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from. .

Conclusion
Lateness among students has negative reflection due to affecting other students.
However, late students coming to class distract the rest students and disrupts the
flow of the instuctor’s discussion. Definitely, understanding the variety of causes
that could contribute to disruptive behavior in the classroom can help
professors to select the most appropriate solution . Lateness among students is
persistent and important issue and it is one of the most challenging aspects as
a professor to deal with such behavior in the classroom. In addition to,
Instructors can be more realistic and effective in selecting coping strategies with
students lateness behavior to identify the available referral resources and
institutional policies concerning lateness behavior. Basically, to create a
constructive classroom enviroment, instructors need to consider their own
behavior as well as that of their students. Moreover, the first class give
perfect opportunity for instructors to communicate the expectations for
classroom agreement, such as arriving and departure time. One more things,
instructors should make sure that policy and consequences for lateness have
exceptions and seeking feedback from students before they act to handle
students lateness behavior. Moreover, lateness could affect students
performance and lead to low grade averages. Weade (2004) reported that
students with better attendance and punctuality have higher grade point
averages. While students with poor attendance and punctuality have lower grade
point averages. Eventually, lateness has both intellectual and social costs.
Where it, interrupt the instuctor’s thought and affect 6 the learning process.
When students come to class late they miss the important information and
they distract other students to miss it too. Nakpodia and Dafiaghor (2011)
reported that lateness or tardiness is not just the problem of the late student,
but it affects the surrounding people. A student coming late in class distracts the
rest of the students and disrupts the flow of the teacher’s discussion.
Further investigations and analysis could be beneficial to obtain a complete
vision of patterns of lateness behavior and coping strategies for the student.
In addition to, universites and collegs should monitoring and recording
students attendance and maintain the guideline attendance policy annually. On
the other hand, college may invite the students to discuss and seek
explanation for their unsatisfactory attendance to be improved and any
support that may be required. One more things, educational institutions
should developed a firm, well-established policy that handling late students,
and should imposition of sanctions and penalties for late students. Further more,
it is substantial for officials, administrators and instructors as essential part of
this problem to recognize and display solutions to this disturbing problem that
could drive the students’ drop-out, knowing that lateness could be reduced by
providing available clear and firm attendance guidelines for students; free
education counselling and discipline among students and monitor factors could
responsible of prevent a student from attending class regularly.
This chapter presents and discusses theories that are applicable to our

study. This theories helps explain the concept behind the research and

establish the relationship of the study’s variables.

John B. Watson derived much of his thinking from the work of Ivan

Pavlov’s animal studies (classical conditioning) and applied it to

human beings. In 1921, Watson studied Albert, an 11 month old infant

child. The goal of the study was to condition Albert to become afraid of

a white rat by pairing the white rat with a very loud, jarring noise. At

first, Albert showed no sign of fear when he was presented with rats, but

once the rat was repeatedly paired with loud noise; Albert developed a

fear of rats. It could be said that the loud noise induced fear. The

implications of Watson’s experiment suggested that classical

conditioning could cause some phobias in humans. Watsons coined the

term “Behaviorism” which basically revolves around the principle that

human behavior is but a response to external stimuli. Behaviorism helps

us understand and explain the nature of any human behavior. It is rooted

on what the developers of this movement call as the “stimulus-response


model”. Concepts of Behaviorism may be applied to the thought that a

student’s tardiness is always just a response to an external factor.

According to John B. Watson, in his development of Behaviorism, any

human act or behavior can be explained without having to study internal

and mental processes and consciousness. All human behavior,

furthermore, is caused by external stimuli. Basing from this theory a

student tends to get tardy because it is provoked by a personnel

responsible, who doesn’t do enough actions like generating strategies

and consequences to those students who are frequently tardy that results

in thinking of a student that it is okay to get tardy because there is no

consequence in their behavior.

Further supporting this experiment is the theory of Burrhus Frederic


Skinner who believed that the best way to understand behavior is to look
at the causes of an action and its consequences that he called Operant
Conditioning meaning roughly changing of behavior by the use of
reinforcement which is given after the desired response. Skinner studied
operant conditioning by conducting experiments using animals which he
placed in a “Skinner Box” which was similar to Thorndike’s puzzle box.
Skinner identified types of responses or operant that can follow
behavior: Reinforcers, responses from the environment that increase the
probability of a behavior being repeated. Reinforcers can be either
positive or negative. Positive reinforcement strengthens a behavior by
providing a consequence an individual finds rewarding. While the Positive
reinforcement, is the removal of an unpleasant reinforcer can also strengthen
behavior. This is known as negative reinforcement because it is the removal of an
adverse stimulus which is ‘rewarding’ to the animal or person. Negative
reinforcement strengthens behavior because it stops or removes an unpleasant
experience. The other type of responses is the Punishment. It is defined as the
opposite of reinforcement since it is designed to weaken or eliminate a response
rather than increase it. It is an aversive event that decreases the behavior that it
follows.
Like reinforcement, punishment can work either by directly applying an
unpleasant stimulus. Concepts of Operant conditioning may applied to this
study to deal with, to the impact of tardiness in Academic Performances
among the Grade 11 STEM and TECHVOC students of La Consolacion
College - Novaliches.