technology. Jr. 112-122 (1993). Cox. "Compressive Strength and Mode of Failure of 8H Celion 3000/PMR15 Woven Composite Material. Layer.E. Gunther. and H.725-38 (1978). 183-211 (1993). 40. 136-142 (1993). Kniveton. N. 165-71 A." "Simple Models for Proc. Kurath. 9th DoD/NASA/FAA Conf. Morris. Solids Structures due to an Array of Microcracks.16 4. H." Composites 26. New York. Hutchinson.5 M. B. Dadkhah. F. Nevada. E. J. Morris. W. N. of Composites Technology & Research 1512]. University of Michigan Press. Evans Carbon Fiber Delamination (1993). Philadelphia.6 4. A.12 4.8 4. "Modeling Damage in a Plain Material. "Effect of Stitching on Interlaminar Composite Laminates.17 4. N. "Mode II Fracture Toughness 31. Reifsnider and F. "Brittle Fracture London A432. C. 1133-1148 (1994). Blackketter. Adler.10 4. Mater. N. 49. Cox. 10. B." Acta Met. Failure in 3D Composites.3 4. "Compressive Phys. 91-102 (1995). Mirzadeh. on Elastic Foundation. C. Academic B.M.2 4. on Fibrous Composites in Structural Design. 1994. Karayaka and P. Hansen. and Y . "Deformation and Failure Behaviour Composite Laminates. Res. A Comparison of Graphite Epoxy Tape Laminates amd 2-D Braided Composites Mechanical Properties. and C. B. Burr and D. "Mechanisms of Compressive Acta Metall. "Mechanical Properties of Triaxially Braided Composites: Experimental and Analytical Results" J. M.4 4. L. Dadkhah. Dept. Gowayed. R. C.7 4. and B. Ann Arbor.13 4. Poe." J. M.C.. Comp. Triaxially Braided Composites.15 Shu and Y. Extension in and W.

in K. Fleck. "Cracking and Stress Redistribution Ceramic Layered Composites. Cox. M. McGlockton. Fujita. C." J. and J. 11. of Elasticity (McGraw-Hill.32 4. 107-16 (1991). 1. Fracture Mechanism in Flat Braided Plastics Comp.-J. and Res.331- 4. under Transverse of Delaminations in T. Sci. Z.34 4. Sankar and S. Suo. Sharma. Cox. Eng. on Crack for Bridged (1994). press. K. 341-63 G.600-17 (1992). California. Sci. Lu and J. Concepts. in 4-22 . and J.294-309 (1967). communication. Morris. A. Lu. C. Comp.23 J. "Failure Behaviour Composites." 4. October. Xia. and W. "Mechanical Behavior and Composites. N. B. C. 1995. Composites. A. Cox.-W. in press." Mater.II..26 4. Massabb and B. Chains. S." J. S. K." Composites." in Mechanics of Textile Composites Conference. 13111. N. REv. 42[2]. B. Marshall. Failure Rockwell Science Models for Textile Composites. 4. Cox. W. "On the Tensile Failure of 3D Woven B. Hutchinson. N." Mater. "Lockup. and A. Y. Comp. Contractor Report 4686. in press. Hosur. "Local Stress Concentrations Materials. Cox and D. M.28 4." J.. Harte and N. and M. Cox. Thousand Oaks. Theory 1995. Dadkhah. Kedward. "Concepts Fatigue. "Role of Fiber Stitching in Eliminating Transverse Fracture in Cross-Ply Ceramic Composites.33 4. Mai. 3511-24 (1995). 43. Mater. Reinf. Harris. R. S. "Concepts submitted to Mechanics of Materials. P. Timoshenko 1951). N. W. Ceram.ANALYTICAL METHODSFORTEXTILE COMPOSITES 4." and W.24 4. Cox.21 4.31 B. B. W. Carter. Hutchinson. 1995. New York. Chan. Shembekar. Bao and Z. N. NASA Conf. Jain and Y." 45 (1994). P. 4." J. and C.20 4. K. of Woven Fabric S. "Effects of Stitching on Fracture Toughness of Uniweave Textile Graphite/Epoxy Laminates." Acta Metall. and K. Hedgepeth and Filamentary Composite J. V. R." Cracks in Fracture and Bridging Appl. Van Dyke. "A Binary Model of Textile Acta Metall.36 B. Composites . NASA Center. Naik. Publ. Maekawa. N. C. Massabb.30 N. A. for Bridged Mode II Delamination Cracks. Hamada. 57-64 (1993)." Composites.22 4.27 4." J. M. Mater. L. M. N. 78. N. Xu. Hutchinson. Mater. Effect of Stitching on Mode I Delamination Composites Science and Technology 51. V. private and J. Amer. 3311.25 4. and the Delocalization of Damage.19 B. T. 24. in Imperfect B. 103-12 (1994). Mater. Jr. A188. Z. The Elastic Regime. Yokoyama. "On the Toughness of Laminated Composites. ed. A.35 4. Part 1: Braided Fiat Bar. Goodier. J. E. "The Suppression Curved Structures by Stitching. Mech. He. Sci. Soc. P. " Delamination of Beams Shear and Bending. Engng A167.-M.29 4.251-3 (1995). "Remarks 355-66 (1992). Poe. Tech. L. H.

A. S. Fleck. Solids 4118]."Compression-Compression B. Cox. Acta W. Slaughter and N.38 M. 43[12]." J. 4235-45 (1995).FAILURE MECHANISMS 4. 4-23 . Morris." Metall.Dadkhah.andW. N.37 4. Mater. Fatigue of 3D WovenComposites. "Compressive Phys. L. Mech. S. Fatigue of Fiber Composites. 1265-84 (1993).

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1 to how the user In choosing ask whether discussion some valid class for of composites. trivial relationship in different [e. among and fiber with the of which is an approximately of isotropy factor unidirectional lying normal transversely In polymer isotropic. 5. in their organization.1 ].1. of macroscopic or strain elasticity is reduced to the of a few macroscopic a gradient the in the components. different grains therefore of order depends orientations on the textile and on the degree architecture. they are zero). It may each be viewed is often as a three-dimensional composite to the local is high. following will provide and Isostress 2D laminates. is subjected arise Of in each course. theory a guide to answering this question. properties in stress A textile modeled) of textile and strain composite composites is dealing within sufficiently a textile well with the very even under uniform that can occur is a highly applied (and heterogeneous tessellation therefore direction..g. composites. Thus for the in-plane simple plates gradient remains analysis causes deal with this difficult situation by simplifying stress this the description Models of the can be a the of and restricting a few for are main the allowable groups according internal variations. strains is uniform.1 PREDICTION Concepts The great OF ELASTIC CONSTANTS AND THERMAL EXPANSION challenge in modeling the elastic large variations loads. structure. to a uniform through-thickness condition loads distances are load. with the plane the anisotropy for each grain of stresses sizes and Eaxial/Etransverse "_ 20 for typical graphite/epoxy.PREDICTION OF ELASTIC CONSTANTS AND THERMAL EXPANSION 5. first categorized particular simplifying essential 5. uniform in-plane loads plates cause identical in-plane strains condition in laminate for non-bending The analysis stress is based on an isostrain coordinates. very strongly The distribution on their In other relative words. is done. it depends All models textile geometry into model steps concepts Isostrain In infinite each ply. 2D laminate stresses coordinate. the given should The architecture. 5. of grains. the and Bending flat laminar but since the plies in-plane strains between through stresses thickness. exists for If an infinite identical the through-thickness ply and an isostress through-thickness through-thickness (unless always to nonuniform but if they vary slowly over comparable 5-1 .

than the tows the fiber are equivalent.'. can be equated Various closed to the macroscopic form approximations properties of an equivalent the latter for estimating 5-2 .. to regard it is always tows as being separately.. Translational conditions invariance inand two orthogonal shear. are composites combined represented are frequently in-plane analyzed by assuming loads. ooi oee e_ el • _-..4059T. an observer the load axis in Fig.. o ° SC... works in 2D laminates when because of scans laminar For example. Textile condition..'. in-plane axes is required to exist for isostrain locally under to hold under loads. the composite implies remain that planes plane and normal the he sees does not change. in any two directions Therefore. 5-1.. along plane they to the load axis have condition isostrain prevails. quasi-laminar these steps also usually by laminate Whether determined the scale 5. an isostrain textile are or isostress composites valid will be on Under and bending theory. Translationally invariant 2D laminate. normal the distributions whatever isotropic of the fibers ratio. and resin not be modeled Furthermore. may be considered to prevail locally in stiffness or isostrain in the assumption structure.2 by the extent over which stress to which variations the textile composites modeled.. t e _ o o eo directio o o e o e B e o e o o e ou_e e e o mo • o ee e lee j on o. are transversely the tow aspect over any in the absence greater gauge significantly diameter.1. for isostress conditions through-thickness for strain gradients to be uniform in bending. Thus unidirectional tow properties composite..ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES the thickness estimating The translational along of a single the lumped isostress invariances ply.'.072795 Figure 5-1. no cause This translational to deform under the invariance load. in every the elastic The case properties composites tows need fibers studied. isostress of many conditions plies.'. e_e • • eOe o e • ..':".. are translationally invariant are being Tow Propera'es With no exception of textile within known to the writers.. length to the tow axis of twist.'_'. adequate internally in modeling homogeneous.

.. Rule of I/ I / ! 0.6 0.4 (d) ' I 3O --. partitioning important are five of stress between and resin [5...4 V 0. I . II >.6 0.sen 10 0. Hill r i 0. 5-2.PREDICTIONOF ELASTIC CONSTANTSAND from the fiber The volume simplest fraction are rules and the fiber and (e... Hill ..... models isotropic Hashin's the fibers anisotropy in the fibers isotropic..7].6 0. I . Comparison of the elastic constants predicted for tows in an AS4/1895 composite using various models from the literature (Table 5.2]).4 V 0. I J I . Hill ...0 . 0. Rule of Mixtures 0 0 0.5.. SC54243 112993 (b) r ' . ..2 0.2 0..2 0..8 1...1.3 .1 and some volume fraction tow properties in Fig. ..6 0..0 Figure 5-2..i 10 -... should the anisotropy substantial and Hashin's model then be preferred [5.Christen... The features computed Each models shown are compared as functions 5..4 0. ' r ' / 0. matrix THERMAL EXPANSION properties Better are available models main offer in the more of for literature.8 1...0 0 0 I .2 -- Ha.4 V 4O (c) . / .3 2O ...Chrlstensen .. .. Hashin I: assuming the same isotropic fiber elastic constants as in the other models. Q.8 1..3-5.8 1. I .. I J 0 0. 30 Q.. "'='el i | . 0 ... of Rule i / .1)... Hashin II: using anisotropic fiber elastic constants for AS4 fibers.8].1 ..shin I Hashln II . (3 .hi. .g.2 ---0..Chrlltenlmn / / / /J }_ / / / lJ 0. realistic some of mixtures fibers in Table of fiber [5...-.0 0 0 0.4 V 0.. 0..2 0. AS4/1895 predicts transverse the other fibers are model by all glass fibers is elastic constants Only corresponding model to the five admits degrees of freedom allowed isotropy....1 Hmlhin I Helhin II Chriel:efllen Rule of Mixtures ." g. 5-3 . Assuming carbon assume and resin But are separately is very plausible.. . .. in common themselves.. (3 (3 20 >x 0.

48 0.75 0.44 0.41 0.8 12.4 7.35 0.3-5.7 8.35 0.42 1/23 0. 2.46 0.31 0.70 0.3] for Computer FORTRAN codes for the micromechanical in program for WEAVE AS4/epoxy can be found as subroutines Properties compared constituent in Table data computed 5.1 ). Naik and the of Table Table 5.4] Christensen [5.80 0. R.1 Some Models of Unidirectional Fiber Composites Remarks Simplistic stress partitioning Inaccurate for polymer composites Accurate for isotropic fibers only Accurate for isotropic fibers only Relatively cumbersome Bounds only.4 17.3 6.32 0.37 0.45 0. by Dr. 3.51 Van Fo Fy [5.39 GI 2 (GPa / 5.5.80 ~ - El I E22 (_GPa_) (GPa_ 154 11.35 0.65 0.42 0.3 11.5 12.4 4.8 165 177 188 177 190 203 216 154 165 177 188 234 269 4.65 0.34 0.4 3.9 5.70 0.1 20.0 10.4 0.7] Hashin [5.35 0.8 15.1 4.43 0.7] Model 1.2 5.4 13.8 8.0 8.2 *Bare fiber bundle properties (strength gauge length dependent) **Neat resin properties 5-4 .0 7.34 0.33 0.4 14.5 4.6 22.45 0.0 3.80 0.32 0.ANALYTICAL METHODSFORTEXTILE COMPOSITES Table 5.5 6.49 0.42 0.0 11.65 0.70 0.2 6.3 0.4 15.0 4.6 3.8 4.6 12. 4.75 0.1.6 4.35 0.4 22.7 G23 (GPa_) 4.33 0.9 6.75 0.2 5. but narrowly spaced unidirectional composites Allows fiber anisotropy models (Section and 8).2 Vl 2 0. other using carbon/polymer a finite element systems model are in [5.2 Estimated Mechanical Properties of Tows Fiber AS4 AS4 AS4 AS4 IM6 IM6 IM6 IM6 AS4 AS4 AS4 AS4 AS4* IM6* ~ Matrix Epoxy Epoxy Epoxy Epoxy Epoxy Epoxy Epoxy Epoxy PEEK PEEK PEEK PEEK ~ ~ Epoxy** PEEK** Vf 0. 5.32 0.32 0.2] Hill [5.1 4. Rule of Mixtures [5.8 13.44 0.2 (computed 2.9 5. I 4.8 5.

or measuring of composites Direct dissolution volume measurement sectioning that of the of resin held design in resin situations. may internal larger boundary tow they The smaller be twisted deliberately Yet these separately be twisted as a whole. around one another in complex they contain is therefore significant higher The density of fibers. will always have in textile a negligible a good in other strain for high this uncertainty In high moduli that any macroscopic properties.g. resin pockets In engineering it will probably The volume be the case of fibers will be incompletely not be known designed computed characterized. assumed the fraction of the whole fiber counts.PREDICTION OF ELASTIC CONSTANTS AND THERMAL EXPANSION In reality. Minor deviations from transverse tows will not alter the symmetry Local fiber biases cancel one another within of the tow architecture larger scales. perhaps (Section ~ 1%.3 Fiber Packing textile and Resin composites Pockets are manufactured patterns. are structure tangled the tows than in textile unidirectional rather composites composites. pockets requires painstaking always fraction of specimens. elastic stiffness are fiber applications.1.9]. by the axial of a tow is very within it. constituted the contribution the tow is inversely proportional to Vt for fixed 5-5 . form may smaller tows tows. nearly is one in which straight fibers all critical are so oriented extensional Now is opposed by the axial nearly extension or compression to the fiber composite Therefore.6). exactly. within over (typically Vt . perfectly do usually Fibers aligned.5 < V _ 0. fraction. averaged representative that is measured of preforms. measuring by matrix the density areal by standard weight [5. within tows will therefore composites effect on Nevertheless. (typically volume content V. Vt. on the scale out over The effects are never of twist more irregularities reduction tows on macroscopic axial stiffness elasticity than a modest are generally in the effective compared of a tow. tows with relatively large fiber volumes 0. They 3). and other overall symmetry be transversely significantly. insignificant to the effects of tow waviness 5.65 tows of < Because which resin curve pockets. either or inadvertently. dominated.: 0. volumes of the composite tests of fiber the fiber 0. e. or shear stiffness to exist fiber architecture words. stiffness. while proportional Vt. than being several formed by combining layers. It is the latter fraction. isotropic.7) than the fiber density. volume of fibers. complications will isotropy of The tow will then not strictly not violate in individual the textile. which also have within Large usually more single filament leaves complicated tows count resin and follow tows rich the paths. internal tortuous.

not their density of knitted fabrics made of yarns of approximately equal all yarns are not have significant dominated. structure be the same. For example.g. of carbon fibers) with a light thread (e. the heavier yarns are often kept as straight as possible by design. unit cell. then these if a cuboid with the axis system obtained (Xl. choosing the unit cell to be symmetric 1 When warp knitting is used to tie together heavy yarns (e. x2. through a displacement a multiple will remain (Fig.4 can be influenced by the assignment of Vt to a modest degree Unit Cells Many and Periodic processes Boundary yield patterns Conditions of interlaced volume each tows or yarns that repeat in one textile or two directions. is nearly independent of Vt. can then be e. more Because of strongly on the and the Macroscopic response shear tow properties fiber depend stresses. composite [5. Generalizations intended for fabrics with highly curved yarns are then inapplicable. nonlinearly Vt (Fig. of such a structure of which from loads represents can be generated the tows in one by stacking (The of the or cycle. 5-6 .10]. [5.) computed by analyzing the behavior For any periodic of a single structure. the stress The analysis for stresses and strain distribution in a periodic therefore obtained in principle Under textile composite also be periodic.. response term unit cell has been borrowed textile composite to external crystallography. curvature but over most of their lengths. the The small the same periodic may arise used. together A large unit cells. 5. approximations computational properties in practice especially because in by the of inconsistent definition symmetry about a of numerical choice methods of unit cell is usually guided other of the textile.ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES of the tow to composite simply the total number In the looping weight 1. The critical of packing characteristic [5. one equal of to For example. unit cell should The solutions should be subject for different to periodic conditions to represent differences unit cells chosen although in grids.g.g.11]. boundary of a single or strains.1. of polyester). aligned unit cell with suitable there are infinitely boundary many ways conditions. on the other stiffness of fibers geometry hand.8]. 5-3 a unit cell if it is displaced uniform must external loads. in a model period The they are periodic. is in the tow. of choosing a unit cell.. to the right or left by any distance. value of tow segments moduli elastic depend constants to local transverse on and shear the assumed transverse 5-2). x3) is one possible the faces normal so too is the axes rhombohedron of either length by shearing two axes to any in the direction of its original of the other 5-3). Equally. either unit cell outlined in Fig.

components. For cost example. 5-4). number The anisotropic of interior output architecture Unit cell calculations includes among are usually both the spatially computationally averaged of unit cell of stress calculations distributions response of the cell and details tows and resin pockets. and uniform cells words. to modeling strains such cases strain the is to calculate gradients. In typical unit cell calculations. of a quasi-laminar of the unit cell are of the details of can be modeled computed stress When relatively by a variant easily. Interior stresses and strainsare computedby a finite element simulation subject to periodic boundary conditions on the cell walls. The solid-lined rectangle right)showsreduced (lower a cell thattakes dvantage a ofreflectionymmetry avertical s about plane. The properties of calculations the quality interior distributions external periodic cell loads is impaired. beams. The interior of the unit cell is often modeledin fine detail. unitcells (short nd dash atuppereft)inaplane a long lines l woven laminate. Figure Alternative 5-3. elements. when and then compute strain gradients are is response of such In other strains constrained the averaged of the unit cell 5-7 . and response store of a unit cell to uniform of an assembly to be compatible. smaller. or the unit by introducing tow cell segments simplified can be models represented textile then of tow segments crudely as bending or shearing of laminate However.PREDICTIONOF ELASTIC CONSTANTSAND THERMAL EXPANSION planeof mirror symmetryin the textile allows the useof a reducedcell in calculations. halvingthe sizeof the problemthathasto be solved(solid line rectanglein Fig. theory. strain and in one boundary for the unit strain of the One composite approach simple to the in any and neighbors response the (Fig. 5-3). Some workers have minimized within the computational unit cell. conditions has no periodicity are no longer relation no longer correct exists in stresses cell. Since even the a unit cell is a 3D structure mildly complex textile with heterogeneous requires and highly a large intensive. and The of its the strains.grids are defined to replicate eachtow segmentboundedby the cell and eachresin pocketbetweentows. are nonuniform.

of the of invariance panel. interlock a computational Fig. and ten stuffers This architecture direction. tows. 5-3). Unloaded J J c) J J \ I SC. But the coarser calculation not be categorized as a unit cell calculation. Schematic of two unit cells in a larger structure array. Nonperiodic strains in a periodic loads. direction.ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES used to define finite a special element element for a finite should element calculation on a coarser scale. further the details of each tow's are not assumptions the distributions of stresses must be made the cell down Macroscopic The analysis into smaller Length Scales constituents. with grids fine enough viable. macroscopic is only mechanical A measured constant 5-8 . 5-5. the unit cell can become that contains in contrast. prohibitively If the textile large. of a structure over length length is greatly scales simplified comparable if the structural to any feature defines the term elastic material of the can be structure. In a is periodic weave. but complicated.4177T. (e.1. in a treated as homogeneous the minimum elastic or other Identifying discussing scales for homogeneity properties.5 To proceed.01_ Fig. because it must tows. under nonuniform external Several architecture 2D plain segments segments which other factors limit the usefulness of the unit cell approach. to break 5. in the through-thickness segments In all. 5-4. has a period The of ten fillers in the stuffer in the filler unit cell also contains ten warp weavers. cell can be defined weave. it contains of 140 different to represent about Finite element such a cell.g. in the phase of the warp in the filler direction. and. of the absence span from top of translational to bottom calculations geometry. just a handful of tow contain In a 3D interlock One example weavers the unit cell may woven panel of ~100 is the angle is staggered direction of Fig.

Schematic of a 3D interlock weave. definition constants variance. 121595 body warp surface warp (a) layer-to-layer 0 filler (weft) angle interlock _ warp weaver stuffer (straight warp) Figure 5-5.i will take different scales gauge is that lengths all sets values. of the to be able to estimate the and following expense variety of the Zi from the geometry the empirical there approach. macroscopic length scales along three linearly independent empirical of elastic the same gauge the three length different _. measured In textile will occur large in the measurement. The numbers at the right show the sequence of occurrence of warp weaver tows encountered on progressing into the plane of the figure.i will of variance have greater experiments demonstrating in Section be useful avoiding complexity The the convergence 3. is no single a guide to a of a textile composite because applicable Unfortunately. measurements 5-9 . If the geometry is ideal and the loads uniform. and their consideration composites. if it is measured If the property over is gauge lengths that are macroscopic over smaller gauges.PREDICTION OF ELASTIC CONSTANTS AND THERMAL EXPANSION meaningful according unacceptable length scales material to this variance property definition. as the is increased It would were discussed also obviously alone. are unusually is therefore SC. in that direction.2.3. denote directions. of than An effective of macroscopic or strains Some over measurements _. each _-i could be identified with the width of the unit cell of strain is periodic. definition decision of textiles. unusually macroscopic important. remarks therefore that must be made If the textile on a case by case basis. length Almost always. i= 1.4170T. Let Ai. are to all cases.

500) :1% "o _ Coefficient of Variation !. shown Rather laminate cell than being under periodic. Fig.4 mm. lengths METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES that are different over integral multiples multiples inversely of the unit cell width must give gauge Measurements nonintegral of the cell width with will show dependence. i.12]).0 1. if the gauge three of _. exceeds the number of unit cells are a few But this is by the gauge. 5-5).180) _[ lS. Gauge sizes modulus measurements as a function cell dimension in that direction (from I in. textile Since to a satisfactory to which gauge to the subunits differ is continuously in many processes.=" 0. rule of thumb 25.00 t ] I is possible. invariant under certain nonzero be regarded translations.g.o 6. • Gage Length= i I"1Unit i Cell Height • _ • Gage: 250 UN (250 250 AE (. textile. on geometrical directions considerations be assigned vanishing values of _.125) Gage: SO0 UW (.0 7.i can also be an unnecessarily the unit cell whose degree will be large elasticity over conservative (e. Similarly. Figure 5-6.0 2.00 t.. If the textile Yet large architecture complex.250 x.i for in-plane if it is sufficiently 5-10 . therefore Applying may of vanishing size in the in-plane a 2D laminate over may length have the definition of _. . Coefficient of the size of the gauge [5.0 Normalized o 3.e.120) x 2SO) [] Gage: 125 BZ (. but the variations In 2D braids.00 1] • rl • _1 [] O Gage: 500_AE (. It could directions.25.125 Gage: 125 AD (.125 x 062) x.SO0 x . directions which be considered to be homogeneous small.0 s.00 J 20. at most variations unit cell in elastic widths modulus (Fig.0 4. unit cells are often may the no divisible exist degree general into subunits is similar lengths but not identical. rule. length will fall for example.O0 10. comparable variable then homogeneity subunits.i suggested in for periodic the in-plane laminar may textiles. 5-6).ANALYTICAL over equal length spanned percent definition very gauge results.0 Length/Unit Cell Length) Gage Length (Gage of variation used relative in inches of Young's to the unit in inset. as having a 2D a unit is invariant translations of any size. ° 0.SO0 x. scales a large that are vanishingly unit cell a quasialone.

contain Ai in the tows may be effectively zero if the axial tows a sufficiently high fraction 5. if (5.1) and displacement such a way that continuity is enforced on the internal boundary. are of an aggregate of different on its external (5.13].4) then Eij = E0 (5. of Heterogeneous Elastica Fundamentals The macroscopic strains [5.6 of all fibers. Further.2) _ij' in 2V s where h is the unit normal to S. the body is (on S12) (5. Average concept length of scales homogeneous is based materials. In a triaxial braid. Strain Theorem Consider phases. between phases in u_ 1) = u_ 2) then the average strain. S12. defined as For an average 5-11 . on some They effective fundamental elastic properties regarding in the existing stresses over and theorems here in heterogeneous are summarized notation of Ref. a heterogeneous If the displacements ui(S) u? body of volume V consisting surface.PREDICTIONOF ELASTIC CONSTANTS AND THERMAL EXPANSION dominated direction by nominally of the axial straight in-plane tows. for example.5) Average Stress Theorem stress. S.3) ui(S ) = e 0 xj (5.1.

8) oij = _ij Average Virtual Work Theorems (5. If (5.12) S.10) u.ANALYTICAL METHODSFORTEXTILE COMPOSITES 1 (5. if on the bounding (5. dV and Fi a body J force.13) Assume that the displacement boundary distribution within the heterogeneous is given by body subject to the homogeneous conditions of Eq. Ti = _ij nj then J = _ij eij V Effective Elastic Moduli (5. . can be shown to be are applied to the boundary. (5.10) S. (5.{x) = eOlu_kl)(x) (5. j: with summing implied v over repeated indices. Alternatively. then the average virtual work. J.14) 5-12 .9) If the homogeneous ui(S) displacements = ei°jxj (5.11) surface.6) V the average stress theorem states that % =V where Ti is a surface Ti = _ Fi= 0 then l[s traction nj xj r_dS+ xy.7) (5.

_ is the inverse or Eq.14]. then derivation. Assuming it can be shown by eij ekl V definition of C that stress respectively = _ Cijkl u o_ Thus there 1 S2jk 1 O'kl V (5.(kz) are uniform and of value unity. (5. Eq.PREDICTIONOF ELASTIC CONSTANTSAND THERMAL EXPANSION Thenthe stress anypoint is given by at Oij(X ) = £k01 Cijmn(X) E(mkln)(X) (5. (5.16) Taking a volume average of Eq.17) gkl can be written tYij ".10) energies .= S-ijk j where (5. are given US (5.i/ e_jkl)(x) = 1 (.5)._. This is the isostrain as . the average strain Eq. (5.15) where • (ki)_ + "j. (5. of C._1) (5.n . multipliers averaging /=m.21) between on energy volume averaging [5. if an elastic body is subject to the homogeneous tractions of Eq.15) gives where = 1C e.19) By a similar (5._) dV (5.Cijkl (5. (5.12).20) homogeneous from the boundary conditions strain of either and Eq.18) (If the strain the volume theorem.18) From reduces to of stiffness.) then Eq.12). E. case. (. and the definition of is an exact correspondence properties based effective macroscopic expressions 5-13 .

3 a23 a33 a21 a31 T_ 2a2. ideal fabric geometry implied waviness.2.3 a22 a32 a23 a33 where To and TE are the stress a_. geometrical crimp each curved of the textile Curved such divided as pinching. given a. using matrix a for is assigned discussed the elastic in Section of a unidirectional C(a) denote the composite stiffness model grain refer of the kind a.2 a. of which the fiber tow segments takes into just a few grains averaged value. to the Irregularities are usually a single.15-5.22b) global where C tot)* and system: S toO* denote coordinate C ¢a)* = T6 j C (a) TE (5. (alla33+a13a3j) a33) (a21a32 +a22a3.1. relative Denote of C(a) and S(a) the composite coordinate stiffness system compliance Then S.24) (a32a13+a33a12) (a12a23 +a13a22) (a_3 a2t +alia23) 5-14 .. spatially of grains tows are ubiquitous Each grain the definition properties 5. 2alia21 2a3za22 2a12a32 2a12a22 2a23a33 2aj3a33 2al3a23 (a22a33 +a23a32) (a23a31+a2. a. both to a global to all grains.7 Orientation Averaging "Orientation represented either Averaging" is based on two tenets: of grains that the textile composite composite.1. by or in according process. a12+a32all) (all a22 +al_a21) (5.2 a2_ a31 a22 a32 by a_2 2 a22 2 a32 a_3 2 a23 2 a33 all a. are not modeled. Let is obviously not unique. respectively. Because orientation in textiles.19]. 2 a21 2 a31 matrices. fiber defined The components direction.) (a3. (ct)* Cij _ Z Vet Cij (isostrain conditions) (5. can be and that geometrically or isostrain are models usually as a tessellation conditions defined apply of unidirectional isostress Grains [5.23) and strain transformation a.ANALYTICAL METHODSFOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES 5. and S(_t) the corresponding to an axis matrix common system C and aligned the compliance with the local matrix.22a) (or)* or Sij "_ _ Vet Sij (isostress C(ct) and S(ct) conditions) respectively transformed into the (5. a31 2alia3.

22b) apply is a good when approximation invariance depends obtains on the in the textile direction architecture. conditions Isostress translational apply when conditions translational invariance 5-15 . 5-7. Orientation grains three over large averaging gauge planes lengths. (These transformations axis are well known (5.20. Coordinates for transformation of tow properties.) system.1 Figure 5-7. are the direction and cosines between the local tow coordinate system and the ' = rf which tensor respect follows algebra from . cosfl For a tow as shown sin0 cosfl cos0 sin0 sinfi whose is orientated at angles by 0 and _ with to the global cos0 [aij] = in Fig. averaging in the tessellation sheets.5. (5. of the Isostrain applied load. (5.25) results of [5. Without there is a degree of freedom Eq.22a) or (5.26) to the global The tow is assumed in the definition refers z-axis. to coordinate to be transversely coordinate in which isotropic. preserves Thus. 5-8).21]. the aij are given sinfl 0 cosfl -sin0 -cos0 sinfl (5. Whether either derived will exhibit Eq. orthogonality.PREDICTIONOF ELASTIC CONSTANTSAND THERMAL EXPANSION where the aij global system. system. the 2 axis of the tow is perpendicular z Y 2 3 . the using symmetry an example inherent common of grains.26) Therefore. of the local systems loss of generality..g. Fig. of if in flat textile then orthogonal of symmetry tensors exist in the pattern by orientation the macroscopic orthotropic stiffness symmetry and compliance (e.

.22a). requires anticipated positioning stresses. is many only if the beam a tow segment is short. the primary contribution to its lateral deflection will be axial not bending. . the isostrain Eq.5. From energy considerations. the applied load. provides a lower bound to the stiffness. Three orthogonal symmetry planes (two marked by dashed lines and the third being the plane of the figure) in a stack of woven plies. usually at points upon approach by is of the tow has extrema. the isostress result. whose multiples of its thickness.1. If the tow segment shear deformation.8. standard and laminate theory for in-plane deformations.ANALYTICAL METHODS FORTEXTILE COMPOSITES obtainsnormal to (5.4063T 07_L_6 Figure 5-8.. geometrically as a laminate similar 5.. orientation models will yield models results in which a textile is approximated textiles [5... I SC. which must be very stiff. result. as many Isostrain as possible in the directions of the largest are then by far the better orientation approximation. implying orthotropy over gauge lengths that are larger than the ply thickness and the period of the weave. this modeling L. Eq.. (5. averaging with isostrain Thus conditions is equivalent averaging to In a 2D laminate. length. 5-16 . at the boundary represents at points where (perhaps of a unit cell). an upper always bound. Good straight conditions fibers design in airframes.8 for quasi-laminar or Axial Shear? Bending The response beam of a curved tow element to lateral The loads beam is sometimes may be anchored it is impinged modeled as that of a simple where other valid the locus tows that can bend but not shear.22b).22].. 2t. However.

foundation in which than the constraining be much However. stiffer the of through-thickness be modeled does reinforcement. method during of modeling axial delamination The compression. of freedom. bending and 5-9 shear shows a simple paradigm for estimating loads. apply. (i. but they are inappropriate for plain or 3D interlock L mllb X _F Figure 5-9. 40 [5.27) Ex and Gxy are the axial unity. for estimating the contributions of shear and bending Axial are admitted shear deflections beam However. foundation restriction including not have same tow as internal must therefore 3D a similar composites. For carbon/epoxy. deflections in a plane containing the beam axis) in thick which thick incorporate beam rotational have as well not been as bending applied to degrees textiles.x -57 G_ e--7 (5. are in the proportion Vs where of order deflections beam L) . For many model this means that a simple beam will be useful 5-17 . the relative importance calculations of show in a tow that is subject deflections. shear and beams points. and shear moduli of the tow and X is a geometrical Ex/Gxy -. with flat tows.23]. Simple bending be appropriate satin weaves weaves with long float or braids weaves [5. A simple paradigm to the deflection of a tow.23]. and supported This can be its effect in by an elastic foundation.e. to lateral Elementary that the bending and shear Vb and Vs. only of validity 3D weaves to long and braids. to date models Segments continuously a useful buckling effects and of tows are also sometimes rather represented than anchored (loss of the may case as simple at discrete foundation) also represent it will usually (Fig. as discrete the rather effect segments may continuous 5-10).PREDICTION OF ELASTIC CONSTANTS AND THERMAL EXPANSION Fig. and in this case beam models may models not be used.. ratio will dominate simple bending for for tow segments should of aspect less than 5. Shear factor for example. shear models.

architecture Fortunately.3.including buckling (Fig. is shear has softening.e. The most important tows.3. minimal strongly together kinking. modeling stress geometrical distributions irregularity in the elastic has one regime. of variable the textile If fiber content falls proportionately. This leadsto an interestingconjectureaboutwhat really mattersin modelingthe ultimatestrength.ANALYTICAL METHODSFOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES if the buckling deflection has a wavelengththat is long comparedto the spacingof the through-thicknessyarns (Fig.the compositecanbe regarded as an assemblyof tows whosecollective strengthcomesfrom their internal stiffness. by adjusting In most models. failure of the tow arrangement. interply delamination to tape laminates where completely 5.In this case. via the resin. 5-10a). stiffness is simply tow spacing causes variance in fiber volume content.includingcompression strength. relative very of tows does not depend friction on their connection as a macroscopic If the resin will still lock tows of tows permitted or with very little This is can movement different by the 3D nature 2D textiles. 5-10b). structure. Inconsistent falls. constants A simple 3. tow waviness. If the through-thicknessreinforcement is stiff enough to limit buckling to intervals between through-thicknesstows (Fig. other very important irregularity implication is by for nature Because 5-18 . They is found at low loads. i. entirely reasonably accurate of this was presented in Section However. composite Damage between the strength. Common types were listed in Section include inconsistency in tow spacing. effect on and tow rupture. and tow pinching.3. is almost and is ideal.of a 3D textile compositewhenthe 3D reinforcementis sufficiently stiff and closely spacedto inhibit long wavelengthlateral deflections.1. codes calculated waviness Tow are based and pinching cannot with in this way. because interaction is cracked. the as laid out in the design effect restricted of waviness to reducing estimate and the specifications pinching effective knockdown on macroscopic axial stiffness elastic of tows.9 detach plies and lead to catastrophic lrregularity irregularity 2. interior matrix damage cracking. Only damage that occurs inside tows is significant to the composite's integrity. input parameters usually the effects that describe be dealt tow separation geometry. Geometrical Geometrical in all textile composites. bucklingwill occurprimarily via axial shear. Most on the assumption of the textile that the textile manufacturer. 5-10b).

translational boundary symmetry [5. (b) When stiff deflections to the intervals between 5. elastic the onset the of nominally applied to a unit minor effect periodic cell be violated. codes This section the with a guide of a given for analyzing stiffness 5-19 . will In particular. which it always invariance conditions has reduces the symmetry of the textile textiles will no composite. the properties of textile within composites. over relatively restricts lateral long wavelengths. of failure. allowing deflections through-thickness reinforcement successive through-thickness tows. were developed (ACT) outside by the Program the ACT Working Group the Advanced Center. Composites Others Technology by NASA Langley Research were developed All are available and cover for public use.2 Summary of Available presents Codes annotated for Analyzing documentation Some Stiffness for various of the codes computer codes that This handbook can predict Textiles sponsored program.22].PREDICTION OF ELASTIC CONSTANTS AND THERMAL EXPANSION stochastic. be strictly periodic Broken constants longer a relatively very on estimates implications of macroscopic for predicting but it can have will be taken important 6. as a soft (a) elastic through-thickness foundation. and valid. relatively Schematics soft of buckling of an aligned reinforcement tow under acts compression. The codes represent a wide range currently users expansion of approaches perceived to and capabilities be valuable to selecting most of the classes of textile provides composites prospective or thermal in aircraft the best manufacture. up in Section (a) SC 41_T 011_96 Figure When 5-10.

More complete ease of use. descriptions quite different. and for fatigue and their in Table 5. Their of stresses Other codes of include on standard nonlaminar properties designed and methods to deal expressly textiles. dominated described and have strains been because the fiber fibers architecture arranged structure 2). The user's of Section data codes.ANALYTICAL METHODSFORTEXTILE COMPOSITES textile composite. geometry of predicting mechanical are necessarily 5-20 .1 Quasi-laminar and Nonlaminar recognize Textiles that the textile is either in layers composites a 2D they deal with are quasistructure be Many of the codes laminar. in the handbook summarized assessment 5. required. in predicting approach stiffness each is are ultimate failure. of Code 3D Stiffness in Section by the codes' can be found 5. expansion modeling on and a comparative in the remainder lists of their accuracy.3.A fracture toughness The and based found thermal codes similar guide for properties related to strength. The or a 3D geometry by in-plane (Section will then in a way that bears will usually out its quasi-laminar steps based with character. guides including written of the input authors Table Code PW SAT5 SAT8 CCM-TEX are presented in the appendices. and calibration details on the individual 8.3 Summary Forms Capabilities Thermal Expansion Yes Plate Stiffness Yes Textile plain weave 5 harness satin 8 harness satin 3-D Weave 2-Step braids and 4-step Yes Yes Yes _tTex-10 _tTex-20 SAWC TEXCAD general user defined plain weave (FE code l[eneral) 2D weaves 2D braids user defined 3D weaves 3D weaves Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes WEAVE BINMOD Yes Yes 52.2. and appears covered are in Section 6. in Section capabilities The 7. and the analysis laminate theory.

fraction can only be true if the textile fibers is always to regard is also 2D (Section relatively small in as 2). then the unit cell may be defined (Fig. 5. 5-11). which The former choice to lie entirely is strictly ply or to span the whole all layers are exactly thickness only equivalent. detailed a unit For thickness layers example.PREDICTIONOF ELASTIC CONSTANTSAND THERMAL EXPANSION 5. But since the volume a quasi-laminar layers cell of mainly that spans 3D textile. 5-21 . use unit since cells to describe textile textile geometry for both quasi-laminar or nonlaminar. directly the effects of stacking with features in and out of registry can be studied (Fig.4). implemented Units Cells Several and nonlaminar If the textile in the computer codes cases. in-plane the whole of through-thickness it is often a good fibers approximation such a structure Choosing analysis. within valid one if a periodic may be either quasi-laminar is quasi-laminar.22 Geometry Defining detail the geometry of a textile tasks (Table composite in sufficient Various but not overwhelming approaches have been is one of the most challenging codes in its analysis. that are equivalent will generally in the elastic allow more regime. 5-1 lb and 5-1 lc).

3). For example. (c): variant of whole thickness cell in (b) for analyzing stacking effects. characteristic of reference. and cross-over CCM-TEX. In the more complex position as they SAWC textile uses a similar preforms. these angles one Relatively from first it have the expressions parameters for textile for determining This approach but no codes level simple (Section composites was of the formulated been included [5. segment is its angle and the sole geometrical to a global (especially simple weaving frame of inclination in a single plane angles may be contained spatial for quasi-laminar closed-form or braiding specifically here. straight for each inclination composites) are available 2. Choices of unit cell in quasi-laminar textile composites. idealization may be modeled follow an assumed of codes as a combination sinusoidal path of straight (Section are examples that use this approach. geometry and their cross-sections are represented as solid a defined by just a few parameters. segments TEXCAD. the fiber inclination models. yarn 2. implementing tows In the next entities plain regions and PW to generate and change with weave that some of detail. (a) and (b): two approaches to modeling laminate properties. model only the used The textile A related portions such concept is the diagonal In these of the tows are represented. The [5. twist pass around Simple 5-22 . one a finite-element cross-section mesh. simplest unit cell approach is sometimes brick model called [5.18]. with tows must another. or in all three dimensions.3).24].ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES Figure 5-11.18].

because theneglectof geometricalrregularity.It may even be misleading in analyzinglocal stressdistributions. The geometry and of the stacking is then completely thicknesses.PREDICTIONOF ELASTIC CONSTANTSAND THERMAL EXPANSION parametricfunctionsthat representsucheffectsare difficult to derive. which is not alwaysrealistic. is to an alternative them approach simply as to modeling laminates the geometry of continuous.and the dry yarn stiffness. contactrelationsbetweenthe yarns.which makesthemdifficult to meshin p such detail. but the approachis not well developedand appearstoo time consumingfor practical use.Textile preforms involve multiple yarnstouchingat manycross-over oints. in Anotherlevel of idealizationof unit cells is providedby codesthat computethe preformgeometryby analyzingmechanical onditionsduringthe textile formingprocess. orientations. not included in the handbook) which determinesyarn paths basedon the tensile forces applied during the textile process. of the layers.Theseeffectsare not represented the codes.BRAID is currentlyrestrictedto considering yamsthatremainuniform in cross-section. the agreementin the elastic regime of experimental data and modelsbased muchsimplergeometricalrepresentations on impliesthat the extralevel of detail is unnecessaryin predicting elastic constants.24] describesa code (BRAID.Thesetools use sophisticatedBooleanoperationsand computergraphicsto aid model generation. Their applicationto textiles hasbeendemonstrated [5. Modified Laminates Instead quasi-laminar translationally laminate sequences of using textiles invariant a unit cell. just like a conventional described by the tape laminate. c Reference[5. of represent plies.25]. of i All of the approachesdescribedabove assumethat the unit cell geometry is deterministicandrepeatable. there are commercialsolid modeling tools that may be usedto create bodieswith complexgeometryon a grid suitablefor finite elementanalysis. Finally. Moreover. 5-23 .The yarn path andtwist arepredictedin termsof spline functions.

textile Alternating Stuffer which composites layers is the of fillers can as a might from in of this alternative which models code called WEAVE. geometry. in a plain weave. which composite.26]. measurements loci 5-24 . to Eq. to work quite spatially well averaged for of the effective of triaxially An example layer stiffness. weaves [5. and on disrupts whether elasticity Stitching translational the or other invariance.8]. of through-thickness The the validity reinforcement of the approximation is always then to contribution through-thickness by replacing answer reinforcement the discrete can be calculated Experience well enough tows by a 3D by The of out continuum. suggests an affirmative translational that for quasi-laminar is violated weave. of Describing course. (3. discrete depends macroscopic smeared interlock the internal an approximation. is typically invariance or satin periodic structure of a plain to which adequacy the fiber reduction laminates of the approximation orientation within then depends layers on the extent can be represented This seems by a uniform. variations In a 2D textile of layers. lying in planes defined as polygons layer as straight and sinusoidal segments for single layer as straight and sinusoidal segments CCM-TEX Yarn cross-sections rectangular Unit cell for single layer of plain weave Yarn paths defined as sinusoidal Complex _eometries formed by stackin_ Unit cell for full thickness units WEAVE BINMOD Yarn paths defined by simple analytical functions Geometry computed from idealization of textile process Quasi-laminar 3D interlock weaves reduced to laminates Nonperiodic representative volume element Piecewise linear 1D elements for axial properties of tow segments Solid effective medium elements for all other properties the layers of a textile composite as translationally invariant is.4 How Codes Represent TextileGeometry _tTex-10 _tTex-20 TEXCAD PW SAT5 SAT8 SAWC Geometry Unit cell for full thickness Yarn paths defined Yarn cross-sections Unit cell for single Yarn paths defined 2D or 3D unit cells Yarn paths defined as piecewise linear.1). plies. or from represented of waviness arises tow in ply stiffness a theoretical as The estimate especially model if waviness of architecture. are modeled for by 3D interlock as continuous and stuffers be allowed knockdown come textile from in WEAVE and filler is then waviness including an estimate by a rule similar of the textile of waviness. in practice braided plies [5.ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES Table Code 5. approach to quasi-laminar weaves.

Model 2. to distinguish stress to the degrees Approach isostrain of freedom (Orientation permitted Averaging) for local variations. in textile appear which on the arrangements However.26] for triaxial braids. medium" segments composite. The Isostrain The possible assumption calculations uses the lowest number of internal degrees of freedom on in elasticity without introducing symmetry elements not present 5-25 . the tow architecture correspondence cross-sectional with is represented the and positions curvature by piece-wise of tow over axes gauge in one-to-one Details of yarn shape than the center-to-center in the model.sincethe knockdownsare T small in most systems(see Section 3).PREDICTIONOF ELASTIC CONSTANTSAND THERMAL EXPANSION photomicrographs. weaves. the code the tows may has been developed or any requirement far to deal only with 3D interlock Models integral nonlaminar. A similar code wasreportedin [5. Nonperiodic. dimensions as discrete 5. When must be taken Nonlaminar a textile Textile composite Composites is nonperiodic and nonlaminar.4). required the representation level of detail. Thus ply propertiesin WEAVE are defined without assumingperiodicity. much larger tow spacing pieces are omitted: by minimizing the degrees of freedom of the textile nodes composite can be simulated. of yarns shear are represented and by two-noded effects transverse "effective straight in the lengths line real less stiffness. Therefore. represented a different (BINMOD). Model elements. to be the minimum Properties macroscopic depends useful Modeling The Thermo-Elastic to evaluating once again approach stiffness on whether tensors and coefficients is classified of analysis of as thermal expansion or naturally It is also a textile methods quasi-laminar according nonlaminar. he estimatesneed not be very precise. while by the solid approach the axial to describing its geometry. but it is not includedin this editionof thehandbook. in the stress-free Tow waviness configuration have so can be introduced of the model. Thus Poisson's elements.23 textile such as the Binary structures are the in typical would appear to offer are the best approach always relative to modeling and (Section tows nearly small nonperiodic to the Neither expected entities composites external of tows integral structures. There by offsetting on the tow elements is in principle of symmetry no restriction or periodicity. In the Binary line are properties stiffness.

stiffness Under the isostrain becomes the local assumption. 5-26 . analysis quasi-laminar averaging to in-plane averaging textiles leads loads are approximated sum over as translationally layers. In simple brick weighted model). and analyzed.3. averaging example. volume transformed system (Section reviewed coordinate of orientation system averaging.denotes the spatially compliance (the inverse of C). be done by substituting architecture. effective according if j. conditions (Eq. "_ C_ta kflV (5. . Indeed. This may can be regarded as an instance of orientation textiles. coefficients. large enough have of the textile some that a small other spatial effect can be defined elements averaged) leads with nonperiodic (spatially that of the reinforcement stiffness tensor. coordinate formal scale. of the codes over in Table 5.e. to coupling i.1.ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES the macroscopic or macroscopic stiffnesses. a simple material the determination averaging of the effective of the constituent to the global the tensor from 5. of the unit cell of a periodic follow a_j=_.. V.6.27] for thermal coefficients.28) where an asterisk system again indicates transformation averaged of local properties to the global coordinate and _. representative variations defining volume associated a periodic a unit cell. In the more is performed to account for the curvature of tow paths.1. invariant standard in- orientation applied Orientation to a simple laminate averaging. models that include then general straight segments the diagonal of volume integration orientation averaging to a closed-form such as TEXCAD. (e. the textile is treated as being periodic and the is performed yarn the volume. summation numerical stiffnesses. Following homogeneous mechanics in Section this is equivalent with displacement displacements boundary throughout strain. of the unit cell. When plane. element approximation and proceeding elements Alternatively. can be applied just as well to nonperiodic for nonperiodic as above. textile the on the calculated The expressions expansion macroscopic isostrain assumption expansion to stiffness For also yields simple thermal to [5. .. the method 5.g. (5.7).4)) volume an assumption of linearly between varying average the enclosed and finding the relation stress and average In most averaging only leads codes.ikt 1 .

Csym. matrix of the potential lack of symmetry anisotropic). B.1 ]: in-plane strains of classical and lamination force or A defines strains in-plane and B and D the coupling and in-plane between and bending moments curvatures force resultants 5-27 . point. bending The A. in detail. 5. to geometry. Laminate _tTEX-10. resultants. by the averaging cs. arbitrarily many distributions is built integrating tractions. sets of homogeneous stresses stress displacement the average conditions or integrating tractions to obtain the boundary can be related the complete to the boundary stiffness Because via the average solving for stress theorem Building boundary stiffness matrix requires six independent of a general Although conditions. mesh in heterogeneous may converge with respect density. Analysis: The and _tTEX-20. (5. = l(c ÷c T) where the superscript There internal T denotes transpose. the can be fully populated matrix (generally it can be proven finite element A that the stiffness calculations symmetric for any heterogeneous a nonsymmetric is usually created matrix unit cell must be symmetric. for a finite the mesh When element may mesh . at each Gaussian which elements greatly integration simplify to so-called the the meshing slowly However. of freedom. Quasi-Laminar Textile (_ompQsites textile composites are usually and most properties represented matrix of quasi-laminar by the conventional the coupling conveniently theory. the code This gives problem. unit cell. independent must determine rise of the yam the element the local material heterogeneous stresses stiffness elements.PREDICTION OF ELASTIC CONSTANTS AND THERMAL EXPANSION Finite Element Isostrain Methods or isostress since degrees assumptions these codes are compute The unnecessary internal stiffness and in codes stress matrix either based on finite element using formulations. and D matrices between in-plane [5. due to the approximations operation can yield result.29) is no requirement For example.7). to map directly array matrix to the unit cell's elements. be a regular stiffness of cuboidal is generated. involved. paths. Finite element methods are used to solve unit cell formulations in the codes SAWC. boundary stress up by imposing the The internal average (Eq.

Nx. and Mxy the way the codes to quasi-laminar the matrices plate are bending 5.5 summarizes of laminate theory presented textile in this handbook There deal with the composites. unit cell A. properties _tTEX. B. fly. first and the plate properties then a unit in of a single theory. 5-28 . 5-1 la) or by the methods "Modified Laminates.g. and Yxy are mid-plane axy are plate thermal strains. at once. My. ey. and flxy are plate resultants. and coefficients. over CCMTEX a unit cell can In a nonperiodic by a calculation consistent be replaced size to give representative macroscopic (ii) built The element of sufficient results This is the approach of the code BINMOD. and SAT5. and Nxy and Mx. Ny.3o) r where the axes x and y lie in the plane bending curvatures. The computed and bending followed textile. but leave of conventional laminate the determination of the plate of a stack of such layers. ply can be determined The ply properties up using laminate can be calculated of spatial TEXCAD by defining cell within Section approach. in-plane to determine This is the approach or irregular over some for the in the codes the calculation volume stiffness. coefficients. expansion are tCx. in-plane force Table application tCxy are Ctx.416 nil Bl2 BI6 A12 A22 A26 BI2 B22 B26 Al6 Bit B12 B22 B26 Dl2 D22 D26 BI6" B26 B66 Di6 D26 D66 V Ex ax I _y A26 A66 BI6 B26 B66 B12 BI6 Dll DI2 DI6 Ny A7 My Kx Ky Kxy i.ANALYTICAL METHODS FORTEXTILE COMPOSITES A12 Al2 . are essentially two approaches (i) unit The cell to determining A. 5-1 lb." The code averaging follows described the 5.B. and SAT8 also use unit cells to compute to a subsequent stiffness application the matrices D for a single analysis 2D layer. Fig. moments. of the plate. aay (5. sufficient sets of boundary all components conditions of the stiffness and SAWC. representing matrix. and thermal bending fix. and D" can be computed e. usually response by defining of the cell loading a is properties spanning under of the entire the whole thickness. Cry. toy.2 under PW. ex. a single ply (Fig.

Nonlaminar.5 How Codes Model Quasi-Laminar Plates lxTex-10 _tTex-20 TEXCAD Summary. BINMOD). B. cells date. B. and SAT8 assume plane stress conditions Thus the properties TEXCAD. The codes PW. and D matrices calculated by standard laminate theory Plane stress assumed A. of individual PW. and _tTEX-20 can all be used to predict plate properties. Model been neither A more (implemented (see plane general stress conditions nor unit To For nonlaminar. and D matrices computed for full thickness 3D stiffness matrix computed for single layer A.PREDICTIONOF ELASTIC CONSTANTSAND THERMAL EXPANSION Table Code 5. should be part method is required. S. SAT8. 3D stiffness matrix computed for whole thickness Plate treated as homogeneous. conditions. _tTEX-10. matrices element whose are (not a treatment computed described some Stiffness volume Model by simulating representative 5-29 . SAT5. defined by required) PW SAT5 SAT8 SAWC CCM-TEX WEAVE BINMOD If the 3D compliance then the A matrix follows: tensor. as for a plate in which conditions prevail can be computed -1 Sill2 S2212 S1212 where h is the plate to evaluate the codes thickness. including traction-free surfaces. Nonperi0dic Textile nonperiodic of the modeling is the Binary has already Composites composites. orthotropic body Layer dimensions used to compute flexural rigidity only. approach. and D matrices computed for a single layer Stack of layers not treated (subsequent laminate analysis 3D stiffness matrix computed for single layer Macro elements can be used to make stacked laminate Surface boundary layer effects handled by FE solution. SAT5. of Method Full thickness FEM calculation Traction free surfaces included in boundary conditions A. Full thickness FEM calculation Boundary user. of a composite plane stress is available from one of the codes. the only candidate of geometry in the Binary in code above). B. plies.

The effective mediumelementsareimplemented aseight-nodedisoparametric solid elements.)The whole assemblyis analyzedas a finite elementcalculation. largest The stiffness and Xl and x2 its in-plane predictions is in Poisson's which for the axial ratio.9.These may be definedby experimentsor by exercisingthe Binary Model itself for simulations of different size. weave.If geometricalirregularity has been introduced by randomly offsetting initial nodepositions. which The also provides codes were yielded expansion direction in a plain band. with a resin layer fiber volume 5-30 .8 used composite. theory) are purely plate analyses. the stiffness matrix added independently corresponding of the codes to warp fraction. "yam" a typical are composite 5. stiffness. These labeled are provided averaging for comparison. volume %" of Table the fiber 5.3 can predict run with the stiffness the input of a plain These parameters 5.6 and 5. In Table the "yam fiber properties of a unidirectional for a coordinate is the plane composite system of isotropy.7. They and of are quoted the x-axis lies along direction the x-y plane the textile [5. The effects of irregularity on macroscopic stiffness are determined by averagingovermanyMonte Carlocalculations.28]. directions.(The representative volume element needsonly to be larger than the macroscopiclength scales.a single simulation becomes Monte Carlo a calculation. 5. the tow elements as 1D springs.Ai. of Section5.3 Comparison Several composite. fall through-thickness are equivalent within a narrow of the composite.7. the properties of a single matrix ply of plain shown woven 5. The matrix to a yam.6. The out-of-plane The were stiffnesses results obtained are not available CLT (classical from codes laminate such as PW.5. x3 is the which El. and the They thermal the predictions coefficients for the 3D stiffness shown in Table 5. by volume for a stack to obtain the of flat layers correct overall and weft fibers.ANALYTICAL METHODSFORTEXTILE COMPOSITES unit cell).1. which typically represents few cubic centimetersof materialandcontainsa a few thousandtow and effective mediumelements. carbon/epoxy those of Code Predictions in Table were shown each in Tables having in which for a Plain Woven Textile Composite woven for textile of the codes codes 5. in Table In these tables. properties are assigned matches to any volume composite not assigned The test case the parameters in Ref. The variation $'12. experimental to compute data.

and including of classical computed bending.35 GI2 (GPa) Component Yarn Matrix al (10-6K1) -0.26 64 The (or using codes also give plate surfaces) stiffnesses. in these and Representative results is a surprising For example. the the a thicker since discrepancy of adjacent presumably development interactions in any one layer.10.30 0.52 1.0 5. being A would indicate. between layers the would of neighboring If many codes suppress plies would the unit cells prevent were stacked but this is not assumed laminate.7 3. There theory. of curvature assume that the moment in laTex-10 constraints or laTex-20.6 Constituent (Transverse E1 (GPa) 145 3.7 Geometric parameters assumed for code comparisons I Yam Spacing (mm) [ 1. weave Most in-plane halves ply of a plain is indeed codes asymmetric.41 Yam Fiber Volume (%) Layer Thickness (mm) Total Fiber Volume (%) I 75 0.23 0. B. bending. terms authors attribute this difference are handled.PREDICTION OF ELASTIC CONSTANTS AND THERMAL EXPANSION Table 5. and D matrices are shown plane values and in Table bending 5.0 40.35 1/23 0.45 vl 2 0. The to the way effective volume single the B matrix modulus (bending-stretching laminate the laminate coupling) can be much curves under and of an asymmetric because less than a simple load. for both the ingive much lower stiffnesses. stiffness latex-20 for the in-plane in which in-plane average than the other codes. 5-31 . laminate variation laTex-10 The assuming Plate plane stress conditions in traction-free stiffnesses are provided elements the form of the A. the upper lower orthogonal at any point. into diminish.0 a2 (10 -6Kl) 14.28 Table 5.45 property input used in code comparisons isotropy assumed in the y-z plane ) E2 (GPa) 11.32 40.

Tex-20 TEXCAD PW CLT FEM [5. with a resin layer included to obtain the correct volume fraction.24 4.5. using of homogenized.32 5. 6.038 0.46 4.395 ~ 3D elastic cm.0926 0. Implied from the quoted experimental results: A1 l=El/(1-v122) h 5-32 .0 14.39 3.7 21.10: 2.82 GI3 (GPa) 4.1 17. 5. B matrix ignored. using Code BTex-10 BTex-20 TEXCAD PW CLT Experiment 1.643 A66 (MN/m) 1.89 4.027 0.10 Comparison of plate various codes Notes 1 2 A1 I (MN/m) 12.402 0.00325 0.4 58.36 1.08 1.9 Comparison plain weave Code of homogenized.8 Comparison fabric.47 1.97 ~ 0.00603 0.0 11.7 12.ANALYTICAL METHODSFORTEXTILE COMPOSITES Table 5.19 1.00268 0.00525 0.87 4. 20 x 20 x 20 mesh PW is a plate (plane stress) code and cannot compute z-direction properties Summed stiffnesses of flat layers representing warp and weft fibers. various codes El (GPa) _tTex-10 p. 3D thermal fabric.66 4.7 21. Stacking sequence of [0/0r/90]T assumed.027 0.00422 0.363 0.329 Table 5.1 11.9 17.4 ~ 0.0423 0.00377 D66 (N/m) 0.81 1.9 11.041 0.3 16.097 0. using various codes Notes 1 2 4 expansion coefficients for a _xx azz _tTex-10 _tTex -20 TEXCAD PW CLT _i0-6 K-1 ) 1.28] Experiment 1 2 3 4 [5. Resin layer thickness equals 0.00041 0. which is equivalent to averaging with reversed stacking sequence.110 0.307 0.963 0.33 1.00679 0.24 1.9 63.stants for a plain weave Code Notes V12 V13 GI2 (GPa) 4.25 DII (N/m) 0.8 .0432 0.28] 58. where Or is the resin layer.4 64.74 0.25 1.0 stiffnesses for a plain woven composite.83 4. l 63.6 Table 5.63 4.0782 0. 4.5 20.1092 D12 (N/m) 0.9 E3 (GPa) 11. 3.00767 5 6 Notes for Tables 5.79 5.5 ~ 11. 10xl0x7mesh AI2 (MN/m) 3.607 0.60/0.8 61.75 x (total thickness).00616 0.031 0.55 (10 -6 K-l) 22.0 68.

for which the associated of some designed should involves matrix requiring straining. corrections should to in-plane elastic constants due to out-of-plane required components in specifying of the While fiber orientation not be ignored. of stress partitioning averaging. in which there the will cause an error in a small contribution difference textile between composites the is is generally not much geometry of quasi-laminar by different approaches. The straight segments collectively will raise the modulus in the direction of their alignment an order of magnitude above that of the matrix. In a composite constants dominated high constants stiffness. are a necessary secondary. 2 The division is clearest if most fibers are straight or almost straight. throughout scheme such as orientation i. getting critical elastic all be fiber Dominated most Elastic Constants consideration of fibers the in predicting fiber dominated in any given textile. which nevertheless may contain significant if short straight and roughly aligned segments. They consequence introduce as accidental to predicted waviness. textile are regardless computed. In a knitted composite.PREDICTIONOF ELASTIC CONSTANTSAND THERMAL EXPANSION 5A Code Calibration The macroscopic be loosely divided 2 The fiber into elastic those constants that are of any continuous fiber dominated fiber and polymer those composite that are can matrix material group of dominated.1 Fiber The elastic direction. all fibers follow highly curved paths. or compression. for this very reason. in-plane will elastic be modifications dominated of how A simple constants. important is simply geometrical the number constants For the per unit volume stiffness that point example. 5. then components architecture small fiber of the fiber or arise orientations. the assumption of isostrain will suffice. fiber in estimating count for in-plane of a quasi-laminar is paramount.4. yet not so high (because they are short) that the contribution of the surrounding matrix dominated material is unimportant. the level of precision out-of-plane to the overall predictions treated components stiffness. 5-33 . But such exceptions arise in composites whose macroscopic stiffness would not meet the requirements of airframe structures. conditions. Any error Therefore. of models is not high. The dominated axial constants either are the are those in tension the rest. for any application dominated.e. The modulus is neither clearly fiber nor matrix dominated. deformation fibers. correct in-plane whether directions they are Out-of-plane of the relatively is right. If the fiber count to within elastic well constants the details predicted experimental the scatter. Exceptions to this rule obviously arise.

being For interstitial carbon tows resin) in well density compacted composites fallen fiber 65- of 50-60%.43 to the orientation geometrical Volume the load is nearly The only essential Calibrating is the average fiber volume fraction..1.ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES Neither tows. composite models. 5-34 . weft yarns.4. fraction and unpredictability especially if they are of arc length to projected or braided. inconsistency in the crimp woven in the spacing factor (ratio if a fabric length) is draped. include shear the through-thickness modulus of fiber these in a weave orientations in 2D and quasi-laminar of orthogonal irregularities relatively warp are slowly and not with 3D textiles.e. the Fiber Thus codes.3.g. in the range consistent Elastic Constants Only matrix a few elastic They constants in most textile composites modulus consisting and tow could be regarded as dominated. Generally. 5. models Some of the factors the ability popular efficiently geometrical than include of tows to have possible if they of tows.2]). for a textile Volume preform a priori the manufacturer's are vulnerable necessary fiber It is therefore experimentally input quantity. fractions the best guide predicted to error. and the in-plane Accurate important prescription in predicting especially fiber constants. a tow segment) transverse (e. value. tows Recall volume 70%.2 Composite is it especially elastic critical to determine the packing density of fibers within to constants depend only slightly provided on the volume the overall fiber that is assigned count with is correct. overall (the remainder Section fractions Any value Matrix 5. but is not preferred Finite element the actual material has been made information is available. is very [5. is adjusted In TEXCAD. once in the early and better design of a textile. to adjust volume to fiber volume from is an experimental specifications measurement. in this range Dominated the packing will return has consistently results. from more being certain there of fiber volume single fraction is a critical issue in running the geometry predictive of a textile Because and particular is no reality must method of describing from the because care so often differs idealizations distinguishing to deform a particular of geometrical real composites and fill space be taken. They change composite orientation. 5. the input for any analytical fiber code volume to match fraction the is an measured fraction. insensitive because the stiffness of a unidirectional of the load characteristic Fraction when (i. of tows. internally volume The unit cell geometry attempts is a useful to accommodate fraction based the specified on process CCMTEX This to calculate feature fiber parameters. are constrained especially cross-section.

Mech. of the weaver. R. Self-Consistent Model.1 5. is well specified for the purpose Calibrating Fiber waviness be made to calibrate. J. Phys. Tsai and H. 189-198 (1965). 38.T. 13. to knockdowns other sources in which case changes stiffness Direct should that to the processing to be clearly require it leads in composite of variance.M. R." (Technomic. should estimates destructive tensioning.g.4.2 5. to some include degree stiffness with and its effects knockdown occasional such as yarn be monitored. Unless it is excessive. Christensen.4 of total fiber volume elastic constants." J. Piggott. methods. Mech. "Theory of Mechanical Properties of Fiber-Strengthened Materiais-III.5 S.W. always based waviness will always A viable formulae be present might Eq. from even manufacturer's the overall and they may be regarded fraction changes.. volume If the predicted the textile proportions are combined with a measurement of calculating 5. Oxford. "Analysis of Properties of Fiber Composites with Anisotropic Constituents.4 5. Hashin.543-550 (1979). Nevertheless. to Composite Materials. and are too modest distinguished destructive from inspection." J. M. weaver in an interlock setup fiber weave. e. "Load-Bearing Fibre Composites. Appl. idealized fraction. Mech. 46. Hahn.3 5. 1980).. Lancaster." (Pergamon. on simple approach such as combined inspection of parts and control of relevant processing parameters. architecture.PREDICTION OF ELASTIC CONSTANTS AND THERMAL EXPANSION codes should such as lxTEX and SAWC use an externally overall volume their to the in each and weft generated fiber volume fraction. (3.g. warp the if Fortunately. This be adjusted Standard to the ensure measurements without the correct of fiber matrix tow. measurements of waviness which is laborious expensive. "Introduction Pennsylvania.379-404 (1990). 5-35 . stuffer. 1980). in a 2D weave) as unchanged can be deduced during processing. by geometry. Hill. Z. This dissolution. References 5. "A Critical Evaluation for a Class of Micromechanics Solids. Physics Solids. Models. leaves the include problem all of fibers distinguishing the fibers of fibers or warp orientation various type or host apportioning the proportions components of tow (e.R.1). Fiber Waviness is difficult fraction.

Publ. 5. J.N. Ma and T. 5.L. E. Conf. J. 5. and I. Chou. Kniveton. 1967. "Determination of the Elasto-Plastic Reinforced Composites by the Averaging Method. Love. "Composite Materials Reinforced with a I: Calculation of Elastic Characteristics. R. 105. A. Mutually Orthogonal Fibers. ed. G. Van Fo Fy. Gowayed and C. C. Kregers and G." in Mechanics of Textile Composites Conference. Mater. Kittel.. Polyakor. M.A. 43[9]. M. Melbardis. H. Minguet.1995. March. Kregers and Y. on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity.A. Mater.14 Z." J. of Applied Vol. R. V.21 of Woven and Braided Fabric Reinforced Composites.6 5. Cox and M.A.M. "Analytical Techniques for Textile Comparative Study of US-USSR Research.11 5. Carter. M. New York:. Naik." 5. 29. "Mechanical Properties of Triaxially and Analytical Results".M.A. Fleck.22 J. and C. T. Verpoest C. 1972.G. Yang. 25-31 (1981 ) Textile 5. Test Methods for Textiles Composites.N. private communication. and W. Xu. 20. Elasticity of 3D Woven Composites. J. Jr. 1983. McGlockton. J. Braided Composites: Experimental Research.19 Y. P. K. Naik. 3-8 (1978).26 5-36 ." Materials NASA CR-1974. Gowayed.9 5. "A Binary 42. Dadkhah. Models for Triaxially Braided 5." Structural Composites: A SC." J." NASA CR 194930.A. Mater. 3463-79 (1994). Mater. "Analysis June 1994. 2. J. Teters.Pastore.ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES 5. 1995.10 5. Cox.593-602 (1966).S. August 1990.A. Griffin.13 5. Composites Technology & 5. C." John Wiley and Sons. 1. and Acta Metall. "A Treatise Articles 12 and 49. "Analysis Sept.E. The Elastic Regime. "Simple composites. System of Three Straight. 3128. "Finite Element Based Micro-Mechanics Modeling of Textile Composites." J. B. C." W. M. "The Macroscopic 5. NASA Technical Memorandum Mechanics. Hashin. Boeing Defense and Space Group. NASA Conf. E...-L. 3511-24 (1995)." Fiber-Tex 90. 1944) 5.472-484 Properties of Spatially 17. Philadelphia. Polymer Mechanics.A Survey. and Y. and B. Flintoff. Model of Textile Composites - 5.A. Pastore. "Theory of Fiber Reinforced of Composite Materials. "A Binary Model of Textile II. J. Glaessgen and O.G.H. 5. "Determination of the Deformability of Three-Dimensional Reinforced Composites by the Stiffness Averaging Method. Mechanics. Comp. and C.7 5. Comp. D3171. 1 i 2-122 (1993). A. Composite Materials. (1992). NASA 5. 3311. N. Harris. N.F. Fedro.N.12 and J. 5. Carter.795-819 (1995).15 Y.D. C. Cox. 1512].17 5. Zhigun. Cox. ed.102 (1995)." Composites 26. H. Gunther.25 E. Masters. NASA (1991).24 J. Poe.F. 91 . Publ. Ivers. Leuven. 853-860 (I 973).23 Composites: I 5." Polymer Mechanics. "Fiber Inclination Structural Composites. Formulation. B." Mech. Dadkhah. Contractor Report 4609.18 Model of Three-Dimensional (1986). Clemson. Z. ASTM Standard I. Tarnoporskii.16 A. 481-505. A.S. New York.-W. Foye. . 1994. Hashin.8 R.C. Katholieke "Introduction Univ.. Polymer B.20 (Dover." Acta MetaU.-M. NASA to Solid State Physics. Buckley.G.

89597.L. 5.Chatterjee.Rosen."AnAnalysis odelor Spatially rientediber M f O F Composites.27 B.W.J.PREDICTIONOF ELASTIC CONSTANTSAND THERMAL EXPANSION 5." NASA CR. andJ. 243-254." Composite Materials: TestingndDesign a (Fourth Conference). ASTMSTP 617. S. 1992. 1977. American Society forTestingnd a Materials. R.N.Finite " Element Analysis f theStiffnessf Fabric o o Reinforced Composites. 1 Feb.Kibler.Foye.28 5-37 .

NONLINEAR

STRESS-STRAIN

BEHAVIOUR

AND

STRENGTH

6.

NONLINEAR

STRESS-STRAIN

BEHAVIOUR

AND

STRENGTH

Predicting the response of a textile composite beyond the proportional limit requires knowledge of how loads are distributed among different tows. Depending on their orientation and location, tows will show markedly different degrees of plasticity I and will fail at different external loads. Only some of the elasticity codes described in Section 5 calculate local stresses in the required detail; and of these, only a few have been developed to deal with evolving, heterogeneous plasticity to peak load or ultimate failure. Even in these few, the nonlinear constitutive properties of tows are either assumed ad hoc or built up from barely adequate experimental measurements. There is clearly a need for further model development. Most of the following discussion and the codes themselves are concerned with progressive failure in which damage is distributed continuously throughout the composite, at least on gauge lengths that are larger than the characteristic scale of the textile architecture, e.g. the unit cell size in a periodic structure or the macroscopic length scale, _.i, of Section 5.1.5. Uniform damage is a reasonable assumption in predicting unnotched strength and nonlinearity up to peak load. However, stress-strain response beyond peak load and notched strength are dominated by localized damage bands or cohesive zones. For these phenomena, a different class of model is needed altogether. 6.1 Nonlinearity Beyond the Proportional Limit

As discussed in Section 4, nonlinearity prior to peak load in textile composites arises from matrix failure mechanisms: transverse failure of tows or transverse interply cracks; plastic straightening of wavy tows loaded in axial tension; and matrix-mediated axial shear deformation (which may include microcracking or crazing). A general model of these phenomena will take the form of a yield locus for the material in a single tow defined in a triaxial stress space together with some hardening rule. No detailed constitutive laws of this kind based on experimental data have yet been presented. Progress to date relies instead on simple assumptions. In some work, the validity of the assumptions has been checked by comparing output of the textile model with limited macroscopic property data; but whether the assumed constitutive laws are uniquely defined by those data and whether they will hold up for multi-axial loading or parts of complex geometry remain unanswered questions.

6.1.1

Tensile

(Transverse)

Matrix

Cracking

Matrix cracking among tows that are loaded in transverse tension is similar to cracking seen in tape laminates in plies oriented normal to the load axis. However, the factors determining crack spacing and crack saturation are different. In the tape laminate, crack spacing is determined by the mechanics of stress relief around each crack. Saturation is achieved when the zones of stress relief around successive cracks overlap. Further Here plasticity is used in the general sense of irreversible damage, from which a material cannot recover to its original state upon unloading. Thus plasticity is distinct from nonlinear elasticity. In a polymer composite, plasticity does not arise from the motion of dislocations, as in a metal, because the polymer is generally noncrystalline. It comes instead from microcracking, especially arrays of cracks such as those depicted in Fig. 4-1, coupled with irreversible matrix damage (crazing and tearing of polymer chains) and possibly friction.

6-1

ANALYTICAL

METHODS

FOR TEXTILE

COMPOSITES

increases in the applied load cannot then increase the average axial stress in the cracked ply. In textile composites, transverse matrix cracks form most easily between tows aligned normal to the load. Indeed, in many textiles, cracks may not form within the tows at all. In such cases, the crack spacing is simply determined by the tow diameter. Transverse cracking of this kind is seen between tows in 2D weaves and 3D interlock weaves under inplane tension [6.1]. A credible approach to predicting the associated softening of a cracked layer of transversely oriented tows would be to embed the same mechanics used in analyzing matrix cracking in 0/90 ° laminates [6.2] in a quasi-laminar model of the textile. However, none of the codes available to date performs this operation. In other textiles, transverse matrix cracks do form within tows. The effect of such internal crack systems has been modeled with some success by simply knocking down the transverse stiffness of the affected tows to some arbitrary, small value [6.3]. 6.1.2 Shear Deformation

Figure 4-2(a) showed shear deformation data acquired in a test of a _+45 ° tape laminate in uniaxial tension. Such approximately elastic/perfectly-plastic behaviour is common to most polymer composites loaded in shear, including textile composites (Fig. 42(b)). The --.45 ° laminated test specimens yield reasonable constitutive laws for tow segments in textile composites made of the same fibers and matrix and with the same fiber volume fraction. For modeling textiles, the data could be fitted with a simple elastic/perfectly plastic law with flow stress Xc (Fig. 4-2(a)); curve such as a Ramberg-Osgood strain hardening law 16.4], ? = r/Gxy where "r is the axial shear hardening exponent. 6.1.3 Plastic Tow stress, ), the axial [1 + 3(_:/Tc)n-l/7] shear strain, Gxy the shear modulus, 2 or a numerical, parametric

(6.1) and n is a

Straightening

Waviness in nominally straight tows allows nonlinear axial strain when the tow straightens (Section 4.3). Constitutive laws for axial plasticity due to tow straightening can be based on the constitutive law for axial shear discussed above. The resolved axial shear stress, "t's, due to the tensile stress, Ox, in the nominal tow direction in the presence of

misalignment,

q_,is approximately Ts = Ox _ (6.2) When Vs exceeds the flow stress, _'c, the tow evolution of the straightening depends on the law is readily developed for the common of the width, case o_, of

where q_ is the local misalignment segment will begin to straighten. distribution of _O. An analytic

angle. The

constitutive

that _ is normally distributed. the distribution, which usually

The law is completed requires an experiment.

by specification

2 "Shear flow" here refers to the regime of nearly perfectly-plastic shear deformation visible over large strains in Fig. 4-2. The deformation is mediated by microcracking, crazing, and frictional slip, as already noted.

6-2

if the geometry of regular oscillations is not modeled explicitly (as in the code WEAVE). in contrast. As recounted in Section 5. The status of our knowledge of the details of these constitutive laws and failure criteria will be summarized below. tow straightening should be considered independently of axial shear due to far-field shear loading. the paths of regularly oscillating tows are represented more or less literally in a code. with incremental stiffnesses replacing constant stiffnesses. especially in 3D architectures. Neglecting sliding between tows. i. In most of the models of nonlinearity in the codes collected here. then tow straightening will again be represented as a modification of the axial properties of the tow. This reduces the number of degrees of freedom to a manageable level. each ply in a tape laminate or infinitely long. If.05) bring severe damage. nominally straight stuffers in a 3D interlock weave would be described in a tessellation model as single grains. Similarly.. If wavy but nominally straight tows are represented as ideally straight in a code (the most common case . the resulting models are straightforward generalizations of the orientation averaging models used with frequent in success in the elastic regime. Using the same tessellation model in predicting nonlinearity and strength. such as in plain weaves. i. or in tows possessing regular oscillations. assuming coherent tow interfaces.NONLINEAR STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOUR AND STRENGTH Tow straightening can arise in nominally straight tows with irregularity. a wavy tow becomes increasingly wavy and softens. It must be introduced as a modification of the response of the tow to axial tension. For example. within equivalent grains. friction inhibits sliding.2 Tessellation Models To predict nonlinear composite behaviour and strength. the axial shear strains associated with tow straightening will usually be computed as part of the general analysis of internal stresses and strains. where tow separation is opposed by their interlacing. on the other hand.e. This mechanism of localization will lead to kink band formation.) The elastic constants of a unidirectional composite are assigned to each grain. 6-3 . modified to account for the higher degree of irregularity endemic to textiles. Because a tow segment stiffens when it straightens.e. increasing the misalignment and thus the preference for softening in the same locations. Softening will occur first in the most misaligned segments.2). in which the tow stiffens with increasing tensile strain. the partitioning of stress amongst tow segments with different orientations must be calculated and local stresses compared with the known yield and failure characteristics of tows under general states of stress. The constitutive laws assigned to the tows need not then be modified. tow straightening under tension will progressively encompass all segments of a tow. but introduced in the elastic regime via in-plane stiffness knockdowns. 6. Assuming isostrain conditions implies displacement continuity across grain boundaries. (The grains may be finite or infinite. If isostress or isostrain conditions are also assumed (more reasonably the latter when predicting nonlinearity in fiber-dominated strain components). the nonlinear constitutive laws and failure criteria appropriate to each grain might also be guessed to be those of a unidirectional composite.see Section 5. Under axial compression. matrix plasticity or damage is assumed to be uniform within any tow or set of equivalent tow segments. macroscopic elastic properties are often approached by modeling a textile composite as a tessellation of grains within each of which the fiber orientation is approximately constant. at least until high strains (typically > 0. probably has a negligible effect on macroscopic nonlinearity. Even when matrix cracks appear between neighbouring tows.

Since tow segments of all orientations may contribute significantly under general loads. loads are predominantly uniaxial and will be oriented with one set of tows in the textile. But the contribution of off-axis fibers to _:omposite stiffness is lower in proportion to the degree of anisotropy of individual tows. Given the state of uncertainty.6. The dry fiber bundle strength is then often greater than the strength of the unidirectional composite. with relatively little effect on the outcome. which are reasonably well understood. ultimate strength will be dominated by those primary load bearing tows. among other materials.8.9]. ween these tows and all other tows in the textile. The off-axis tows may be assumed undamaged to peak load (elastic) or to be progressively damaged. experience with unidirectional composites is probably a reasonable guide. for typical gauge lengths of a few centimeters. much shorter than the specimen length. weaken a bundle of fibers by concentrating stresses around Since the bare fiber bundle strength is also strongly gauge 3The ratio of the dry fiber bundle strength and the strength of a unidirectional composite depends strongly on the gauge length used for testing the former. computational codes that predict strength under multiaxial loads can be relied on at most for identifying trends. The predictions are based on the assumption that the local axial stress in the aligned tows reaches the strength of an equivalent unidirectional composite (in the case of the AS4/1895 composites) or the strength quoted by the manufacturer for the bare fibers reduced by the fiber volume fraction (glass/urethane composites). In such cases. Therefore. the stress concentration in fibers neighbouring a broken fiber is negligible. The first task in predicting strength is to compute the stress partition be. They exceed the measured ultimate strengths for each textile composite by 20-50%. which becomes the relevant length for 6-4 . However. by comparing the local axial stress predicted for the aligned tows with the measured strengths of either bare fiber tows or unidirectional composites [6. because they carry a small proportion of the total load.6. Ultimate strength predictions under off-axis and biaxial loads are also important in design. the stress concentrating effect of a compliant matrix is probably the dominant factor.5-6. The difference is greater when the bare fiber strength is used in the predictions. This is to be expected. although verification for textiles remains a topic for research. elastic/perfectly plastic. since the presence of a compliant matrix will generally the sites of first fiber failures.3 Ultimate Strength In many aerospace applications. and the axial modulus of a tow is typically twenty or more times its transverse modulus. The local stresses are calculated for given applied stresses by models equivalent to orientation averaging (Section 5).3. 6. depending on the fiber material and the fiber volume fraction. useful estimates of the stress partition can be based on very simple models of the stress distribution. such as a ceramic matrix composite. It leads to stress concenWations of approx.7]. the problem of computing stress partitions must usually be solved in more detail. Once again.1 compares predictions of ultimate strength for some triaxial glass/urethane braids and 3D interlock carbon/epoxy weaves with measured strengths. the ability of the matrix to restore the axial load in a broken fiber over a relatively short distance via interfacial friction introduces a material gauge length. e. when loads are uniaxial and aligned.g. 15% in fibers neighbouring a fiber break in a typical polymer composite [6. and estimates of strength follow by imposing failure criteria for locally aligned loads. consistent but high estimates of ultimate tensile strength have been found for 2D braids and 3D weaves. in a composite with a st/ffmatrix. Furthermore.1. In contrast. Table 6.1 Ultimate Tensile Strength For aligned loads.ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES 6. Absolute values of strength will have to be measured. The failure criteria for individual tow segments must also be those for multiaxial loads.

especially in 2D textile composites.5-G 45-0. with the stiffness of individual plies calculated by the models described in Section 5. or.70 0.3. especially following impact damage. but basedon ratherfew. a stiff matrix can raise the composite strength above that of the dry fiber bundle. However.NONLINEAR STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOUR AND STRENGTH lengthdependent. Delamination and Euler buckling of delaminated layers can also be the mode of failure of quasilaminar 3D textiles in compression. It is therefore not an appropriate topic for this handbook. see these references for nomenclature and detailed descriptions of composites).73 Strength For aligned loads.60 0. if delamination is suppressed. Predicted and measured ultimate strengths of some triaxial glass/urethane braids and 3D carbon/epoxy interlock weaves (from [6.54 0.2 for quasi-laminar textiles.5-G 30-0.2).1.10]. Table 6. They can be employed just as well for 2D textile composites. Composite Measured (MPa) 3D interlock weaves: 980 935 840 895 1070 850 braids: 200 270 180 155 280 275 290 Predicted (MPa) Ratio AS4/1895 h-L-1 h-L-2 h-T.11].while it did not appear lsewhere e [6.1. Correlationbetweentensile strength anddegreeof wavinesshas beenclaimedin onereport [6.12].65 0.1 h-T-2 h-O-1 h-O-2 1350 1200 1300 1250 1360 1220 0. strength o u c knockdowns 20-30%seemtypical.76 0.79 0.72 0. by kink band formation (Section 4.6.5-G 6.he moreconsistent stimates textile strengthwill be those basedon t e of themeasured strengths f equivalent nidirectional omposites. noisydatapoints.includingwaviness pinchingin alignedtows. of Variousreasons thelower measured for strengnsweresummarized Section4.57 0.70 triaxial glass/urethane 45-1-G 45-1-A 40-1-G 35-2-G 55-0. in The mostimportantis probablydamagesufferedby t:.Irregularityin geometry. 6-5 . Delamination models and codes for tape laminates abound in the literature.From this datum.73 0.2 Compressive 350 400 300 220 470 360 400 0._ _bersin tows during the textile process. Predicting strength for delaminating composites is essentially the same problem for 2D textiles as it is for conventional tape laminates.68 0. Since the strength of a material with a Weibull distribution of flaws rises as the gauge length shortens.3. compressive failure is either by delamination and Euler buckling of delaminated plies.7].7]. hasa anc_ relativelysmallinfluenceon tensilestrength[6. if adequate yet modest volume fractions of through-thickness reinforcement are analyzing the statistics of flaw distributions [6.78 0.

aminatebucklingis suppressed. one characterized by higher fiber volume fraction and higher degree of geometrical regularity. which reflect superior textile processing methods [6. control during there are at 6-6 . Two groups of composites are represented. 6-1. Some data for 3D interlock weaves are shown in Fig.egardless l r of the size of the delamination (Section 4). estimates of compressive strength for aligned loads can again be based on simple calculations of the local axial stress in aligned tows for a given applied load.1). proportion to the misalignment formation could be predicted angles and the measured follow at once from the relation accurately enough by orientation 8C. In the inferior composites.13]). I 400 .1]. I _'00 800 Predicted Peak Load PPa) Figure 6-1.1). Therefore.ANALYTICAL METHODSFORTEXTILE COMPOSITES incorporated. According to Argon's Law Eq. Measured compressive strengths of 3D interlock weaves compared with predictions based on measurements of misalignment angles and the critical shear flow stress (from [6. ¢. can be found 70C 60C 40C 30C 20C IOC I 100 . of composite which strength between the local and applied averaging (isostrain) models. Measuring r-c is relatively straightforward [6. they were approximately 8-11 ° . Whereas misalignment angles in tape laminates are typically 3 ° or less. Failure then reverts to kink band formation in in-plane tows or plies.0_ The measured compressive strengths were in inverse angles. Unfortunately. I 500 t I 600 . In these better processed composites.1]. Knowledge of the distribution of misalignment angles and their processing are obviously critical to compressive strength. this section focuses on predicting failure by kinking.11 and [6. Thus the critical local axial stress for kink band remarkably well by inserting the measured misalignment Good estimates loads. which is the desired mechanism of failure in a well designed 3D textile composite. (4. I 200 t I 300 . "rc. along with independent measurements of the critical shear stress. they are usually larger and subject to wider variations in textile composites. ' I ' I ' I ' t ' I ' I ' I f- value of lrc into Eq. for axial shear flow within a tow and the distribution of the misalignment angle. but measuring the distribution of ¢ is laborious and its prediction from models of the textile process is at present and probably always will be impossible. (4. the maximum misalignment angles measured by destructive methods within typical specimen gauge sections were approximately 3-5 ° .

Since these are the failure criteria that would be applied to individual tow segments when the textile composite is represented as a tessellation of unidirectional grains. Shell 1895. Micromechanical arguments suggest that this strength should be influenced negligibly by the fiber stiffness.3. Design in limits for compressioncurrently depend on being able to place upper bounds on misalignment nglesif certainprocessing a conditionsaremet. of off-axis fibers for small to moderate values of V0. most aerospace applications require material stiffness under load states that are predominantly compressive or tensile.15] when the axial shear in stuffers and fillers reaches the critical value. Figure 6-2(a) shows the failure locus for combined aligned The local fiber direction is the x-axis.6. only is determined shear strength by the resistance in composites of the matrix reinforced in two orthogonal directions within tows or plies to axial shear. Combined axial compression band formation at a reduced critical axial stress given approximately loads and axial shear. they are conjectured to kink more easily as plies of other orientation become thinner and impose less constraint. The ultimate shear strength in this test configuration was found to be 65-80 MPa for a range of different interlock architectures and filler and stuffer filament counts.45° laminate. Figure 4-2(a) implies an ultimate shear strength of 75 MPa for the typical aerospace resin. when II'0 rises above approximately 45%. and shear lead to kink by [6.14]. 6-7 . However. with modest shear loads. 6. 4-2(a).3.15]. The shear response of these composites is dominated by alternating layers of orthogonal stuffers and fillers. The coincidence of these strengths with the shear flow stress of Fig. Compact shear tests have also been reported for 3D interlock weave composites containing the same resin [6. a tensile test of a __. the strength saturates and no longer increases [6.3 Shear Strength Just as for tape laminates.17]. _'c. Thus shear strength can be approached via the critical shear flow stress.suchascontrolof tow tension during manufacture a fiber preform. For example. the failure boundaries are similar to those that might be expected in a unidirectional polymer composite.18] 4Experimental evidence confirms that shear strength rises with the volume fraction. 4 In contrast. It is also unlikely to vary much with the fiber volume fraction for the ranges of fiber packing expected in well consolidated composites. I'c. creates conditions of pure deviatoric shear within plies. To estimate shear strength is then to estimate the critical axial stress in tows for rupture in tension or kink band formation in compression. However.4 Multi-Axial Loads Figure 6-2 shows feasible failure loci for individual tows in a textile composite under multi-axial loads. provided the fibers are much stiffer than the matrix [6. This saturation has been attributed tentatively to easier kink band formation in the off-axis plies when they are dominant.NONLINEAR STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOUR AND STRENGTH presentno certifiedmethodsof monitoringmisalignments textile composites. V0. such as that reported in Fig. This is clearly an area for further work in of developing manufacturing technologies.16. tnc in-plane shear strength of a quasi-isotropic textile composite is dominated by the strength of tows (or plies) deforming in tension or compression. Most fibers must then be aligned with the primary load axis and the saturation of shear strength at large V0 will not be relevant. 6. 4-2(a) suggests that shear failure also occurs in the interlock weaves of [6.

3) The maximum sustainable axial shear stress.Oxy) has been completed as an ellipse. failure by loads that the axial experiments reasonable fraction must [6.ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES r. so that the right hand boundary in Fig. 6-2(a). . propose strain Their are parallelograms. but their experimental confirmation is and indecisive.21].2. following some algorithm to insure convergence to a self-consistent.4 Codes Strength The stress-strain 6. 6-2(a) is vertical. They also suggested an elliptical failure locus. Fleck and Jelf defined an effective stress consisting of a quadratic combination of Oxy and Oy in developing a model of plasticity in polymer composites under combined transverse tension and axial shear [6. the axial shear flow stress. significant where design. is at. which imposes the horizontal _ boundary in Fig."qy)/_ which leads to the sloping boundaries for negative axial stress in Fig.1 will be of dubious shear. The right hand boundary is limited by matrix cracking under transverse tension. Nonlinearity due to shear plasticity is generally accompanied by material hardening (e. that admits to a first as long as one is aligned and stiff. Fig. which is modeled by replacing the shear terms of the local stiffness matrix with a strain-dependent function that approximates the experimentally measured response. stress value the simple with failure should criterion exceed but in 2D braids a critical imperfect ply with tows value. the failure locus is bounded on the shear axis by _'¢. Computation proceeds incrementally. TEXCAD implements this approach. Nonlinearity due to tensile microcracking is usually handled by monitoring each 6-8 .g.20]. imposing a critical stress Oy(c) in the absence of axial shear. Fiber rupture under ahgned tension is approximately unaffected by simultaneous shear. equilibrium state. following the quadratic strength rules popularized for unidirectional composites [6. set of approximately this situation will usually for any straight In aerospace textile with the major applications. reasoning that failure under such biaxial sparse loading is a plastic instability (kinking). The failure locus in the space (Oy. (6. in any tow system which axis. failure under This multiaxial leads to is with volume structures However.19]. 6-2(a). has not been reported. be strong be the preferred architecture their approach matrix-mediated 6. Once again. Transverse compression will probably although direct observation lead to transverse shear of the failure mechanism failure in tows at some stress Ors. Figure 6-2(b) shows the situation for combined axial shear and transverse tension or compression. proposal. 4-2).k = (r_ . encouraging is similar correspondence condition. for Predicting Nonlinear Stress-Strain Behaviour and Ultimate capabilities behaviour of the codes collected in the handbook for predicting and ultimate strength are summarized in Table 6. Swanson failure loci that et al. lrx.4. nonlinear Nonlinearity Different approaches have been used for modeling nonlinearity due to plastic shear and tensile microcracking.

Failure aligned loci for individual and axial with shear local is aligned tows loads.5. rtTexas output. using calculations in which the textile is assumed to remain wholly elastic. 6-9 .2 Ultimate strength In most of the codes. e. when loads are in the axial tow direction. 6-2.NONLINEAR STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOUR AND STRENGTH tow segmentor grain for matrix failure. no provision is made for entering the tow or fiber strength data (Table 6. This can nevertheless be a useful estimate of tensile strength for a textile containing a dominant set of nominally straight tows under aligned uniaxial loads. SAWC. selectedterms of the local stiffnessmatrix arereducedor set to zero.6]. 6-2 to predict strength. in terms The axes of the transverse local and stress axial state. shear (a) Combined (b) Combined The x-axis are not to scale.1.g. typically in the material CCM-TEX makes the coarsest of all estimates of composite strength.6. '-rxy uniform axial shear failure "t c 't_ uniformaxial shear failure _C transverse/I''_ kink band formation tensile rupture ox(C) _x shear / _/c_ 5v "g© (a) (b) Figure loads. The codemust then iterateto re-establish equilibriumbeforeincrementing load.2). or the triaxial braids studied in [6. When it occurs.7]. TEXCAD prints tables of internal stresses determined using the isostrain assumption. element codes _tTex-10. 6. One limitationof thesecodesis thatthe userhasno controlover the stiffness discountruleor thecriteriafor onsetof nonlinearity. but several codes provide values for internal stresses as output. since the strength of the tow is undefined without reference to misalignment angle distributions. These internal stresses could be compared with empirical failure loci similar to Fig. and BINMOD all provide internal stresses axes (orientated with the local fiber direction). TEXCAD andSAWC employ versionsof this the approach.6. It is not useful for compressive strength. This is analogous to the first-ply failure method of determining the strength of laminates. The finite 20. In most of the codes. fiber or plies direction. the 3D interlock weaves studied in [6. ultimate tensile strength is estimated by simply comparing maximum local stresses with tow or fiber strength data.4. simply summing the strengths of the tows weighted by their areas.

and the formation of blunting damage bands (Section 4).2. the critical stress. Nonlinear damage bands can be modeled as cohesive zones or bridged cracks. p(u).ANALYTICAL METHODSFORTEXTILE COMPOSITES Table 6. Pc. We) or (Pc. acting One would expect should be contained material property in a cohesive zone is the relation. Notch sensitivity is generally restricted to holes or notches that are larger than lch. 2u. 6-10 . lch. In the absence of developed codes. In fact. p. Strength in parts of general shape should then be predicted by application of the calibrated cohesive zone model. their unusual characteristics in textile composites are the source of the extraordinary notch insensitivity these materials possess (Section 4). Wf = 2fpdu. for the onset of damage and either the work of fracture. Models for splitting have been developed extensively to deal with a similar effect in continuous fiber ceramic matrix composites and layered systems. The parameters (Pc. notched strength in textile composites can receive no further treatment in this edition of the handbook. for example of notched strength. The crucial tractions. between the across the damage band and the effective opening displacement.2). or the critical opening displacement. very few models have been formulated for dealing with either splitting or cohesive zones in textile composites. of Equation (3.22]. stiffness discount yes yes WEAVE BINMOD 6. including tape laminates [6.5 Notched Strength Notch sensitivity in textile composites is limited by two mechanisms: splitting parallel to the load axis. beyond which p vanishes. much like craze zones in polymers or damage zones in concrete [6.27]. Uc. that the characteristics of p(u) that are essential to notch sensitivity in no more than two parameters.23-6. which isolates the notched material from adjacent material. Forms for predicting nonlinear Textile Local Stress Nonlinearity Strength plain weaves 5 harness satin 8 harness satin 3-D Weave 2-step braids 4-step braids general user provides plain weave (FE code _eneral) 2D weaves 2D braids user defined 3D interlock 3D interlock weaves weaves yes not directly yes _tTex-10 _Tex-20 SAWC TEXCAD yes yes yes stiffness discount shear hardening. behaviour Code PW SAT5 SAT8 CCM-TEX and Code capabilities strength. Unfortunately. This problem reqmres further work. uc) should be evaluated by a set of standard tests. for example. The length of the cohesive zone is then characterized approximately by the length scale. where they are generally far more important than in any other class of material.

"Modeling Stiffness and Strength of 3-D Textile to appear in the Proceedings of 37th joint Structures. Structural Dynamics. Minguet. unpublished work. J. 6.2 L.217-245 (1993). and Materials Conference. Salt 6." of Compressive Planar Yam in press. Cox. and W.13 6. G. B. M. Composite Materials 5[ I ]. Morris. K.7 6." Acta Metall. Mater. "Simple Models for Triaxially 6. Containing a 6. Howell. M.3 D. 1996. Gunther. Dadkhah. A. and B. M. 3511-24 (1995). M. R. and B. L.1 B. Mech. and Limitations." J." J.B.6 K. Fleck. "Failure Tension. Walrath. Philadelphia. London NASA 6. Zupon. "Modeling Damage in a Plain Weave FabricReinforced Composite Material.M.11 J.102 (1995). Pochiraju. "Mechanisms 3D Woven Composites. Curtin. Cox. N. "Theory of Stress Transfer in a 0°/90°/0° Cross-Ply Laminate Parallel Array of Transverse Cracks." AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Lake City. Test Methods for Textile Composites. B. "Local Stress Concentrations Composite Materials.16 A432. N. K. McMeeking. "The 'Tough' Solids 41. Mater. Hedgepeth and P. Carter. and C. Salt Lake City. Dadkhah. Whitney. 91 . R. Flanagan. 1996. Fedro." J. T-W." to be submitted to Acta Metall. McGlockton. Braided Composites. 26.II. Blackketter. Dadkhah.M." Proc. M. Morris. A. W. and H. Roy. 40[ 12]. B.NONLINEAR STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOUR AND STRENGTH References 6. "A Binary Model . Boeing Defense and Space Group. 1.C. M.8 J. "Experimental Characterization of 3-D textile structural Composites.294-309 (1967). Mech.M. 1994. 6. Morris." 42[12]. T-W. of Textile Composites 6. Composites.10 Matrix Composites. Van Dyke. Mater. 136-142 (1993).L. Cox. Solids 4111]. and B. Hansen. Structural Composites. and Materials Conference. Mater. Xu. F. W. 55- 6-11 . "In Situ Damage Observation and Failure in Model Laminates Containing Crimping of Woven Composites. Kniveton. The Elastic Regime. S. Phys. A. Solids 40. Fleck. Chou. N. Contractor Report 4609. M." Acta Metall.5 and B. D. McCartney.15 P.4 6. of 3D Woven Composites in 6. C. 4319]. 3967-84 Mechanisms (1994). L.E. M. N. "Compressive Failure of Fiber Composites. Budiansky and N. S. L. 3285-98 (1992). Pochiraju. and A." J. N. Cox. Structural Dynamics. J. Phys.12 A. and W. 183-211 (1993). Comp. W. McGlockton. J. N. "Brittle Fracture due to an Array of Microcracks. 6. and J. A. see also J." Mechanics of Composite Materials and Structures. of Composites Technology & Research 1512].Applications 24-34 (1971).9 Strength of Ceramic Matrix 6." J. to Brittle Transition in Brittle "The in Imperfect Filamentary 6. D. Soc. Shah. 76 (1991). "Analysis of the Rail Shear Test ." to appear in the Proceedings of the 37th Joint AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AMS/ASC Structures. A. M. Compression. Shah. S. Cox. Failure in 6. Mech. and Bending." Composites T. Chou.14 Stanbarger. N. Phys. 27-68 (1992).

Layered Composites. Technomic under Publishing S. Foote. M. C.20 6." Acta and C. 4212]. 43181. Connecticut. 1992). ed. Westport. C. ed.-W. M. R." Mater.27 of Concrete. 341-63 (1994). Mater. Hampton. T. and J. A.ANALYTICAL METHODSFORTEXTILE COMPOSITES 6. Y. Budiansky.23 6. Mater. 1980. "Analysis of One Single Crack. Slaughter. 3001-7 (1995).18 6. Virginia. H.Part II: Large Notches. Resistance Curves in Strain J. "Crack-Growth (1986). London. and B. Chapter 7.. R. W. Jr. N. 115." in Mechanics of Textile Composites Conference. "Multiaxial Stiffness and Strength Characterization of 2-D Braid Carbon/Epoxy Fiber Composites. Redistribution in Ceramic 6.593-607 of Concrete Z. R. D. N. Introduction to Composite Company. N. 1992). Swanson and L. The of a Brittle Adhesive Layer. A. Engng A167. Tsai and H. F. T. "Tension Advanced Fracture Composite of Laminates Technology for Transport Fuselage . 1994. Amsterdam.22 6." Third NASA Conference. NASA Conference Publication 3311 (NASA." W. Poe. 223-49. pp. Smith. K. Materials. Hutchinson. Ilcewicz. B. Polland. Mai. Poe. "Cracking and Stress 57-64 (1993). Solids 34. S. B. December. 6-8. Bazant. ed. "Compressive Failure of Fiber Composites: Roles of Multiaxial Loading and Creep. "Mode Fractureoughness II T Int. S.17 6. Cotterell. Walker. Mech. Fracture Mechanics Structures B. Marshall. 6-12 . P. and B. C. 727-758. W. Engng Mater. S.25 6. "Concepts Metall. L.26 6. XiaandJ. Fracture Mechanics 1983) pp.. Tech. (Elsevier Applied Science. Hutchinson. H. Solids Structures 31. 1133-1148 (1994). "Deformation and Failure of a Carbon Fibre Composite Combined Shear and Transverse Loading. Jr." Y. He. 1995). V. softening Materials. L.19 6." J.21 Z. Sci.24 6. C. Cox and D. NASA CP-3178 (NASA. W. Fleck. M.. A. Jelf. for Bridged Cracks in Fracture and Fatigue.308-13 (1993). J. Hahn. Hillerborg. Chan. Fleck and P." Wittman (Elsevier Science Publishers." Acta Metall. Phys.

have been some of the principles a prediction be made in the literature. this leads for the total cycles.2]. accumulates of the axial shear nonlinear processes the tow in proportion It appears to be weakly to the magnitude correlated angle. misalignment the effective kinking case. can be a topic modeled of research. with Os the local axial stress. the axial shear may exhibit or accumulating plastic causing the tow to rotate within tows in the resin the absence flow stress. delamination loads occurs and Euler by kink form at are suppressed in compression band formation. tows could and the output of codes be combined that calculate the distribution of stresses with test data to make predictions of this first edition. damage weaves. to kink formation: (7. Fatigue at least for the flat panel composites 7. local cyclic band amplitude. In 3D interlock mechanism.2) 7-1 . to an expression For a fixed Nk. by steps to kink analogous to those of used for low cycle consisting of changes For example. Aos. in a well-designed and failure As discussed buckling in Section 3D composite under aligned loads. supports elapsed commonly damage "re. other than manufacture.FATIGUE LIFE 7. FATIGUE LIFE None Nevertheless. band of observed rotations In before either the latter cycles but this remains formation fatigue. locations textile during where architecture This is true for both monotonic tows (or plies) necessitates Damage are most severely and cyclic misaligned The kink bands the topology has been because of the misalignment apparently or some irregularity through stress introduced inside segment. discussed in different of the codes reported in this by which handbook such provides fatigue could life predictions. have been proposed ratchetting. a law for the rate of accumulation tow segment can be written [7. in the misaligned architecture with features of the reinforcement the local misalignment Two mechanisms Cyclic angles.1.1 Kink that are the focus Formation in Compression-Compression 4. by which damage may accumulate to greater may lower [7.2] in "re in some misaligned for some stress material constants A and m.7.

_. Typical 15 [7. strain is constrained. 3D Comparison weaves and and measured triaxial braids curves the of the power If the material law of Eq. the constants A and m nor the distribution of misalignment by calibrating the effects of angles will be known a priori.ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES Load Control In applications fatigue interlock have failure weaves follows where the applied load rather a few than the applied kink bands. In stitched fail when laminates. (7. _. may not follow exhibit structural failure in 3D as interlock control. (7. is representative of misalignment Equation log plots. interlock load-life curves that are not far from systems straight on logfor with slope values of m for carbon/epoxy of predicted glass/urethane are 30 [7. The life prediction variations as cutting Strain then be used to assess in load or structural out holes that would geometry.1) and the low cycle constants A.2]. angles the Life predictions into Eq. to operations such the distribution Control In applications textile composites Under such where strain rather weaves these than load is constrained.2) leads to fatigue . not affect the latter are confined of misalignments. can accordingly that be estimated by substituting of the extremes a value for the misalignment of the distribution in Eq.3]. fatigue fatigue approach. or three the first structures bands band to formed in separate catastrophic. load-life supports glass/urethane in carbon/epoxy adequacy systems. (7. and m are known. computer codes presented in Section In practice. (7. life thus follows from small prediction of the local axial stress. of 3D the formation 200-300 tows of just Test two specimens kink kink containing mm 3 of material [7. cyclic as well strain materials exceptional damage as monotonic loading. bands. aligned form is usually kinking The fatigue life of load controlled textile that fail by angle. Better bands in combined effect separate account for the gradual evolution of the population of kink 7-2 .2) angles. of local stresses will be a design be made by one condition of the in an airframe. They will be evaluated method outlined above provided would for a particular material tests. the formation of the first few tolerance values in kink bands.2) of based would many on substituting then be unduly kink of the distribution Ultimate predictions of misalignment failure should could be conservative. plasticity prediction 5. As long as the applied which can loads are sufficiently that widespread the required is not induced.m.2]. neither os.

calculating effects of load redistributionfollowing eachnew kink the event. such in Quasilaminar cracks of delamination will be similar fatigue in a 3D quasilaminar to initiation in a conventional and points tape laminate. symmetric reinforcement specimens will or parts to pure supply bridging load.5-7. from pure II Delamination Mode under I under bending cracks may then propagate loads in certain mixtures.9. by fatigue.. Aoa.. than during rates during The most a tensile dangerous compression shear fiber plasticity of damage Tensile is presumably failure requires leading which which about is a compression relatively slowly failure.The codeBINMOD is currentlybeingenhanced performsuchcalculations. For example. reinforcement propagation playing with following a strong various initiation will be very and crucial mode role. rupture. between the net crack tip stress For cyclic loading. where for a delamination the bridging tractions a linear law.2 Tension-Tension Computational developed damage [7. with through-thickness However. to stitched a steady laminates [7. long in which [7. singularity Initiation where sites will include anisotropic different. to is fatigue life to textile compression-compression cycle mode are much lower loading. reinforcement state configuration intensity will be reached factor the crack is sufficiently of the crack length an analytical crack stitched has [7. Mode tractions Through-thickness crack. in Fig. AKtip = [E'h/FsEs] 1/2 Aor. 4-8.4]).FATIGUE LIFE individual tows.3 Delamination The initiation as a stitched laminate. brought other than Fatigue models for relating and Load Ratio Effects architecture Limited have data not yet been suggest cycles that (e. out-of-plane loads. Load ratio effects 7.7] intensity laminate (e.7. delaminations caused by impact of stress plies meet a free edge. and the range crack growing follow of the net tip in the curved one AKtjp.g. is independent yields application of the J integral relationship factor. in reference remains intact. on the fatigue Crack Growth life of textiles remain a subject Textile for research. kinking. to 7.10]).8].3) 7-3 .g. shown the applied stress range. Composites composite. cracks shielding across the delamination of bridged recent delamination especially (stitching) the crack tip from the applied composites have been The mechanics studied the bridging when in in polymer extensively If years. (7.

Evans.S.N. M. B. Flintoff. Marshall. Slaughter. Amer. (1990).2. life strategy based on Eq. Furthermore. and B. Acta Metall. Hutchinson. Solids 4118]. 1993. McMeeking Materials 9.9 for Bridged Mode II Delamination Cracks. 51. (7.3) is currently being developed. L. R. N. L. Design and Reliability Guide for Triaxially Braided Composites. M. Dadkhah. Mitchell.N.A.K. provides to the growth rigorous II and simple. Massab6. S. Kedward.3. M. 1995). Cox. December.7 B. and stress axial corresponding modulus crack there of to the spatially averaged stitching rate should fibers. NASA 7. of crack in this limit. Massab6 and B. Cox." Toughness of 7.6 "Role of Fiber Stitching in Eliminating Transverse J. Materials. R. Failure Models for Textile Composites. of failed Eq. and W. Cross-Ply Ceramic Composites. Tech. Inman.5 L." J. M. "Matrix Fatigue Cracking in Fiber composites. M. Morris. B. in press. Stitching. W. No.-J. Mech.1. 7. vss will the the delamination provided bound growth is no rate a constant or region Thus life. Ceram. Phys." Composites.N. "Compressive Fatigue of Fibre Composites. N.4 7. "On the Effect of Stitching on Mode I Delamination Laminated Composites.. R. Mech. for Mode bounding mixed mode estimates fatigue to fatigue crack growth.331-45 (1994). V. take AKap is independent value. Dadkhah." submitted to and A. "Compression-Compression Composites". and W. Cox.8 7. G." Overview 7-4 . 4235-45 (1995). J. "Suppression of Delamination Fracture in 7." Mech. in Fracture and Fatigue. N. CR-4686 (NASA. 1265-84 (1993).ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES where AOa AOr = r/AOa is the and fs and Es Since are cyclic the amplitude of the through-thickness volume fraction length." Composites Sci. S. Fleck and W. Final Report to Plastic Products Division.-W. Morris. 7. Jain and Y. and K. Cox." Rockwell Science Center. 251-3 (1995).217-27 "Concepts in Curved Parts by 7. Fatigue in 3D Woven 7. L. R.3) relations vss. Morris. Mater. "Concepts for Bridged Cracks 42 (1994) 341-63. 111. Similar can be demonstrated A fatigue References 7. Dadkhah. W. T. be an upper basis for delamination for all crack notch lengths. Soc. R. Cox. 7811 }. Lu and J. Mater. S. Mai. N. 43[12].10 B. Cox and D. Acta Metall. B. (7. stitches.

The following brief descriptions summarize given the capabilities here is intended it analyzes. of the codes to introduce the method of that are documented the reader analysis. will not be clear material Not all references may be found either to relevant papers by the authors are listed in this section. They in the user's guide or in the papers that have been cited. it will often be found not to explain references Even where all theoretical aspects provided. is used. occasionally aspects tolerance. using any code. SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE CODES Many especially damage their codes are available for c. of textiles and the range of output complete details will be found in the guide in one of the handbook's a user's guide appendices has been or in the cited references. of their macroscopic stiffness. to each code's The information the types More capabilities. It is highly In some recommended the required that the listed input also be read before unless the reference instances.SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE CODES 8. _puting the properties and of textile composites. thci= strength. 8-1 . produced. user's quickly in this handbook. of the analysis.

for Predicting 49. Stiffness Marrey. machine. 6-11. Sankar. is computed from 8-2 . Sankar Sankar and R. 189-200.V.V. orientation.ANALYTICAL METHODSFORTEXTILE COMPOSITES 8. Marrey.V. of the 1994 ASME 94-WA/AERO-1." Nov. Ramesh V. Properties. "Evaluation of Finite Proceedings Element Micromechanical Winter Analysis Annual Methods Meeting. User Manual: User Manual for of input discussion and #Tex-lO and ItTex-20. Structural 1993. Composites. to lie in a single yam paths can be to an arbitrary textile forms. of theory.1 _Tex-lO Authors: Ref¢rences: B. Fo at: FORTRAN is provided Geometric Model: code which for changing can be recompiled the maximum for the target size. Marrey and B. 61-69. for Textile Composites.V. Beams 1993. Fiber volume to generate geometry.V. Sankar and R. Proceedings of 13th Army on Solid R. pp.1994." Composites Science B." pp. "A Unit-Cell Model of Textile and Composite Technology. "Micromechanical Symposium Models for Textile Mechanics. for Includes on well documented description limited output. An additional yarn plane.V. instructions compiling different computers. A parameter file problem The user must provide yarn. Marrey and Bhavani V. defined the given in terms which a series of points describing the locus of the centre of each of each set of points must be provided The yam to give the cross-section path is assumed Multiple fraction of an n-sided can be rotated various polygon.

Periodic or boundary code are applied to the edges The user can of the unit cell. available thermal for unit expansion strains. coordinates and connectivity are also given. The user may select a 3D solution using or a plate solution. yam paths Different and yams may must have be different generated properties. Data Required: Yam and matrix Points linear elastic stiffness. Stresses but stress are and strain distributions for unit from the linear strains (6 computed applied components). and D matrices stress stresses Strength Model: No strength analysis are condition. 6x6 average stiffness matrix. coefficients. traction free surfaces using In the plate solution. B. Experimental None Comments: Since regarding isostrain constituent.SUMMARYOF AVAILABLE CODES Stiffness M0d¢l: Finite element cyclic-symmetry finite mesh used. (number the material of elements (yam on an edge). may Heterogeneous or matrix) be different at each integration A. and yam nodal A. may vary are made Unlike models. external describing cross-sections to the program. the strains corresponding to these stresses within a 8-3 . Point no stresses assumptions are available. element refinement in which analysis is used to determine conditions a general displacement field. volume fractions. is given. point. to represent both volume B. the the problem internal is solved displacement by f'mite field. and D matrices Point (plate stresses arrays option). prediction available. are computed Average the planeaveraged stiffness is computed and the summation of edge forces. The select the degree elements of are is integral to the program. Finite-element Validation: offered. elements.

the to . If computational reference for generating for comparison simpler approaches. 8-4 . As a practical this is preferably obtained code or solid modeler. speed solutions paths lie in a single . results from the code needing matter.The code is computationally code faster. was important. would at least be useful intensive.ANALYTICAL . that cross-sections are constant and yarn forms. point-by-point yam path and from inconvenience data cross-section another as input.The assumptions plane prevent the code from being used for some textile such as 3D braids.Some METHODS is slow FOR TEXTILE as the number COMPOSITES of elements is increased when of stresses elements are used.Convergence heterogeneous .

" Composites Proceedings Conference. 6-8.V. Marrey and Bhavani V. for Includes well documented on different description of instructions compiling computers. The unit cell is normal to the load direction or parallel to the plane smaller than of shear. 1994. an average enforced. Hampton User Manual: User input Manual and for output. volume Multiple fraction to lie in a single yarn paths can be rotated various to an arbitrary textile forms.2 _tTex-20 Authors: References: Ramesh V. limited discussion Format: FORTRAN code which can be recompiled the maximum for various problem target machines. of theory. the yarn are further divided into elements of isostrain slices that are somewhat assumptions A combination stiffness and isostress and thence is used to determine Periodicity is not of the of the unit cell. in the "Micromechanical of Va. An additional in terms which set of points must be provided polygon.SUMMARYOF AVAILABLE CODES 8. 8-5 . R. to be Sankarand published Dec. of each yarn plane. Sankar B. the Models Mechanics for Textile of Textile Composites. a procedure into slices called the Selective Averaging Method.V. size. tzTex-lO and gTex-20. can be defined from the given to generate geometry. Marrey. Stiffness Model: Fiber is computed Implements discretized Slices diameter. of an n-sided The yarn path is assumed orientation. A parameter file is provided Geometric Model: for changing User must provide a series of points describing the locus of the center to define the cross-section of each yarn.

8-6 .Like using authors .Given the Validation: offered. paths Different yarns may have different properties. and D matrices (plate option).ANALYTICAL METHODSFORTEXTILE COMPOSITES None. which for _Tex-10 be preferable to converge of the and lxTex -20. isostrain and isostress can be physically justified in a composite. Finite-element coordinates and connectivity Experimental None Comments: . from lxTex-10. be aware that there is no way to tell if an upper is being _Tex-10. Data Required: Yam Points program. this code mesh computationally about intensive. A solution for laTex-20 The a 20x20x20 report output required an hour on an HP 7000 computer.Combining However. A. a quarter of this time using a different is not available.Stress . with increasing averaging rather than to introduce the uncertainty selective method. arrays and yam volume are also given. workstation. B. to set up data files is identical are not obvious. bound . an that the effort advantages of _tTex-20 solution It may is known to obtain upper bound mesh density. and matrix describing elastic yarn constants. to the and cross-sections must be generated external 6x6 average stiffness matrix. nodal thermal expansion coefficients. or lower the user should obtained. fractions.

Textile Composite Analysis for Design. Version 1. "Failure NASA Analysis CR 194981. 1994. "Analysis June of Woven 1994 and Braided Fabric Reinforced Composites." User Manual: TEXCAD NASA for . of the Dec.SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE CODES 8. From these.0 User's Manual. Naik R. uses satin a series of predefined satin geometric weaves.A. Executables Geometric Model: are available for Apple Macintosh and Microsoft Windows. yam count. R. TEXCAD harness triaxial braids. (with models 8-harness two different require input braids. an idealization yam volume and sinusoidal is provided segments for entering that matches customized fraction. and Braided Fabric Reinforced Composites. In addition.A. Naik.3 TEXCAD Author: References: Rajiv A. for triaxial plain weaves. straight A method laminates weaves and multi-interlock. 3D reinforced materials may be analyzed Stiffness Model: 8-7 . problems to aid in CR 4639. braids These axial patterns). of parameters. generates specified cells. of a limited diameter. lxl 52D weaves. conventional (the orthogonal and n-directional of Section 2)." CR 194930. on-line graphics example files each predefined understanding Format: the geometric and input parameters. filament using and braid angle. 2x2 models 2D 3D. 5-layer including the code the unit number yam spacing. NASA Naik. and documentation. Woven 1994. of Sept. Includes textile relations extensive forms.

FOR TEXTILE by orientation Volume the COMPOSITES averaging (isostrain conditions). by numerical and (A. failure thermal sequence. B.Bending elastic . has several nonlinear features that aid in estimating yams failure.Failure may also of geometric nonlinearity due to yarn straightening or wrinkling is based on the constituent occur if the bending value. spatial and are D) not averaging local material stiffness theory. is applied when local damage is reduction .ANALYTICAL Macroscopic Each yam stiffness is discretized along The yam code multiple METHODS is computed into slices. is effected properties matrices Nesting integration orientation. filament for yarns and matrix. . shear response of the impregnated and resin is represented relation. Validation: 8-8 . Geometric parameters fiber volume volume depend fraction on the in yarn. expansion nonlinear stress-strain (tabulated). of undulating Yam yarns splitting is modeled as the response of curved beams on foundations. overall fiber fraction. Three-dimensional coefficients.There detected. filament yam spacing. include diameter. and braid They generally count. Experimental stiffness matrix. on Failure elastic beams foundations reach a critical Data Required: Stiffness textile yam angle. by . and strength analyzed. stress obtained stresses in the from an isostrain models of model. plate response stiffness elements. paths.The nonlinear a power-law .First order effects are included. and using also gives layers laminated plate can stack using lamination patterns accounted Strength Model: TEXCAD for when layers are stacked. is a stiffness is also accounted algorithm that for in this model.

in Parametric trendsfor strengthwith respectto braid angle. 8-9 . Comments: TEXCAD the isostrain context is well documented approach.nonlinearresponse.SUMMARYOF AVAILABLE CODES Comparisons measured to elasticproperties. available as well as can be expected for geometry is logical. crimp angle. and easy to use. failure analysis It is a thorough implementation of in the using It performs model. ndstrengthdata a aretabulated the documentation.yarn spacing.and volume fraction are presentedwith availabledata. of an isostrain The parametric when designing input data that are typically with textiles.

SAT8 Author: References: Ivatury S. 5-harness satin weaves. Fo at: FORTRAN Geometric Model: code which may be compiled for the target machine. Example data files provided with code. Yam yam and matrix volume stiffness properties. Within the unit Non-rectangular. cells. Data Required: assumptions expansion are used coefficients to derive plate stiffness matrices (A. pp." J. cross-over is computed fiber volume Stiffness Model: Isostrain Thermal Strength MQdel: None. are computed. spacing. 289-303. 2-dimensional 8-harness weaves. B. are effectively to match rectangular.ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES 8. ply thickness. straight The unit cells are defined for plain weaves. for Woven 1994. SAT5. fraction. User Manual: None. the specified length of the undulating fraction. Wang. Fabric Raju and John T. "Classical Lamination Theory Models 1614]. and D). yarn packing 8-10 . for the are and satin either satin weaves.4 PW. tow thickness. Composites. regions Yam minimal are defined cross-sections points unit cells are used in which the yarns or undulate sinusoidally. Yam fraction.S. of Composites Technology and Research. Raju I.

The 2D materials structure.SUMMARY OFAVAILABLE CODES Plate stiffness matrices. codes. 8-11 . Comparisons Comments: . Experimental Validation: to measured fabric elastic properties are given in the cited reference. simplifying general the actual assumptions TEXCAD results previous presentations. the such as some principle. these earlier the more supersede isostrain However.) are significantly There appears different to be some for the two codes. Various intermediate results. for plate stiffness in Section 5. by these codes laminated would usually be stacked to form a . analyzed The stiffness for the stacked must be computed elsewhere.These the fiber codes implement undulation used should in and an analysis bridging similar models. difference (See Tables in which of results plane in the way stress assumptions are implemented. thermal expansion coefficients. to the classical without In fabric of models.

ANALYTICAL METHODSFORTEXTILE COMI_SITES

8.5 Author:

SAWC

(Stress

Analysis

of

Woven

Composites)

John Whitcomb References:

J. Whitcomb, Textile

K. Woo,

and

S. Gundapaneni, Materials,

"Macro

Finite

Element 1994.

Analysis

of

Composites,"

J. of Composite

2817], 607-618,

J.

Whitcomb,

G.

Kondagunta,

and Materials,

K.

Woo, 29[ 4],

"Boundary 507-524,

Effects 1995.

in

Woven

Composites,"

J. of Composite

J. Whitcomb, Global/Local

K. Srirengan, Stress

and

C. Chapman, of 35th Textile

"Evaluation

of Homogenization presented Dynamics,

for at and

Analysis

Composites," Structural 1994.

AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Materials Conference, Hilton

Structures, 18-20,

Head,

SC, April

User

Manual:

"Stress each mesh are

Analysis of the three generation

of Woven programs code, The For

Composites." included

The

manual

lists The

the input

input

required for

for the

in this package.

required some

PWMeshGen, finite element weave

is straight-forward, code Flex94

although involves some file for

terms

not

defined. input.

complex, Flex94 is

nonstandard automatically defined

the plain

geometry, Many

the input

generated

by PWMeshGen.

of the concepts with the reference

and terms material

are not to grasp

in the manual. the code

The user must be familiar is performing.

the analysis Format:

FORTRAN, graphics

C, and C++

code.

Graphics

utilities

require

the use

of the openGL

library,

and the MOTIF

user interface.

8-12

**SUMMARYOF AVAILABLE CODES
**

Geometric Model: PWMeshGen to be sinusoidal. may then is limited to a plain weave fabric in which the

The mesh generator tow path is assumed which

This basic

unit cell can be converted to form more code,

into a complex Flex94, must

macroelement assemblies is general. provide Stiffness Model:

be stacked weave

and assembled units. other

of the underlying However,

r!ain

The Finite element than a plain weave,

for any

geometry

the user

nodal

coordinates,

connectivity

arrays,

and material

orientations.

Flex94

can be used to generate the finite element

a conventional and

average

stiffness

matrix

for the unit However, include

cell using the strength the internal Strength Model: The finite reducing given affected Data Required: Mesh number boundary analysis. including

method

periodic

boundary

conditions.

of this approach microstructure,

is the ability

to generate

macroelements elements.

which

but may be used like conventional

element material

code can be used stiffness There

to perform points over

a progressive when which the local

failure stress

analysis exceeds

by a are

at integration is no control

strength

value.

stiffness

components

or the degree

of reduction.

generation

for a plain

weave

requires

the layer

thickness, and below for the

waviness tows. finite

ratio, Loads, element

of elements, conditions, Utilities periodic

and number and

of resin

elements are

above needed

material

properties

are provided displacements.

for conveniently

setting

up boundary

conditions,

Point-wise routine Experimental None

stresses

are generated. maps

These

stresses locations

may be viewed

using

the graphics

Plot94. Validation: offered.

Contour

of failure

may also be generated.

8-13

ANALYTICAL Comments: Orientation not vary averaging significantly accurate

METHODS

FOR TEXTILE

COMPOSITES

(stiffness over when

averaging)

approaches

are valid The

when

strains

do

the scale

of the unit cell.

macroelement effects,

approach

will be more This code

stress gradients,

such as bending that be may

are important. to generate

demonstrates models when

a powerful textile

methodology preforms cannot

be used

structural However,

accurately form.

homogenized.

the code has limited

applications

in its present

8-14

angle angle. constants width and tow strength. The code treats 3-dimensional to compute Stiffness Model: Orientation Strength Model: Prints a predicted strength averaging yarn angles weaves and braids. fraction. Geometric idealizations are used and fiber volume of stiffness (isostrain model). 8-15 . Yarn and matrix elastic includes weave pitch. Fo at: FORTRAN Geometric Model: code which may be compiled for target machine. Geometric of plate. thickness number of wefts and per unit width number and thickness. input for 3D weave number and of axial yarns thickness. Strength calculation is based on local stress Data Required: in isostrain and the specified tow strength.SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE CODES 8. Data input is interactive with prompts. distinguishes For 2-step and between 4-step and layer-to-layer braiding. tow size the code ratio (axial/braider). and of unit cell. through-the-thickness requires and row the braiding numbers interlock.6 CCM-TEX Author: Kishore References: User Manual: Pochiraju None provided. in the warp model and weft directions. either the column braider yarns of axial yams (2-step) or number of axial and (4-step). per unit length Code of z weavers and per unit width thickness.

applying is a problem. is in converting representation.ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES Three-dimensional directions. stress The of the program on isostrain strength are based calculations of internal distributions. Ex_rimental None Comments: Validation: offered stiffness matrix. the code mechanics in the interactive before most users will need to know to real problems. parameters including used to specify braids of the and fiber is a prediction Although the internal estimates volumes usable in each Lack of documentation mode. The 3D strength weaves of CCM-TEX into a geometric yarn. 8-16 . Strength estimates for tension in warp and weft in code documentation.

"The Macroscopic Elasticity 1995. Waviness layer-to-layer of stuffers data for through-thefor by thickness allowing orientation angle the interlock. G. Orientation waviness. weaver or at 45 ° is assumed interlocks to be either (controlled to plane (orthogonal interlock). and warp weavers angle and angle interlock. fillers. Dadkhah. 785-819. S. 1995. Kniveton. 2916]. User Manual: Brief description Format: FORTRAN Geometric Model: of required input provided as electronic file with program. M.S. Triaxially Braided J.N.N. Composite Materials. Composites. Dadkhah." J.7 WEAVE Author: Brian References: of 3D Woven Cox B. "Failure Models for Textile Composites. B. The volume code covers fraction orthogonal assigned to stuffers. N. Cox. Flintoff. fillers is required. 561-77 "Simple Models for (1995). based data on statistics and of is computed micromechanical (fibers matrix) using one of five standard 8-17 . user to input is accounted Warp statistical normal variation. Cox and M." T. August. 2618].SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE CODES 8." NASA CR 4686. Composites and B. averaging. Tow stiffness with tow stiffness from knockdowns constituent models. and The interlock. code which may be compiled for target machine. Cox. Composites. for the angle Stiffness Model: by an internal data statement).

by analyzing values 8-18 . lying in stuffers. Total fiber volume yields of moment number of normal distribution of misalignment thickness of plate. Data Required: Fraction fraction.WEAVE incorporates micromechanical models available for tows. of ends and picks. micromechanical Plate bending model.WEAVE (and MLM for braids . angles. to have constants user of must tool an impregnated predict built-in. Tow elastic constants computed by plate. stuffers of all fibers Second and fillers.see third for reducing of the yarn listed reference) incorporates of tows a simple for rule (Eq.1) stochastic of angles. The It is convenient the prediction . Comments: WEAVE offers several novel features. (3.ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR TEXTILE COMPOSITES Strength Model: None. values tow are not generally to use any of the codes. and weavers. fillers. stiffness. typical of this handbook) integration the stiffness to account waviness The stiffness over the specified micrographs distribution or assigned distribution in a sensitivity may be obtained study. . The elastic from experiments. Three-dimensional stiffness Experimental Large matrix for homogenized Validation: data base of measured elastic constants for several weaves is given in the references.

Mater. the transverse and three-dimensional properties. Geometric Model: which may be compiled for target machine. Composites: User Manual: II The Elastic Acta Metall. M. of Textile Composites.SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE CODES 8. Mater. W. Carter. Comments are also included in FORTRAN. Regime. of tows can be modeled. Xu. includes operating instructions. Cox.N.A. J. M.C. constants can be found. "Failure Models for Textile Composites. Carter. 3463-79 J. A. "A Binary Model (1994). McGlockton. B. N. McGlockton. N. I Formulation.N. A." W. elastic By applying forces or displacements Cyclic there symmetry to is planes. are springs 8-19 ." NASA CR 4686. B. and R. but only 3D interlock are handled The code various uses the finite element method. C." Carter. 1995. Cox. 42[ 10]. Cox. Acta Metall. McMeeking References: W. Cox. August. N. Fleck. all macroscopic imposed. not automatically In addition to the line and 3D elements.8 BINMOD Author: B. NASA electronic Format: CR 4686 form. Xu. weaves Stiffness Model: General elements to represent and shear configurations automatically. M. Model 3511-24 of Textile (1995). B.C.A. and N. Fleck. "A Binary 43[9]. The binary model consists "effective of line elements medium" to represent the tow axial properties.

regular Axial pattern defined of Automatic line elements to nodes by first position. stress and strain at each Validation: database of elastic properties failure for several weaves provided in references. Indeed. of and increment. fidelity the and compromise practicality. data and observed progression are also documented. it is the only mechanical that should yarns at large strains.Mesh available between The code is designed to handle progressive events behavior. capabilities. effective deviation the strains code medium dements stiffness (documentation of nodes random specific describes and how to assign fillers Standard which in z axis location uses to assign applied to for stuffers z offsets. can be entered. yams and last position. simplification of the geometry allows representation of complex 8-20 . code lockup failure Data Required: . Waviness can be crossing in the model for by randomly distribution. the difficulties model makes The of making a reasonable 3D finite element models between of plain geometric weaves. data for effective medium elements meshing (element assigns size and mesh density). according to a specified Strength Model: The binary model prints the stresses and strains for the effective nonlinear failure. where it should be ideal for studying be able to model to occur. quadrature total forces point. based grid on a data for line elements. Loading conditions are prescribed or forces Iteration element Experimental Large Failure Comments: Given binary summary. planes. medium elements With these and tow elements.ANALYTICAL to account accounted normal for transverse METHODS stiffness offsetting FOR TEXTILE at yarn nodes COMPOSITES points. of the code for progressive is not currently documented. stiffness latter). acting on loaded plane. use starts However.

SUMMARY OFAVAILABLE CODES weaving patterns. However.while retainingmany importantaspectsof the physics. The authorshaveusedthe code to simulatea variety of complexfailure phenomena. 8-21 .theprogressive failure capabilityis unavailable theversionof the code in providedhere.

.

are already of quality. presented in conference for some any at modeling issues. are provided are not intended to indicate the kind of information but merely to be found readers in each paper. has been If the sorted by the "key" entry. criteria. as a partial in refereed assurance or still awaiting publication journals are not listed here. allow sorting and by table is available electronically. except that have been cited in the handbook. The table then other by author. However. Comments The comments to be criticisms. of study. Significant rapidly results will soon or in preprint be incomplete. SELECTIVE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY This especially bibliography conferences proceedings bibliography those dealing samples with recent papers on In this new the mechanics evolving of textile field being papers composites.SELECTIVEBIBLIOGRAPHY 9. form. which classifies the type will of textile. Microsoft Word 9-1 . to point to appropriate sources.

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Approved 0704-0188 PubbC repOrltng Dun:len lot this coJlecto'_ of information is eslzrnaled to average 1 hour per response. methods for assessing work of fracture and notch sensitivity.-.. 12a.e0uctJon Pro_l (0704-0188}. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NASA CR-4750 Langley Technical Monitor: C. REPORTTYPE AND DATES COVERED Contractor Report 5. galhenng and maintaining tile aata neecleO. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton. Wdkshinglon DC 20503 1. and design rules for avoiding certain critical mechanisms of failure. 2-89) P_'escnDe_ by ANSI Stcl Z39-1_ 2g8-I02 .. AUTHOR(S) Brian N.nO RetPon$.l_n_:_'nvgASu_.. modulus. VA 23681-0001 11. resin transfer molding. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2.s) The purpose of this handbook is to introduce models and computer codes for predicting the properties of textile composites.Unlimited Subject Category-24 13. by proper textile design. fatigue. and 16. and braids. PERFORMINGORGANIZATIONNAME(S)AND ADDRESS(ES) Rockwell Thousand Science Oaks. 14. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT 18._ . DISTRIBUTION CODE Unclassified .. searct_mg existm0 oa[a sources.. SUBJECT TERMS 15.. REPORT DATE March 1997 4. gnu uu. such as delamination.raperwor. • . The following textiles received some treatment: 2D woven.. including the time for rewewmg mstrucl_ons. gemen. . braided._ge_. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 20.. composites. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 12b. analysis..°_(_°_._t_o_ He a0Quaners Ser_s. Ofraclor:... SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE 19..jet.... The handbook includes several models for predicting the stress-strain response all the way to ultimate failure. 1215 Jefferson Dav._n3_ocarn_o. C.. TITLEANDSUBTITLE Handbook of Analytical Methods for Textile Composites 3.te for Inlormat_on Operations . 169 PRICE CODE A08 17.s ... ar_ com!:_etmgar)d rewew_g the c_lection of information Send comments regard ng 1his bur0en -. Center California 8. and knitted/stitched laminates and 3D interlock weaves. Cox and Gerry Ranagan 7. NUMBER OF PAGES Textiles. Jr. Poe. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 wGr_. FUNDING NUMBERS C NAS1-19243 WU 505-63-10-10 6. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT OF ABSTRACT Unclassified NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Unclassified Unclassified Unlimited Standard Form 298 (Rev.REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE I OMB Form No.slm_a • or any o her acoec_ of thtS Hc°lg_wtaf°_v ' _fj. strength.

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