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No.

13461

NATO FOREIGN DIESEL COMPARATIVE TEST PROGRAM


GM-MVO/MT883 ENGINE EVALUATION

MARCH 1991

Ellsworth C. Adams
Dr. Satyanarayana Kodali
U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Command
ATTN: AMSTA-RGD
By Warren, MI 48397-5000

DISTRIBUTION LIMITED TO U.S. GOV'T


AGENCIES ONLY; TEST & EVALUATION DOCUMENT,
MARCH 1991;
MTTqT RR DWrrV TACQM_ FOR
REQUESTS
OTHER Tn- ATTN- DOCUMENT
THISA9QNr-TAC-nTT. WARRRN_ MT 49197-5000

U.S. ARMY TANK-AUTOMOTIVE COMMAND


RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT & ENGINEERING CENTER
Warren, Michigan 48397-5000
EES TAVA ILA E' L ,P r -wM
NOTICES

This report is not to be construed as an official Department of


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1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED
I March 1991 IFinal Dec 88 to May 89
4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS
NATO Foreign Diesel Comparative Test Program
GM-MVO/MT883 Engine Evaluation Contract
DAAE07-88-C-R052
6. AUTHOR(S)
Ellsworth C. Adams and Satyanarayana Kodali

7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) S. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION


U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Command REPORT NUMBER
ATTN: AMSTA-RGD 13461
Warren, MI 48397-5000

9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSORING/MONITORING


International Materiel Evaluation Division (AMCIP-IM) AGENCY REPORT NUMBER
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005

11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

12a. DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE


Test and Evaluation Document distribution, limited to
US Governement agencies only. Other requests for this
document must be referred to USATACOM, ATTN: ASQNC-TAC-
DIT
13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words)
A nominal 1100kW V12 diesel engine Model MT883,produced by Motoren-und Turbinen
Union of West Germany, was tested at TACOM under the NATO Comparative Test
Program (Nunn Amendment) for performance, fuel economy, acceleration, high fuel
and air temperatures, high inlet and exhaust restrictions, and hi-sulphur DF-2/
Jet A fuel operation. The engine generated a peak power of 1093 kW (1465 bhp) at
3,000 rpm and a peak torque of 4456 Nm (3287 ft-lb) under NATO Standard Test
conditions. General Motors Military Vehicles Operation (GM-MVO) is the
American licensee for this engine and was the contractor providing the engine and
support for the test.

14. SUBJECT TERMS Turbocharged Aftercooled Diesel Engine Dr 15. NUMBER OF PAGES
Tubohage
tJ.eroo~e Desl ngneDy S.ump 99
Lubrication System, Engine Performance, Fuel Consumption, 99
Heat Rejection, Air Consumption 16. PRICE CODE

17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT
OF REPORT OF THIS PAGE OF ABSTRACT
UNCLAS UNCLAS UNCLAS SAR
NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev 2-89)
Prn'scr'bd by ANSi Std Z39.18
2
PREFACE

Motoren und Turbinen Union Friedrichshafen (MTU-West Germany) is a


subsidiary of Mercedes Benz. The MT880 series diesel engines are
descended from the MB837 series of the mid-fifties and the MB870
series designed in the mid-sixties. The MB873 V12 diesel engine, at
1500 metric horsepower, powers the Leopard 2 West German main battle
tank, and a V8 version is used in the the Korean Type 88 tank.

Each new series of engine has been designed for higher poer density,
and the 880 series uses short connecting rods and pistons to make a
very compact basic engine power train, crankcase, and structure.
Conventional materials and manufacturing methods are used, with
mechanical and thermal loads at proven levels. Manifolds and
accessories are located between and under the cylinder banks for a
small, rectangular cross section. Accessories are gear driven and
fluid lines use short piping runs with O-ring sealing for reliability
and ease of maintenance.
The MT883 V12 engine first ran in 1979 with a precombustion chamber
design, and this newer version has an open combustion chamber for lower
fuel consumption and heat rejection. The result is a compact diesel
engine at the 1100 kW level that will fit into the M1 tank powerpack
space as proposed by General Motors Military Vehicles Operation.

This test was supervised and conducted by the U. S. Army Tank-


Automotive Command (TACOM), RDE Center, Propulsion Systems Division, in
Test Cell 3 of Building 212. The test started on 7 March 1989 and was
completed on 5 May 1989. Thanks are expressed for the fine cooperation
of Messrs. Horst Bernhardt and Meinrad Reisch of MTU and Larry Belna
and Brian Braglia of G MVO. Their excellent support in providing
engine parts and'supplies was also appreciated.

3
4
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section Page
1.0. INTRODUCTION........ ......................... .. 11

2.0. OBJECTIVE ......... .......................... .. 11

3.0. CONCLUSIONS ......... ......................... 11

4.0. ROCOMMENDATIONS ....... ....................... .14

5.0. DISCUSSION ......... ......................... .. is


5.1. Engine Description and Specifications 15
5.2. Full Load Performance, Heat Rejection & Air Consumption 16
5.3. Engine Part Load Performance - Fuel Map 23
5.4. Engine Performance with Higher Inlet Air Restriction 23
5.5. Engine Performance with Higher Fuel Temperatures 23
5.6. Egine Performance with Increased Exhaust Restriction 23
5.7. Engine Performance with Typical Vehicle Temperatures 23
5.8. Engine Performance with Jet A (JP-8 Mil-T-83133C) Fuel 31
5.9. Acceleration Runs on cell 3 Dynamometer 31
5.10. MIU-MT883 Test ProgramA,Aalysis of Failed Cylinder Liner 40

APPENDIX A. Test Plan....... ...................... .. A-i


APPENDIX B. Sample Data Sheets ..... ................. .. B-1
APPENDIX C. Fuel and Oil Analysis ...... ................ C-1
APPENDIX D. Photographs ....... .................... .. D-1
DISTRIBUTION LIST. ......... ..................... Dist-I

5
6
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Title Page

1-1. MIU MT883 V12 Diesel Engine - Flywheel (Rear) End ..... .12

1-2. MII MT883 V12 Diesel Engine - Damper (Front) End ....... 13

5-1. MTI MT883 Full-Load Performance, Brake Horsepower........ 17

5-2. MITU Mr883 Full-Load Performance, Torque .... ......... 18

5-3. MIU Mr883 Full-Load Specific Fuel Consumption.......... 19

5-4. MIU MT883 Full-Load Heat Rejection to Coolant .......... 20

5-5. MTU MT883 Full-Load Air Consumption .... ............ 21


5-6. MIU MT883 Full & Part-Load Air Consumption .......... ..22

5-7. MIAJ MT883 Engine Specific Fuel Consumption .......... ..24


5-8. MTU MT883 Full-Load Power - Higher Inlet Air Restriction . 25

5-9. MTU MT883 Full-Load Power - Higher Fuel Temperatures 25C . 26

5-10. MTU MT883 Full-Load Power - Higher Fuel Temperatures 49C . 27

5-11. MTU MT883 Full-Load Power - Higher Exhaust Restriction . . 28

5-12. MIU MT883 Full-Load Power - Vehicle Temperatures ....... 29

5-13. MTU MT883 Full-Load Torque - Vehicle Temperatures ...... 30

5-14. MTU MT883 Full-Load Power - JP8 (Jet A) Fuel ......... .. 32


5-15. MI MT883 Engine Acceleration - Picking Up Load, 1600 rpm 33

5-16. MTU MT883 Engine Acceleration - Picking Up Load, 2100 rpm 34

5-17. MIU MT883 Engine Acceleration - Picking Up Load, 2600 rpm 35


5-18. MTU Mr883 Engine Acceleration - 1400 to 1600 rpm ....... 36

5-19. MTU MT883 Engine Acceleration - 1400 to 2100 rpm ....... 37

5-20. MIr MT883 Engine Acceleration - 1400 to 2600 rpm ....... 38

5-21. MTU MT883 Engine Acceleration with Renk Transmission . . . 39

7
8-
LIST OF TABLES

Table Title Page

5-1. Typical Vehicle Temperatures .... ............... .23

5-2. Constant Speed Picking Up Load .... .............. .31

5-3. Acceleration for 1400 rpm to 2500 ft-lb Torque, 3 Speeds . 31


5-4 MTrJ MT883 Test Runs and Data Sheet Numbers ... ........ 42

9
10
1.0. INTRODUCTION
The Motoren-und Turbinen Union (MTU) engine evaluation was a part of the
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Comparative Test Program
of heavy armored vehicle engines. General Motors Military Vehicles
Operation (GM-MVO) was the American licensee for MTLJ (West Germany) and
supplied this engine and support under contract with TACOM. Photographs
of the bare engine are shown in Figures 1-1 and 1-2.

2.0. OBJECTIVE

The objective was evaluation of the MT883 diesel engine for comparison
with other NATO source engines. This included lab performance testing
under a variety of conditions and check of physical size, weight, etc.

3.0. CONCLUSIONS
3.1. Engine Power Output
As provided with the 1100 kW rating, the MiU diesel engine output under
NATO test conditions on MIL-F-46162C (DF-2) fuel was:
1465 bhp (1093 kW) at 3000 r/min
3287 ft-lb (4456 NM) torque at 2000 r/min
All of the testing was run on DF-2 fuel except one run, which was
conducted on Jet A to simulate JP-8 fuel. At the request of GM-MVO, the
fuel flow was set up to run one 3000 r/min point, and the output was:
1506 bhp (1123 kW), with no increase in exhaust smoke.
3.2. Engine Fuel Ccmsumption
The brake specific fuel consumption was:
0.371 lb/bhp-hr (226 g/kWh) at 3000 r/min power peak
0.347 lb/bhp-hr (211 g/kWh) at 2000 r/min torque peak
3.3. Heat Rejection
Heat rejection to the cooling system was 26 Btu/bhp-min up to 2600 rpm
and increasing to 29 Btu/bhp-min at 3000 rpm.
3.4. New Engine Feature
The MTU engine had another feature to increase power output; coolant
for the aftercoolers was run through a secondary radiator to further
reduce intake air temperature and enhance specific output.

11
Figure 1-1. MU MT883 V12 Diesel Engine - Flywheel (Rear) End

12
Figure 1-2. WED MT883 V12 Diesel Engine -Damper (Front) End

13
3.5. Other Performance Run Conditions
Other performance runs were made with higher ambient temperatures, fuel
temperatures, inlet air restriction, and exhaust restriction, as well
as a part load matrix down to 25% load.
3.6. Power Runs with Typical Vehicle Temperatures
A set of power runs were made, using vehicle engine installation
operating temperature parameters as provided by MI-J.
3.7. Engine Performance on JPB Fuel
On Jet A fuel (JPB), the power output at NATO standard conditions was:
1321 bhp (985 kW) at 3000 r/min and
2909 ft-lb (3944 M) torque at 2000 r/min.
3.8. Acceleration Tests on the Dynamometer
Acceleration tests were run with the Test Cell 3 dynamometer for
comparison with other NATO engines to be run on the same dynamometer.
3.9. Engine Dimensions

Length 67.9 in. 1725 nun


Width 38.0 in. 965 nm
Height 29.7 in.(flywheel end) 754 m
35.0 in.(turboch. end) 889 m
Volume 46.1 cu ft 1.31 cu-m
3.10. Engine Weight
The dry weight of the engine was 4200 lb (1909 kg) including starter,
generator, front mount, coolant expansion tanks, fuel filter, and
torque converter drive plate with starter ring gear.
4.0. RECCHIEDATICI4S
The MT883 engine is a new generation, 12 cylinder diesel at the 1500 bhp
level. An Mli 883 propulsion system will fit into the Ml tank
pcwerplant space as proposed by GM-MVO, its American licensee. It
features a very ccmpact engine packaging configuration, electronic fuel
control, turbocharging and aftercooling, and uses conventional materials
and construction. Its fuel economy is very competitive with other
modern high output diesels in the same power class. It is currently in
development, with prototype engines running in Israeli Defense Force
Merkava Mk 4 test vehicles, and on a NATO endurance test.
It is recommended that a complete MT883 propulsion system be evaluated
as a candidate system, along with other powerpacks in the same power
class, in any future powerpack studies.
14
5.0. DISCUSSION

5.1. Engine Description and Specifications


The MT883 is an 1100 kW, 12 cylinder, 90 degree vee, liquid cooled
diesel engine. It features a direct injection combustion system, twin
parallel flow turbochargers, and charge air cooling.
Basic engine specifications as furnished by MTr:
Engine model MT883 Ka-500
Displacement 27.36 liters 1670 cu in
Bore 144 Mm 5.67 in
Stroke 140 nm 5.51 in
Engine rated speed 3000 r/min
Power 1100 kW 1475 bhp
Mean effective pressure/power peak 16.1 bar 233 psi
Mean effective pressure/torque peak 18.5 bar 268 psi
Mean piston speed 14.0 m/s 2755 ft/mn
Compression ratio 14 to 1
Low idle speed 1000 r/min
Tactical idle 1400 r/min
Max governed speed-no load 3300 r/min
Cooling system capacity 189 litrs(aprx) 200 qt
Oil system capacity 70 liters 74 qt

15
5.2. Full-Load Performance, Heat Rejection, And Air Consumption
The last full performance run on 5 May 89 (Test 97) gavethe best output:
1465 bhp (1093 kW) at 3000 r/min and
3287 ft-lb (4456 Nm) at 2000 r/min
Figures 5-1, 5-2, and 5-3 are the curve sheets for this run, and Figure 5-4
shows the heat rejection. The heat rejection to the cooling system was a
typical 26 Btu/bhp-min up to 2600 rpm and then increased in a linear fashion
to 29 Btu/bhp-min at 3000 rpm.
The first two full-load runs gave slightly less output. The increase in
output with running time may reflect reduction of friction in the engine,
which accumulated about 58 test hours. The earlier runs showed:
1452 bhp (1083 kW) 10 Mar 89 (test 25) with Merriam air
consumption measurement.
1454 bhp (1085 kW) 24 Apr 89 (test 81) with MNU nozzles used
for engine air consumption measurement.
The engine air consumption is shown in Figure 5-5. These curves were drawn
using new calibration data for the Merriam laminar flow elements and the MtU
furnished nozzles. These results are given with a standard air condition of
70F and 29.92 Hg pressure (21C and 760am Hg). Figure 5-6 shows full and
part-load air consumption.
Between run 25 (Merriam airflow measurement) and run 81 (MNU nozzle air-
flow measurement) the engine was rebuilt by MIll after the cylinder liner
failure. In run 25, the bank-to-bank intake manifold pressure was quite
even. In run 81 and run 97 (full-load heat rejection runs), the right bank
manifold pressure was about 12% lower than the left bank (see Appendix B for
the data), and the right bank airf low was down, as measured with the MTlU
nozzles. The left bank air consumption in this run showed reasonable
aggreement with the Merriam results. Therefore, it appears that some
bank-to-bank unbalance anomaly caused a reduction in the right bank air
consumption. This was not serious, showing no significant effect on
performance or exhaust smoke.
Thus it appears that the run 25 Merriam air consumption results are valid.
All the performance runs were made under NATO standard conditions, unless
otherwise stated as follows:
Fuel MIL-F-46162C containing 1% sulphur
Lubricant MIL-L-2104D 15W-40
Coolant out temperature 96 C (205 F)
Fuel Temperature 25 C (86 F)
Inlet air depression (at rated power) 25 mbar (10" H20)
Exhaust back pressure (at rated power) 40 mbar (16" H20)
Inlet air temperature 25 C (77 F)
coolant to aftercoolers (from MIU) 63 C (145 F)

16
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Figure 5-2. MTU MT883 FullI-Load Performance, Torque

18
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Figure 5-4. MRJ MT883 Full-Load Heat Rejection to Coolant

20
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Figure 5-6. MTU MT883 Full-& Part-Load Air Consumption

22
5.3. Engine Part-Load Performance - Fuel Map
The fuel map for the MT883 engine is shown in Figure 5-7. This is quite
competitive with comparable diesel engines recently evaluated.
5.4. Engine Performance With Higher Inlet Air Restriction
Performance runs with higher inlet air restriction are shown in Figure
5-8. The higher restriction had little effect on output. Exhaust smoke
showed very little change in opacity, all runs showing 16% to 17% opacity
(3 Bosch units) at 1400 rpm.
5.5. Engine Performance with Higher Fuel Temperatures
Engine performance with higher fuel temperatures is shown in Figure
5-9 at 25 C (77 F) air temperature and Figure 5-10 at 49 C (120 F) air
temperature. The MTU electronic fuel control was programed to reduce
fuel flow with increasing fuel temperatures. Smoke readings increased
slightly with 79 C (175 F) fuel, with 11% opacity (approx. 2.7 Bosch
units) at 1800 rpm at 25 C (77 F) ambient air, and 16% opacity (approx
3.3 Bosch units) at 49 C (120 F) ambient air.
5.6. Engine Performance with Increased Exhaust Restriction
Figure 5-11 shows engine performance with standard exhaust restriction of
40 mbar (16"H20) and 60 mbar (24" H20). The increased restriction had very
little effect on performance. The smoke readings increased slightly with
11% opacity maximum (approx 2.7 Bosch units) at 1800 rpmn.
5.7. Engine Performance With Typical Vehicle Installation Temperatures
The MTU engine uses a second radiator in a vehicle installation to further
cool the aftercoolers. In the laboratory test set up, it would be easy to
overcool the aftercoolers, so data from MTU was used to establish realistic
aftercooler temperatures. Since this data also showed some temperatures
(such as coolant outlet and fuel) varying from NATO conditions, these
temperatures were used to run a set of engine performance curves to the
conditions shown in Table 5-1. The curves are shown in Figures 5-12 and
5-13.
Table 5-1. Typical Vehicle Temperatures
C/F C/F C/F C/F C/F
Ambient Air
Temperature 25/77 38/100 43/110 49/120 54/130
Engine Coolant
Outlet 85/185 93/200 98/209 104/219 106/223
Coolant into
Aftercoolers 57/135 63/145 66/151 72/162 73/163
Fuel Temperature
Inlet 41/105 53/127 58/136 64/147 69/156

23
MTU MT 883
SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION - FUEL MAP
STANDARD NATO CONDITIONS

POWER (kW) BHP


.348 .350
212 213 80

.342' 209 t .3340


/-L -
2

900.. . 1200

.30
750 ii -1000

450 // [ 600

300 /3 8 400

150 200

0 0
1400 1800 2200 2600 3000

3-1-9Tet 9ENGINE SPEED (rpm) U.S.ARMY TACOM

Figure 5-7. MT-U MTBS3 Engine Specif ic Fuel Consumption

24
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Figure 5-9. MWU MT883 Ful l-Load Power Fuel Temperatures


-Higher

25 C (77 F) Air Temperature


26
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Figure 5-10. MTIh MT883 Full-Load Power - Higher Fuel Temperatures


49 C (120 F) Air Temperature

27
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28
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Figure 5-12. MTU MT883 Full-Load Power - Vehicle Temperatures

29
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30I
5.8. Engine Performance with Jet A (JP8) Fuel - NATO Standard Conditions

Figure 5-14 shows the performance with Jet A fuel, simulating JP8 fuel:

1321 bhp (985 kW) at 3000 r/min


2909 ft-lb (3944 Nm) torque at 2000 r/min, for about 10% loss
from the ouput with DF-2 fuel.

5.9. Acceleration Runs On Cell 3 Dynamometer


Acceleration runs were made on the Cell 3 dynamometer for comparison with
runs to be made with the other NATO source engines on the same setup.
5.9.1. Constant-Speed Picking Up Load
At constant speed, the MTU electronic fuel control would not provide a
no-load condition, so these runs were made from 700 ft-lb (950 NM) to
2500 ft-lb (3390 NM) torque. Table 5-2 shows the results, and the curves
are shown in Figures 5-15, 5-16, and 5-17.
Table 5-2. Constant-Speed Picking Up Load

1600 r/min from 700 ft-lb to 2500 ft-lb torque


(950 NM to 3390 Nm torque) 4.2 seconds
2100 r/min same 3.0 seconds

2600 rpm same 2.9 seconds


5.9.2. Acceleration-1400 rpm Idle to 2500 ft-lb(3390 Nm) Torque-3 Speeds

In the second set-of runs from idle to various speeds with load, it was
necessary to start the acceleration from 1400 r/min tactical idle, due to
the MTU electronic control program. Table 5-3 shows the results, and the
curves are shown in Figures 5-18, 5-19, and 5-20.
Table 5-3. ACCELRATION FROM 1400 r/min TACTICAL IDLE TO 2500 ft-lb
(3390 Nm) TORQUE - 3 SPEEDS - see Figures 5-18, 5-19, and 5-20.

1400 r/min to 1600 r/min 4.7 seconds


1400 r/min to 2100 r/min 6.5 seconds

1400 r/min to 2600 r/min 8.0 seconds

Figure 5-21 shows an acceleration test plot from MITJ with a Renk
transmission. The inertia behind the transmission was higher, but with
the first-gear transmission ratio, the equivalent inertia at the engine
was roughly half that of the Cell 3 dynamoneter. This plot shows the
engine and transmission system accelerating from 1100 r/min to 2600
engine r/min in approximately 3.4 seconds.

31
NtC\i
0 0

02
___- ~ LL 0 <

oO i
C
a60
1Co OD
NC)C

CO

U_ 0

CMW
O- ___ 00)
Ow
0
LL 0 J
0

0 /
0 c0 -
03 0

0
M Z C:)

0~C 0)NCOC

Figure 5-14. MTW MT883 Full-Load Power -JPB (Jet A) Fuel

32
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
O 0

+
E LO 0
C

a.
LU CrL:

Zo
LU- 0 +. 0
0 0
z I-- Nz

WO
-z ... >c
0

: 010
COO+
LLLU

CO,
-w o +

0 + 0
zz

LU I

0
0 C
0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0

0O14 CO C~j

Figure 5-15. MTh MT883 Engine Acceleration - Picking Up Load - 1600 rpm

33
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
aO 0

+
CO)

O Lu +3
0 D
-. 0
0a +
0 0
z

-o 0
WC%
COC

C)
ZDZ

++
34
- 0I
()
C)
z O +
0 j 04 0
00
z
U
U
0
0 C\I
00
o 0 0 0 0 0 t
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
IC) 41 C') N~

Figure 5-16. MTU MT883 Engine Acceleration -Picking Up Load --2100 rpm

34
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
CO 0

.0

-- 4

06 0

CDO 0
CO~ -O

I-- __0 0o
.... - H
coo
OD C

i-a00I+ 0 0

no0 0
CO 0 - C/)
LU0L
I (D

oU Cd)

LUU

z~0
00L
0 0 00)

0 0 0 0 0 0
0. 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
(CI~ CO C~i

Figure 5-17. MTh MT883 Engine Acceleration - Picking Up Load - 2600 rpm

35
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0

0
o6 + 0

COD
U1-

L
0

Cr)r

CO 000 : w: 01
o
CID Z'D oj0, +
Q 0

00 H
C

0 Nt

+ 00 O
0 -40)
0

o 0( 0

0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
LO CO) C~i

Figure 5-18. MTU MT883 Engine Acceleration- 1400 to 1600 rpm

36
o 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0

0 0

1+
CO

0- ED

oO +
ce) OC)
w
F- 2 - w ..
....
IC- cc - 0

QC
0O C
00 0
To - - .

CM +

0
0g
COJ

W 0)

z CO

uC 1-
0)

Er 0
o~ID
F- 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
LO I CO)C~

Figure 5-19. MTh MT883 Engine Acceleration - 1400 to 2100 rpm

37
0 0 0
oO 0
0 0
0

E F
CL

6 0
G)

CEC
0
0 +

CO
w oo + -.
CC) Ir kDC
0.0

z
00 9LCC_
,
Co H

Z)Wo
E,- \ CO
0

U IO

FU r _ __ CM
o
D 3 00

o C
to

0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0

Figure 5-20. MTU MT1883 Engine Accelerat ion - 1400 to 2600 rpm

38
E E MVO

._ 1. .1 U .11

z E' E -- -- iTA

E E 4 ASUL.

U-
. . .

WOGL

00
o ~ ~Ull

I ..' .5 - I. . i.
C U2

. --

zt *g '~ II
- -- I
F M

ds z. PA *l'

Fiur 5-1 .UM83EnieAclrto ihRn rnmsi

~3
5.10. MTU MT883 Engine Test Program, Analysis of Failed Cylinder Liner
The MTU test engine was received from General Motors Military Vehicles
Operation on 7 December 1988. Design and fabrication of the propshaft
adaptor, front mount crossmember, etc., took place during December and
January 1989. The engine was moved into Cel 1 3 on 6 February and
installation began.
At this time, meetings were held with GM-MVO and MINI personnel to
finalize the test plan, which is shown in Appendix A.
Hook up and instrumentation was completed the first week of March, and
the engine first ran on 6 March 1989, with MIN personnel supervising.
MTU personnel also hooked up the electronic engine controls. The engine
had previously been run in at MII.
The first TACOM data was taken on 8 March, with GM-MVO and MINI personnel
in attendance, and they remained for the rest of the test program.
Table 5-4 shows the sequence of the test runs.
On 14 March, with the engine running at 2400 r/min on an inlet
restriction run, the left bank coolant outlet hose failed adjacent to
the insulated laboratory exhaust pipe. The engine was shut down
immediately, with a loss of about 5 gallons of coolant. The coolant
hoses were replaced, and a steel heat shield was added at the exhaust
pipe.
On 15 March, after two hours of additional running, a large increase of
crankcase blowby occurred at 2600 r/min, with a sudden increase in
coolant and crankcase pressures. Coolant was found in the oil pan, and
a borescope inspection indicated a cylinder liner crack in the 4B
cylinder. The engine had run 26.5 test hours at TAC(M. After
consultation with-MIT personnel, the engine was removed from the stand
and crated for shipment back to MIN on 17 March.
On 18 April, the engine was received from MU along with the 4B cylinder
failed parts. The liner had cracked on the major and minor thrust sides
in a "J" shaped vertical crack, down to the upper O-ring groove at the
bottom end, and the piston skirt had scuffed in these areas. The
connecting rod and bearing were OK. Photographs of these parts are
shown in Appendix D. All of the other cylinders had been found to be in
good condition, and the engine was rebuilt by MIU, with new liner,
piston, rings, connecting rod, etc, in the 4B cylinder. Test work
resumed on 21 April. On 25 April, during a hot fuel performance run,
the coolant outlet line parted at the sight glass joint with a loss of
about 10 gallons of coolant. A compression check indicated no damage
to the engine. Two 8 m (5/16 in.) rods were installed across
the sight glass joints. Tests resumed and were completed on 4 May 1989.

40
A report from MTU on its analysis of the 4B cylinder liner failure
stated that overheating caused the piston skirt to scuff, which then
resulted in the liner cracking. A variation in the cylinder head water
jacket coring at the glow plug, which is close to the exhaust valve
seats, restricted cooling flow in this area. The resulting distortion
of the seats caused loss of combustion air and excessive temperature
during combustion. An engineering change was made on the cylinder head
to insure sufficient cooling flow.

41
Table 5-4. MIr MT883 Engine Test Runs and Data Sheet Numbers
TACOC - Building 212 - Test Cell 3
TEST
NO. DAE TEST

16 3-8-89 Initial engine check out


23 3-10 Dynamometer and control system check out
25 3-10 Full-load performance with Merriam air flow
measurement
29 3-11 Part-load matrix 90-80-70-60-50-25% load
31 3-13 Inlet air restriction 10in. & 15in. H20
34 3-14 Inlet air restrict 20in. coolant hose failed
40 3-15 Inlet air restrict 25in, large blcwby increase,
#4B cylinder liner cracked
3-17 Engine shipped to MTU for inspection
4-18 Engine received from MIT
76 4-21 Engine checkout
81 4-24 Full-load performance with MIT nozzle air
measurement
82 4-24 Inlet air restriction 27in. limited by exhaust
temperature - 24in. exhaust restriction run
85 4-25 Hot fuel performance, water outlet parted
91 4-27 Hot fuel performance 10OF 120F 140F 175F fuel
92 4-28 Hot fuel performance at 120F ambient air,
120F 140F 175F fuel
93 5-1 MTU vehicle temperature performance at 77F
1OOF 110F 120F & 130F ambient air
94 5-2 Acceleration tests
95 5-2 Jet A fuel performance NATO conditions
96 5-3 Jet A fuel performance at 175F fuel temp
97 5-4 1500 bhp point and heat rejection on a
standard ful l-load performance
98 5-4 Idle run - no dynamometer shaft

Total TACC* engine run time - 57.7 hours

42
APPENDIX A

TEST PLAN

A-i
A-2
Propulsion Systems Division
MT-883 Test Program
Test Plan
PURPOSE:
To detenmine the military adaptability and performance
characteristics of the MTU MT883 V12 turbocharged diesel engine.

Outline of Tests
1. Install engine in cell 3 and prepare for tests

2. Install and calibrate instrumentation


3. Maintenance of equipment

4. Engine operating limits


5. Engine and instrumentation operational checkout

6. Performance tests
7. Heat rejection tests

8. Acceleration tests

Test Material
a. MT883 Ka-500 turbo charged diesel engine

1500 HP @ 3000 rpm


2840 lb ft torque @ 2000 rpm
Bore 144mn ------- 5.67"
Stroke 140 mm 5.51"
Displacement 27.36 liters 1670 cu. in.
90 V 12
Campression ratio - - approx 13 to 1
Engine dry weight 1840 kg 4048 lbs

b. Lubricating oil MIL Spec MIL-L-2104D 15W-40


c. Fuel

1. MIL-F-46162B (high sulphur .95 to 1.05% by veight)DF-2

2. Jet A-1

Test Equipmlent
Test cell 3, dynamcmeter, controls associated instrumentation and
equipment Building 212

A-3
Test Procedure - Outline of tests

1. Prepare engine for performance tests.

a. Obtain and record dry weight and dimensions of engine. Install engine
in test cell and connect to dynamometer Install connections to two (2) cooling
towers per MTU sheet 2, with smaller beat exchanger for charge air cooling
circuit. Make necessary fuel, exhaust and intake air connections. The 12"
Berkley opacity meter will be used for amoke readings.

b. Install all required thermocuples, pressure lines, speed and load cell
connections. Install warning lights, shut-down system for critical temperature,
pressure and RPM limits on engine and dynanmaeter equipment.
c. Prepare orifices and calibrate for 10 and 20 CFM max blowby flow
(Not to exceed 15" H20 crankcase pressure.)
d. Please provide:

(1) Sight glasses in Engine water outlet and charge air coolant circuits

(2) Vent lines in coolant system as instructed.

(3) Exhaust back pressure control.

2. Instrumentation - Install and calibrate instrumentation to obtain and


record data at each specified condition.

Parameters From Contract Expected Values

1. RPM 0-3000 RPM full load to 3300 RPM


no load for brief governor
check only
2. Torque 3850 Nrn+5%/2000 RPM 2840 * ft
3. Fuel Flow 263 kg/Er max 579 #/hr max
4. Fuel Temp at Inj Pump Inlet Up to 46 C 115 F
5. Fuel Press at Inj Pump Inlet 4.5 bar 65psi
6. Air Flow (Total) 1.9 Kg/s 3275 CFM
7. Air Ambient Tmp Typical
8. Air Ambient Pressure Typical
9. Air Temp After Air Cleaner* (same as --
11)
10. Air Pressure After Air Cleaner L&R -
*(same as 12)
11. Air Temp Before Turbo t&R Typical
12. Air Pressure Before Turbo L&R Typical
13. Air Tamp after turbo EAR --
14. Air Press after turbo E&R -
15. Air Temp Intake Manifold EAR 210 C 195 F 410 F Max
16. Air Pressure Intake Manifold EAR 2.1 bar 62" hg

A-4
17. Oil Pressure in Gallery 7 bar 102 psi
18. Oil Temperature OIl Gallery 125 C 257 F
19. Oil Temp Sump (Tank) 125 C
20. Oil Temp Cooler In * (Sane as 19) --
21. Engine Coolant Pressure pump dis- 4.3 bar 62 psi
charge
22. Engine Coolant Temp Out 97 C 207F
23. Engine Coolant Temp in (coolant typical
into charge air heat exchanger
is sae)
24. Coolant Temp from charge air heat Up to 80C 176F
exchanger
25. Engine Coolant/Water Heat Exchanger --
a. Water Flow
b. Water Temp In
c. Water Temp Out
26. Aftercooler coolant/water heat ex-
changer:
a. Water Flow
b. Water Temp In
c. Water Tmp Out
27. Temp In Stack Turbocharger discharge 600 C max 1112F
28. Pressure In Stack 0 - 40 mbar 0-18"H 0
29. Smo1w opacity readings 0-38% max (0-4.5 Boch)
30. Blowby (Flow-CFM) 0-20 CFM
31. Pressure - crankcase 0 - 15"H 2 0
32. Cellmate Acquisition Sys, record
data on diskettes
33. In Line Shaft Torque Sensor to be
used for Acceleration Tests
34. Exhaust Port Temperatures

3. Maintenance of Equipment

a. Change oil every 100 hours

(1) 8 oz oil sample every 100 hours

(2) 2 oz oil sample every 10 hours.

b. record oil used

c. replace fuel & oil filters and air cleaner elements every 100
hours.
4. Engine Operating Limits and Adjustments

a. Oil temperature: 240 F warning


255 F max manual return to idle
b. Oil pressure-idle 25 psi warning
20 psi shutdown
Oil pressure - normal operation
normal pressure 80-90 psi
30 psi warning
25 psi shutdown
A-5
c. Oell air temp - specified for each test

d. Coolant outlet temp

normal 205 F
warning 215 F
return to idle above 220 F
coolant inlet to pump psi

e. Fuel temp into engine 86 + 5 F except as otherwise specified

f. Exhaust back pressure at rated conditions 16 + 2" H20

g. Crankcase pressure maximum 15" H20

h. Maximum fuel flow 580 #/HR


i. Inlet air depression into turbochargers 10 + 2" H20 at rated
conditions

j. Exhaust outlet temperature after turbocharger 1200 F max


5. Engine instrumentation and operational checkout

a. Engine will be run to check for leaks, proper operation of all


instrumentation channels, recording and printout systems and any other
problems. The engine has already been run-in. Do not run engine at 1200
rpm - manufacturer's specification.

b. operational checkout will be conducted according to the following


schedule. Monitor blow-by in CFM and/or pressure during deckout. Do not
continue test if blow-by exceeds allowed maximum. For each checkout
period take complete data and record on log sheet.
TIME EIGINE
IN SPEED TORQUE
HOURS RPM LB. - FT.

1/4 1,100 idle*


1/4 1,400 idle
1/4 1,60 100
1/4 1,800 200
1/4 2,000 600
1/4 2,200 1,000
1/4 2,400 1,500
1/4 2,600 2,000
1/4 2,800 2,400
1/4 3,00 Full Pack
*If rough running or prop shaft noise occurs, run 1400 rpm. Higher loads
at the low speeds can be used if necessary to maintain stable operation.

A-6
c. Check governor and adjust if necessary at full load and no load to
limit the maximum engine speed as follows:
Full load 3,000 RPM
No load 3,300 RPM max

6. Performance Tests

a. Run full and part-load performance tests as specified below, the


full load runs to be at increasing and decreasing speeds. Tale all the
data previously specified so that heat rejection can be evaluated for any
run.

Fuel: MIL-F-46162B, containing 1% sulphur


Fuel pressure to engine 65 + 3 psi

Lubricant: MIL-L-2104D, 15W-40 AMOCO 300 oil


NATO standard conditions:
Coolant out tamp 205 + 5 F
Coolant to aftercoolers 145 + 5 F
Fuel temp to engine 86 + 5 F
Inlet Air Depression @ rated power 10 + 2" H 0
Exhaust Back Pressure @ rated power 16 + 2" H2 0
2
Test points to be run at 77 F ambient air in the matrix below:

LOAD RPM

100% 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000

90% x x x x x x x x x
80% x x x x x x x x x
70% x x x x x x x x
60% x x x x x x x x x
50% x x x x x x x x x
25% x x x x x x x x x
0% x x x x x x x x x

b. Run full load performance with NATO standard conditions, except


inlet air restriction at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35" H2 0.

c. Run full load performance, NATO conditions, except fuel inlet


temperatures of 100 F, 120 F, 140 F and 175 F. Repeat with 120 F ambient
air temperature and fuel inlet temperatures of 120 F, 140 F and 175 F.

d. Run full-load performance at NATO standard conditions except


exhaust restriction at 24" H2 0.

e. Run full-load performance with temperatures as shown for a typical


vehicle installation as furnished by MTU: (Not NATO conditions)

A-7
Cell
Ambient Engine Aftercooler Fuel Temp
Air Temp Coolant out Coolant In Into injectors
77 F 185 F 135 F 105 F
100 200 145 127
110 209 151 136
120 219 162 147
130 223 163 156
f. Run full load performance with Jet A-I fuel at NATO standard
conditions.
7. Acceleration Tests - Using the in-line shaft torque sensor, run full-
load acceleration tests, with the dynamameter set at constant speed.
Record time for engine to go fram minimum light load to full load at:

1600 rpm
2100 rp
2600 rpm

2-- FS S

A-8
APPENDIX B

SAMPLE DATA SHEETS

B-i
B-2
TYPICAL DATA - PERFORMANCE RUN - MTU MT883 ENGINE
RUN 97 - STANDARD NATO CONDITIONS

SPEED
rpm 2998 2599 2199 2000 1803 1597

POWER
bhp 1465 1440 1362 1251 1054 799
kW 1093 1074 1016 933 786 596

TORQUE
ft-lb 2567 2911 3255 8287 3072 2630
Nm 3480 3947 4413 4456 4165 3566

BSFC
Ib/bhph .371 .359 .351 .347 .341 .344
gm/kWh 226 218 213.5 211 207 209

INTAKE AIR TEMP


Deg F 72 F 75 72 76 74 74
Deg C 22 C 24 22 24 23 23

COOLANT OUT TEMP


Deg F 200 F 201 200 201 201 201
Deg C 93 C 94 93 94 94 94

OIL SUMP TEMP


Deg F 237 F 229 225 224 215 210
DEG C 114 C 109 107 107 102 99

EXH TEMP
Deg F 1113 F 1112 1175 1211 1231 1231
Deg C 601 C 600 635 655 666 666

EXH BACK PRES


In H20 14.7 11.7 8.5 6.9 4.2 2.2
mbar 37 29 21 17 10.5 5.5
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B-24-
APPENDIX C

FUEL &OIL ANALYSIS

C-1
C-2
BELVOIR FUELS AND LUBRICANTS RESEARCH FACILITY (SwRI)
6220 CULEBRA ROAD-P.O.DRAWER 28510 PH:512-684-5111 SAN ANTONIOTEXAS 78284

BFLRF
File: 02-1955-180
05 September 1989

Commander
U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Command (TACOM)
Attn: AMSTA-RGE (Mr. Lewakowski)
Warren, Michigan 48397-5000
Subject: Inspection Tests on Fuel Samples

Dear Sir:

Two fuel samples were received from TACOM, a sample of Jet A fuel, simulating JP-8
(AL-18934-F) and a sample of MIL-F-46162, high-sulfur referee fuel (AL-18935-F). These
samples were analyzed to determine if they conformed to their respective specifications. The
enclosed Table 1 shows the results for AL-18934-F and Table 2 shows the results for AL-
18935-F.

The Jet A fuel met all JP-8 specification requirements with the exception of the smoke point
and the fuel conductivity. The extremely low conductivity indicates that the fuel contains
insufficient conductivity additive.

The high-sulfur fuel had a high accelerated stability result. This test was rerun and the high
result was confirmed. The cetane number also tested slightly high. Since the precision of the
cetane number test is ± two numbers, this is probably not of great concern. The fuel tested
negative for nitrate-type cetane improver additive.

Should you have any questions on this matter, please call Steve Westbrook at (512) 522-
3185 or Sid Lestz at (512) 522-2582.

Very truly yours,

S.J. Lestz, Director

S.R. Westbrook
Senior Research Scientist
SJL/SRWIap (SRW.L)
Enclosure
cf: U.S. Army Belvoir Research, Development and Engineering Center, Attn:
STRBE-VF, Messrs. M.E. LePera, F.W. Schaekel, and T.C. Bowen

C-3
Table 1. Properties of Jet A (Simulating JP-8) From TACOM

ASTM
Test MIL.T-83133C
Property Method Requirements AL- 18934-F

Appearance D 4176 Clear & Bright Clear & Bright


Color D 156 Report +16
Total Acid Number, mg KOH/g D 3242 0.015, max 0.009
Aromatics, vol% D 1319 25, max 17.1
Olefins, vol% D 1319 5.0, max 2.0
Sulfur, total, wt% XRF (a) 0.30, max 0.13
Mercaptan Sulfur, wt% D 3227 0.002, max 0.001
Distillation, 00 D 86
Initial Boiling Point Report 170
10% recovered 204, max 187
20% recovered Report 193
50% recovered Report 210
90% recovered Report 251
End Point 300, max 291
Residue, vol% 1.5, max 0.5
Loss, vol% 1.5, max 0
Flash Point, OC D 56 38, min 48
Gravity, API D 1298 37-51 43.2
Density, kgIL D 1298 0.775-0.840 0.8096
Freeze Point, CC D 2386 -47, max -46
Kin. Viscosity at -200C, cSt D 445 8.0, max 5.08
Kin. Viscosity at 400'C, cSt D 445 NR (b) 1.42
Hydrogen Content, wt% D 3701 13.4, min 13.7
Net Heat of Combustion, MJ/kg D 240 42.8, min 42.875
.BTU/Ib 18,400, min 18,433
Smoke Point, mm D 1322 25, min 21.7
Copper Corrosion D 136 1, max la
Thermal Stability (JFrOT), D 3241
Visual Code <3 1
Change in Pressure Drop, mnmfHg 25, max 0
Existent Gum, mgt100 mL D 381 7.0, max 0.9
Particulate Matter, mg/L D 2276 1.0, max 0.6
Filtration Time, minutes Appendix A 15, max ND (c)
Water Reaction, Interface D 1094
Rating lb, max 1
Water Separation Index, MSEP D 3948 70, min (d) 84
Fuel System Icing Inhibitor (e) 0.10-0.15 <0.01
Conductivity, pS/m D 4308 150-600 16
Cetane Index D 976 Report 46.9
Cetane Number D 613 NR 47.3

(a) X-Ray Fluorescence


(b) No Requirement
(c) Not Determined
(d) 85 minimum with all additives except corrosion inhibitor/lubricity improver additive
and the static dissipator additive.
(e) FED-STD-791, Method 5340
(SRW L) C-4
TABLE 2. Analyses of Referee Grade Diesel Fuel (MIL-F.46162C) Sample

ASTM MIL-F-46162C
Properties Test Method Requirements AL-18935-F
Density, kg/L at 150 C D 1298 Report 0.8741
Gravity, 0API D 1298 NR (a) 30.3
Flash Point, 0 C D 93 Report 78
Distillation, 0C D 86
Initial Boiling Point Report 203
10% Recovered 220, min 226
50% Recovered 255 to 305 272
90% Recovered 310 to 360 338
95% Recovered 315 to 365 362
End Point 385, max 386
Residue, vol% 3, max 0.5
Sulfur, wt% X-Ray 0.95 to 1.05 1.04
Fluorescence
Accelerated Stability,
Total Insolubles,
mg/100 mL D 2274 1.5, max 2.3
Cetane Index (b) D 976 37 to 43 40.9
Cetane Number (b) D 613 37 to 43 45.5
Kinematic Viscosity at
400C, cSt D 445 1.9 to 4.1 3.36
Cloud Point, 0C D 2500 -13, max -23
Pour Point, 0 C D 97 -18, max -29
Particulate Contamination,
mg/L (0.8 pum filter) D 2276, modified, 10, max 1.7
(Appendix A2)
Volume filtered, L 1 1
Ash, wt% D 482 0.02, max 0.002
Carbon Residue, 10%
Bottoms, wt% D 524 0.20, max 0.16
Neutralization No.,
mg KOH/g D 974 0.2, max 0.14
Copper Corrosion at
500C D 130 1, max 1A
Net Heat of Combustion,
MJ/kg D 240 Report 42.193
Aromatics, vol% D 1319 Report 42.7
Cetane Improver Appendix Report Neg

(a) NR = No Requirement.
(b) D 613 is the preferred method but either is acceptable, provided fuel does not contain cetane
improver.

C-5

(SRW.L)
BELVOIR FUELS AND LUBRICANTS RESEARCH FACILITY (SwRI)
6220 CULEBRA ROAD-P.O.DRAWER 28510 PH:512-4-5111 SAN ANTONIO.TEXAS 7834

BFLRF

File: 02-1955-180
02 August 1989

Commander
U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Command
Attn. AMSTA-RGRD,.Mr. Ellsworth C. Adams
Warren, Michigan 48397-5000

Subject Analysis of MIL-L-2104 15W-40 Reference Oil

Dear Sir:

A sample of Army reference oil, MIL-L-2104, grade 15W-40, designated AL-18886-L, was analyzed,
and the properties were compared against the blending tolerances for this product.

The data are presented in the following table:

MC-2777
Property AL-18886-L Tolerances Comment

Viscosity, 100 0C, cSt 13.05 13.25-14.25 Low


Viscosity, 40"C, eSt 101.68 91.0-121.0 OK
Flash Point, *C 237 215 min OK
Sulfated Ash, wt% 0.79 0.88-1.18 Low

Elements, wt%

Sulfur 0.78 0.46-0.70 High


Phosphorus 0.08 0.126-0.168 Low
Calcium 0.12 0.15-0.20 Low
Zinc 0.09 0.149-0.192 Low
Nitrogen 0.038 0.059 min Low
Magnesium 0.042 0.050-0.066 Low
Boron 5 ppm Trace OK
Copper NIL NIL OK

C-6
APPENDIX D

PHOTOGRAPHS

MWU MT883 ENGINE

D-1
D-2_
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c2
-4

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D-16
DISTRIBUTION LIST

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