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Case-Control Study of Bladder Cancer and Drinking Water Arsenic in the

Western United States

1. Variabel Independen
Drinking Water Arsenic

2. Variabel Dependen
Bladder Cancer

3. Populasi
The study area consisted of six counties in western Nevada and Kings County in California.
The cities of Hanford, California, and Fallon, Nevada, which comprise 21 percent of the current
population of the study area (18), have historically been the two largest populations in the
United States exposed to drinking water arsenic near 100 μg/liter.

4. Unit Sampling
Cases were subjects aged 20–85 years, with primary bladder cancer first diagnosed between
1994 and 2000, who lived in the study area at the time of diagnosis.

5. Perhitungan Rumus
Odds ratios were calculated using unconditional multiple logistic regression. Several indices
of arsenic exposure were assessed. These were as follows:
1) the highest average daily arsenic intake for any one year,
2) the highest daily average arsenic intake averaged over any contiguous 5 years,
3) the highest daily average arsenic intake averaged over any contiguous 20 years,
4) total lifetime cumulative exposure, calculated by multiplying the daily average arsenic intake
for each year of a subject’s life by 365 to produce yearly intakes and then summing yearly
intakes to produce total lifetime exposures.
A Population-Based, Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study on Influenza
Vaccination Status among Cancer Survivors in Korea

1. Variabel Independen
Cancer Survivors in Korea

2. Variabel Dependen
Influenza Vaccination Status

3. Populasi
Vaccination coverage among cancer survivors in Korea

4. Unit Sampling
Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), a population-based
cross-sectional survey designed to assess health-related behavior, health conditions, and
nutritional state of Koreans.
A total of 18,406 adults and 19,599 adults participated in the fourth and fifth KNHANES,
respectively, for overall response rates of 78.4% (24,871 of 31,705) and 80.8% (25,534 of
31,596), respectively. Finally, 35,127 adults (age ≥ 19) were analyzed in this study.

5. Perhitungan Rumus
Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the
association between influenza vaccination coverage and associated factors.

1. Variabel Independen
Penyakit DBD

2. Variabel Dependen
Faktor risiko kejadian penyakit DBD

3. Populasi
Rumah dan warga di tiga kelurahan di kecamatan Sawahan Kota Surabaya tahun 2010

4. Unit Sampling
Penelitian ini adalah penelitian analitik observasional, rancangan kohort, sampel 1.092 rumah
dan 4.549 orang responden dari tiga kelurahan di kecamatan Sawahan. Responden dilakukan
wawancara dan pemeriksaan langsung lalu diikuti selama tiga bulan ke depan (Maret-Juni
2010) untuk mengetahui apakah ada kejadian penyakit DBD dari paparan yang ada.

5. Perhitungan Rumus
Analisis secara deskriptif dilakukan untuk mengetahui distribusi responden dan kejadian
penyakit DBD dilakukan, uji chi-square digunakan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara paparan
dan kejadian penyakit DBD dan untuk mengetahui derajat hubungannya digunakan ukuran
Resiko Relative (RR).