You are on page 1of 37

Abigail Hurd 1! of !



1. Provide a comprehensive narrative description of the various Standards,

Assessment Anchors, and Eligible Content (aligned with the different standards.)

Standards, assessment anchors, and eligible content are all crucial parts of teaching. The
standards are documents that establish the specifications and content that are to be followed in
the teaching process. Standards are here to ensure the reliability of materials, products, methods,
and content being delivered to the students. They provide objectives that are to be taught to the
students and are to hold the teachers accountable. When using the SAS website, the standards are
dissected into their subject areas, standard areas, and grade level. Each standard has a code that
identifies it. The code includes the content area, the standard area, the grade level and the ordinal
Assessment anchors are the broad topics that are on summative tests like the PSSA’s and
Keystone Exams. These anchors provide key ideas to help teachers prepare students for these
exams. Each assessment anchor has a descriptor to explain the anchor in more depth. Another
thing that I found important to note is the fact that the assessment anchors start at grade 3. This is
due to the fact that high-stakes testing begins in third grade. Another part of assessment anchors
is the eligible content information.
Eligible content is all of the content that students could be tested on during the PSSA’s or
Keystone exams. Eligible content is found alongside the assessment anchors. The assessment
anchors are the big idea and the eligible content is the specific and detailed topics and guidelines
for what students should be able to do and understand. Eligible content is good for teachers to be
aware of and to teach; however, a common downfall to having this information is the fact that
teachers begin to teach strictly from them, also known as teaching to the test.

2. Provide a description of the different views of the Standards and state the most
efficient way for you to find the information to meet your needs as a future teacher.
Explain your reasoning.

There are three different ways to access the standards on the PDESAS website. You can
access them through the search standards, view standards, and vertical viewer tabs. The search
standards tab allows you to type in key words or phrases and the website filters through all of the
related standards. The search standards tab also allows you to filter by grade and subject
alongside of what you type in the search engine. The view standards tab allows you to choose
grades, subjects, and content area to narrow down the options. It is suggested to limit your search
to no more than three grades, subjects, or courses, and ensure that you have selected at least one
grade and subject or one course. This tab also allows you to search using any saved preferences.
The preferences are pre-made by you based on what you search most often, this is a convenient
tool that saves time when sorting through standards. The last way to find information is through
the vertical viewer. This section takes a closer look at how standards progress in complexity and
sophistication. Through the vertical finder you select your grade and have the option to choose a
Abigail Hurd 2! of !37

subject as well. Once this step is done, the portal will have a list of educational topics and
concepts for you to choose from (ex: geometry, reading literature, writing, chemistry, etc.). If you
filter the search by choosing a specific topic, then the portal will narrow the results. After you
have the list of topics, you can click on the one that pertains to you. The portal will then bring
you to a comparison chart between the selected grade, one grade below it, and one grade above
it. The standards will be listed and you can compare across grades. As you scroll down, the
standards are separated by their ordinal descriptors.
I believe that the vertical viewer tab is the most efficient way for me to find the
information to meet my needs. This tab allows me to filter through grades and subjects and then
provides me with a side-by-side comparison across grades. The search and view standards tab are
not as comprehensive and do not provide a chart with all of the sections and areas of the
standard. I think that the vertical viewer is easy to understand and guides you from the overview
and broad title, to the more detailed and specific standards. I also like that vertical viewer shows
you the standards before and after so you can continue to scroll through to see all other related
standards and concepts.

3. Provide a comprehensive narrative description of the PDF files that can be

downloaded. Explain how you can use these documents when you become a
classroom teacher.
There is an extensive amount of PDF files that are provided and accessible for
downloading. The website allows you to download standards, PSSA/PASA anchors and eligible
content, keystone anchors, and PA core implementation. To begin, you can download any of the
PA standards. Under this section there are five sub categories: PA Core Standards, PA Academic
Standards, PA English Language Development Standards, Additional Standards, and PA Early
Childhood Educational Standards. The PA Core Standards include English Language Arts,
Reading and Writing for Other Subjects, and Mathematics. Within each of these sections there
are PDF files separated by grades. The files group grades together, for example PreK-5 are
together and grades 6-12 are together. The PA Academic Standards are all of the other content
areas that are not viewed as a core standard. Some sub categories in this section include:
environment and ecology, civics and government, economics, history, world language, etc. The
PA English Language Development Standards include all of the standards regarding English
Language Learners (ELLs). The Additional Standards tab incorporates the American School
Counselor Association National Standards for Students. Finally, the PA Early Childhood
Educational Standards include all standards regarding early childhood. Topics and standards that
fall under early childhood include: infant-toddler, pre-kindergarten, kindergarten, first grade,
second grade and a standards continuum.
The second section of PDF files are the PSSA/PASA Anchors and Eligible Content. Once
you click on this tab you will see three sub categories including PA Core Assessment Anchors
and Eligible Content, PA Assessment Anchors and Eligible Content, and PA Assessment Anchors
and Alternate Eligible Content. The first section includes assessment anchors and eligible content
PDF files for the core subjects of ELA and mathematics. Included are all PDF files from third
grade to eighth grade. The section includes all assessment anchors and eligible content for
science. Science is the only non-core subject that is tested on; therefore, assessment anchors and
Abigail Hurd 3! of !37

eligible content are provided. Under this section there are PDF files for grades 3-8. An
introduction and glossary are also included here for science. The third and final section includes
all alternate assessment anchors and eligible content for ELA (reading and writing),
Mathematics, and Science. The alternate assessment anchors and eligible content are specifically
for students with special needs that are eligible/take the PASA exams.
The third section of PDF files is the Download Keystone Anchors tab. This tab has four
sub-categories including ELA, Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies. These PDF files are
specifically for the keystone exams and include the assessment anchors, eligible content, sample
questions, and a glossary. The sub-section of ELA includes keystone anchors for literature and
english composition. The sub-section of mathematics includes anchors for algebra 1, algebra 2,
and geometry. The sub-section of science includes anchors for biology and chemistry. The sub-
section of social studies includes civics and government.
The fourth section of PDF files is the Download PA Core Implementation tab. This
section has 10 sub-sections including PA Core Implementation, PA Core Standards, PA Core
Appendices, PA Core Curriculum Frameworks, PA Core Resources, PA Core Crosswalks, PA
Core ELA Training Modules, PA Core Mathematics Training Modules, ELA Emphasis Guides,
and Mathematics Emphasis Guides and Cluster Matrices. Within these 10 sub-sections, you are
provided with an abundance of resources, implementation guides, training materials, teaching
guidelines, comparisons between standards, etc. This section provides anything that a teacher
may need or use to help with implementing the standards.
When I become a classroom teacher I plan to use these documents frequently. The ability
to download specific standards and PDF files right to my laptop is efficient and convenient. The
content that is provided is also extremely beneficial. I plan to print and download these
documents to use as guides for my teaching and objectives for learning outcomes. The
implementation section will provide me with helpful tools and resources when I do begin to
teach. The sections are easy to maneuver and are organized by grade and subject. Overall, I can
use these files to support my teaching.

4. Explain ways the Standards section of the Portal will help you have a more complete
understanding of the Standards for your subject area or teaching area?

The standards section of the portal helps teachers to have a comprehensive and complete
understanding of the standards in general. When narrowing in on a specific subject area, teachers
can emerge themselves in the extreme detail that is provided on the portal. Each standard is
organized and broken down into multiple parts and there are explanations for everything.
Through the portal the teachers are provided with different resources and tools to help them gain
a full understanding. By utilizing the vertical viewer, teachers can compare their grade level to
other grade levels with the same standard. Teachers can also see how the standard develops and
progresses with Bloom’s Taxonomy. Overall a complete understanding will be achieved through
all of the resources, information, and files provided to help you fully understand and utilize what
is offered.
Abigail Hurd 4! of !37

5. Explain the relationship between the standards, assessment anchors, and eligible
content. Provide an explanation of why it is important for teachers to understand
this relationship in order to address the academic needs of students.

The standards, assessment anchors, and eligible content all work together to support
student achievement. These things are all similar and relay similar content, ideas, and
descriptions. The standards themselves guide teachers towards meaningful and strong
instruction, they tell you what you should be teaching. The assessment anchors are built off of
the standards and help the teachers to see the main ideas and big objectives that will be on high-
stakes assessments. The eligible content is the nitty gritty of it all. Eligible content falls
underneath the assessment anchors and informs the teacher of all the specific skills that can and
may be on the tests. The eligible content includes anything and everything that students need to
know in order to pass and achieve well on exams like the PSSA’s and Keystones.
It is important for teachers to understand this relationship in order to know where to look
for certain things. If I am looking for what could be on the PSSA’s, in order to prepare my
students, it makes the most sense for me to look at eligible content rather than the PA standards.
In general it is important to know how they correlate and work together, while also
understanding that they have individualized roles and differ from one another. Each section will
bounce off of one another, but with their own specific supports and purposes.

6. Compare and contrast the implementation resources and fact sheets for various
constituents ? Explain your reasoning.

Within the PA Core Implementation section (underneath the Standards section), there are
multiple resources. There is a resource tab for leadership, teachers, students, parents, business/
community, and higher education. Within these resource sections, there are helpful files and fact
sheets. The fact sheets seem to be fairly similar under each resource category; however the
language and mannerisms are adjusted. The facts sheets address the same topics and provide
similar information, if not almost all the same. The parent fact sheet addresses the parents and
states, “what can parents do now?”. The student fact sheets are simpler and explain is a more
basic/easy to understand manner. Other resources included are literacy guide plans, specific
guides, timelines, tables, graphics, and key questions. The parent and student resources sections
are provided with guides. The teacher and leadership sections are provided with literacy plans.
The business/community and higher education resource sections are provided with timelines,
graphics, guides, tables and glossaries. I believe that all resources were carefully planned out and
provided under the appropriate sections. As a future teacher, I believe the information provided
was helpful and informative. As a former student in high school, the student resources were
simple to follow and informed me of everything I would have wanted to know.

7. You are a 5th grade Math teacher and have been asked to be a member of your
district’s math curriculum team. A primary concern of the team is making sure the
content and skills students are learning are increasing in sophistication and
complexity as they move up in grades. Which view will give you and the team the
best look at the progression of Standards? Explain your reasoning.
Abigail Hurd 5! of !37

The vertical viewer will give us the best look at the progressions of standards. This tool
allows you to first search the grade and the subject that you wish to see. After the portal has
filtered through these requests, you are displayed with all of the topic titles. From here you can
choose the specific math topic that you are interested in. The portal will then bring you to a
vertical viewer chart where you can see across three grade levels for comparison purposes. As
you scroll down, the ordinal descriptors increase, and the standard develops and sophisticates.
Through this view you can see the progression of the standard within the grade level, and across
the grade levels in a simple chart. The vertical viewer also has a yellow arrow tab that allow you
to view lower grades or higher grades depending o the direction that you wish to examine.


1. Explain ways you will use the information on the PSSA (assessment anchors and
eligible content) to support student academic achievement.

The information on the PSSA tab of the Assessment section on SAS is extremely helpful
for teachers to support their students’ academic achievement. I will use these documents to help
guide my teaching and act as checkpoints. The assessment anchors and eligible content is
organized by academic subject and grade level. These PDF files will provide me with the broad
topics and in depth descriptions of what may be included on the PSSA exams. I can use these
documents to check-in with what I have already instructed and to see what the students may be
lacking instruction in. If there is lack of instruction on any of the anchors, I can use this
information to guide my future lesson plans. By guiding my plans off of the anchors, I can
include eligible content throughout the lesson and assess the knowledge learned and acquired. It
is also convenient that the assessment anchor PDFs include a reference to the common core

2. Explain ways you will use the information on the Keystone Exams and the
Reference Materials to support these end-of-course assessments and student

The information on the Keystone Exams and the Reference Materials are also extremely
helpful tools provided to support end-of-course assessments and student achievement. Just like
the PSSAs tab, the Keystone tab provides PDF files with assessment anchors and eligible content
for all academic subjects and grades that are relevant to the exam. These PDF files support the
teacher to ultimately prepare the students for success on the exams. By having these resources,
teachers can base their lessons off of the presented content and they can check to see what they
may need to introduce or review. Reference materials will help the teachers to check the quality
of instruction and how well the students call recall the information. They also serve to validate
analytical measurement methods for the preparation of these exams. In general all of the
resources under this section are there to help the teacher prepare, organize, and plan for
Abigail Hurd 6! of !37

meaningful instruction that will ultimately support the end-of-course assessments and student

3. Choose a subject area and grade level or course of interest to you. Using the
Assessment Builder, browse assessment items in your chosen subject area/grade
level/course and create an assessment with at least 5 items. Print out and/or attach

-Third Grade:

Name:    Date:

1.Ray bought 3 notebooks. Each notebook contained 90 sheets of paper. How many sheets of paper did
Ray buy in all?








Abigail Hurd 7! of !37

2.The students in fourth grade are rewarded with stickers each time they complete a homework
assignment. When 1,000 assignments have been completed, they will have a party. The chart below
shows how many assignments have been completed so far by each class.

Part A

What is the total number of homework assignments the three classes have completed so far?

Show your work.

Answer ___________________

Part B

How many more homework assignments have to be completed to meet the goal of 1,000?

Show your work.


Answer ___________________
Abigail Hurd 8! of !37
3.The gift baskets come in three different sizes. The chart below shows the prices for the gift baskets and
the toys.

Sue's mom bought a medium basket and some toys. She spent a total of $5.00. How many toys did Sue's
mom buy?

Show your work.

Answer ____________________









Abigail Hurd 9! of !37









Abigail Hurd ! of !37

4. Explain one way the Classroom Diagnostic Tools will enable you to target student
needs in your future classroom.

The Classroom Diagnosis Tools tab of the assessment section provides a variety of parent
and teacher tools. As a teacher, I would use the student metacognition templates to organize
results from the Keystone Exams and PSSA Exams. Along with other data, the CDT will inform
instruction in a timely and efficient manner. The metacognition templates provide a graphic
organizer in which you, the teacher, can fill out with the data from benchmark tests. These
templates will organize and highlight strengths and weaknesses/areas of need. In doing this,
teachers can use this as a starting point to target student needs. Teachers can complete these
templates for incoming students once the results are in from the exams taken during the year
prior to the year you have them in your class. This preparation can guide your instruction so the
you are aware of what may need more instructional support and scaffolding as opposed to the
thing that may be less challenging. These templates can also serve as supportive data in
discussions with parents/guardians and students when setting individual learning goals.

5. Explain how schools can use CDT to improve students’ academic performance.

The Classroom Diagnostic Tools will help you as a teacher to target student needs with
the ultimate result of improving academic achievement. Underneath this section there are parent
tools, pamphlets, and templates. As stated in the previous response, the templates will help
teachers to prepare for their incoming or current students. While utilizing the template, teachers
are organizing data and results from benchmark exams to show where the strengths and
weaknesses are found. Along with this, parent tools will be an overall help to have support and
understanding coming from multiple facets. If the parents are understanding of CDT, overall
support for the student is present. The more understanding, comprehension, and support given
will result in the ultimate ability to help and reinforce academic performance. Overall, CDT will
help parents and teachers to collect results and move forward with appropriate guidance in order
to improve the students’ academic performance.

6. Explain how schools can use “Assessment Literacy” resources to assist teachers to
understand the role of assessment to improve students’ academic performance.

Assessment literacy is a six module training process geared to guide teachers in learning
how to create quality assessments. The modules can be used for self-directed learning or for
professional development training. Schools can implement and make the training mandatory in
order to educate teachers on their role of appropriate assessment to improve students’ academic
performance. If schools utilize this training, the possibility of quality assessment is likely to
improve; therefore, improving academic performance of students as a default result. The six
modules include: assessment design, items and forums, scoring, performance standards, data
analysis, and reviews. Each module contains helpful power-points, activities, handouts,
Abigail Hurd ! of !37

templates. The power-points are scripted and give a detailed step-by-step guide to ensure
understanding of content. As a future teacher, I was surprised to learn that this is even a resource
supplied. I am interested to know if many schools utilize this, have their own training, or have no
training and hope for the best. I would hope, for the good of our students, that schools have some
sort of training in place in order to hold teachers accountable and to provide them with the
information that they may not have ever known they were missing.


1. Use paraphrasing to comprehensively describe each of the components of the

Curriculum Framework. (You may use your textbook and class discussions
to support your description)

The Curriculum Framework section on SAS includes Big Ideas, Concepts, Competencies,
and Essential Questions aligned to Standards and Assessment Anchors and, where appropriate,
Eligible Content. On this section, there are seven sub-sections including: Arts and Humanities,
Business/Computer/Infotech, ELA, Library, Mathematics, Personal Finance, and Science. To
begin, the Arts and Humanities sub-section includes PA Curriculum Frameworks for dance,
music, theatre, and visual arts. The curriculum frameworks for arts and humanities are word
documents that layout the big idea, essential question, concepts addressed, competencies, and
aligned standards. These things are organized in an easy to follow chart/graph that can be edited
since it is a word doc.
The next sub-section is Business, Computer, and Information Technology. Within this
section there are PDF files for accounting, career management, communications,
entrepreneurship, finance and economics, and marketing. These documents include the essential
question, concept, and competencies. Most of the PDF documents are not longer than couple of
The third sub-section is English Language Arts. This area includes big ideas/eligible
content, foundations, reading informational text, reading literature, writing, and listening/
speaking. Each area previously listed includes multiple word documents with helpful resources
regarding the ELA framework. There are documents regarding prevention of knowledge,
speaking conventions, speaking comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, and many more.
The sub-sections Library and Personal Finance have minimal resources. Both sections
include only one PDF document of their model curriculum. Each curriculum includes a
comprehensive chart that details essential questions and concepts. Grade levels and competencies
are listed for your benefit as well.
Mathematics and Science are the final two sub-sections within the Curriculum
Framework section. The mathematics sub-section includes long term transition goals/big ideas/
essential questions, grade level curriculum framework, pre-k frameworks by reporting category,
grade level concepts and competencies and grad level mathematics practices. The science
Abigail Hurd ! of !37

category includes K-12 unifying themes, K-12 inquiry and design, grade level curriculum
framework, K-12 framework by discipline, long term transfer goals/big ideas/essential questions.
All of these headings are useful resources for teachers. These documents help to outline and
explain, in detail, important topics that are found within the curriculum.

2. Explain why the curriculum framework is presented as the Big Idea,

essential questions, concepts, competencies, vocabulary to teach; and, then
associated with assessment anchors and eligible content.

The curriculum framework is presented as the big idea, essential questions, concepts,
competencies, and vocabulary to teach because those are the puzzle pieces that make up a
curriculum. A curriculum includes lessons and academic content taught in a school or in a
specific course or program; therefore, a curriculum framework displays this in a scaffolded way.
The big ideas are essential to provide focus on the specific content areas and are the main chunk
of the framework. The essential questions, which are directly related to the big ideas, are there to
frame student inquiry, promote critical thinking, and assist in learning transfer. Both of these
pieces are directly incorporated within the curriculum frameworks for all subject areas. The
concepts and competencies are there to describe what students should know and should be able
to do as a result of this instruction. Lastly, vocabulary is simply a helpful tool provided but aides
in the instruction and ties the whole framework together. Presenting the framework through this
piece helps to break up and organize all of the many intricate pieces that go into the whole
The curriculum framework is associated with assessment anchors and eligible content in
order to tie in the PSSA’s and Keystone exams. These two pieces are directly relate to high-
stakes testing and are crucial for teachers to be aware of when instructing in the classroom. These
two components are associated with the framework to provide the connections between the
curriculum and what the students could be tested on through the benchmark exams. Again, these
serve to support the teacher, bridge any gaps, and show the connections between everything.

3. Explain how you will use the Curriculum Framework materials in SAS to
support unit and lesson design.

The Curriculum Framework materials on SAS are extremely relevant and useful. Having
these resources allows me to base my lessons off of what is provided. I would most likely use
these materials alongside of the curriculum placed within my school or grade level. Due to the
fact that most of the documents are Word files and easily edited, I can save a copy and add or
delete whatever I wish to personalize for my needs. When designing my lesson I can refer to
these frameworks a reference and as helpful tools/reminders.
I also can see these materials being handy when I have a big idea and need some essential
questions. For example, the foundational skills documents include specific concepts and eligible
Abigail Hurd ! of !37

content. I think having the concepts listed out is helpful if you are scrolling through and looking
for something in a specific content area. I also think having the standards listed will be useful
when designing a lesson. Overall, the documents are displayed in a user-friendly and explicit
way that all teachers can appreciate and benefit from.

4. Thoroughly examine the Big Ideas and Essential Questions from ELA and
Math. Discuss how cross-curricular alignments can be made using the Big
Idea and the Essential Question(s) to reinforce understanding and promote
student achievement.

After examining the big ideas and essential questions from the ELA and Mathematics
sub-sections I can see how cross-curricular alignments would easily be made to reinforce
understanding and promote student achievement. In general, English Language Arts is typically
incorporated in all facets of school and life. Humans use their skills developed during ELA every
day. Basic reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills are needed when in any other subject.
Specifically from the SAS documents, one ELA big idea is to communicate effectively for
various purposes and audiences. This big idea can be directly aligned to mathematics. Students
need to use this competency when discussing math problems and how they can to a conclusion.
Another example could be aligning the big idea from ELA that says to, “listen actively to engage
in a range of conversations, to analyze and synthesize idea and positions, and to evaluate
accuracy in order to learn, reflect, and respond.” This big idea can also be applied in the math
curriculum. When using a cross-curriculum alignment approach, students are learning the big
idea or skill and the applying it for a second time throughout the day. The more application and
repetition of something, the more connections made and the more students achieve and

5. Thoroughly examine the Science K-12 Unifying Themes. Discuss how

instruction/concepts/knowledge and skills will vary across the grades while
educators address the unifying themes.

After thoroughly examining the Science K-12 Unifying Themes document, I can see how
concepts and knowledge vary across the grades. Although it is not explicitly stated what teachers
will do, one can assume that if the students’ skills and concepts are building and becoming more
complex, then the teachers instruction will need to follow the same path. The document groups
the grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12. The document is set up with the topic and then splits up the
grades. Below the grades are the listed concepts, knowledge and skills that are expected from the
students. Just at a first glance you can see that the younger grades only have one or two boxes of
information required, whereas the higher grades have multiple boxes filled. After reading more
deeply, you can see that as you move up through the grades, Bloom’s Taxonomy is a applied and
the expectations are higher. Another thing that is applied throughout the science unifying themes
document is Webb’s Depth of Knowledge levels. Both tools are designed for building upon the
prior step and increasing the complexity of thinking required to successfully complete them.

6. Explain why teachers need to use the ELL Overlay materials and resources.
Abigail Hurd ! of !37

Teachers need to use the English Language Learner Overlay materials in order to support
their ELL students in an effective and appropriate way. ELL overlays are provided for ELA,
mathematics, and science. These overlays are designed to assist teachers in developing
instructional units, lessons, or activities that are meaningful and comprehensible for English
language learners. Teachers need to respect the differences between students learning English as
a second language and students that have English as a primary language. Extensive measures
need to be taken in order to support these unique students. In general, they illustrate the dynamic
process of adapting instruction and assessments based on the English language proficiency of
students. This section is crucial to teachers that do not have a lot of experiences and instructional
strategies when educating ELLs.

7. Select one ELL Overlay content grade band, provide an example of the use of
the materials for real children to design instruction.

I decided to focus on ELL Overlays for Literacy. One example of the use of materials for
real children when designing instruction, would be the use of a writing model performance
indicator (MPI). This framework is designed for formative instructions and assessments within
the classroom during the writing portion of literacy. I can apply the MPI when reading a fairy
tale novel. For example, I can base my lesson plan off of the MPI. The main competency is:
“Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details, expressing ideas and feelings
clearly.” I would choose a specific book and read it to the class. The next part of the MPI is the
proficiency levels, which build upon one another as the level increases. The levels are as follows,
level 1: entering, level 2: emerging, level 3: developing, level 4: expanding, and level 5:
bridging. The purpose of these levels are to measure the students’ proficiency when recounting
the story. These levels look for the sequence of the text and how detailed or specific the student
is in their writing.


1. Explain each of the four domains of the Danielson Model for teacher

The first domain of the Danielson Model for teacher effectiveness is the planning and
preparation domain. This domain covers aspects of the teaching profession that occur outside the
classroom. The six components of this domain are demonstrating knowledge of content and
pedagogy, demonstrating knowledge of students, setting instructional outcomes, demonstrating
knowledge of resources, designing coherent instruction, and designing student assessments. All
of the six components support the domain of planning and preparation. Teachers are expected to
be able to to guide student learning and have command of the subjects they teach. They are
expected to know not only their subject content and its related pedagogy, but the students to
whom they wish to teach that content. They are expected to make instructional outcomes that
reflect important learning and lend themselves to various forms of assessment so that all students
are able to demonstrate their understanding of the content. They are expected to plan and choose
Abigail Hurd ! of !37

resources and materials that align directly with the learning outcomes and are appropriately
challenging for all students. They are expected to have a clear understanding of the state, district,
and school expectations for student learning, and the skill to translate these into a coherent plan.
Lastly, they are expected to design assessments of learning and assessments for learning.
The second domain of the Danielson Model for teacher effectiveness is the classroom
environment. This domain addresses aspects that are directly observable in classroom teaching.
The five components of this domain are creating an environment of respect and rapport,
establishing a culture for learning, managing classroom procedures, managing student behavior,
and organizing physical space. To begin, it is important that teachers manage relationships with
students and ensure that those relationships among students are positive and supportive. It is also
crucial that a culture, or atmosphere for learning is established. The classroom needs to be a
place that reflects the educational importance of the work undertaken by both students and the
teacher. Next, the teacher needs to ensure that there is a smoothly functioning classroom set in
place in order to obtain good instruction and high levels of student engagement. Alongside of a
smooth functioning classroom would be a classroom with orderly behavior. It is the
responsibility of the teacher to establish expectations of behavior and to have the ability to
manage and respond to all behaviors. Lastly, teachers are expected to use the physical
environment to promote student learning. All of these expectations of teachers are incorporated
in the second domain of learning.
The third domain of learning of the Danielson Model for teacher effectiveness is the
instruction. This domain also addresses aspects that are directly observable in classroom
teaching. The five components of this domain are communicating with students, using
questioning and discussion techniques, engaging students in learning, using assessment in
instruction, and demonstrating flexibility and responsiveness. Within this domain,
communicating is the first component. Communicating with students is extremely important.
Teachers should communicate many things with their students including expectations, directions,
explanations, and many others. Using appropriate language and language that is vivid, rich, and
error free will enhance their knowledge. Teachers should also have strong discussion and
questioning techniques for instruction. Having strong techniques leads to the next component of
engagement. Student engagement in learning is the centerpiece of the framework for teaching
and deserves to be of great importance to educators. Assessments and flexibility are the final two
components. Assessing needs to be fair and appropriate. Assessment plays an important role in
instruction at the end and throughout. Lastly, a teachers ability to make adjustments in a lesson
and respond to changing conditions is expected.
The final domain of the Danielson Model for teacher effectiveness is the professional
responsibilities domain. This domain also covers aspects of the teaching profession that occur
outside the classroom. The six components of this domain are reflecting on teaching, maintaining
accurate records, communicating with families, participating in a professional community,
growing and developing professionally, and showing professionalism. To begin, reflecting on
instruction is crucial in teaching. This should be the final piece of a lesson plan and is there for
the teacher to simply think about how their instruction was. The next component has to do with
organization. Teachers should keep organized records of everything including assessments,
notes, lesson plans, money for school trips, parent notes, etc. As we know the importance of
Abigail Hurd ! of !37

communicating with the students, it is just as important to communicate with families. Teachers
establish relationships with families by communicating to them about both the instructional
program and about individual students. While communicating with parents it is important to
maintain a professional manner. Participating in a professional community will promote student
learning. Teachers must work with their colleagues to share strategies, plan joint efforts, and plan
for the success of individual students. The last two components discuss more ways to develop
and grow professionally. Conscientiousness about continuing to stay informed and increasing
skills allows teachers to become ever more effective.

2. Explain how these domains apply to teachers of students with each of the
following disabilities: Autism/MDS/Lifeskills, Emotional Support, and
Learning Support.

These four domains apply to teachers of all students in any classroom; however, special
attention may be required when supporting students with Autism, MDS or students in a life
skills, emotional support, or learning support room. To begin, examples of how framework for
teaching (domains) could apply to Autistic Support, MDS, and Life Skills are provided in a PDF
file under the instruction section of SAS. The document includes a chart with an example for
each domain and each component of the domain. For example, the first domain is crucial for IEP
goals of students that may be in these support rooms. Teachers should be knowledgeable of IEP
goals, lesson plans, targeted skill areas and how they are linked to the PA standards. The second
domain about effective environments can also be applied. The classroom environment needs to
be organized based on student data and not teacher preference. The physical space should be
flexible for any modifications needed to ensure student safety throughout the school day.
Students that are in a life skills support room may be in wheelchairs and therefore this
component is extremely important for a teacher to address to make sure the classroom is
accessible and flexible. The third domain addresses instruction. When supporting students with
the listed disabilities, frequent and ongoing assessment during a lesson is important. There
should be a comprehensive system to track errors throughout the day. Lastly, the fourth domain
addresses professionalism. When working with students with disabilities and IEP’s, this domain
is extremely relevant. Maintaining a professional manner when dealing with students, parents,
and IEP teams will affect the results of the student’s progress and your effectiveness as a teacher.
These domains also directly apply to students in an emotional or learning support room.
There are individual PDF documents for Emotional Support and Learning Support on the SAS
website. Each PDF explains examples and the correlating domain/component area. One example
of the first domain connecting with emotional support would be, “ES teacher presents cross
curricular instruction in a method that integrates not only the unique behavioral /emotional
characteristics of each student but also in a manner that leads to progress in academic and
emotional gains.” Another example of the domains connecting to Emotion Support would be,
“When a behavioral disruption occurs, the teacher guides the students through self-correction
and re-engagement.” These two examples were connected to the first and third domain. An
example of the domains applying for a student in a learning support room would be, “The LS
Abigail Hurd ! of !37

teacher always maintains an accurate system for maintaining data on completion of student
assignments and assessments in addition to the progress of the goals/objectives of students with
learning disabilities as referenced in their IEP’s.” This example is from the fourth domain about
maintaining accurate records. The PDF documents on SAS list an abundant of examples for each
component of each domain.

3. Provide a comprehensive explanation of Student Learning Objectives.

In general, student learning objectives (SLO) are a process to document a measure of

educator effectiveness based on student achievement of content standards. The SLO process has
three phases, designing, building and reviewing. The design phase includes thinking about what
content standards to measure, organizing standards and measures, discussing collective goals
with colleagues, and researching what is needed for a high quality SLO. The build phase includes
selecting the performance measures, developing targets and expectations, completing the
template, and sharing the draft materials with other colleagues. The review phase includes
checking the drafter SLO for quality, refining measures and targets, editing text and preparing
discussion points/highlights for principal, finalizing materials, and updating completed SLO with
performance data.
The Student Learning Outcomes tab on SAS provides materials for teachers and
additional materials for school leaders. Orientation to the SLO process, Design SLOs for your
educator effectiveness program, build SLOs using templates and resources, and review SLOs for
quality and completeness are the four sub-sections under materials for teachers. The SAS website
provides training materials including slides, annotated notes, and an orientation video. School
leaders are provided with an SLO checklist and training powerpoint.

4. Explain why understanding SLO is important to special education teachers.

Student Learning Objectives are necessary for all teachers to understand; however,
special education teacher need to pay special attention to SLOs. As a special education teacher
we are taught the importance of data, progress monitoring, reports, and any other form of record
keeping. When a child has an IEP, it is our job to follow it and make sure that we are working
towards the goals set forth within the IEP. Student learning objectives are measurable, long-term
academic goals informed by available data that districts set for teachers and students. They are a
process to document a measure of teacher effectiveness based on student achievement of
standards, or in a special educators case, IEP goals. SLOs are another way to hold teachers
accountable and can act as a reminder to educators to continue progress monitoring and
collecting data on students. All teachers should be aware of SLOs and should understand their
purpose. Special education teachers are posed with a more difficult task when dealing with SLOs
because they have to consider all individualized needs and factors that are legally required to be

5. Explain how you will use Student Learning Objectives in your future to
become a more effective teacher.
Abigail Hurd ! of !37

I will use student learning objectives in my future not only to help me, but also to help
my students. By using the SLO templates on SAS, I am already supported in this process. These
templates will help to keep my SLOs in check and to make sure I am completing all necessary
sections. By using the materials and resources on SAS I can ensure that I am already more
effective than if I was not using them. I also think that having SLOs will remind teachers that
there is no time for slacking off and that everything you do and plan for needs to be done with
the highest attention to detail and quality. As a result, my students will benefit. If I utilize SLOs
in the appropriate way, I will be designing instruction for with my students in mind and it will
incorporate every individual need that they may have. With all of that said, my teacher
effectiveness will improve if the results of my students’ learning improves.


1. Explain how teachers should use the “Search” to identify relevant resources
for designing unit and/or lesson plans.

Teachers can use the search under materials and resources the same way they would
under the standards tab on the SAS website. Through this tool, teachers can simply search any
relevant word and lesson plans, e-books, activities, etc. will show up below. You can also narrow
the search by setting preferences or filtering by choosing grades and subjects. Through this
targeted search, you can locate standards-aligned content for your desired lesson. The search is
extremely helpful in locating educational resources by simply typing a keyword.

2. Explain how teachers should use the “content collections” as a resource for
designing effective instruction for students.

Teachers can use content collections to focus their search of resources. The content
collections include: lesson/unit plan, instructional content, educational resources, assessment,
videos, web-based content, PA educator created content, safe schools resources, and professional
development. This resource is a more advanced filter when looking for materials. Teachers can
utilize this to find resources more quickly so that the website does the work for them. This
resource can help teachers recognize that the content is appropriate, accurate, and helpful for
designing effective instruction. By keeping instructions organized by their content, teachers can
remain organized and prepared. Also helpful is the fact that the SAS website already recognizes
websites and links that have been proven reliable and useful for effective instruction. The content
collections resource can hep improve the effectiveness of instruction.

Abigail Hurd ! of !37

3. Copy and submit one grade level unit, lesson plan, eligible content, etc from
EACH CONTENT AREAS. Include all the relevant resources for one of the
content area lesson plans.

1. GET TO 100 -All relevant Resources Included

Grade Levels
2nd Grade
Course, Subject
PA Common Core: Mathematics

Related Academic Standards

Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction within 100.
Use mental strategies to add and subtract within 20.

Big Ideas: 1. The base ten number system is a way to organize, represent, and
compare numbers using groups of ten and place value. 2. Numbers, measures,
expressions, equations, and inequalities can represent mathematical situations and
structures in many different forms. 3. The same number sentence can be associated
with concrete and or real world situations, AND different number sentences can be
associated with the same concrete or real-world situation. Concepts: 1. Operations:
addition and subtraction of multi-digit numbers. 2. Patterns: apply and extend properties
of numbers and operations 3. Base Ten System (hundreds, tens ones) 4. Properties
related to multi-digit numbers (associative, commutative, identity) 5. Estimation: Multi-
Digit addition, subtraction and length Competencies: 1. Use number patterns to extend
knowledge of properties of numbers and operations. 2. Develop extended
understanding of multiple models, and properties of addition and subtraction, leading to
fluency with efficient, accurate, and generalizable methods to add and subtract multi-
digit whole numbers and develop quick recall of addition and subtraction facts. Select
and apply appropriate methods to estimate sums and differences or to calculate them
mentally. 3. Represent, order and compare whole numbers up to 1000, and their
equivalents, including using the number line and expanded notation , while grouping in
hundreds, tens, and ones.
Addend - one number being added together in a set.
Sum -The answer of an addition problem. 
Commutative Property- Any two numbers can be switched around and added together
to get the same answer.
Difference- The answer of a subtraction problem.
Equation-a math sentence that says 2 things are equal
Equivalent- equal or the same in value
Abigail Hurd ! of !37

Balance- An even distribution of something

SWBAT - add sets of numbers to reach 100
SWBAT - strategize ways to add to get to 100
SWBAT - strategize ways to subtract to get back to 100
SWBAT - define the commutative property in addition and explain why it does not work
with subtraction
SWBAT - explain in detail when an equation is "balanced"
Lesson Essential Question(s)
How can we represent and compare numbers? 
What strategies and models can be used to understand how to solve an addition or
subtraction problem? 
How can we use number patterns to help use add and subtract? 
How do we know when it is appropriate to estimate or when it is appropriate to use
mental math for an exact answer? 
The Lesson should take around 50 minutes total.
Number Line
Multiples of 5 set of dice
Formative assessment sheet
paper to record equations
100 chart
number line
Game sheet rules (attached here)
get to 100.pdf
Projector to view Student Work
Suggested Instructional Strategies

Instructional Procedures

1. After posting the lesson objectives, the lesson will begin with the teacher posing the
question "Do these numbers add up to equal 100?" (Teacher will place an equation on
the board using numbers ending in 5 or 0 i.e. 15+20+5+35+20+10=)
2. Give the students about 2 minutes to record their response with a method of how
they solved the problem.
3. Using a "thumbs up" for agree and "thumbs down" for disagree, ask the students if
they thought the equation equals 100.
4. Select one student to explain their thinking and to see if their answer corresponds
correctly. Other students can be called on to contribute to the discussion also. The
teacher can use this time to introduce the commutative property and the concept of
balance in an equation. (Balance meaning that both sides of the equation are equal
Abigail Hurd ! of !37

5. The teacher will then play a demo game of Get to 100 with the class as a whole to
ensure that everyone understands the game. This will take about 10 minutes. (rule
sheet is attached in pdf format in the materials section) get to 100.pdf
6. The students will then be placed in pairs to work on the game for 20 minutes.
(Students who have difficulty will play the game as a whole with the teacher)
7. If students finish their work early, then they can play a game of Get to 200 instead of
8. After the lesson, the students will be administered the formative assessment sheet as
seen in the formative assessment section.
Formative Assessment
Formative Assessment
Does this equation equal 100? Yes or No? 
If no, what operation would have to take place to make the equation equal 100? Explain
and show your work.
Does this equation equal 100? Yes or No? 
If no, what operation would have to take place to make the equation equal 100? Explain
and show your work.
Select an equation from above. If you switch around the addends in any order, will your
answer change at all? Explain your thinking and show your work.
Students will also be formatively assessed by...
1. Thumbs up and thumbs down questioning. (Thumbs up = agree Thumbs down =
Does this equation equal 100?
Is this equation balanced on both sides?
Will this equation have the same sum if the addends are switched around?
Abigail Hurd ! of !37

2. Answering an equation during the initial phase of instruction (Quick Check). The
teacher can monitor what the students know and get an idea about flexible grouping by
examining the student work on their paper.
Related Materials & Resources
ACED story problem worksheet.docx A problem sheet that allows students to show their
work if needed

Addition Flashcards by APlus Math An intervention or enrichment resource for students.


get to 100.pdf Rules sheet

Related Lessons 

Inverse Relationship of Addition and Subtraction 

Using Groups of Ten to Solve Problems

Investigations in Time and Space Math Series for 2nd Grade

2. Introduction to Vocabulary for a Lesson about Communities

 Grade Levels
2nd Grade
Course, Subject
PA Core: English Language Arts,Literature

Related Academic Standards

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in grade-level text
including multiple-meaning words.
Acquire and use grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain-
specific words and phrases.
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning word and phrases
based on grade-level reading and content, choosing from a range of strategies and
Abigail Hurd ! of !37

Read and comprehend literary non-fiction and informational text on grade level, reading
independently and proficiently.

In order to fully comprehend and discuss a topic, a student must develop a robust
vocabulary and be able to use that vocabulary as he/she reads, speaks about, or
responds to the topic. To develop a robust vocabulary, a student needs to be able to
understand and use synonyms while reading and speaking.
Neighborhood - a part of a city or town

Community - a place where people live

Family - a group of people who are related

Goods - things people make or grow

Services - activities people do to help others

Needs - things people must have to live

Wants - things people would like to have

Occupation - what a person does to earn money

Students will acquire vocabulary specific to learning about
communities. Students will:
• acquire and apply a robust vocabulary to construct meaning.
• articulate and/or unlock meaning through use of synonyms.
• apply new vocabulary in oral and/or written language to enhance meaning.
• use relevant content-specific vocabulary.
Lesson Essential Question(s)
How do strategic readers create meaning from informational and literary text?
What strategies and resources do I use to figure out unknown vocabulary?
What strategies and resources do learners use to figure out unknown vocabulary?
Why learn new words?
• How do we think while reading in order to understand and respond?
30 – 60 minutes/1 – 2 class periods
• Definition strips (see 2-1-1 Definition Strips in the Resources folder)
• Vocabulary Word Map handout
• (see 2-1-1 Vocabulary Word Map in the Resources folder)
• What is a Community? (from A to Z) by Bobbie Kalman, Crabtree Publishing,
Abigail Hurd ! of !37

• On the Town: A Community Adventure by Judith Caseley, Harper Collins, 2002.

• Where Do I Live? by Neil Chesanow, Barron’s Educational
• Series, 1995.
Note: Any other books about communities may be substituted for the suggested
Suggested Instructional Strategies
W:    This lesson teaches strategies for learning vocabulary from nonfiction text. It also
allows students to learn some basic vocabulary.
H:     Students play a game in which they try to identify a word by guessing letters. The
word “community” is the focus of the lesson.
E:     Students listen to books about communities and identify words for a vocabulary
list. They use the words to create a definition of community. Additional activities
reinforce and expand students’ understanding of vocabulary and their ability to construct
R:     Use formative assessment techniques to determine which students need
additional practice or reteaching. Students who struggle with completing activities can
be paired with a partner who reads the definition strips to them as they put the strips in
the desired order.
E:     Observation of students as they participate in activities can be used to assess
understanding. The completed Vocabulary Word Map and definition strips can also be
used for evaluation.
T:     Students who struggle may be read to or be assigned parts of activities they are
able to complete. Options for on-level and above-level groups are available.
O:     Students work in a large group, a small group, and individually for maximum
Instructional Procedures
Focus Question: How do readers use vocabulary strategies to understand words
they don’t know?
Draw nine blank spaces horizontally on the board (one blank for each of the letters in
the word c-o-m-m-u-n-i-t-y). Then prompt students to take turns guessing letters. When
a student guesses a correct letter, fill in the blank(s) accordingly. When there are
enough letters on the board for students to formulate a guess, allow students to guess
what they think the word is. “That’s right. Today we will learn words that refer to a
community and find words that will help us understand what a community is.”
Read one or two books from the materials list or another similar book that is relevant to
the lesson and the ability
level of the class. It is also important that the books chosen include the vocabulary
words: neighborhood, community,

family, goods, services, needs, wants, and occupation. “As I read, listen for words
about community. Raise

your hand when you hear a word that can be added to our vocabulary list about
community.” Write key words on a board or chart paper for students to refer to later.
During the reading, stop intermittently to ask
comprehension questions and make sure students are listening and gathering
information. Highlight the key words to show them how to use context to clarify words
Abigail Hurd ! of !37

they don’t know. Think aloud to model these vocabulary strategies: context, reading on,
prefix/suffix, thinking about other words that are similar, prior knowledge.
After the reading, use the vocabulary list to determine students' understanding. Point to
each word on the list and have students pronounce it. Ask students to define each word.
Then ask, “What is a community?” Encourage students to use the vocabulary words
in their definition. (sample answers: A community is a place where people live. A
community is a place where people meet their wants and needs. A community is a place
with neighborhoods. A community is a place where people have different occupations.)
Record student answers on the board or on chart paper. Ask volunteers to underline the
vocabulary words in the sentences.
Hand out the Vocabulary Word Map sheet (see 2-1-1 Vocabulary Word Map in the
Resources folder). Guide students to complete the word map by filling in a class copy of
the graphic organizer on the board, overhead, or
chart paper.
“First put your name at the top of the Vocabulary Word Map graphic organizer.”

“Write in the word ‘community’ on the line in the circle in the middle of the
graphic organizer.” Model this on the class Vocabulary Word Map.

“The first question says, ‘What is it?’ What can we put in the box that would tell
us what a community is?” Students may choose one of the definitions they developed
in the previous activity.

“The second box says, ‘What is it like?’ What is a synonym, or word that means
almost the same thing as community?” Have students brainstorm answers. (sample
answers: group, settlement, town, village)

“The third box on the bottom says ‘Draw a picture.’ From the books we have read,
what do you think we should put in our picture of a community?” (sample
answers: houses, streets, hospital, store, school) Have each student complete the word
map with a drawing.
Divide students into groups of three or four and give each group a set of sentence strips
(see 2-1-1 Definition Strips in the Resources folder) to match word definitions and words
in order to construct meaning. Give each student a copy of the text. “Today you will
get some strips of paper. These strips will have words from the story (stories) we
just read. Some strips will have words only and some will have definitions. Go
back to the text and reread to see if you can figure out the meaning of the words.
You need to match each definition to the word it defines. For example, you may
get a sentence strip that just says ‘community,’ and you need to find the one that
says ‘a place where people live and work with others.’ When you are finished, you
and your group members should raise your hands so I can see your work. Leave
your strips exactly how you matched them.”
For students who are on and above level: Give each student a text and a list of words.
Have them find the meaning of the word based on the text. As an extension, students
can write kid-friendly definitions. They can also create a vocabulary cartoon that
illustrates the word or use the word in a sentence that also contains a rhyming word.
Abigail Hurd ! of !37

During the time that students are matching the strips, walk around the class and
observe how students are doing. Use a checklist with students’ names to record
anecdotal information about their participation in the group and their understanding of
the vocabulary words.
The definition strip answers are as follows:
Neighborhood - a part of a city or town
Community - a place where people live
Family - a group of people who are related
Goods - things people make or grow
Services - activities people do to help others
Needs - things people must have to live
Wants - things people would like to have what a person does to earn money
Occupation - what a person does to earn money
Formative Assessment
This lesson focuses on students’ ability to utilize vocabulary strategies. The large-group
setting and modeled activities guide students to define words related to community.
Application of the new vocabulary in oral and written language
enhances meaning. Observe students’ participation in large-group and small-group
activities. Circulate among groups and ask individuals to use one of the vocabulary
words in a sentence or to match a word with its definition.
 Use the
following checklist to assess students’ understanding:
- The student demonstrates the use of vocabulary strategies.
- The student uses the new vocabulary words in oral and/or written language.
- The student can match vocabulary words and their definitions.
Work with individuals or small groups of students who need reteaching or additional
practice. Have them work in pairs to use the sentence strips to match words and
definitions. Ask students to draw and label pictures of the vocabulary words. Have them
identify vocabulary words about communities in a book.

3. Residents of the Wetlands


In this unit, students discover the inhabitants of a Pennsylvania wetland. Students will:
• identify animals of a Pennsylvania wetland.
• discuss how some animals visit different wetlands but do not make the wetland
their home.
• understand that wetlands fulfill basic needs for plants and animals.
Essential Questions

• Migrate: To move from one region into another.
• Wetlands: Low-lying land saturated with moisture, such as a marsh or swamp.
Abigail Hurd ! of !37

30–45 minutes/1–2 class periods
Prerequisite Skills
Prerequisite Skills haven't been entered into the lesson plan.
• class wetland charts from previous lessons
• Where Is My Home? worksheet (S-K2-19-3_Where Is My Home and KEY.doc)
• pictures of Pennsylvania Wetland Animals (S-K2-19-3_Wetland Animals.doc)
Related Unit and Lesson Plans

Related Materials & Resources
The possible inclusion of commercial websites below is not an implied endorsement of
their products, which are not free, and are not required for this lesson plan.
• class wetland charts from previous lessons
• Where Is My Home? worksheet (S-K2-19-3_Where Is My Home and KEY.doc)
• pictures of Pennsylvania Wetland Animals (S-K2-19-3_Wetland Animals.doc)
Formative Assessment
Monitor student responses to large-group discussions.
Observe students as they work in paired groups and listen for
understanding through questioning.
Observe student contributions to class wetland charts and responses on
the Where Is My Home? worksheet.
Observe students’ descriptive writing in their wetlands booklets.

Suggested Instructional Supports


Scaffolding, Active Engagement, Modeling, Explicit Instruction
In this lesson, students continue to look at various types of wetlands found in
Pennsylvania. They look at the types of animals that call each wetland home.
Students come to understand how living things are dependent on certain
wetlands to meet their basic needs. They also gain understanding of the
characteristics of different types of wetlands, including the plants and animals
that live there.  
Students listen to audio sounds from wetlands. The audio lets students listen for
sounds to determine what might be found in wetlands. This activity introduces
inhabitants of a wetland.  
Students participate in large-group discussions and use technology to “visit”
various wetlands in Pennsylvania. Students begin to understand the diversity of
animals living in each wetland. They also begin to understand how different the
various types of wetland are. These differences are part of the reason animals
within each wetland survive and thrive. 
Abigail Hurd ! of !37

Students participate in classroom discussions. They begin to distinguish the

differences among the wetlands found in Pennsylvania. They participate in
creating class charts describing each wetland. Students also identify animals
found in each wetland and begin to understand how specific wetlands meet the
animals’ needs. 
Students express their understanding through group discussion and answering
guided questions. Students also add information to class charts on different types
of wetlands and the animals that inhabit each wetland. Students add this
information to their wetlands booklets. 
Students experience a variety of activities that appeal to various learning styles,
along with extension activities that provide additional differentiated instruction.
Students participate in hands-on investigations, reading for information, visiting
wetlands Web sites, and writing descriptive sentences about each type of
Students experience activities that move from concrete observations to teacher-
guided activities, and finally, to an independent application: constructing a
wetlands booklet that describes each type of wetland found in Pennsylvania.  

Instructional Procedures

Begin the lesson by letting students listen to sounds of the wetlands again,
available at After students have
listened to the sounds, ask them to name some things that could be found in
wetlands. Display the charts made in the previous lesson. Review with students
the various types of wetlands previously discussed.

Show students pictures of animals found in Pennsylvania wetlands (S-
K2-19-3_Wetland Animals.doc). Some animals include:

            Canadian Snow Geese                        Wood Duck                            Black

            Tundra Swan                           Heron                                      River Otter

            Egrets                                      Osprey                                     Bobcats

            Eagle                                       Hawk                                      Turtle

            Beaver                                     Snakes                                     Fox

            Turtles                                     Frogs                                       Owl

            Salamanders                            Raccoons                                 Turkey

            Deer                                        Rabbit                                     Fish

Activity 1: Other Types of Wetlands

Tell students that not all animals can live in all types of wetlands. Some animals
can only live in one type of wetland and some only visit the wetlands. Tell
students that some animals stop at the wetlands when they migrate. Ask,
“Does anyone know what it means when we say an animal
migrates?” (Animals move from one place to another for the purpose of
meeting their basic needs.)
Abigail Hurd ! of !37

“What are some basic needs that would cause an animal to

migrate?” (food source, climate, to find a mate, water)
“Do you know any animals that migrate?” (ducks, birds, butterflies) If
wetlands are healthy, then there will be clean water, space for many plants
and animals, and plenty of food.
“What types of food might be available in wetlands?” (plants and
other animals)
Review with students the different types of wetlands found in Pennsylvania.
Review also the types of plants found in each of these wetlands. Note: Prior to
this activity, create charts for Bog, Tidal Marsh, Swamp, and Pond. List
characteristics found in each of the following paragraphs:
Display the chart titled Bog. Tell students it is also home to various types
of wildlife, including the endangered bog turtle. Other animals include
black bear, river otter, bobcat, and wild turkey. Display pictures of these
animals if possible. Add these names to the chart and display.
Display the chart titled Tidal Marsh. Tell students it is also home to various
kinds of wildlife, including over 300 species of birds like warblers, egrets,
sandpipers, and a large variety of ducks that use the marsh as a resting/
feeding spot during spring and fall flights. In addition, deer, opossums, fox,
raccoons, muskrats, and many other small animals take refuge in the
marsh. The marsh is one of the few places in Pennsylvania where the
state-endangered red-bellied turtle and coastal leopard frog can be found.
Display the chart titled Swamp. Tell students it is also home to various
types of wildlife, including the saw-whet owl, black bear, red-spotted newt,
and the swamp sparrow. The swamp also has an abundance of black
spruce and balsam fir. Add these names to the chart and display.
Display the chart titled Pond. Tell students that ponds are home to more
than 1,000 different types of animals. Pennsylvania ponds may be home
to fly-poison bulb-borer moths; and songbirds, including Blackburnian
Warbler, Canada Warbler, and Eastern Wood-Pewee. In addition to these
animals, ponds are home to frogs, toads, newts, fish, snails, dragon flies,
mosquitoes, and beavers.
Have students add animals, trees, and birds to the pictures in their wetlands
booklets (introduced in Lesson 2). They may also want to add to their previous
description of each type of wetland.

Give each student a copy of the Where Is My Home? worksheet (S-
K2-19-3_Where Is My Home and KEY.doc). Remind students that they may use
their wetland booklet to find the information to match the animal to the wetland.

For an interactive game, take students outside and play the game Where Is My
Home? Select students to be the “wetlands” and others to be the animals. Have
each animal try to locate its home. A variation on this game could be to have
students find food in each wetland by introducing other animals. This could be
used to lead to a discussion of food chains.

Abigail Hurd ! of !37

Challenge students who may need additional learning opportunities to

create an alphabet book of the animals and plants found in the wetlands of
Create wetland animal cards and have students who might need more
practice match the animals on the cards with the type of wetlands where
the animals can be found.

4. Eagle Eyes to Analyze: Discerning Fact v. Opinion in Advertising

Grade Levels
2nd Grade
Course, Subject
Economics,Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening

Related Academic Standards

Participate in collaborative conversations with peers and adults in small and larger
Participate in collaborative conversations with peers and adults in small and larger
Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to clarify comprehension,
gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue.
Identify reasons why people make a choice.
Identify competing sellers in the local market.

Common Core Standards

Speaking and Listening Standards 3-5
SL2.1 Participate in conversations
RI2.5 Know and use various text features
Comprehension requires and enhances critical thinking and is constructed through the
intentional interaction between reader and text. Instructional Purpose: Children need the
necessary tools to evaluate and analyze different types of advertising. This instruction
builds critical thinking skills and results in the students becoming more discriminating
between facts and opinions in their purchase choices.
selling techniques
Abigail Hurd ! of !37

SWBAT… identify and explain advertising techniques of using pictures, colors,

characters, action, prizes and lettering to sell food products that are familiar to the
student in ¾ trials with 80% accuracy.
Lesson Essential Question(s)
How do we think while reading in order to understand and respond?  
This is a 40 minute lesson.
Smartboard, laptop, projector, Power Point slides, chart paper, markers, mystery bag,
sky writing wristlets, marketing items- snack items,  juice box, cookies and cereal box,
pictures of food items, and Exit Tickets
Suggested Instructional Strategies
W: WHERE/WHY/WHAT How will you help your students to know where they are
headed, why they are going there, and what ways they will be evaluated along the way?
Connection, Review, and Introduction show the students where they've been and where
they are going and why. The students will be evaluated along the way through open-
ended questions.
H: HOOK How will you hook and hold students’ interest and enthusiasm through
thought-provoking experiences at the beginning of each instructional episode? The
Mystery Bag, open-ended questions, and actual food item to evaluate through a taste
test will generate enthusiasm throughout the lesson.
 E: EXPLORE/EXPERIENCE/EQUIP What experiences will you provide to help
students make their understandings real and equip all learners for success throughout
your course or unit? Using hands-on materials, power point slides and applying the
concept to real life situations will help students make their understandings real.
R: RETHINK/REHEARSE/REVISE/REFINE How will you cause students to reflect,
revisit, revise, and rethink? Working in groups, comparing actual item with package
advertising will help students reflect and rethink. Having the students discuss with
partners what they learned and sharing in whole group will help them review.
Encouraging students to share with families/caregivers what they learned reinforces a
reason to remember what they learned.
E: EVALUATE How will students express their understandings and engage in
meaningful self-evaluation? The use of exit tickets will help the student express their
understanding of the concept. The long-term summative evaluation of the students
developing a persuasive advertising (label) for marketing a product that they have
previously designed, created and tested will help them evaluate their own
understanding of the concept in a practical application.
T: TAILORED How will you tailor (differentiate) your instruction to address the unique
strengths and needs of every learner? Differentiation: Create an ad for an imaginary
food item using advertising techniques. What’s in the Shopping Bag interactive website
for students who need more examples:
resources/2050/view.ashx Offer actual food containers who benefit from 3D
presentation. S use skywriters to learn concepts of opinion and facts.
O: ORGANIZED How will you organize learning experiences so that students move
from teacher-guided and concrete activities to independent applications that emphasize
Abigail Hurd ! of !37

growing conceptual understandings as opposed to superficial coverage? S look through

coupons, children’s magazines, and store ads to find the fact v. opinions based on
slides 7 & 8. S will view food advertising tricks and make recipe for ice cream: http://    Field Trip: Visit a grocery
store to receive a tour and apply learned material of advertising techniques in various
departments. Involve the parent helpers. These guidelines move teachers from thinking
only about what they want to do and need to accomplish to thinking about what
students, end users of their design, will need to achieve understanding. © Grant
Wiggins & Jay McTighe
Instructional Procedures
Connection: Since school started, you’ve been building critical thinking skills and been
learning about building a business. You have been working hard on active listening, too.
First, we will review what we have learned about Fact and Opinion.
T: Show slide 2. Click on hyperlink. Use Teaching Strategy: Think, Pair, Share for both
the FACT and OPINION interactive questions.
S:  Work in groups of two and respond accordingly.
T:  Show slide 3.
S: Put on their imaginary detective hats to chant the clue words.
T: Show slide 4. Remind students to Look, Listen, & Think. They are going to be
detectives that want to find clue words. Teaching Strategy: Point to body part.
S:  Review words by chanting w/out slide. Go back if needed.
T: Show slide 5. Click on hyperlink for interactive site. Give directions that groups will
stand up when they hear the clue words in a sentence. If no clue word, then stay
S: Groups will respond accordingly. They will discuss (in groups) the clue words and
meaning of the clue words in light of advertising. S circle opinion words on Smartboard.
New Material Procedure:
T: Today we are going to apply your thinking skills with your active listening skills to
discover some advertising techniques.
T: Show slide 6. Presents the Mystery Bag with food items inside: Fruit Roll Ups, Pizza
Rolls, Cereal Box, Cookies, and Juice Box.
S: Think, Pair, Share: Guess what’s inside.
T: As they guess correctly or near correctly, teacher pulls out the items and asks the
students why she selected these items?
S: Think, Pair, Share & Whole Group Discussion: Varied responses.
Teaching Point:
T:  Give S Mystery Bag items and pictures of food items to small groups.
S:  Determine what is on packaging and reasons. [colors, pictures, characters, prizes,
action, lettering to sell product]. Students will draw pictures or make collages to
represent what their package contains and present to whole group. [they construct
T: Show slide 7. Add input from whole group discussion [i.e. prizes] and break into
Abigail Hurd ! of !37

S:  Define what the words mean in context of packaging/ advertising/ selling products by
referring to their drawings, pictures, and/or actual items to represent their advertising
techniques and why advertisers use it. S present to class.
T: On chart paper, T records S reasons why advertisers use their technique.
T: Moderate whole group discussion and add ideas that are generated.
S: Work in Study Groups to taste test items to decide what aspects of the advertising
are factual v. opinions. Present findings to whole group.
T: Moderate whole group discussion and add ideas on chart paper that are generated.
T: Show slides 8-9 for Review. Show slide 10 for wrap-up.
S: Think, Pair, Share what they learned in this lesson. All aspects of the newly learned
material will be reviewed. The reporters will report their group’s summary of the lesson.
T: Tells S to share what they learned with families/ caregivers and to watch
advertisements to check for facts and opinions.
T: Introduce next lesson: they will identify and explain advertisement practice of using
words and images to sell toy products that are familiar to the student.
Advertising Lesson Plan.ppt
Advertising Pics.doc
Formative Assessment
Formative: Opinion v. Fact Skill [There were no assessments for K-2]
Student Assessment 7/5/2011 8:40 PM.pdf
Formative: Exit ticket.
Exit Ticket.doc
Summative: The student will develop persuasive advertising (label) for marketing a
product that they have previously designed, created and tested.
Related Materials & Resources
Active Engagement/ Addressing Multiple Learning Styles:  Constructing
Knowledge, Providing Models, Sit/Standing Up, Think Pair Share, Drawing Pictures,
Mystery Bag, Small & Whole Group Discussion
Create an ad for an imaginary food item using advertising techniques.
 What’s in the Shopping Bag interactive website for students who need more examples:
 Offer actual food containers who benefit from 3D presentation.
 S use skywriters to learn concepts of opinion and facts.
S look through coupons, children’s magazines, and store ads to find the fact v. opinions
based on slides 7 & 8.
 S will view food advertising tricks and make recipe for ice cream:
 Field Trip: Visit a grocery store to receive a tour and apply learned material of
advertising techniques in various departments. Involve the parent helpers.
Related Newspaper Article:
Related Newspaper Article.pdf
Abigail Hurd ! of !37

4. Explain the benefits of the “Learning Progression” section? Use one of the
learning progression documents to provide examples in your explanation.

Learning progressions are pathways that students travel through as they progress in
school. These progressions start simple and work their way towards mastery of a skill. The
learning progression section on SAS provides many documents that show the progression map
throughout grades. For example, the 2014 Literate Learning Progressions show all of the eligible
content for “Key Ideas and Details: Literature Text,” and then the grades to which they apply. On
the SAS website there is a key explained with different colored boxes so that once you look at
the progression documents you know what each box means. For example, “Answer questions
about key details in a text” is expected of kindergarteners to demonstrate their knowledge, skills,
and abilities described by an eligible content. However, first grade is expected to answer and ask.
As assumed, second grade is expected to do more than first and so on. Learning progressions
provide teachers with the opportunity to determine whether students have navigated successfully
through the criteria. As students successfully complete steps, they are ready to move forward.
Teachers can benefit from these documents because this can help them determine which students
are following the progressions at an accelerated rate, average rate, or below average rate.

5. Explain how you will use the Professional Development training materials to
continue life-long learning. Select one module to use as an example within
your explanation.

I will use the professional development training materials to continue my life-long

learning. The materials provided for teachers is abundant and I plan to utilize them within my
teaching. Specifically, the Professional Development Organizations PDF is very helpful. This
module includes a variety of different resources and websites for educators to use. The websites
and materials are updated and changed every so often to provide teachers with fresh and new
materials. I can use these organizations to educate myself and to be more prepared and well
rounded teacher.


1. Provide a definition for each of the overview terms using your own words.

1. Engagement: this is the process in which students interact and work to achieve understanding
of their studies.
2. Safety: this refers to the security and protection from danger, risks, injuries, or harmful
peopled things.
Abigail Hurd ! of !37

3. Environment: this includes all of your surroundings and the conditions that one lives in. A
school environment should be safe, engaging, and a positive place to learn.

2. Comprehensively describe the benefit of the “Comprehensive Resources”

section and how teachers can use these in their classroom. Select one of the
resources to use as an example in your explanation.

The Comprehensive Resources section on SAS spans two or more of the Safe and
Supportive Schools element’s major tabs and are vigorous in nature. Comprehensive resources is
set up the same way as the materials and resources tab. You can use keywords to search, or filter
he search with specific grades and subjects. The results of the search are different. For example,
one Safe Schools Resources is titled “Where We Learn.” This resource is from the National
School Boards Association and is a nationwide survey of students in city schools. This resource
explains how students feel about the climate in their school. This survey is a project of the Urban
Student Achievement Task Force of NSBA’s Council of Urban Boards of Education. This is just
one example of a comprehensive resource provided. Any of the Safe Schools Resources can
widely benefit teachers by providing knowledge, real-life scenarios, examples, and helpful links
for instruction.

3. Provide an explanation of Act 126. Why do we have it?

Act 126 is the mandated reporting training for child abuse. It requires that all school
entities and anyone who has direct contact with children, complete a three hour training every
five years on child abuse recognition and mandated reporting. We have this training to address
child abuse recognition and reporting. This act mandates that any school entity have the training
to become a mandated reporter. This act is set in place to protect children and hold teachers and
other personnel accountable if they have any suspicions or concerns for a child.

4. Comprehensively describe the benefit of the “Early Warning System” section

and how teachers can use these in their classroom.

The Early Warning System (EWS) section on SAS provides many benefits for educators.
EWS is is a free, voluntary tool available to all commonwealth LEAs. EWS provides a lens
through which schools are able to identify students at risk of dropping out, build a library of
district-specific interventions, increase community partnerships and support schools, set
goals for student achievement, and improve student success rates. Teachers can use the
intervention catalogs to access the district-specific interventions to prevent students from
dropping out. In the classroom, teachers can track attendance, behavior and course grades
(ABC’s), as these can all be indicators and early warning signs. This system will help and
prepare teachers to keep track of anything and help identify any student with early warning
Abigail Hurd ! of !37


a. Click on “My SAS Tools” on the top right-side of your screen

b. Click on “My Profile” and create a profile (you are not required to upload a
picture). Print out a copy of the published profile page.

c. Select one question from below and write a response to it on your newly
created Website.

• Where can you change your password or update personal information on the
Abigail Hurd ! of !37

I can change my password and update my personal information through my profile. By

clicking “My SAS Tools” in the top right and then clicking “Profile,” I will be brought to my
individual profile. Once I am here, I can click “SAS Profile” (the yellow box) , this is right below
my name. Then an “Edit Persona Information” page will pop up and this is where you can
change password and edit any other personal information.