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Module : Written Expression Level : 1st year

Lesson: Types of Sentences


Sentences can be classified according to their structure: simple, compound, complex, and
compound complex.
1- Simple sentence: contains one full subject and predicate. It consists of one clause. It
takes the form of:
a- A statement/ declarative sentence: - He lives in New York.
b- A question: - How old are you?
c- A request/ order: - Please close the door.
- Don’t walk on the grass.
d- An exclamation: - What a terrible temper she has.
- How lucky you are!
2- Compound sentence: contains two or more independent clauses joined by:
a- Punctuation alone: - The weather was very bad; all classes were
cancelled.
b- A coordinating conjunction: - The weather was very bad, so all classes
(FANBOYS) were cancelled.
- Night came on; rain fell heavily and we all
get wet.
c- A conjunctive adverb: - the weather was very bad; therefore, all
classes were cancelled.
(moreover, also, besides, furthermore, consequently, hence, therefore,thus, however,
nevertheless, nonetheless, otherwise, instead, finally, indeed, still, for example, in fact, as
a consequence, on the contrary, …)

3- Complex sentence: contains one independent clause and or more dependent clauses.
A dependent clause contains a full subject and predicate but do not form a
grammatically complete sentence. It usually begins with a word (subordinating
conjunction or a relative pronoun) that attaches the clause to an independent clause. It
has three types: adjective clause, adverbial clause, noun clause.
a- Adverbial clause - All classes were cancelled because the weather was
bad. (Reason)
- As soon as I have finished, I’ll give you a call. (time)
- American people should try to conserve energy as often as
they can. (manner)
- Whenever you are, I think of you. (place)
- Dictionaries are so expensive that students can’t buy them.
(result)
- I’m working to succeed. (purpose)
- If he works hard, he will succeed. (condition)
- All the students kept silent when the teacher came in.
→ an adverbial clause modifies a verb, adj, or an adv. It begins with a subordinating
conjunction.
Common subordinating conjunctions
time: when- whenever- while- after- before- as- as soon as- since- til- until
place: where- wherever- anywhere- everywhere
reason: as- because-since
condition: if- unless
result: so+ adj + that - so + adv + that (I am working so hard that I didn’t notice the
time.)
contrast: although- eventhough-though-while- whereas
purpose: so that- in order that

The order of clauses depends on what is new or important. The important information is
usually put at the end.
b- Adjective/ relative clause - Children who are under twelve years must be
accompanied by their parents.
- A widow is a woman whose husband is dead.
- This restaurant which is located in Italy is very
famous.
- The church where my grandparents were
married is old.
→ An adj clause modifies nouns and is introduced by a relative pronoun (who-
which- whom- whose- that) or a relative adverb(when- where-why) that are related to
a noun or pronoun that precedes them ( called the antecedent).

c- Noun clause - I can’t understand why you did such a thing. (D.O)
- Joanne remembered that it was Thursday. (D.O)
- That he should enjoy sport is understandable. (S)
- We will give whoever asks for a free ticket. (I.O)
-Billy’s mistake was that he refused to apologize.(S.C)
- You can call me whatever you like.(O.C)
- The movie was about why smoking is dangerous.(object of preposition)
→ A noun clause is a dependent clause that functions as a noun and may serve as
subject, predicate nominative, direct object, indirect object or object of a preposition.
It begins with that/ if/ whether/ wh words.

4- Compound-complex sentence: contains at least two independent clauses and at least


one dependent clause.

- When I looked into the mirror, I saw an old man, so I was surprised.
- The man who made the offer is here, but he is too late.
- We’ll have a discussion when the department manager comes, and we’ll continue
the lecture afterwards.
- Although it started to rain, we decided to continue walking, and we all get wet.
- Because grammar is easy, I learned it quickly but it took me several years to master
writing.