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# Vidyamandir Classes Differential Calculus - 2

Differential Calculus - 2
DERIVATIVE AS THE RATE OF CHANGE Section - 1

dy
1.1 or derivative as the rate of change
dx
If a variable quantity y is some function of time t i.e., y = f (t), then small change in time t has a corre-
sponding change y in y.
y
Thus, the average rate of change =
t
When limit t  0 is applied, the rate of change becomes instantaneous and we get the rate of change of
y w.r.t. time at an instant.
y dy
i.e., lim 
t  0 t dt
Hence, it is clear that the rate of change of any variable with respect to some other variable is derivative
of first variable with respect to other variable.

dy  dy 
Note : (i) The value of at x = x0 i.e.   represents the rate of change of y with respect to x at
dx  dx  x  x0
x = x0.
dy
dy dt dx
(ii) If x =  (t) and y =  (t), then  , provided that  0.
dx dx dt
dt
(iii) Throughout this chapter, the term “rate of change” will mean the instantaneous rate of change unless
stated otherwise.

## Illustrating the Concepts :

If the radius of a circle be increasing at a uniform rate of 2 cm/sec, find the rate of increasing of
area of circle, at the instant when the radius is 20 cm.

dr
Given  2 cm/sec [where r radius and t time]
dt
Now, area of circle is given by A = r2

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## Differentiating with respect to time t we get,

dA dr dA dA
 2r   2 · 20 · 2 cm2/sec   80 cm2/sec
dt dt dt dt
Thus, rate of change of area of circle with respect to time is 80 cm2/sec.

Illustration - 1 1 3
If s  t  6t , find the acceleration at the time when the valocity becomes zero is :
2
(A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 6 (D) 12
SOLUTION : (C)
We know displacement s is given by, To find acceleration when velocity = 0
1
s  t3  6t 3t 2
2  60
2
Thus velocity,
 t2 = 4  t = 2 sec.
ds  3 t 2 
Thus acceleration when velocity is zero is,
v   6  unit/sec . . . (i)
dt  2 
  a = 3 t unit/sec2 = 6 unit/sec2
and acceleration,

dv d 2 s
a   (3 t ) unit/sec2 . . . (ii)
dt dt 2

Illustration - 2 A particle moves along the curve, 6y = x3 + 2. The point(s) on the curve at which the
y-coordinate is changing 8 times as fast as the x-coordinate is (are) :
 5  31 
(A)  2,  (B) (4, 11) (C) ( 2,  1) (D)  4, 
 3  3 
SOLUTION : (BD)
dy dx
Let the required point be P (x, y). It is given that  6  3x 2
Rate of change of y coordinate = 8 (Rate of change dt dt
of x-coordinate) [Differentiating both sides w.r.t. t]
 dx  dx

dy
8
dx
. . . (i)
 6  8   3x2 [using (i)]
dt dt  dt  dt
Now, 6y = x3 + 2  3x2 = 48  x2 = 16
 x=±4

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Now, x = 4  6y = 64 + 2 = 66 31
 y
 y = 11 and, x = – 4 3
 6y = (– 4)3 + 2 = – 62 So, the required points are (–4, –31/3)
and (4, 11).

Illustration - 3 A man 2 metres high, walks at a uniform speed of 6 metres per minute away from a lamp
post, 5 metres high. The rate at which the length of his shadow increases is :
(A) 3 m/min (B) 4 m/min (C) 6 m/min (D) 8 m/min
SOLUTION : (B)
Let AB be the lamp-post. Let at any time t, the dy
 4
man CD be at a distance x metres from the lamp- dt
post and y metres be the length of his shadow CE. B
Then,
dx
 6 metres/minute [Given] . . . (i)
dt
Clearly, triangles ABE and CDE are similar.
D
AB AE 5 xy
   
CD CE 2 y
 3y = 2x
dy dx x y
 3 2
dt dt A C E
dy
 3  2 (6) [using (i)] Thus, the shadow increases at the rate of 4 metres/
dt
minute.

Illustration - 4 Water is dripping out from a conical funnel at a uniform rate of 4 cm3/sec through a tiny
hole at the vertex in the bottom. When the slant height of the water is 3 cm, the rate of decrease of the slant
height of the water-cone. ( Given that the vertical angle of the funnel is 120° ).
32 32 32
(A) cm / sec (B) cm / sec (C) (D) None of these
9 27 9 3

SOLUTION : (B)
Let at any time t, V be the volume of the water in the cone i.e., the volume of the water-cone VAB, and let
l be the slant height. Then,

l 3 1
OA = l sin 60° = and VO = l cos 60° = .
2 2

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2 A O B
1  l 3   l  l 3
 V =     
3  2   2  8

O
dV 3 l 2 dl
 = . . . (i) A B
dt 8 dt
dV
We are given that = – 4 cm3/sec 60° 60°
dt
[negative sing due to decreasing V].
V
3 2 dl
 4 l
8 dt When l = 3, we have
dl  32  32
 dV    cm/sec
 Putting dt   4 in (i)  dt 3 (3)2 27 
 
Thus, the slant height of the water-cone is decreas-
dl 32
  32
dt 3 l 2 ing at the rate of
27
cm/sec.

Illustration - 5 A variable triangle is inscribed in a circle of radius R. If the rate of change of a side is R
times the rate of change of the opposite angle, then that angle is

## (A) /6 (B)  /4 (C) /3 (D) /2

SOLUTION : (C)
Let the side be BC = a and A be the opposite angle.
A
a
Then, R
2 sin A
 a = 2R sin A R
da dA
  2 R cos A O
dt dt R R
dA dA  da dA 
 R  2 R cos A .  as dt  R dt  B C
dt dt  
1 
 cos A   A
2 3

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## 1.2 Errors and Approximations

(a) Errors
Let y = f (x)
y dy
From definition of derivative, lim 
 x  0 x dx

y dy  dy 
 approximately or y    . x approximately
x dx  dx 
Definition :
(i) x is known as absolute error in x.
x
(ii) is known as relative error in x.
x
x
(iii)  100 is known as percentage error in x.
x
(b) Approximations
From definition of derivative,
f ( a  x)  f ( a )
As Derivative of f (x) at (x = a) = f  (a) or f  ( a )  lim
x  0 x

or f ( a  x )  f ( a ) (approximately)
 f  (a )
x
f (a + x) = f (a) + x f  (a) (approximately)

## Illustrating the Concepts :

Use differentials to approximate the cube root Now, y = x1/3
of 127. dy 1
 
Since we have to find the approximate value of the dx 3x 2/3
cube root of 127. So, we consider the function dy 1 1 1
     
y = f (x) = x1/3.  dx  x  125 3(125) 2/3 3
3 (5 ) 2/3 75
Let x = 125 and x + x = 127. Then, dy
Now, y  x
x = 127 – 125 = 2. dx
For x = 125, we have 1 2
 y  (2) 
y = (125)1/3 = 5. 75 75
[Putting x = 125 in y x1/3] 2
 y  [as y  dy]
75
2
Hence, (127)1/3 = y + y = 5 + = 5.026
75

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Illustration - 6 The percentage error in calculating the volume of a cubical box if an error of 1% is made
in measuring the length of edges of the cube is :

## (A)  (B)  (C)  (D) 

SOLUTION : (C)
Let x be the length of an edge of the cube and y be dy 3x 2
  dx
its volume. Then, y = x3. Let x be the error in x y y
and y be the corresponding error in y. Then, dy 3x 2
  dx [as y = x3]
x y x3
 100  1 (given)
x dy dx
dx  3
  100  1 [as dx x] . . . (i) y x
x
y dy  dx 
We have to find  100 .   100  3   100   3 [using (i)]
y y  x 
dy y
Now, y = x3   3x 2   100  3 [as dy = y]
dx y
dy So, there is 3% error in calculating the volume of
 dy  dx  dy  3 x 2 . dx
dx the cube.

Illustration - 7 The time T of a complete oscillation of a simple pendulum of length l is given by the
l
equation. T  2 ,
g
where g is constant. What is the percentage error in T when l is increased by 1%?
1
(A)  (B)  (C)  (D) None of these
2
SOLUTION : (B)
dT 1 dl T ~ dT
Let l be the change in l and T be the corre-   as  , we have
T 2 l l dl
sponding error in T. Then,
l T 1 l dT 1  dl 
 100  1 (given)    100    100 
l T 2 l T 2 l 
dl dT 1
  100  1 [as dl l] . . . (i)  100 
l  [using (i)]
T 2
Now, l T 1
T  2  100 
g  [as dT T]
T 2
 log T = log 2 + (1/2) log l – (1/2) log g So, there is (1/2)% error in calculating the time period
T.

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Illustration - 8 A balloon is in the form of right circular cylinder of radius 1.5 m and length 4 m and is
surmounted by hemispherical ends. If the radius is increased by 0.01 m and the length by 0.05 m, the approxi-
mate percentage change in the volume of the balloon is :
(A)  (B)  (C)  (D) 2.8 %
SOLUTION : (B)
If r be the radius and h the height of the cylinder. V  r ( r  h  2 h  r  4 r  r )
 =
V  4 
 r  r h  r2 
 3 
1.5 cm
r  h  2hr  4r r
4 cm =
4
r h  r2
3
2 3 2 3 1.5  0.05  2  4  0.01  4  1.5  0.01
Volume V   r 2 h  r  r =
3 3 4
1.5  4  (1.5) 2
3
4 3  4 r3 
  r2 h   r =  r2 h   0.215
3  3  =
9
2 4
V = ( r ) h  h (2 r  r )   (3r 2 ) r V 0.215 21.5
3   100 =  100 
V 9 9
 r  h + 2  r h  r + 4  r2  r
2
= 2.389%

Illustration - 9 If the sides and angles of a plane triangle vary in such a way that its circumradius remains
da db dc
constant, then that    (where da, db, dc are small increments in the sides a, b, c respec-
cos A cos B cos C
tively )
(A) R (B) 2 R (C)  (D) None of these
SOLUTION : (C) da
Since in a triangle A + B + C =  or  2 R dA
cos A
 dA + dB + dC = 0 . . . (i)
If R is circumradius, then db dc
Similarly cos B  2 R dB and cos C  2 R dC
a b c
   2R
sin A sin B sin C da db dc
  
 a = 2R sin A cos A cos B cos C
On differentiating, we get
= 2 R ( dA  dB  dC )  0 [From (i)]
da = 2 R cos A dA
da db dc
Hence cos A  cos B  cos C  0.

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Differential Calculus - 2 Vidyamandir Classes

## TANGENT AND NORMAL Section - 2

2.1 Slope of tangent
Let y = f (x) be a continuous curve, and let P (x1, y1) be the point Y

dy
on it. Then   is the slope of tangent to the curve tangent
 dx ( x1 , y1 )
y = f (x) at a point P. P (x1, y1)
 dy 
    tan  = slope of tangent at P. 
X
 dx  P O
Where  is the angle which the tangent at P (x1, y1) makes with normal
the positive direction of x-axis as shown in the figure.
Note : (i) If tangent is parallel to x-axis  = 0°  tan  = 0
 dy 
   0
 dx ( x1, y1 )
(ii) If tangent is perpendicular to x-axis (or parallel to y-axis) then
 = 90°  tan  or cot  = 0
 dx 
   0
 dy ( x1 , y1 )

## 2.2 Equation of tangent at (x0, y0) drawn to the curve y = f (x)

Consider a curve y = f (x) and a point P (x0, y0) on this curve.
The slope of tangent to the curve at a point P is derivative of f (x) at x = x0 i.e. f  (x0).
Hence the equation of tangent at P (x0, y0) is :
y – y0 = f (x0 ) [x – x0] [using slope point form of equation of the straight line]
If the tangent is parallel to x-axis then f  (x0) = 0.
If tangent is perpendicular to x-axis, then
1
f  (x0)   or 0
f  ( x0 )

## 2.3 Equation of normal at (x0, y0) drawn to the curve y = f (x)

Consider a curve y = f (x) and a point p (x0, y0) on this curve. The normal to a curve at a given point is a
line perpendicular to the tangent at point (x0, y0) and passing through (x0, y0).
Therefore the slope of normal to the curve at (x0, y0) is given by the following formula :

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Slope of tangent × Slope of normal = – 1 [because the two lines are perpendicular]
 Slope of normal = –1/(slope of tangent) = –1/(f (x0)
Hence the equation of normal at P (x0, y0) is :
1
y – y0 = (x – x0) [using slope point form of equation of the straight line]
f   x0 

## 2.4 Equation of tangent and normal in parametric form

Let the equation of the curve be expressed in the parameteric form x = g (t) and y =  (t) where t is the
parameter.
The equation of the tangent at a point P (t),
  t 
y   t    x  g  t   and
gt  
 g  t 
the equation of normal is y   t    x  g  t  
  t  
2.5 Angle of intersection of two curves
Let y = f (x) and y = g (x) be two curves intersecting at a point P (x0, y0). The slopes of the tangents to
these two curves at P are m1 = f  (x0) and m2 = g(x0) respectively. The angle of intersection of these
two curves is defined as the angle between the tangents to the two curves at their common point P.
Hence if  is the angle between the tangents, then
m1  m2 f   x0   g   x0 
tan  =   
1  m1m2 1  f   x0  g   x0 
If  = /2, then the two curves are said to cut each other orthogonally and the condition for this to happen
is :
m1 × m2 = – 1  f (x0) × g(x0) = – 1
If  = 0, then the two curves are said to touch each other and the condition for this to happen is :
m1 = m2  f (x0) = g(x0)

## 2.6 Tangent, Normal, Subtangent and Subnormal

Let the tangent and normal at a point P (x, y) on the curve y = f (x), meet the x-axis at T and N respec-
tively. If G is the foot of the ordinate at P, then TG and GN are called the cartesian subtangent and subnor-
mal, while the lengths PT and PN are called the lengths of the tangent and normal respectively.
dy
If PT makes an angle  with x-axis, then tan   .
dx

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## From the figure we can find that :

y Y
 Subtangent = TG = y cot  =
 dy 
 
 dx 
dy P
 Subnormal = GN = y tan  = y
dx
 Length of the tangent y

2 
 dy  O X
y 1   T G N
2  dx 
= PT = y cosec = y 1  cot   dy
dx
 Length of the normal
2
2  dy 
= PN = y sec = y 1  tan   y 1   
 dx 

Illustration - 10 The tangent to the curve y = cos (x + y), – 2 x  2 that is parallel to the line x + 2y = 0
is :
(A) 2x  4 y    0 (B) 2x  4 y    0
(C) 2 x  4 y  3  0 (D) 2 x  4 y  3  0
SOLUTION : (BC)
3 
Slope of tangent (s) = slope of line = – 1/2 in the given interval, we have x + y = ,
2 2
dy 1
 
dx 2 [Because – (2 + 1)  x + y  2 + 1]
Differentiating the given equation with respect to x, Substituting the value of (x + y) in the given curve
i.e. y = cos (x + y), we get :
dy  dy 
   sin  x  y  1   3 
dx  dx  y = 0 and x = ,
2 2
dy   sin  x  y   1 Hence the points of contact are

dx 1  sin  x  y  2
 3     1 
 2 sin (x + y) = 1 + sin (x + y)  , 0  and  , 0  and the slope is  
 2  2   2 
 sin (x + y ) = 1
 Equations of tangents are
 x + y = n + (–1)n /2, n  I
1  3  1  
 1 y–0= x   and y – 0 = x  
 x + y =  2n    2  2  2  2
 2
 2x + 4y + 3 = 0 and 2x + 4y –  = 0

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Illustration - 11 xm ym
The equation of the tangent to   1 at the point (x0 , y0) is :
am bm
m 1 m 1 m m
x  x0  y  y0  x  x0  y y 
(A)  1 (B)   0  1
a  a  b  b  
a a   b b 

m 1 m 1 m m
x  x0  y y  x  x0  y y 
(C)   0 1 (D)   0  1
a  a  b b  
b b   a a 

SOLUTION : (A)
Differentiating wrt x,
m1
m xm  1 m y m  1 dy am yy0  a m y0m
  0
am bm dx =  bm x x0m 1 + bm x0m
m 1 m1
dy bm  x  am y y0 +b m
x x0m  1
   
dx am  y  = am y0 m + bm x0m ;
 At the given point (x0, y0), slope of tangent is  x0m y0m 
 but   1
dy 
m
 b   x0 
m 1  am bm 
     
dx  ( x , y )  a   y0   am y y0m  1 + b m
x x0m1 = am bm
0 0

##  the equation of tangent is  the equation of tangent is

m m 1 m 1 m 1
b  x  x  x0  yy 
y  y0      0  ( x  x0 )     0 1
 a   y0  a a  b b 

Note : The result of this example can be very useful and you must try remember it.

## Illustrating the Concepts :

Find the equation of tangent to the curve x2/3 + y2/3 = a2/3 at (x0 , y0). Hence prove that the length
of the portion of tangent intercepted between the axes is constant.
Method 1 : 1
dy   y 3
Differentiating w.r.t. x,
   0 
dx  ( x , y )  x0 
0 0
1 1
2 3 2 3 dy 1
 x  y 0  y 3
3 3 dx  Equation is y  y0 =   0  (x  x0)
 x0 

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##  x01/3 y y0 x01/3 Method 2 :

=  x y01/3+ x0 y01/3 Express the equation in parametric form
x = a sin3t, y = a cos3 t
 x y01/3 + yx01/3
Equation of tangent is :
= x0 y01/3 + y0 x01/3
y  a cos3 t = – cot t (x  a sin3 t)
x y1/3 y x1/3
 0  0  x02/3  y02/3  y sin t  a sin t cos3 t
1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3
x0 y0 x0 y0 =x cos t + a sin3 t cos t
 Equation of tangent is :  x cos t + y sin t = a sin t cos t
x y
  a 2/3 x y
1/3
x0 1/3
y0   a
sin t cos t
Length intercepted between the axes :
in terms of (x0, y0) equation is :
length = ( x intercept) 2  ( y intercept) 2 x y
 a
( x0 / a)1/3 ( y0 / a )1/3
2 2
=  x1/3
0 a
2/3
   y02/3 a 2/3  Length of tangent intercepted between axes

## = a 2/3 x02/3  y02/3

= a 2 sin 2 t  a 2 cos 2 t  a
= a 2/3 a 2/3 = a i.e., constant.

## Illustration - 12 For the curve xy = c2,

(A) the intercept between the axes on the tangent at any point is bisected at the point of contact
(B) the tangent at any point makes with the co-ordinate axes a triangle of constant area.
(C) Both (A) and (B) (D) Neither of (A) and (B)
SOLUTION : (C)
Let the equation of the curve is parametric form be (i) Let the tangent cut the x and y axes at A and B
x = ct, y = c/t respectively.
Let the point of contact be (ct, c/t). Writing the equation as :
x y
 c / t2  1
Equation of tangent is : y – c/t = ( x  ct ) 2 ct 2 c / t
c
 xintercept = 2 ct, yintercept = 2 c/t
 t2 y – ct = – x + ct
 x + t2 y = 2 ct . . . (i)  2c 
 A  (2 ct, 0) and B   0, 
 t 

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 2 ct  0 0  2c / t   c2 
Mid point of AB =  ,  Y  y x
 2 2   x2 
 (ct, c/t)
Hence, the point of contact bisects AB. Y
Y = 2y  y 
2
(ii) If O is the origin,
(ii) X-intercept
Area of triangle OAB
1 1 (2c )  dx 
= (OA) (OB) = (2ct ) = 2c2 X = x   dy  y
2 2 t  
i.e., constant for all tangents because it is inde- x2 c 2
pendent of t. = x    2x
c2 x
Alternate :
(i) Y-intercept X
x=
2
 dy 
Y  y x 1 1
 dx  Area = XY  (2 x ) (2 y )  2 xy  2 c 2
2 2
 2 c2 dy c 2  This method does not involve any parametric form.
 xy  c  y    
 x dx x 

Illustration - 13 The abscissa of the point on the curve ay2 = x3, the normal at which cuts of equal intercept
from the axes is :

2a 2a 4a 4a
(A) (B) (C) (D)
3 9 3 9
SOLUTION : (D)
The given curve is ay2 = x3 . . . (i) Since the normal makes equal intercepts on the
Differentiate to get : axes its inclination to axis of x is either 45° or
135°.
dy dy 3 x 2
2 ay  3 x 2   So two normal are possible with slopes 1 and – 1.
dx dx 2ay
2 ay
   1
1 2 ay
The slope of normal =  3x 2

dy 3x 2 One squaring 4a2y2 = 9x4. Using (i) we get :
dx
4a x3 = 9x4  x = 4a/9.

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Illustration - 14 The equation of tangent drawn from the point A (2a, 3a) to the parabola y2 = 4ax is :
(A) x ya 0 (B) x  2 y  4a  0 (C) x  3 y  9a  0 (D) x  4 y  16a  0
SOLUTION : (AB)
The parametric form for y2 = 4ax is x = at2, It passes through A (2a, 3a)
y = 2at.  2a – 3at + at2  t2 – 3t + 2 = 0
Let the point P (at2, 2at) on the parabola be the  t = 1, 2
point of contact for the tangents drawn from A Hence there are two points of contact P1 and
2a 2 P2 corresponding to t1 = 1 and t2 = 2 on the
i.e., y – 2 at = 2 a t ( x  at ) parabola.
 ty – 2 at2 = x – at2 This means that two tangents can be drawn.
 x – ty + at2 = 0 . . . (i) Using (i), the equations of tangents are :
x – y + a = 0 and x – 2y + 4a = 0.

Illustration - 15 The equation of the tangent drawn to the curve y2 – 2x3 – 4y + 8 = 0 from the point
(1, 2) is :
(A)  
y  2  2 3  2 3( x  2) (B)  
y  2  2 3  2 3( x  2)

(C) y  2  2 3   2 3( x  2) (D) y   2  2 3   2 3( x  2)

Let tangent drawn from (1, 2) to the curve  3h3 – 3h2 – k2 + 4k – 4 = 0 . . . (i)
y2 – 2x3 – 4y + 8 = 0 meets the curve in point k2 – 2h3 – 4k + 8 = 0 . . . (ii)
(h, k) Adding (i) and (ii), we get :
Equation of tangents at (h, k) : h3 – 3h2 + 4 = 0
Slope of tangent at (h, k)  (h + 1) (h – 2)2 = 0
 h = – 1 and h = 2
dy  3 x2  3h 2 Forh = – 1, k is imaginary.
  
dx  (h, k ) y  2  k 2 So consider only h = 2. Using (ii) and h = 2,
(h, k ) we get
Equatoin of tangent is k = 2 ± 23.
Thus tangent from (1, 2) meets the curve in points
3h2 (2, 2 + 23) = and (2, 2 – 23).
y–k= ( x  h)
k2 Equation of tangents at these points are :
As tangent passes through (1, 2), y – (2 + 23) = 23 (x – 2)
we can obtain and y – (2 – 23) = – 23 (x – 2)
3h 2
2k  (1  h)
k 2

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Illustration - 16 The tangent to x3 = ay2 at the point A (at2, at3) meets the curve against at the points :

 at 2 at 3   at 2 at 3 
 ,   , 
(A)  4 8  (B)  4 8  (C) (4at 2 , 8at 3 ) (D) (4at 2 ,  8at 3 )
   
SOLUTION : (B)
Equation of tangent to : x = at2, y = at3 is 3 at 2 a (t 3  t13 ) 3t t 2  t12  tt1
 
3 at 2 2 at a (t 2  t12 )  2 t  t1
y– at3 = ( x  at 2 ) 2 2 2
2 at  3t + 3 tt1 = 2t + 2t1 + 2tt1
 2y – 2at3 = 3tx – 3at3  2t12 – tt1 – t2 = 0
 (t1 – t) (2t1 + t) = 0
i.e. 3 tx – 2y – at3 = 0
 t1 = t or t1 = – t/2
L et B (at12, at13) be the point where it again meets
Hence the meeting point B is
the curve.
   t  2   t 3   at 2  at 3 
 Slope of tangent at A = slope of AB
 a  2  , a  2     4 , 8 
       

Illustration - 17 x2 y2
The condition that the line x cos  + y sin  = P may touch the curve.   1 is :
a2 b2
(A) a sin   b cos   P (B) a cos   b sin   P
(C) a 2 sin 2   b 2 cos 2   P 2 (D) a 2 cos 2   b 2 sin 2   P 2
SOLUTION : (D)
Let (x1, y1) be the point of contact. If this tangent and the given line coincide, then the
 the equation of tangent is ratio of the coefficients of x and y and the constant
terms must be same.
 dy 
y  y1    ( x  x1) Comparing x cos  + y sin  = P and
 dx ( x1, y1 )
xx1 yy1
2
 1
2
 b x1 a b2
 y  y1  ( x  x1)
a 2 y1 cos  sin  P
We get : = 
2 2 1
 a2 yy1 – a2 y12 = – b2 xx1 + b2 x12 x1 / a y /b
 b2 xx1 + a2 yy1 = b2 x12 + a2 y12  Px1 = a2 cos , Py1 = b2 sin 
Using the equation of the curve : x2 y2
and also we have 12  12  1
xx1 yy1 a b
  1 is the tangent.
a2 b2 From these three equations, we eliminate x1, y1 to
get the required condition.

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2
1  a 2 cos   1  b2 sin    a2 cos2  + b2 sin2  = P2
     1
a 2  P 
 b 2 
 P 

Illustration - 18 The condition that the curves ; ax2 + by2 = 1 and a’ x2 + b’ y2 = 1 may cut each other
orthogonally (at right angles) is :
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
(A)    (B)    (C)    (D) None of these
a b a' b' a b a' b' a a' b b'
SOLUTION : (B)
Condition for orthogonality implies that the tan- The slope of tangent to the curve ax2 + by2 = 1 is
gents to the curves at the point of intersection are
dy  ax0
per-pendicular. If (x0, y0) is the point of intersec- m1  
dx b y0
tion, and m1, m2 are slopes of the tangents to the
two curves at this point, then and the slope of tangent to the curve
m1 m2 = – 1.  ax0
a x2 + b y2 = 1 is m2 
Let us find the point of intersection. Solving the by0
equations simultaneously, For orthogonality,
ax2 + by2 – 1 = 0
aa x02
ax2 + by2 – 1 = 0 m1 m2   1
bb y02
x2 y2 1
   Using the values of x0 and y0,
 b  b  a  a ab  ab
aa (b  b)
 the point of intersection (x0, y0) is given by  1
bb ( a  a)
b  b a  a
x02  and y02 
ab  ab ab  ab b  b a   a
 
bb aa
1 1 1 1
    is the required condition.
b b a a 

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## Illustration - 19 The equations of two curves are y2 = 2x and x2 = 16y.

(A) The angle of intersection of two curves is
2
3
(B) The angle of intersection of these curves is tan 1  
5

## (D) The equation of common tangent to these curves is x  2 y  2  0

SOLUTOIN : (BC)
1
First of all solve the equation of two curves to 1
1 4 3
get their points of intersection. = tan  tan 1  
1 5
1
The two curves are y2 = 2x. . . . (i) 4
2
andx = 16 y . . . (ii) Let common tangent meets y2 = 2x in point
On solving (i) and (ii) two points of intersection are P whose coordinates are (2t2, 2t).
(0, 0) and (8, 4) Equation of tangent at P is
At (0, 0) 1
The two tangents to curve y2 = 2x and x2 = 16y y – 2t = ( x  2t 2 )
2t
are y = 0 and x = 0 respectively.
 2ty – x = 2t2 . . . (i)
So, angle between curves = angle between
On solving equation of second curve
tangents = /2.
and tangent (i),
At (8, 4)
we get :
Slope of tangent to
2t (x2/16) – x = 2t2  tx2 – 8x = 16t2
dy  1
y2 = 2x is m1    This quadratic equation in x should have equal
dx  at (8, 4) y roots because tangent (i) is also tangent to second
 m1 = 1/4 curve and hence only one point of intersection.
Similarly slope of tangent to x2 = 16y is m2 = 1  D=0  64 + 64t3 = 0
Acute angle between the two curve at (8, 4)  t=–1
 m  m2  So equation of common tangent can be obtained
= tan 1  1 
1  m1 m2  by substituting t = – 1 in (i) i.e.
– 2y – x = 2  2y + x + 2 = 0.

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Illustration - 20 The condition so that the line ax + by = 1 is a normal to the curve an – 1 y = xn at the
point :
 an b   a bn 
(A)  2 ,  (B)  2 , 
 b  na 2 b2  na 2   b  na 2 b2  na 2 

 an bn   a b 
(C)  2 ,  (D)  2 , 
 b  na 2 b2  na 2   b  na 2 b2  na 2 
SOLUTION : (A)
Let (x1, y1) be the point of intersection. x1 ny1 ny12  x12
 
The given curve is : an – 1 y = xn a b 1
Let each of these quantities be K, i.e.
dy xn  1 xn  1 ny
 n n y
dx an  1 xn x x1 ny1 ny12  x12
  K
 x1 a b 1
 Normal is y – y1 = ( x  x1 )  x1 = a K, ny1 = b K, ny12 + x12 = K
ny1
On substiting the values of x1 and y1 from first two
 xx1 + y ny1 = ny12 + x12 . . . (i)
equations into third equation, we get
But the normal is the line x a + y b = 1 . . . (ii)
Comparing (i) and (ii), we get : b2 K 2 n
n  a2 K 2  K  K  2
n2 b  na 2

## Illustration - 21 The equation of the normal to the curve y = (1 + x) y + sin–1 (sin2 x) at x = 0 is :

(A) x  y 1  0 (B) x  y 1  0 (C) y 1 (D) x  y 1  0
SOLUTION : (B)
y = (1 + x)y + sin–1 (sin2 x)
Let A = (1 + x)y
ln A = y ln (1 + x)

1 dA dy  1  dA  dy y 
 ln (1  x )   y or  A  ln (1  x) 
A dx dx 1  x  dx  dx 1  x 

 dy y 
= (1  x) y  ln (1  x)  . . . (i)
 dx 1  x 
Let B = sin–1 (sin2 x)
sin B = sin2 x
dB
cos B = 2 sin x cos x
dx

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## dB 1 2 sin x cos x 2 sin x cos x

 (2 sin x cos x) = 
2 1/ 2
dx cos B (1  sin B) (1  sin 4 x)1/ 2
Now since y = A + B
dy dA dB y  dy y  2 sin x cos x
We have   = (1  x)  dx ln (1  x )  1  x  
dx dx dx   (1  sin 4 x )1/2

## dy y (1  x) y  1  2 sin x cos x / (1  sin 4 x )1/2

or 
dx 1  (1  x) y ln (1  x )
At x = 0,
y = (1 + 0)y + sin–1 (sin2 0) = 1
dy 1 (1  0)1  1  2 sin 0 cos 0 / (1  sin 4 0)1/ 2 dy
  1
dx 1  (1  0)1 ln (1  0) dx
The slope of the normal is
1
m  1
(dy / dx)
Thus, the required equation of the normal is
y – 1 = (– 1) (x – 0) i.e., y + x – 1 = 0

Illustration - 22 The locus of a point that divides a chord of slope 2 of the parabola y2 = 4x internally in
the ratio 1 : 2 is :

(A) 4 x  9 y 2  16 y  8 (B) 3x  9 y 2  16 y  8

(C) 4 y  9 x 2  16 x  8 (D) 3 y  9 x 2  16 x  8
SOLUTION : (A)
Let P  (t12, 2t1), Q  (t22, 2t2) be the end points As M divides PQ in 1 : 2 ratio, we get :
of chord AB.
2t12  t22
Also let M  (x1, y1) be a point which divides AB  xt  . . . (ii)
3
internally in ratio 1 : 2.
2t  4t1
It is given that slope of PQ = 2. and yt  2 . . . (iii)
3
2t2  2t1 We have to eliminate two variables t1 and t2
 Slope (PQ) = 2
t22  t12 between (i), (ii) and (iii).
 t1 + t2 = 1 . . . (i) From (i), put t2 = 1 – t1 in (iii) to get :
3y1 = 2 (1 – t1) + 4t1 = 2 (1 + t1)

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On substituting the values of t1 and t2 in (ii), Replacing x1 by x and y1 by y, we get the required
we get : locus as :
4x1 = 9y12 – 16y1 + 8 4x = 9y2 – 16y + 8

Illustration - 23 The curve y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + 5 touches the x-axis at P (– 2, 0) and cuts the y-axis at
a point Q where its gradient is 3. Then :
1 3
(A) a (B) b   (C) c3 (D) c5
2 4
SOLUTION : (ABC)
Since the curve y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + 5 touches  12a – 4b + 3 = 0 [From (i)] . . . (ii)
x-axis at P (– 2, 0) then x-axis is the tangent at and (– 2, 0) lies on the curve then
(– 2, 0). 0 = – 8a + 4b – 2c + 5
Then curve meets y-axis in (0, 5). We have  0 = – 8a + 4b – 1 [as c = 3]
dy  8a – 4b + 1 = 0
= 3ax2 + 2bx + c
dx From (ii) and (iii) we get
dy 1 3
 00c3 (given) a ,b
dx (0, 5) 2 4
 c=3 . . . (i) 1 3
Hence a   , b   and c = 3.
2 4
dy
and  0  12a – 4b + c = 0
dx (  2, 0)

Illustration - 24 The acute angle between the curves y = | x2 – 1 | and y = | x2 – 3 | at their points of
intersection when x > 0, is :

2 2 4 2 2 4
(A) tan 1  (B) tan 1  (C) tan 1   (D) tan 1  
 7    7 
    7 7
SOLUTION : (B)
For the intersection of the given curves neglecting x =  2 as x > 0
| x2 – 1 | = | x2 – 3 |
 (x2 – 1)2 = (x2 – 3)2 We have point of intersection as x  2 .
 (x2 – 1)2 – (x2 – 3)2 = 0 Here y = | x2 – 1 | = (x2 – 1)
 [(x2 – 1) – (x2 – 3)] in the neighbouring of x  2 and
[(x2 – 1) + (x2 – 3)] = 0 y =| x2 – 3| – (x2 – 3)
 2 [2x2 – 4] = 0  2x2 = 4 in the neighbouring of x = 2
 x=± 2

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Vidyamandir Classes Differential Calculus - 2

##  dy  Hence, if  is angle between them,

    2 x  2 2
 dx c1 2 2  (2 2) 4 2 4 2 
 tan    
 7 
 dy  1  2 2 ( 2 2) 7  
and     2 x   2 2
 dx c2 1  4 2 
   tan  
 7 

IN-CHAPTER EXERCISE-B

1. If P1 and P2 be the lengths of perpendiculars from the origin on the tangent and normal to the curve
2 2 2
x 2/3  y 2/3  a 2/3 respectively, prove that 4 P1  P2  a .
2. Tangents are drawn from origin to the curve y  sin x. Prove that their points of contact lie on

x2 y 2  x2  y 2.
3. In the curve x  a (cos t  log tan1/ 2). y  a sin t. Show that the portion of the tangent between the
points of contact and the x-axis is of constant length.
4. Show that the normal to the rectangular hyperbola
3
(a) xy  c 2 at the point t meets the curve again at the point t1 such that t t1  1.
(b) Show that the normal to the curve 5 x5  10 x3  x  2 y  6  0 at P(0, 3) meets the curve
again at two points.
Find the equation of tangents to the curve at these points.

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## 3.1 Rolle’s Theorem

Let f be a real valued function defined on the closed interval [a, b] such that
(i) it is continuous on the closed interval [a, b],
(ii) it is differentiable on the open interval (a, b), and
(iii) f (a) = f (b).
Then there exists a real number c  (a, b) such that f  (c) = 0.

## 3.2 Geometrical interpretation of Rolle’s Theorem

Let f (x) be a real value function defined on [a, b] such that the curve y = f (x) is a continuous curve
between points A (a, f (a)) and B (b, f (b)) and it is possible to draw a unique tangent at every point on
the curve y = f (x) between points A and B. Also, the ordinates at the end points of the interval [a, b]
are equal. Then there exists at least one point (c, f (c)) lying between A and B on the curve y = f (x)
where tangent is parallel to x-axis.

Y
Y A[a,f(a)] B[b,f(b)]
[c,f(c)]

## A[a,f(a)] B[b,f(b)] [c,f(c)]

X
O (a,o) (b,o)

X
O (a,o) (c,o) (b,o)
[c,f(c)] [c,f(c)]

## 3.3 Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorem

Let f (x) be a function defined on [a, b] such that
(i) it is continuous on [a, b],
(ii) it is differentiable on (a, b).
Then there exists a real number c  (a, b) such that f  (c )  f (b)  f (a ) .
ba

## 3.4 Geometrical Interpretation

Let f (x) be a function defined on [a, b], and let APB be the
curve represented by y = f (x). Then coordinates of A and B
are (a, f (a)) and (b, f (b)) respectively. Suppose the chord

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## AB makes an angle  with the axis of x. Then from the Y

B[b, f(b)]
triangle ARB, we have
BR f (b)  f ( a)
tan    tan  
AR ba
By Lagrange’s Mean Value theorem, we have [a, f(a)]   P [c, f(c)]
f (b )  f ( a ) A
f (c)   tan y = f  (c)
ba
 slope of the chord AB = slope of the tangent at (c, f (c))
X
O M N

Thus, we arrive at the following geometrical interpretation of Lagrange’s mean value theorem:
Let f (x) be a function defined on [a, b] such that the curve y = f (x) is a continuous curve between
points A (a, f (a)) and B (b, f (b)) and at every point on the curve, except at the end points, it is possible
to draw a unique tangent. Then there exists a point on the curve such that the tangent at this point is
parallel to the chord joining the end points of the curve.

## Illustrating the Concepts :

Discuss the applicability of Rolle’s theorem for the following functions on the indicated intervals:

## (i) f (x) = | x | on [– 1, 1] (ii) f (x) = 3 + (x – 2)2/3 on [1, 3]

 x 2  1 , when 0  x  1
(iii) f ( x)  tan x on [0,  ] . (iv) f ( x)  
3  x , when 1  x  2

 x0
x0

##  x, when  1  x  0  lim f ( x )  lim f ( x)  f (0)

f ( x)  | x |  
x  0 x  0
 x, when 0  x  1
Now, (LHD at x = 0)
Since a polynomial function is everywhere
f ( x )  f (0) x 0
continuous and differentiable, therefore f (x) lim = lim
is continuous and differentiable for all x < 0 x  0 x0 x0 x
and for all x > 0 except possible at x = 0. as f ( x)   x for x  0 and f (0)  0
So, consider the point x = 0.
Thus, f (x) is continuous at x = 0. Hence f x
= lim  lim  1   1
(x) is continuous on [– 1, 1]. x0 x x0

x  0 x0

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## f ( x)  f (0) where continuous and differentiable, therefore f (x)

= lim
x  0 x0 is continuous and differentiable at all points except
x0 possible at x = 1.
= lim x
x0 Now, we consider the differentiability of f (x) at
[as f (x) = x for x  0] x = 1.
x We have (LHD at x = 1)
= lim  lim 1  1
x0 x x0
f ( x )  f (1)
 (LHD at x = 0)  RHD at x = 0. = lim
This shows that f (x) is not differentiable at x  1 x 1
x = 0  (– 1, 1).
( x 2  1)  (1  1)
Thus, the condition of derivability at each = lim
point of (– 1, 1) is not satisfied. Hence, x 1 x 1
Rolle’s theorem is not applicable to [as f (x) = x2 + 1 for 0  x  1]
f (x) = | x | on [– 1, 1]. x2  1
(ii) We have f (x) = 3 + (x – 2)2/3, = lim  lim ( x  1)  2
x 1 x 1 x 1
x  [1, 3]
and, (RHD at x = 1)
 f  (x) = (2/3) (x – 2)–1/3
f ( x)  f (1) (3  x)  (1  1)
f  ( x)   = lim lim
Clearly, xlim
2 . x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1
So, f (x) is not differentiable at  ( x  1)
= lim  1
x = 2  (1, 3). x 1 x 1
Hence, Rolle’s theorem is not applicable to  (LHD at x = 1)  (RHD at x = 1).
f (x) = 3 + (x – 2)2/3 on the interval [1, 3].
So, f (x) is not differentiable at x = 1.
(iii) We have f (x) = tan x, x  [0, ].
Thus, the condition of differentiability at each point
Since (/2)  [0, ] and f (x) is not
of the given interval is not satisfied.

continuous at x  . Hence, Rolle’s theorem is not applicable to the
2
given function on the interval [0, 2].
So, the condition of continuity at each point
Alternate :
of [0, ] is not satisfied.
Hence, Rolle’s theorem is not applicable to Use direct differentiation
f (x) = tan x on the interval [0, ]. 2 x 0  x  1
f  ( x)  
(iv) Since a polynomial function is every  1 1  x  2
clearly not differentiable at x = 1.

## Illustrating the Concepts :

 
Using mean value theorem, show that  tan1   tan1   ,    0.
2
1  1  2

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Let f (x) = tan–1 x where  < c <  . . . (i) [as  < c < ]
 2
 <c <2 2
1
 f  ( x) 
(1  x 2 ) or 1 + 2 < 1 + c2 < 1 + 2
By mean value theorem for f (x) in [, ] 1 1 1
  
f ()  f () 1 1   2 1  c 2 1  2
 f  (c )  1 1
 1  c2   f  (c ) 
1  2 1  2

Illustration - 25 It is given that for the function f (x) = x3 – 6x2 + ax + b on [1, 3] Rolle’s theorem holds
1
with c  2  . Find the values of a and b if f (1) = f (3) = 0.
3
(A) a  11, b  6 (B) a  11, b  6 (C) a  11, b  6 (D) a  11, b  6
SOLUTION : (A)
We are given that f (1) = f (3) = 0, therefore  f  (x) = 3x2 – 12x + 11
13 – 6 × 1 + a + b = 33 – 6 × 32 + 3a + b = 0
 a + b = 5 and 3a + b = 27 Now, f  (c) = 3c2 – 12c + 11
Solving these two equations for a and b, we get 2
 1   1 
a = 11 and b = – 6. = 3 2    12  2    11
We now verify whether for these values of a and  3  3
b, f  (c) is zero or not. 13 12
= 12   1  24   11  0
We have, f (x) = x3 – 6x2 + ax + b 3 3
 f (x) = x3 – 6x2 + 11x – 6 Hence, a = 11 and b = – 6.
[as a = 11, b = – 6]

## Illustration - 26 If 2a + 3b + 6c = 0, then the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 has :

(A) Atleast one real root between 0 and 1 (B) No real root between 0 and 1
(C) Atleast one real root between 1 and 2 (D) None of these
SOLUTION : (A)

## ax3 b 2 This shows that 0 and 1 are roots of f (x) = 0.

Let f ( x )   x  cx be a polynomial.
Hence, by the algebraic interpretation of
3 2
Then, f (0) = 0 and Rolle’s theorem f  (x) = 0.

## a b 2a  3b  6c i.e. ax 2 + bx + c = 0 has a real root

f (1)    c  0
3 2 6 between 0 and 1.
[as 2a + 3b + 6c = 0 (given)]

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Illustration - 27 a0 a a an  1
Let  1  2  ...   an  0 ; then the equation
n 1 n n 1 2
a0 xn + a1 xn – 1 + a2 xn –2 + . . . + an = 0, has:
(A) Atleast one real root between 0 and 1 (B) No real root between 0 and 1
(C) Atleast one real root between 1 and 2 (D) None of these
SOLUTION : (A)
Let f  (x) = a0 xn + a1 xn – 1 + a2 xn – 2 + . . .  f (0) = f (1)
+ an – 1 x + an
Integrating both sides Now, Since f (x) is a polynomial, it is continuous
and differentiable for all x. Consequently f (x) is
a0 x n  1 a1 x n a2 x n  1
 f ( x)     ... continuous in the closed interval [0, 1] and differ
(n  1) n (n  1)
entiable in the open interval (0, 1).
an  1 x 2
  an x  d Thus all the three conditions of Rolle’s theorem are
2
 f (0) = d satisfied. Hence there is at least one value of x in
and the open interval (0, 1) where f  (x) = 0
a a a an  1 i.e.,a0 xn + a1 xn–1 + a2 xn–2 + . . . + an – 1 x + an = 0.
f (1)  0  1  2  . . .   an  d
n 1 n n 1 2
= 0d (given)
=d

Illustration - 28 Let A ( x1 , y1 ) and B (x2 , y2 ) be any two points on the parabola y = ax2 + bx + c and
let C (x3 , y3) be the point on the arc AB where the tangent is parallel to the chord AB. Then x3 =

2 x1  x2 x1  2 x2 x1  x2
(A) (B) (C) (D) Depends upon a, b, c
3 3 2
SOLUTION : (C)
Clearly f (x) = ax2 + bx + c is a continuous and On substituting x1 and x2 in the quadratic polyno-
differentiable function for all values of x  [x1, x2]. mial, we get,
On applying Langrange’s Mean value theorem on f (x1) = ax12 + bx1 + c and f (x2) = ax22 + bx2 + c
f (x) in (x1, x2), we get
On substituting the values of f (x1), f (x2) and f 
f ( x2 )  f ( x1)
f  ( x3 )  . . . (i) (x3) in (i), we get :
x2  x1
[as x3  (x1, x2)]
ax22  bx2  c  (ax12  bx1  c )
On differentiating f (x), we get : 2ax3  b 
x2  x1
f  (x) = 2ax + b  f  (x3) = 2ax3 + b
x  x2
 2ax3 = a (x1 + x2)  x3  1 .
2

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1 f ()  f () 1
  
1  2  1  2 
(   )
 tan 1   tan 1  
(  )
2
(   ) (   ) (1   ) (1   2 )
  f ()  f () 
1  2 (1   2 ) [as f (x) = tan–1 x]

Illustration - 29 If f (x) and g (x) are continuous functions in [a, b] and they are differentiable in (a, b)
then for what values of  and  the following equation holds ture ?
f (a) f ( b)  f  (c )
 (b  a ) where a < c < b.
g ( a) g ( b)  g  (c )
(A)   f (a ),   g (b) (B)   f (b),   g (a )
(C)   f (a ),   g ( a) (D)   f (b),   g (b)
SOLUTION : (C)
Since f (x) and g (x) are continuous and differen From (i),
tiable functions. 0 f ( x) f (a ) f  ( x)
H  ( x)  
f (a ) f ( x) 0 g ( x) g (a ) g  ( x)
Now let H ( x)  . . . (i)
g (a ) g ( x)
f (a ) f  ( x)
f (a ) f (b) 
then H (a) = 0 and H (b)  g ( a) g  ( x)
g (a ) g (b)
f (a) f  (c )
So, H (x) satisfies the condition of mean value  H  (c )  . . . (iii)
g (a) g  (c )
theorem
H (b)  H (a )
  H  (c ) , where a < c < b From (ii) and (iii) we get
ba
f (a) f (b) f (a ) f  ( x)
1 f (a ) f (b)  (b  a)
or H  (c )  . . . (ii) g ( a) g (b) g (a ) g  ( x)
(b  a ) g (a ) g (b)

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## INCREASING AND DECREASING FUNCTION Section - 4

4.1 Increasing Function
4.1.1 Strictly increasing function Y
A function f (x) is said to be a strictly increasing function on (a, b) if
y = f(x)
x1 < x2  f (x1) < f (x2) for all x1, x2  (a, b)
Thus, f (x) is strictly increasing on (a, b) if the values of f (x) increase
with the increase in the values of x.
Graphically, f (x) is increasing on (a, b) if the graph y = f (x) moves f(x1) f(x2)
up as x moves to the right. The graph in Fig. 1 is the graph of a strictly
O a x1 x2 X
increasing function on (a, b). b

## 4.1.2 Classification of strictly increasing function on the basis of shape

Y
(i) Concave up : f (x)
When f  (x) > 0 and f  (x) > 0, x  domain f (x2)

f (x1)
x1 x2 X
O

Y
(ii) When f  (x) > 0 and f  (x) = 0, x  domain
f  (x) > 0
f  (x) = 0

X
O

Y
(iii) Convex upwards (Concave down)
When f  (x) > 0 and f  (x) < 0, x  domain f  (x) > 0
f  (x) < 0

X
O

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## 4.1.3 Only increasing or non-decreasing function :

A function f (x) is said to be non-decreasing if for x2 > x1 Y
D
f (x2)  f (x1)
As shown in the graph, for AB and CD ; x2 > x1 B C
 f (x2)  f (x1)
and for the portion BC; x2 > x1
A
 f (x2) = f (x1) X
Thus, overall we can say that x2 > x1 O x1 x2
 f (x2)  f (x1)
So, obviously, for increasing or non-decreasing functions, f (x)  0 with equality holding in intervals like
BC.

Note :
Y Y Y

f (x) > 0
f (x) > 0 a
X X X
O a b O a b O b

## (i) Increasing (ii) Strictly increasing (iii) Strictly increasing

In above figure (i) is only increasing or non-decreasing function and (ii), (iii) show
strictly increasing function on [a, b].

## 4.2 Decreasing function

4.2.1 Strictly decreasing function
A function f (x) is said to be a strictly decreasing function on (a, b) if Y
x1 < x2  f (x1) > f (x2) for all x1, x2  (a, b)
Thus, f (x) is strictly decreasing on (a, b) if the values of f (x) de-
crease with the increase in the values of x. f(x1)
f(x2)
Graphically it means that f (x) is a decreasing function on (a, b) if its
graph moves down as x moves to the right. The graph in Fig. 2 is a O x1 x2 b X
the graph of a strictly decreasing function.

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## (i) Convex down or Concave up Y

When f  (x) < 0 and f  (x) > 0, x  domain f  (x) < 0
f  (x) > 0

X
O

Y
f  (x) < 0
f  (x) = 0

X
O

## (iii) Convex up or Concave down

When f  (x) < 0 and f  (x) < 0, x  domain Y f  (x) < 0
f  (x) < 0

X
O

## 4.2.3 Only decreasing or non-increasing function

Y A
A function f (x) is said to be non-increasing if for x2 > x1
 f (x2)  f (x1)
As shown in graph, for AB and CD portion x2 > x1 B C
 f (x2) < f (x1) and for BC, x2 > x1 D
 f (x2) = f (x1). x2 X
O x1

Hence, as a whole we can say that for non-increasing functions x2 < x1  f (x2)  f (x1).
Obviously, for this f  (x)  0 where equality holds for horizontal path of the graph i.e., in the interval of
BC.

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Note :
Y Y Y
f (x) = 0
f  (x) < 0

## f (x) < 0 f (x) < 0

b x=b
a X aO X X
O b O x=a

(i) Only decreasing or non-increasing (ii) Strictly decreasing (iii) Strictly decreasing

## 4.3 Monotonic Function :

A function f (x) is said to be monotonic on an interval (a, b) if it is either increasing or decreasing on
(a, b).
Definition :
A function f (x) is said to be increasing (decreasing) at a point x0 if there is an interval (x0 – h, x0 + h)
containing x0 such that f (x) is increasing (decreasing) on (x0 – h, x0 + h).
Definition :
A function f (x) is said to be increasing on [a, b] if it is increasing (decreasing) on (a, b) and it is also
increasing (decreasing) at x = a and x = b.
4.4 Condition for function to be increasing and decreasing
Let f be a differentiable real function defined on an open interval (a, b).
(a) If f  (x) > 0 for all x  (a, b), then f (x) is increasing on (a, b)
(b) If f  (x) < 0 for all x  (a, b), then f (x) is decreasing on (a, b).

Note : (a) If f (x) > 0 for all x  (a, b) except for a finite number of points, where f (x) = 0, then also f (x)
is increasing on (a, b).
(b) If f  (x) < 0 for all x  (a, b) except for a finite number of ponits, where f  (x) = 0, then also
f (x) is decreasing on (a, b).

## 4.5 Properties of Monotonic functions

(i) If f (x) is strictly increasing function on an interval [a, b], then f –1 exists and it is also a strictly
increasing function.
Proof : Let f –1 (x) = h (x)
x = foh (x)
1 = f  {h (x)} h (x)
f  (x) > 0 Given
 h (x) > 0  increasing
(ii) If f (x) is strictly increasing function on an interval [a, b] such that it is continuous, then f –1 is
continuous on [ f (a), f (b)].

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(iii) If f (x) and g (x) both are monotonically (or strictly) increasing (or decreasing) functions on [a, b],
then gof (x) is a monotonically (or strictly) increasing (in either case) function on [a, b].
(iv) If one of the two functions f (x) and g (x) is strictly (or monotonically) increasing and other a
strictly (monotonically) decreasing, then gof (x) is strictly (monotonically) decreasing (in either
case) on [a, b].
1
(v) If f (x) is increasing function then is decreasing function.
f ( x)
(vi) If f (x) and g (x) are increasing functions then f (x) + g (x) is also increasing function.
(vii) If f (x) is a monotonic increasing function in the interval [a, b] then greatest value and least value of
f (x) in the interval [a, b] are f (b) and f (a) respectively.

## Illustrating the Concepts :

Find the intervals where the following are increasing or decreasing :

3 4 | x  1|
(i) y x  3x 2  1 (iii) f ( x )  .
2 x2
dy/dx = 6x3 – 6x = 6x (x – 1) (x + 1) The given function f (x) can be written as :
1  x
; x  1, x  0
| x  1|  x 2
– + – + f ( x)  
x2 x 1 ; x 1
–1 0 1  x 2
Consider x < 1
The sign of dy/dx is positive in the interval :
2 1 x  2
(– 1, 0)  (1, ) f  ( x)   
x3 x 2 x3
(ii) y = cos x For increasing, f  (x) > 0
x2
dy  0
  sin x x3
dx
 x (x – 2) > 0 [as x4 is positive]
Hence function is increasing in the inter-
 x  (– , 0)  (2, ).
vals where sin x is negative and
Combining with x < 1, we get f (x) is increasing in
decreasing where sin x is positive.
x < 0 and decreasing in x  (0, 1) . . . (i)
dy and negative in the interval : (  ,  1)  ( 0,1)
 0 if 2n < x < (2n + 1)  and
dx Hence the function is increasing in
dy [  1, 0]  [ 1,  ]
 0 if (2n + 1)  < x < (2n + 2) ,
dx and decreasing in (  ,  1)  ( 0,1)
where n is an integer.

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## Hence the function is increasing in For increasing f  (x) > 0

[(2n + 1) , (2n + 2) ]  (2 – x) > 0 [as x3 is positive]
and decreasing in [2n, (2n + 1) ].  (x – 2) < 0.
f  (x)  x < 2.
Combining with x > 1, f (x) is increasing in
0  2 x x  (1, 2) and decreasing in x  (2, ) . . . (ii)
Combining (i) and (ii), we get :
Consider x  1 f (x) is strictly increasing on x  (– , 0)  (1, 2)
1 2 2  x and strictly decreasing on x  (0, 1)  (2, ).
f ( x)   
x 2 x3 x3

## Illustrating the Concepts :

(i) Prove that (a + b)n  an + bn, a > 0, b > 0 and 0 n  1.

## We want to prove that (a + b)n  an + bn i.e. Consider x + 1 > x

n n  (x + 1)1 – n > x1 – n [as 1 – n  0]
a  a
  1     1 1 1
b  b   . . . (ii)
( x  1)1  n x1  n
i.e. (x + 1)n  1 + xn where x = a/b and
Combining (i) and (ii), we can say f  (x) < 0
x > 0,
 f (x) is a decreasing function  x > 0.
Since a and b both are positive.
Consider x  0
To prove above inequality, consider
f (x)  f (0) [as f (x) is a decreasing
f (x) = (x + 1)n – xn – 1
function]
Differentiate to get,
f  (x) = n (x + 1)n – 1 – nxn – 1  f (x)  0
 (x + 1)n – xn – 1  0
 1 1   (x + 1)n  xn + 1. Hence proved.
= n   . . . (i)
1 n
 ( x  1) x1  n 

x
2
(ii) Find the interval of increase or decrease of the f ( x )   (t  2t ) (t 2  1) dt .
1

x
2
Given f ( x ) 
 (t  2t ) (t 2  1) dt
1

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## differentiating both sides we have

d  d 
f  ( x )  ( x 2  2 x) ( x 2  1)  ( x)   (1  2) (1  1)  (  1)  [using Leibnitz-rule]
 dx   dx 
2 2
 f  (x) = (x + 2x) (x – 1)
 f  (x) = x (x + 2) (x + 1) (x – 1)

## Using number line rule as shown in figure,

Clearly f  (x)  0 when x  (– , – 2]  [ – 1, 0]  [1, )
and f  (x)  0 when x  [– 2, – 1]  [0, 1]
Hence f (x) is increasing, when x  (– , – 2]  [– 1, 0]  [1, )
and f (x) is decreasing, when x  [– 2, – 1]  [0, 1]

## Note : In above example — Leibnitz-rule is stated as;

 ( x) 
d  d  d 
 f (t ) dt   f ( ( x))   ( x)   f ( ( x ))   ( x ) 
dx    dx   dx 
  ( x) 

## (A) (1, 4) (B) (2, 5) (C) (3, 6) (D) none of these

SOLUTION : (A)
Clearly, dom ( f ) = R. is a parabola opening upward. Therefore, y > 0 for
Now, f : R  R is invertible some x  R. Consequently
 f : R  R is a bijection 3x2 + 2x (a + 2) + 3a > 0 for all x  R
 f (x) is either strictly increasing or strictly  4 (a + 2)2 – 36 a < 0 [as Disc < 0]
decreasing on R  a2 + 4a + 4 – 9a < 0
 f  (x) > 0 or f  (x) < 0 for all x  R  a2 – 5a + 4 < 0
 3x2 + 2x (a + 2) + 3a > 0 or < 0 for all x  R  (a – 1) (a – 4) < 0  1<a<4
But 3x2 + 2x (a + 2) + 3a cannot be less than zero  a  (1, 4)
for all x  R. Because the curve Hence, f (x) is invertible, if a  (1, 4).
y = 3x2 + 2x (a + 2) + 3a

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Illustration - 31 x
The function f ( x)  increases on the interval
log x
(A) (0, ) (B) (0, e) (C) (e, ) (D) none of these
SOLUTION : (C)
Clearly, f (x) is defined for x > 0.  f  (x) > 0  log x – 1 > 0
Now,
 log x > 1  x>e
x log x  1
f ( x)  f  ( x) 
log x  (log x )2

## (A) (1, 2) (B) (2, 3) (C) (5/2, 3) (D) (2, 4)

SOLUTION : (BC)
f (x) = 2 log (x – 2) – x2 + 4x + 1  f  (x) > 0
 – 2 (x – 1) (x – 3) (x – 2) > 0
2
 f  ( x)   2x  4  (x – 1) (x – 2) (x – 3) < 0
x2
 x  (– , 1)  (2, 3).
1  ( x  2)2  ( x  1) ( x  3)
 f  ( x)  2    2 – + – +
 x  2  x2
– 1 2 3 
 f  ( x )  2 ( x  1) ( x  3) ( x  2)
( x  2)2

## Illustration - 33 For x > 1, y = log x satisfies the inequality

x 1
(A) x–1>y (B) x2 – 1 > y (C) y>x–1 (D) y
x
SOLUTION : (ABD)
Let f (x) = log x – (x – 1).  log x < x – 1 for x > 1.
1 1 x But x2 – 1 > x – 1 for x > 1.
Then f  ( x )  1  x2 – 1 > x – 1 and log x < x – 1
x x
Clearly, f (x) < 0 for x > 1.  log x < x2 – 1.
 f (x) is decreasing function for x > 1 x 1
Similarly, it can be proved that  log x.
 f (x) < f (1) for x > 1 x
 log x – (x – 1) < 0 for x > 1 Hence, (a), (b) and (d) are true.

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Illustration - 34 If the function f (x) = 2x2 – kx + 5 is increasing on [1, 2], then k lies in the interval

## (A) (– , 4) (B) (4, ) (C) (– , 8) (D) (8, )

SOLUTION : (A)
We have, f  (x) = 4x – k  f  (x) is an increasing function on [1, 2]
Since f (x) is an increasing function on [1, 2],  f  (1) is the least value of f  (x) on [1, 2]
therefore Therefore, for f  (x) to be greater than zero
f  (x) > 0 for 1x2 for all x  [1, 2] its least value i.e. f  (1) must
also be greater than zero.
Now, f  (x) = 4 for all x  [1, 2]
Now, f  (1) > 0  4–k>0
 f (x) > 0 for all x  [1, 2]
 k<4  k  (– , 4).

## Illustration - 35 The function f (x) = sin4 x + cos4 x increasing if :

(A) 0 < x < /8 (B) /4 < x < 3/8 (C) 3/8 < x < 5/8 (D) 5/8 < x < 3/4
SOLUTION : (B)
Here, f (x) = sin4 x + cos4 x f  (x) = – sin 4x
 f  (x) = 4 sin3 x · cos x + 4 cos3 x (– sin x) Now, f  (x)  0 if sin 4x  0
f  (x) = 4 sin x cos x (sin2 x – cos2 x)    4x  2  /4  x /2
f  (x) = 2 (sin 2x) (– cos 2x)  
Here (b) is only subset of  ,  .
4 2

## Illustration - 36 If f ( x)  x  e x (1 x ) , then f (x) is

 1 
(A) increasing on   2 , 1 (B) decreasing on R.

 1 
(C) increasing on R (D) decreasing on   2 , 1
SOLUTION : (A)
Here f  (x) = x ex(1 – x) (1 – 2x) + 1 · ex(1 – x)
f  (x) = ex (1 – x) [x – 2x2 + 1]
f  (x) = – ex (1 – x) (x – 1) (2x + 1)
 1 
Using number line rule for f  (x) we get, f  (x)  0, when x    , 1 as shown in Fig.
 2 
– + –
– 1/2 1

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Illustration - 37 Let  ( x)  sin (cos x), for the interval x  [0, /2], g(x) is :

(A) increasing (B) Decreasing (C) Neither increasing nor decreasing (D) None of these
SOLUTION : (B)
Given,  (x) = sin (cos x)
 (x) = cos (cos x) · (– sin x)
 (x) = – cos (cos x) · sin x
Therefore, it is clearly decreasing for x  [0, /2] as  (x)  0
Alternate :
Here f (x) = sin x and g (x) = cos x are increasing and decreasing respetively in [0, /2]
 (fog) (x) =  (x) = sin (cos x) is decreasing in [0, /2]

## Illustrating the Concept :

Discuss the nature of following functions, graphically,
1
(i) f (x) = x3 (ii) f ( x)  (iii) f (x) = ex (iv) f (x) = [x]
|x|

## (i) f (x) = x3 can be graphically plotted as

shown in figure, which shows f (x) = Y
x3 is strictly increasing in R. as for
1
x2 > x1 y=
|x|
we always have, x23 > x13
O X
Y

y = x3
x1 (iii) f (x) = ex can be graphically plotted as,
x2 X which shows f (x) = ex is strictly increas-
O
ing in R.
Y
1
(ii) f ( x)  can be graphically plotted
|x| y = ex
as shown in figure; which
1 X
shows f ( x)  is strictly increasing O
|x|
in (– , 0) and strictly decreasing in
(0, ).

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## (iv) f (x) = [x] can be plotted as shown in Y

figure, which shows f (x) = [x] is increas- 2
ing but not strictly increasing i.e., non-
1
decreasing in R.
X
because for x2 > x1 we might have –2 –1 O 1 2 3
–1
[x2] > [x1] or [x2] = [x1]
–2
y = [x]

## Illustrating the Concepts :

(i) Show that sin x < x < tan x for 0 < x < /2.

## We have to prove two inequalities; Alternate :

x > sin x and tan x > x. Slope of y = x  1 ; Slope of y = tan x
Let f (x) = x – sin x
f  (x) = 1 – cos x = 2 sin2 x/2 (ii) Show that x/(1 + x) < log (1 + x) < x
 f  (x) is positive for x > 0.
 f (x) is increasing. x
By definition, x > 0 Let f ( x )  log (1  x) 
1 x
 f (x) > f (0)
1 (1  x)  x
 x – sin x > 0 – sin 0 f  ( x)  
1 x (1  x) 2
 x – sin x > 0
 x > sin x . . . (i) x
f  ( x)  > 0 for x > 0
Now, Let g (x) = tan x – x (1  x)2
g (x) = sec2 x – 1 = tan2 x which is positive.  f (x) is increasing.
 g (x) is increasing,
By definition, x > 0 Hence x > 0  f (x) > f (0) by the definition
 g (x) > g (0) of the increasing function.
 tan x – x > tan 0 – 0 x 0
 log (1  x )   log (1  0) 
 tan x – x > 0 1 x 1 0
 tan x > x . . . (ii) x
Combining (i) and (ii), we get :  log (1  x )  0
1 x
sin x < x < tan x
(iii) Show that :

x3 
x  sin x for 0  x  .
6 2
x3
Let f ( x)  sin x  x 
6

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## x2 Hence x  0  f ''( x)  f ''(0)

f  ( x )  cos x  1 
2   sin x  x   sin 0  0
  sin x  x  0
y = sec2 x  1 ; Slope of y = sin x
 f (x) > 0
y = cos x  1
 f '( x) is increasing
and draw graph.
Hence x  0  f '( x)  f '(0)
Y (iv) Show that x log(1+ x) for all x(–1, ).
Let f (x) = x – log (1 + x).
Differentiate f (x) w.r.t. x to get,
/2 y=x 1 x
f  ( x)  1  
1 x 1 x
1 y = sin x Note that x = 0 is a critical point of f  (x) in
(– 1, ).
So divide the interval about x = 0 and make
X
/2 two cases.
Case - I : x  (– 1, 0)
ow, it can be easily observe from the In this interval, f  (x) < 0
graph that sin x < x < tan x.
 f (x) is a decreasing function.
Therefore, – 1 < x < 0
x
 log (1  x )  . . . (i)  f (x)  f (0) = 0
1 x
Hence x – log (1 + x)  0 for all
x  (–1, 0) . . . (i)
Now, let g (x) = x – log (1 + x)
Case - II : x  [0, ]
1 x
g  ( x)  1    0 for x > 0
1 x 1 x In this interval, f  (x)  0
 g (x) is increasing.  f (x) is an increasing function.
Hence x > 0  g (x) > g (0) Therefore, 0  x <   f (x)  f (0) = 0
 x – log (1 + x) > 0 – log (1 + 0) Hence x – log (1 + x)  0 for all
 x – log (1 + x) > 0 x  [0, ] . . . (ii)
 x > log (1 + x) . . . (ii) Combining (i) and (ii),
Combining (i) and (ii), we get : x  log (1 + x) for all x  (–1, ).
x
 log (1  x )  x  cos x  1  x 2 / 2  cos 0  1  0 / 2
1 x
 cos x  1  x 2 / 2  0
f  ( x)   sin x  x
 f '( x )  0  f ( x ) is increasing
x
f  ( x)   cos x  1  2 sin 2 0
2
 f (x) is increasing.

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Alternate :
y=x
Consider y = log (x + 1) Y

1
y  , for –1 < x < 0
x 1
slope of log (x + 1) > 1
Slope of straight i.e. y = x is 1 angle > 45°
–1
X
So, angle mode by tangnet will be greater than angle > 45° f
45o. hence the
Similary, for x > 0, y’ <1 curve lies
below y = x
angle made by tangent will be smaller than 45o. line.
So, required graph is

IN-CHAPTER EXERCISE-C

## 2. If ax 2  b / x  c for all ve x wheree a  0 and b  0. show that 27 ab2  4c3.

3. Show that tan 1 x lies between x  x3 / 3 and x  x3 / 6 when 0  x  1.
4. Prove that 1  x  e  x  1  x  x 2 / 2 for x  0.

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## CRITICAL POINTS AND STATIONARY POINTS Section - 5

5.1 Introduction
Critical Points are very vital points in differential calculus. It is important to understand its definition before
we further go deep into this chapter.
Definition
We say that x = c is a critical point of the function f (x) if f (c) exists and if either of the following are
true.
f  (c) = 0 or f  (c) doesn’t exist

Note : We require that f (c) exists in order for x = c to actually be a critical point.

Following illustrations will help you understand how to find critical points and stationary points of a
function.

Stationary point :
Definition : We can say x = c is a stationary point of f (x) if f (c) exits and f  (c) = 0.

## Illustrating the Concept :

Determine all the critical points for the function

## f (x) = 6x5 + 33x4 – 30x3 + 100

Differentiate w.r.t. x to get
f (x) = 30 x4 + 132x3 – 90x2
= 6x2 (5x2 + 22x – 15)
= 6x2 (5x – 3) (x + 5)
f  (x) is a polynomial and so will exist everywhere.
Therefore the only critical points will be those values of x which make the derivative zero.
i.e. f (x) = 0
 6x2 (5x – 3) (x + 5) = 0
3
 x = – 5, x = 0, x  are critical points of f (x).
5
Note : As f (x) = 0 for above points, these are also stationary points of f (x).

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## (A) 1 (B) 2 (C)  (D) 4

SOLUTION : (B)
f (x) = 2 x5/3 – x2/3 f  (x) is not defined when denominator = 0.
Differentiate w.r.t. x to get,  x1/3 = 0  x=0
10 2/3 2 1/3 2 (5 x  1) 1
f  (x) = x  x = . Now we can say that x = 0 and x  are critical
3 3 3 x1/3 5
For critical points, 1
f  (x) = 0 or f  (x) is not defined. points as f (x) exists at both x = 0 and x  .
5
1 1
Put f  (x) = 0 to get x  .  Critical points of f (x) are x = 0, x  .
5 5

1 1 1
Note : As f     0, f   exists, x  is the stationary point of f (x).
5 5 5

Illustration - 39 x2  1
The number of critical points of f ( x )  2 is :
x x6
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C)  (D) 4
SOLUTION : (B)
Differentiate w.r.t x to get :
2 x ( x 2  x  6)  ( x 2  1) (2 x  1) As f (x) exists for x   7  5 2 ,
f  (x) = these are critical points of f (x) . . . (i)
( x 2  x  6)2
Case - II : f  (x) is not defined
 x 2  14 x  1 f  (x) is not defined where = 0
=
( x 2  x  6) 2  x2 – x – 6 = 0
For critical points,  (x – 3) (x + 2) = 0
f  (x) = 0 or f  (x) is not defined.  x = 3 and x=–2
Case - I : f  (x) = 0 At x = 3 and x – 2, f (x) is NOT defined.
f  (x) = 0  – x2 – 14x + 1 = 0 Hence x = 3, x = – 2 are NOT critical points....(ii)
2
 x + 14x – 1 = 0 Combing (i) and (ii),
14  142  4 x   7  5 2 are the only critical points of f (x).
x 75 2
2

Note : x   7  5 2 are also stationary points if f (x) as f  (x) = 0 and f (x) is defined for these values.

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Illustration - 40 The number of critical points for the function y = f (x) = 6x – 4 cos (3x) in x [0, ] is :

## (A) 1 (B) 2 (C)  (D) 4

SOLUTION : (B)
Differentiate w.r.t. x to get :  6 + 12 sin (3x) = 0

y = f  (x) = 6 + 12 sin (3x)  3x = n – (–1)n
6
To find critical points either f  (x) = 0 or f  (x) is n 
 x  (1)n .
not defined. 3 18
In interval [0, ] critical points are
Here f  (x) is defined for all x. So critical points
will come from f  (x) = 0 only. 7 11
x , .
18 18
f  (x) = y’ = 0

## (A) 0 (B) 1 (C)  (D) 3

SOLUTION : (C)
Here’s the derivative for this function.
2 2
f  (x) = 10 e3  x  10 x e3  x ( 2 x)
2
= 10 e3  x (1  2 x 2 )
This function will exist everywhere and so no critical points will come from that. We know that exponentials
are never zero and so the only way the derivative will be zero is if,
1 – 2x2 = 0
1
 x2 
2
1
 x
2
We will have two critical points for this function.

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## Illustration - 42 The function : f (x) = x2 ln (3x) + 6 has :

(A) No critical point (B) Only one critical point
(C) Only one stationary point (D) Infinitely many critical points
SOLUTION : (BC)
The derivative will only be zero if,
Before getting the derivative let’s notice that
2 ln (3x) + 1 = 0
since we can’t take the log of a negative num-
ber or zero we will only be able to look at x > 0. 1
ln (3x) = 
differentiate w.r.t. x 2
Take exponent on both sides to get :
2 3 
f  (x) = 2 x ln (3 x)  x   eln (3 x ) = e1/ 2
 3x 
3x = e–1/2
= 2x ln (3x) + x
1 1/2 1
= x (2 ln (3x) + 1) x= e 
3 3 e
Now, this derivative will not exist if x is a negative There is only one critical point of f (x)
number or if x = 0, but then again neither will the
1
function and so these are not critical points. Remem i.e. x  .
-ber that the function will only exist if x > 0 and 3 e
nicely enough the derivative also will exist if x > 0 Which is also a stationary point of f (x).
andso the only thing we need to worry about is where
the derivative is zero.

Illustration - 43 2
The function : f ( x)  x e x has :
(A) No critical point (B) Only one critical point
(C) No stationary point (D) Only one stationary point
SOLUTION : (AC)
2 2 2
Differetiate w.r.t. x to get : f  (x) = e x  xe x (2 x )  e x (1  2 x 2 )
This function will never be zero for any real value of x. The exponential is also never zero for any real
value of x.
Therefore, this function will not have any critical points or stationary points.

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IN-CHAPTER EXERCISE-D

## 1. Find critical points of the following functions.

(a) f ( x)  ( x  2) 2/3 (b) f ( x)  x ex
(c) f ( x)  x 2 e x (d) f ( x)  x ln x
ln x
(e) f ( x)  (f) f ( x)  sin x  x
x

2
1 x2
(g) y  cos x  cos x (h) y
1  x2

1  x2  x
(i) y .
1  x2  x

## 6.1 Concave and Convex shape

Observe the following graphs and their shapes.

## Concave upwards Convex upwards

(Inverted bowl shape)

Convex downwards
Concave downwards (bowl shape)

## 6.2 Concave upwards (Convex downwards)

The shape of the graph shown in Fig. 1 is said to be “Concave upwards”. It means if we look at this shape
from upwards (from above) it is like a bowl shape known as “Concave”.
If we look at the bowl shape from downwards (from below) it is like a inverted bowl shape known as
“Convex” shape.
It means same shape when looked from downwards (below) can be called as “Convex downwards”.
6.3 Convex upwards (Concave downwards)
The shape of the graph shown in Fig. 2 is said to be “Convex upwards”. It means if we look at this shape
from upwards (from above), it is like a inverted bowl known as “Convex” shape. If we look at the same
shape from downwards (from below), it is like a bowl shape known as “Concave” shape.
It means same shape when looked from downward (below) can be called as “Concave downwards”.

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## 6.4 How to find intervals of Concavity and Convexity?

(i) Concave upwards (Convex downwards)
Concave upwards
If shape of a function is “Concave upwards”, then it is observed m4
that slope of tangent drawn to the curve increases as we increase
the values of x (see figure).
It means “Slope of tangent” increases as we increase x. m3
 “Slope of tangent” is an increasing function. m2

dy  dy  m1
  0 [using the definition of increasing function]
dx  dx  m1 < m2 < m3 < m4
2
d y
 0  f (x)  0.
dx 2

Therefore if shape of the function is “Concave upwards” in some interval, then f  (x)  0.

Definition :
y = f (x) is said to be concave upwards (convex downwards) in x  [a, b], if
f  (x)  0  x  (a, b).
(ii) Convex upwards (Concave downwards)
If shape of a function is “Convex upwards”, then it is observed that slope of tangent drawn to the curve
decreases as we increase the values of x (see figure).
Convex upwards

m2

m1 m3

m1 > m2 > m4

## It means “Slope of tangent” decreases as we increase x.

 “Slope of tangent” is an decreasing function.
d  dy 
 0 [Using the definition of decreasing function]
dx  dx 

d2y
 0  f (x)  0.
dx 2
Therefore if shape of the function is “Convex upwards” in some interval, then f  (x)  0.

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## 6.5 Point of Inflexion

If you look at the figure shown, you can observe that shape of f (x) is convex  x  [a, x0 ] and
concave for all x  (x0, b).
Therefore x = x0 is a point where shape of curve has changed from convex to concave. This point is known
as point of inflexion of f (x).

f  (x) < 0
f  (x) < 0
f  (x) > 0 f  (x) > 0

a x0 b a x1 b

Similarly x = x 1 is point of inflexion if f (x) in Fig. 2 as shape of f (x) is changing from concave
to convex about x = x1.
Therefore point of inflexion is a point where shape of f (x) changes from either concave to convex or
convex to concave.
It is also known as junction point of concavity and convexity.

## 6.6 Mathematical definition of point of inflexion

In Fig. 1, at point of inflexion x0 shape is changing from convex upwards to concave upwards.
We know f (x) < 0 for convex upwards and f  (x) > 0 for concave upwards.
It means at point of inflexion x0. Sign of f  (x) changes from negative to positive.
Similarly in Fig. 2, shape of f (x) is changing from concave upwards to convex upwards.
It means sign of f  (x) changes positive to negative value.
Therefore, point of inflexion is a point where sign of f  (x) changes from either negative to positive or
positive to negative.

## 6.7 How to find points of inflexion

The following steps can be applied to determine points of inflexion of f (x).
(a) Find f  (x) and equate numerator and denominator both to zero to find potential points of inflexion.
Method - I :
(b) Let us assume that values obtained in (a) are x = x0, x1, x2 . . . . . . . Now consider these values
one by one and determine whether they are points of inflextion or not.
Now to determine this, we have following methods.
Let us take x = x0 first and then repeat the following steps for x = x1, x2, x3 . . . . . . .

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## If f  (x0 – h) > 0 and f  (x0 + h) < 0 OR

f  (x0 – h) < 0 and f  (x0 + h) > 0,
then x = x0 is point of inflexion provided f (x0) exists (x0  Domain of f (x)).
It means if sign of f  (x) is changing about x = x0 from either positive to negative or negative to positive,
then x = x0 is point of inflexion provided f (x0) exists x0  Domain of f (x).
If f  (x0 – h) > 0 and f  (x0 + h) > 0 OR
f  (x0 – h) < 0 and f  (x0 + h) < 0
then x = x0 is NOT a point of inflexion.  reject this point.
It means if sign of f  (x) is NOT changing about x = x0, then it is NOT a point of inflexion.

## Method - II : (“nth derivative test”)

Differentiate f  (x) again and again till you get first non-zero derivative at x = x0 i.e.
f 3 (x0) = f 4 (x0) = f 5 (x0) = . . . . . . . f n – 1 (x0) = 0 and f n (x0)  0
It means we are assuming that first (n – 1) derivatives are zero and first non-zero derivative is f n (x0).
Based on the value of f n (x0), we can conclude the following :
(a) If n is odd and f n (x0) > 0, then x = x0 is point of inflexion when shape of curve is changing from
convex upwards to concave upwards.
(b) If n is odd and f n(x0) < 0, then x = x0 is a point of inflextion where shape of curve changes from
concave upwards to convex upwards at x = x0.
(c) If n is even, x = x0 is NOT a point of inflexion. Therefore reject x = x0.

## Illustrating the Concepts :

(i) Find intervals of concavity and convexity and points of inflexion for f ( x)  x  sin x

## Differentiate f (x) to get :

Also f (x) is “Convex upwards” if f  (x)  0
f  (x) = 1 + cos x
Differentiate again to get : f  (x)
f  (x) = – sin x
Using graph of f  (x), we can observe x
0  2
that
f  (x)  0  x  [0, ]
and f  (x)  0  x  [, 2]
Using the definitions of concavity and
f (x) is “Convex upwards” in x  [0, ]
convexity, f (x) is “Concave upwards”
On generalising the answer, we get
if f  (x)  0 x  [2n, (2n + 1) ]
 f (x) is concave in x  [, 2]
For point of inflexion, observe where sign of
On generalising the answer, we get
x  [(2n + 1) , (2n + 2) ] d2y
changes.
dx 2

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d2y
We can observe that sign changes at
dx 2
x = 0, , 2, 3 . . . . . .
i.e. x = n
Therefore points of inflexion are x = n.
(i) Discuss concavity and convexity and find points of inflexion of y = x2 e–x.

## Let f (x) = x2 e–x. +

_

_
+
2 – 2 2 + 2
Differentiate w.r.t. to get : Concave Convex Concave

## f  (x) = e–x (2x) + (– e–x) x2

= x e–x [2 – x] = (2x – x2) e–x Sign of f  (x) is changing at x  2  2 .
Differentiate again w.r.t. x to get : Therefore points of inflexion of f (x) are
f  (x) = (2 – 2x) e–x + (2x – x2) (– e–x) x2 2.
= e–x (2 – 2x – 2x + x2) f (x)  0  x 
= e–x (x2 – 4x + 2) (  , 2  2]  [2  2, )
= e–x ( x  (2  2)) ( x  (2  2)) Therefore f (x) is “Concave upward”
See the figure and observe how the sign of  x  (  , 2  2]  [2  2,  )
f (x) changes. Similarly we can observe
f  ( x)  0  x  [2  2, 2  2]
Therefore f (x) is “Convex upwards”
 x  [2  2, 2  2]

Illustration - 44 ln x
The number of points of inflexion of f ( x)  is :
x

## (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 3

SOLUTION : (B)
 x  2 x (1  ln x ) x (2 ln x  3)
Differentiate f (x) w.r.t. x to get : = 
x4 x4
1  ln x
f  ( x)  Domain of f (x) is x > 0, so only (2 ln x – 3)
x2
can change sign. To see where (2 ln x – 3) can
Differentiate again to get
change sign, put
 1 2 (2 ln x – 3) = 0
   x  2 x (1  ln x )
f  ( x)   x   2 ln x = 3  x = e3/2
x4 Therefore x = e3/2 is the only point of inflexion of
f (x).

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Illustration - 45 x2  1
The function f ( x)  :
x2  1

 1 1   1 1 
(A) is concave for x   , (B) is convex for x   ,
 3 3   3 3 

 1 
(C) has 2 points of inflexion (D) is concave for  ,  
 3 
SOLUTION : (AC)
Differentiate w.r.t. x to get : Observe the sign of f  (x) in the following figure
– + –
(using x2 + 1 > 0)
2 x ( x 2  1)  2 x ( x 2  1) 4x – _1 1
f  ( x)  
( x 2  1) 2 ( x 2  1) 2 3 3
Convex Concave Convex
Differentiate again to get : 1
2 2 2
from figure, points of inflexion are x   .
( x  1)  x (4 x ) ( x  1) 3
f  ( x)  4
( x 2  1) 4  1 1 
Intervals of concavity are x   , .
2 2
4 ( x  1) (1  3x )  4 ( 3x  1) ( 3x  1)  3 3
= 
( x 2  1)4 ( x 2  1)3 Intervals of convexity are
 1   1 
x    ,    ,  .
 3  3 

## 7.1 Local Maximum

A function attains a local maximum at a point if value of the Y highest value in
function at this point is greater than its value at all points other (x0 – , x0 + ),
than this point in a certain interval (infinitely small) defined f (x0) when  0
around this point. In other words,
A function f (x) attains a local maximum at
x = x 0 if f (x0) > f (x) for all x  (x0, – , x0 + ),   0
X
and x  x0. x0– x0 x0
It means f (x) possesses a greatest value at x = x0 in the
neighbourhood of x0.

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Y Y Y

1

_ X X X
0 2
2

## f (x) = sin x f ( x ) = 1 – x2 f (x) = – (x – 1)2/3

f (x ) possesses local maximum f (x) possesses local maximum f (x) possesses local maximum
at x = /2 in interval x  [0, 2] at x = 0 at x = 1

Y Y Y

X X X
1

## 1–|x| x0 x2 x0

f (x) = –|x| f (x) =
2 x=0 f (x ) = e x–1 x>0
f (x) possesses a local f ( x) possesses a local f (x) possesses a point of
maximum at x = 0 maximum at x = 0 local maximum at x = 1

The graphs shown are some examples of points of local maximum possessed by function f (x).
In all the examples shown, you can observe that point of local maximum (say x0) attains maximum value in
its neighbourhood.
i.e. f (x0) > f (x)  x  (x0 – , x0 + ),   0, x  x0

## 7.2 Local Minimum

A function attains a local minimum at a point if value of the function at this point is less than its value at all
points other than this point in a certain interval (infinitely small) defined around this point.
In other words,
A function f (x) attains a local minimum at x = x0 if f (x0) < f (x) for all x  (x0 – , x0 + ),   0 and

x  x0.
Examples of Local minimum
The graphs shown below are some examples of point of local minimum possessed by function f (x).
In all these examples you can observe that “Point of local minimum” (say x0) attains a minimum value in
its neighbourhood.
i.e. f (x0) < f (x)  x  (x0 – , x0 + ),   0 and x  x0.

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Y Y Y

3 /2
X X X
0 2 0 0 1

## f ( x) = sin x f (x ) = x2 f (x) = (x – 1)1/3

f (x) possesses a local minimum f (x ) possesses a local minimum f (x ) possesses a local minimum
at x = 3 /2 in interval [0, 2] at x = 0 at x = 1

Y e–x Y Y
ex

X X X
0 1
|x|+1 x0 x2 x<0
f (x ) = f ( x) =
0 x=0 f ( x) = e – | x | x–1 x0
f (x) possesses a local f (x ) possesses a local f (x) possesses a local
minimum at x = 0 minimum at x = 0 minimum at x = 1

Note : The point where f (x) possesses a local minimum value is known as ‘Point of local minimum’
and the corresponding value of f (x) at point of local minimum is called as “Local minimum
value”.

## 7.3 Local Extremum

The point at which a function attains either the local maximum value or the local minimum value is known
as extreme point or point of local extremum and both local maximum and local minimum values are called
the “extreme values” of f (x) or “Local Extremum values”.
A necessary condition for the existences of a local extremum (either local maximum or local minimum) at
point x0 of the function f (x) is x0 must be a critical point of f (x) i.e. either f  (x0) = 0 or f  (x0) is not
defined.
Algorithm to find points of local maximum and points of local minimum.
For Local Maxima
Inc.
Inc. Dec. f (x) > 0
Inc. Dec.
f (x) > 0 f (x) < 0 Dec.
f (x) > 0 f (x) < 0
f (x) < 0

x0 x0 x0
f ( x0 ) = 0 f  (x0) is not defined f  (x0) is not defined

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If you look at the above graphs you can observe that at point of local maximum, behaviour of f (x) changes
from increasing to decreasing.
If means on left of x0 graph is rising (increasing) and on right it is falling (decreasing).

dy
Mathematically, sign of changes from the + ve to – ve as we move from LHS to RHS of x0.or we
dx
dy + +
can say at local maximum, sign of changes from positive to negative.
dx f  (x) > 0 x0 f  (x) < 0
For Local Minimum

## Dec. Inc. Inc.

Dec.
f (x) < 0 f (x) > 0 f (x) > 0
f (x) < 0

x0 x0 x0
f (x 0) is not defined f  ( x0) is not defined

If you look at the above graphs, you can observe that at point of local minimum behaviour of f (x) changes
from decreasing to increasing.
It means on left of x0 graph is falling (decreasing ) and on right it is rising (increasing).
dy
Mathematically, sign of changes from negative to positive as we move from LHS to RHS.
dx
or we can say, at local minimum
dy – +
Sign of changes from negative to positive.
dx f (x) < 0 x0 f (x) > 0

## You should have the following observations from above examples :

(a) The points of local maximum and local minimum of f (x) critical points of f (x).
i.e. either f  (x0) = 0 or f  (x0) is not defined.
(b) At point of local maximum or local minimum, the sign of f  (x) changes.
At local maximum, sign changes from positive to negative and
At local minimum, it changes from negative to positive.

## Algorithum to find points local maximum and local minimum.

(i) Find critical points of f (x). Let us assume critical points are x = x0, x1, x2, . . . .
(ii) Consider each critical point and check whether it is point of local maximum, point of local minimum
or neither of the two.

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Note : The following examples help you in understanding that every critical point is not a point of local maximum
or local minimum. It can be neither of the two.

x0 x0 x0 x0
f  ( x0 ) = 0 f  ( x0 ) = 0 f  (x0) is not defined f  (x 0) is not defined

In above examples x0 is critical point but it is neither point of local maximum nor point of local minimum.

## Method - I : (First derivative test)

Let us check x0 first. Then same procedure can be applied on x1, x2, x3 . . . . . . Following methods can be
used to check whether x0 is local maximum or local minimum or neither of the two.
If f  (x0 – h) > 0 and f ’ (x0 + h) < 0, then x = x0 is point of local maximum.
else, if
f  (x0 – h) < 0 and f  (x0 + h) > 0, then x = x0 is point of local minimum.
else,
x = x0 is neither point of local minimum and nor it is local maximum.
It means if derivative towards left of x0 is positive and toward right is negative, then x0 is point of local
maximum. Similarly if derivative towards left of x0 is negative and towards right is positive, then x0 is point of
local minimum.
If sign of f  (x) is not changing around x = x0, then it is neither local maximum nor local minimum.
Method - II : (Second derivative test)
This method can only be used if all derivatives of f (x) exist, i.e.
f  (x), f  (x), f  (x), . . . . all exist.
Let us check x0
To know whether it is local maximum, local minimum or neither of the two. Follow the steps given below
(i) Find f  (x0).
(ii) If f  (x0) < 0, then x = x0 is point of local maximum
else if
f  (x) > 0, then x = x0 is point of local minimum
else if
f  (x0) = 0, then test fails and apply extension of second derivative test.
i.e., nth derivative test.

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## Nth derivative test (Extension of second derivative test)

This test is applied on a differentiable function f (x) at x0 to decide whether x0 is local maximum, local
mionimum or neither of the two.
Steps :
(i) Differentiate f  (x) again and again till you get first non zero derivative at x = x0.
Let us assume (n – 1) derivatives are zero at x = x0 and f n (x0) is the first non zero and finite
derivative at x = x0.
We have
f 3 (x0) = f 4 (x0) = f 5 (x0) = . . . . . . . . = f n – 1 (x0) = 0

n k
dk x
and f (x0)  0 where f (x0) = is kth derivative of f (x) at x = x0.
dx k
(ii) Based on the value of f n (x0) and n, we can conclude the following :
(a) If n is even and f n (x0) < 0, then x = x0 is a point of local maximum.
(b) If n is even and f n (x0) > 0, then x = x0 is a point of local minimum.
(c) If n is odd, then x = x0 is neither local maximum nor it is local minimum. It means you should
reject this point.

## Illustrating the Concept :

x2  1
Find points of local maximum and local minimum of f ( x)  2 .
x 1

Differentiate f (x) w.r.t. x to get : Use the following figure to check how sign of
f  (x) is changing about x = 0.
2 x ( x 2  1)  2 x ( x 2  1) 4x – +
f  ( x)  
( x 2  1) 2 ( x 2  1) 2 Sign of f  (x)
a
The only critical point is x = 0.
Let us observe the sign change of f  (x) at x = 0 is the only point of local minimum
critical point x = 0. as f  (x) changes sign from negative to positive
values.

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Illustration - 46 1
For the function f (x) = x  :
x
(A) x  1 is a point of local minimum (B) x  1 is a point of local maximum
(C) x  1 is a point of local minimum (D) x  1 is a point of local maximum
SOLUTION : (BC)
Differentiate w.r.t. x to get : + – +
Sign of f  (x)
1 x2  1 ( x  1) ( x  1) –1 1
f  ( x)  1   
2 2 2
x x x
Critical points are x = 1, x = – 1, x = 0 is not a  x = – 1 is point of local maximum as f  (x)
critical point as f (0) is not defined. changes sign from positive to negative.
We need to observe sign change at critical points.  x = 1 is point of local minimum as f  (x)
Use the following chart to decide changes sign from negative to positive.
 sign of f  (x) around x = – 1 and x = 1. Therefore, x = – 1 is local maximum and x = 1 is
local minimum.

## Illustration - 47 Find the function f (x) = x2 e–x:

(A) x  0 is a point of local minimum (B) x  0 is a point of local maximum
(C) x  2 is a point of local minimum (D) x  2 is a point of local maximum
– + –
Differentiate w.r.t. x to get :
f  (x) = 2x e–x + x2 (– e–x) = x e–x (2 – x) 0 2
= – x (x – 2) e–x Sign of f  (x) is various intervals
Critical points of f (x) are x = 0 and x = 2. Using the above figure, we can observe that
x = 0 is point of local minimum and x = 2 is point
of local maximum.

## Illustration - 48 The function f (x) = x2/3 (2x – 1) has :

(A) One point of local minimum (B) One point of local maximum
(C) No point of local minimum (D) No point of local maximum

SOLUTION : (AB) 1
Let f (x) = 2 x5/3 – x2/3 Critical points of f (x) are x  and x = 0.
5
Differentiate w.r.t. x to get : Using the following figure, we can determine how
5 2 2 (5 x  1)
f  (x) = 2   x 2/3  x 1/3 = 1
sign of f  (x) is changing at x = 0 and x  .
 3 3 3 x1/3 5
from figure,

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+ – + 1
changes from positive to negative and x  is
0 1/5 5
Sign of f  (x) in various intervals point of local minimum.
as sign of f  (x) is changing from negative to
x = 0 is point of local maximum as sign of f  (x) positive.

Illustration - 49 The number of points of local maximum of f (x) = cos x – cos2 x in interval x  [0, 2 ] is :
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 3
SOLUTION : (C)
Differentiate w.r.t. x to get : – + – + – +
f  (x) = – sin x + 2 sin x cos x
 1 0 _  5 
= sin x (2 cos x – 1) = 2 sin x  cos x   . 3 3
 2
Critical points of f (x) in [0, 2] are those values (c) Sign of f  (x) will be alternate positive and
1 negative in various regions. Based on this we
where sin x = 0 or cos x  .
2 can mark sign of f  (x) in all regions.
(d) Observing the figure, we can say x = 0, , 2
 x = 0, , 2 or  5
x
, are points of local minimum as sign of f  (x)
3 3
changes from negative to positive and
 Critical points in ascending order are
 5
 5 x , are point of local maximum as sign
0, , , , 2 . 3 3
3 3
of f  (x) changes from positive to negative.
Now we need to know how sign of f  (x) changes
Therefore, x = 0, 2 are points of local mini-
The following steps will help us know where is local  5
mum of f (x) and x  , are points of
maximum and where is local minimum. 3 3
(a) Plot critical points on number line and mark re- local maximum of f (x).
(b) Determine sign of f  (x) is any region. In
   1
 0,  , sin x > 0 and  cos x    0  f  (x) > 0.
 3  2

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## GLOBAL MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM VALUES Section - 8

8.1 Introduction
In the earlier section we discussed the maximum and minimum
value f (x) can take in the neighbourhood of a point i.e. local
maximum and minimum values f (x) can possess in x  (x0 – h,
x0 + h) such that h is infinitely small. These values are relative
(local) extreme values and may or may not be extreme values of
f (x) in some interval [a, b]. x0 x1 x2 x3
a b
A function may have number of local minimum or local maxi-
mum values in a given interval but absolute (Global) minimum
and maximum values should be unique.
For example in the graph shown, x0, x2 are points of local maxi-
mum and f (x0), f (x2) are corresponding local maximum values.
Similarly x1, x3 are points of local minimum and f (x1), f (x3) are corresponding local minimum values.
But the global (absolute) maximum of the function exists at x = b and the corresponding maximum global
value is f (b).
Similarly global (absolute) minimum of the function exists at x = x1 i.e. also a point of local minimum and
the corresponding value is f (x1).

## 8.2 How to find absolute maximum and minimum values of f (x)

(a) absolute maximum and minimum of continuous function f (x) is closed interval [a, b]
Extreme Value Theorem :
Suppose that f (x) is continuous on the interval [a, b] then there are two numbers a  c, d  b so that f (c)
is an absolute maximum for the function and f (d) is an absolute minimum for the function.
Absolute Maximum :

a b a x0 b a b
f (a) is Maximum f (x0) is Maximum f (b) is Maximum
Maximum value exists at Maximum value exists Maximum value exists at
left end side of the interval. at point of local minimum right end side of the interval.

From above figures, we can conclude that for a continuous function, absolute maximum of f (x) in interval
[a, b] exists either at left extreme of the interval

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## i.e. at x = a or at right extreme of the interval

i.e. at x = b or at any point of local maximum in interval [a, b].
i.e. Absolute maximum of
f ( x)  Max.{ f (a), f (b), f ( x0 ), f ( x1), f ( x2 ) . . . . .} where x0, x1, x2 . . . . are points of local
maximum
Working Rule :
(a) Find all points of local maximum of f (x) in interval [a, b]. Let points of local maximum be
x0, x1, x2 . . . .
(b) Find corresponding values of f (x) at x = x0, x1 . . . . . .
i.e. find f (x0), f (x1), f (x2)
(c) Find f (a) and f (b)
(d) Compare f (a), f (b), f (x0), f (x1), f (x2) . . . . and find maximum of all
i.e. find maximum value of { f (a), f (b), f ( x0 ), f ( x1 ), f ( x2 ) . . . . .}
(e) Max value obtained in (d) is absolute maximum value (or Global maximum value) of f (x) in [a, b].
Absolute Minimum :

a b a x0 b a b
f (b) is Minimum f ( x0) is Minimum f (b) is Minimum
Minimum value exists at Minimum value exists Minimum value exists at
right end side of the interval. at point of local minimum left end side of the interval.

From above figures, we can conclude that for a continuous function, absolute minimum of f (x) in interval
[a, b] exists either at left extreme of the interval
i.e. at x = a or at right extreme of the interval
i.e. at x = b or at any point of local minimum in interval [a, b].
i.e. Absolute minimum of
f ( x)  Min.{ f (a), f (b), f ( x0 ), f ( x1), f ( x2 ) . . .. .} where x0, x1, x2 . . . . are points of local minimum
Working Rule :
(a) Find all points of local minimum of f (x) in interval [a, b]. Let points of local minimum be
x0, x1, x2 ...

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## (b) Find corresponding values of f (x) at x = x0, x1 . . . . . .

i.e. find f (x0), f (x1), f (x2)
(c) Find f (a) and f (b)
(d) Compare f (a), f (b), f (x0), f (x1), f (x2) . . . . and find minimum of all
i.e. find minimum value of { f (a), f (b), f ( x0 ), f ( x1 ), f ( x2 ) . . . . .}
(e) Min. value obtained in (d) is absolute minimum value (or Global minimum value) of f (x) in [a, b].

## Illustrating the Concept :

Y
Identify the absolute extrema for the following function. 4

f (x) = x2 on 3

(i)  x  [1, 2] 2
It is easy to plot the graph of f (x) = x2 in x  [– 1, 2]. 1
 From graph we can observe that absolute minima is
X
–1 0 1 2
zero at x = 0 and absolute maxima is 4 at x = 2.

Y
(ii)  x  [2, 2] 4

## The graph of function is (see graph) 3

From graph we can observe that absolute minimum as ‘0’ at x = 0 2
and absolute maximum as 4 at x = ± 2.
1

X
–2 –1 0 1 2

## Illustration - 50 The function f (x) = x2 has :

(A) No absolute maximum value (B) No absolute minimum value
(C) No local maximum value (D) No local minimum value

SOLUTION : (AC)
In this case we have given no domain and so the assumption is that we will take the largest possible domain.
For this function that means all the real numbers. The graph of function is

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X
O

In this case the graph doesn’t stop increasing at either end and so there is no maximum. No matter which
point we pick on the graph there will be points both larger and smaller than it on either side so we can’t have
any maximums (of any kind, relative or absolute) in a graph. It means absolute maximum value does not
exist.
We still have a relative and absolute minimum value of zero at x = 0.

## Illustration - 51 The function f (x) = x3 on [2, 2] has :

(A) 8 as absolute maximum value (B) 0 as absolute minimum value
(C) 8 as absolute maximum value (D) No absolute maximum value
SOLUTION : (AC)
Y
Here is the graph for this function. 8
6
This function has an absolute maximum of eight at x = 2 4
and an absolute minimum of negative eight at x = – 2. 2
–1
–2 X
1 2
–2
–4
–6
–8

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## Illustration - 52 The function f (x) = x3 has :

(A) No absolute maximum value (B) No relative maximum value
(C) No absolute minimum value (D) No relative minimum value
SOLUTION : (ABCD)
Y
Again, we aren’t restricting the domain this time so here’s the graph.
In this case the function has no absolute extrema.

X
O

## Illustration - 53 The function, f (x) = cos (x)

(A) No absolute maximum value (B) 1 as absolute maximum value
(C) No absolute minimum value (D) 1 as absolute minimum value
SOLUTION : (BD)
We have not restricted the domain for this function. Here is the graph.
Y
1

–3 –2 –  2 3 X

–1

Cosine has extrema (relative and absolute) that occur at many points. Cosine has both relative and absolute
maximums of 1 at
x = . . . – 4, – 2, 0, 2, 4, . . . .
Cosine also has both relative and absolute minimums of – 1 at
x = . . . – 3, – , , 3, . .

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Illustration - 54 The function g (t) = 2t3 + 3t2 – 12t + 4 on the interval t  [4, 2]
(A) 24 as absolute maximum value (B) 8 as absolute maximum value
(C) 3 as absolute minimum value (D) 28 as absolute minimum value
Differentiate w.r.t t
Now for absolute maxima
g (t) = 6t2 + 6t – 12 = 6 (t + 2) (t – 1)
We have,
There are two critical points, t = – 2 and t = 1.
{g (–2), g (1), g (– 4), g (2)}
Note : We actually want something more than just the i.e., {24, – 3, – 28, 8}
critical points. We only want the critical points
On comparing all these values we get g (t) has
of the function that lie in the interval in question.
absolute max. as 24 at t = – 2 and similarly absolute
Both of these do fall in the interval as we will
minimum of g (t) is – 28 at t = – 4.
use both of them.

Illustration - 55 Determine the absolute extrema for the following function and interval.
g (t) = 2t3 + 3t2 – 12t + 4 on the interval t  [0, 2] has :

## (A) 8 as absolute maximum value (B) 4 as absolute maximum value

(C) 4 as absolute minimum value (D) 3 as absolute minimum value
Differentiate w.r.t t
g (t) = 6t2 + 6t – 12 = 6 (t + 2) (t – 1) Now for absolute maxima
Note that this problem is almost identical to the first We have,
problem. The only difference is the interval that we
Max {g (1), g (0), g (2)}
were working on.
i.e., Max {– 3, 4, 8}
The first step is to again find the critical points.
On comparing all these values we get g (t) has
From the previous example we know these are
absolute max. as 8 at t = 2 and similarly abso-
t = – 2 and t = 1. At this point it’s important to
lute minimum of g (t) is – 3 at t = 1.
recall that we only want the critical points that
actually fall in the interval in question. This means
that we only want t = 1 since t = – 2 falls outside
the interval so reject it.

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Illustration - 56 Suppose that the amount of money in a bank account after t years is given by,
t2
5
A (t )  2000  10te 8

The minimum and maximum amount of money in the account during the first 10 years that it is open occur
respectively at :

## (A) t  2, t  0 (B) t  2, t  10 (C) t  0, t  2 (D) t  10, t  0

SOLUTION : (A)
Here we are really asking for the absolute extrema We have got two critical points, however only
of A (t) on the interval [0, 10]. This function is con- t = 2 is actually in the interval so that is only critical
tinuous everywhere and so we know that this point that we’ll use.
can be done. Now for absolute maxima
We’ll first need the derivative so we can find the We have,
critical points. Max {A (0), A (2), A (10)}
t2 t2 i.e., Max {2000, 199.66, 1999.94}
5 5  t
A (t )   10e 8  10te 8 On comparing all these values we found, the maxi-
 
 4 mum amount in the account will be Rs. 2000
t2
which occurs at t = 0 and similarly absolute
5 
8 t2  minimum amount in the account will be Rs.199.66
= 10e  1 
 4  which occurs at the 2 year mark.

The derivative exists everywhere and the exponen
tial is never zero. Therefore the derivative will only

t2
be zero where,  1  0  t2 = 4
4
 t=±2

## (A) 0 as absolute maximum value (B) absolute maximum value at y  1

12
(C) 15 as absolute minimum value (D) absolute minimum value at y  
5
SOLUTION : (AC)
This function is continuous on the given interval
and differentiate w.r.t. ‘y’ 3 ( y  4)  2 y 5 y  12
= =
2 ( y  4)1/3 ( y  4)1/3
Q (y) = 3 ( y  4) 2/3  3 y   ( y  4) 1/3
3 So, it looks like we have got two critical points.
2y y=–4 [derivative doesn’t exist here]
= 3 ( y  4)2/3 
( y  4)1/3

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12
y [derivative is zero here] On comparing all these values we found, that
5
Both of these are in the interval. function has an absolute maximum as zero at
Now for absolute maxima, we have, y = – 4 and the function will have an absolute
Max {Q (– 4), Q (– 12/5), Q (– 5), Q (– 1)} minimum of – 15 at y = – 5.
i.e., Max {0, – 9.849, – 15, – 6.241}

Note : If we had ignored or forgotten about the critical point where the derivative doesn’t exist (y = – 4) we would
not have gotten the correct answer.

## Illustration - 58 The function y = xx has :

1
(A) No local minimum value (B) A local minimum value at x 
e
1
(C) No local maximum value (D) A local maximum value at x 
e
SOLUTION : (BC)
Let f (x) = y = xx In other words, f (x) changes from decreasing to
1 dy 1 increasing at x = 1/e.
 log y = x log x   x  log x Hence x = 1/e is a point of local minimum.
y dx x
Local minimum value = (1/e)1/e = e–1/e.
dy
  x x (1  log x ) Method II : (Second Derivative Test)
dx
f  (x) = 0  xx (1 + log x) = 0 d x 1
f  (x) = (1  log x ) x  xx  
 log x = –1  x = e–1 = 1/e. dx x
Method I : (First Derivative Test) = xx (1 + log x)2 + xx – 1
f  (x) = xx (1 + log x) f  (1/e) = 0 + (e)(e – 1)/e > 0.
f  (x) = xx log (ex)
x < 1/e ex < 1  f  (x) < 0 Hence x = 1/e is a point of local minimum.
x > 1/e ex > 1  f  (x) > 0 Local minimum value is (1/e)1/e = e–1/e.
The sign of f  (x) changes from – ve to + ve Note : We will apply the second derivative test in
around x = 1/e. most of the problems.

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Illustration - 59 Let f ( x )  sin 3   sin 2 x where  / 2  x   / 2. The interval in which  should lie in
order that f ( x) has exactly one minimum and exactly one maximum is :

 3 3  3   3  2 2
(A)  ,  (B)   , 0    0,  (C)  ,  (D) None of these
 2 2  2   2  3 3
SOLUTION : (B)
f (x) = sin3 x +  sin2 x. These represent two distinct values of x if :
f  (x) = 3 sin2 x cosx + 2 sinx cosx ×  (i)   0 because otherwise x = 0 will be the only
f  (x) = 0 value.
 2  (ii) – 1 < – 2 /3 < 1  3/2 >  > – 3/2
 3 sin x cos x  sin x  0 For exactly one maximum and only one minimum
 3 
these conditions must be satisfied by .
 2
 sinx = 0  cosx = 0  sin x   3   3
3 i.e.     , 0    0, 
cosx = 0 is not possible in the given interval.  2   2
 x = 0 and x = sin–1 (– 2/3) Since f (x) is continuous and differentiable function,
are two possible values of x. there can not be two consecutive points of local
maximum or local minimum. These should be alter-
nate.
Hence f  (x) = 0 at two distinct points will mean
that one is local maximum and the other is local mini-
mum.

Illustration - 60 A window is in the form of a rectangle surmounted by a semi-circle. The total area of
window is fixed. What should be the ratio of the areas of the semi-circular part and the rectangular part so
that the total perimeter is minimum?
 1  1
(A) (B) (C) (D)
4 4 4 2
SOLUTION : (A)
Let A be the total area of the window.
If 2x be the width of the rectangle and y be the
height.
Let the radius of circle be x.
 A = 2xy + /2 x2
y Perimeter (P) = 2x + 2y + x
A is fixed and P is to be minimised.
Eliminating y,

2x 1  x2 
P (x) = 2 x  x   A  
x  x 

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## P (x) = 2 +  – A/x2 – /2 For minimum perimeter,

 A
2A area of semicircle =  x2 
P (x) = 0  x 2 4
4
A 4A
P (x) = 2A/x3 > 0 area of rectangle = A  
4 4
2A
 Perimeter is minimum for x  
4  ratio of the areas of two parts = .
4

Illustration - 61 A box of constant volume c is to be twice as long as it is wide. The cost per unit area of the
material on the top and four sides is three times the cost for bottom. The are the most economical height of
the box is:
1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3
 9c   9c   16c   32c 
(A)   (B)   (C)   (D)  
 16   32   81   81 
SOLUTION : (D) 9c 

Let total cost = f (x) = 2k  4 x 2  
 2x 
y  9c 
f  (x) = 2k  8 x  
 2x2 
x f  (x) =0
2x 1/3
9c  9c 
 8x  0  x  
Let 2x be the length, x be the width and y be the 2 x2  16 
height of the box.  9c 
f ‘’ (x) = 2k  8  0
Volume = c = 2x2 y.  x3 
Let then cost of bottom = Rs. k per sq unit.
1/3
Total cost = cost of bottom + cost of other faces  9c 
Hence the cost is minimum for x    .
= k (2x2) + 3k (4xy + 2xy + 2x2)  16 
= 2k (4x2 + 9xy) 2/3 1/3
c c  16   32c 
Eliminating y using c = 2x2 y, and y  
   
Total cost = 2k (4x2 + 9c/2x) 2 x 2 2  9c   81 
Total cost is to be minimised The dimensions are :
1/3 1/3 1/3
 9c   9c   32c 
2  ,   , 
 16   16   81 

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Illustration - 62 The semi-vertical angle of a cone of given total surface and maximum volume is :

1 1
(A) sin 1   (B) 30 (C) sin 1   (D) 60
 3 4
SOLUTION : (A)
We will maximise V2.

2 4  S 2 2S 
Let V2 = f (r )  r  2 2  
9  r  
 
S
= f  ( r )  (2 Sr  8  r 3 )
9
 f  (r) = 0  2 Sr – 8  r3 = 0
S
 r . . . (ii)
4
Let r and h be the radius and height of the cone and S
f  ( r )  (2 S  24  r 2 )
l be the slant height of the cone. 9
Total surface area = S =  r l +  r2 . . . (i)  S  S
f     (2 S  6 S )  0
 r 2h  4  9
Volume = V  is to be maximum
3 S
Hence the volume is maximum for r 
[using, l2 = r2 + h2 and S =  r l +  r2] 4
 2 2 . . . (iii)
V r l  r2 To find the semi-vertical angle, eliminate S between
3
(i) and (ii), to get :
2
  S   r2  4  r2 =  r l +  r2
 V  r2    r2  l = 3r
3  r 
  sin  = r/l = (1/3)
  = sin–1 (1/3) for maximum volume.
 S2 2S
 V  r2 
3 2 r 2 

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Vidyamandir Classes Differential Calculus - 2

Illustration - 63 The maximum surface area of a cylinder that can be inscribed in a given sphere of radius
R is :

(A) 
 R2 1  5  (B)  R 2  
5 1 (C) 
 R2 1  3  (D)  R2  
3 1
SOLUTION : (A)
Surface area of the cylinder = 2  rh + 2  r2
 S () = 4  R2 sin  cos  + 2  R2 cos2 
 S () = 2  R2 sin 2 + 2  R2 cos2 
 S’ () = 4  R2 cos 2 – 2  R2 sin 2
S’() = 0  2 cos 2 – sin 2  = 0
2R  tan 2 = 2   = 0 = 1/2 tan–1 2
h
S  () = – 8  R2 sin 2 – 4 R2 cos 2
 2  2 1 
 S  (0) =  8  R 2    4 R  0
2r  5  5
Hence surface area is maximum for  = 0
= 1/2 tan–1 2
Let r be the radius and h be the height of cylinder. Smax = 2  R2 sin 2 0 + 2  R2 cos2 0
Consider the right triangle shown in the figure.  2  2 1  1/ 5 
 Smax = 2  R 2    2 R  
2r = 2R cos  and h = 2R sin   5 2
 
 Smax =  R 2 (1  5)

Illustration - 64 The semi-vertical angle of the cone of maximum curved surface area that can be inscribed
in a given sphere of radius R is:

1  1   1  1
(A) tan 1   (B) tan 1   (C) tan 1   (D) tan 1  
2  2 2 2 4
SOLUTION : (B)
Let h be the height of cone and r be the radius of
A the cone.
Consider the right OMC where O is the centre of
sphere and AM is perpendicular to the base BC of
R cone.
h OM = h – R, OC = R, MC = r
O R2 = (h – R)2 + r2 . . . (i)
R 2 2 2
and r + h = l . . . (ii)
where l is the slant height of cone.
B M r C
Curve surface area = C =  r l

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Differential Calculus - 2 Vidyamandir Classes

Using (i) and (ii), express C in terms of h only. Hence curved surface area is maximum for
2 2 4R
C= r r h h
3
 C   2hR  h2 2hR Using (i), we get :
We will maximise C2. 8 R2 2 2
r 2  2h R  h2   r R
Let C2 = f (h) = 2 2 h R (2hR – h2) 9 3
 f  (h) = 2 2 R (4hR – 3h2) Semi-vertical angle
f  (h) = 0  4hR – 3h2 = 0  1 
 h = 4R/3.    tan 1 r / h  tan 1  
 2
f  (h) = 2 2 R (4R – 6h)
 4R  2
f     2  R (4 R  8 R )  0
 3 

Illustration - 65 A cone is circumscribed about a sphere of radius R. The volume of the cone is mini-
mum if its height is :
(A) 3R (B) 4 R (C) 5R (D) 2 2R
SOLUTION : (B)
hR r 2  h2
A  
R r
Squaring and simplifying we get :

2 h2 R2
r  . . . (ii)
h  2R
N h
R Now volume of cone = 1/3  r2 h
O 1  h R2 
 V   h
3  h  2 R 
R

B M C 1  R2
2r  V
3 1 2R
h  2 
Let r be the radius, h be the height, and l be the slant  h 
height of cone. For volume to be minimum, the denominator should
If O be the centre of sphere, be maximum. Hence we will maximise :
AON ~ ACM 1 2R
f ( h)  
hR l h h2
  . . . (i)
R r 1 4R
f  ( h)   
h2 h3

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Vidyamandir Classes Differential Calculus - 2

f  (h) = 0  h=4R 8R  12 R
f ''(4 R)  0
2 12 R 2h  12 R 256 R 4
f ''(h)   
h3 h4 h4 Hence f (h) is maximum and volume is mini-
mum for h = 4 R.

Illustration - 66 The lower corner of a page in a book is folded over so as to reach the inner edge of the
page. The fraction of the width folded over when the area of the folded part is minimum is :
(A) 1/4 (B) 1/3 (C) 1/2 (D) 2/3
SOLUTION : (D)
Area of folded part = ar . (A1 BC)
1 1 x
M C A xy  x
2 2 2x  1
y x4 1
 A2  
4 (2 x  1) 2 1 
A 4 3  4 
1 x x 
x For area to be minimum, denominator in R.H.S.
must be maximum.
2 1
Let f ( x)  3  4
O 1–x B x A x x
6 4
f  ( x)  
The corner A is folded to reach A1. x 4 x5
The length of the folded part = AB = A1 B = x f  (x) = 0  – 6x + 4 = 0  x = 2/3
Let total width = 1 unit
24 20 24x  20
 Length of the unfolded part = OB = 1 – x. f  ( x)   
If CM || OA, A1 CM ~  BA1 O x5 x6 x6

A C BA  BA  16  20
 1  1  f  (2 / 3)  0
A1C  y  CM  1  (2 / 3)6
CM A1O  A1O 
x Hence f (x) is maximum and area is minimum if
 
  2  . . . (i) x = 2/3 i.e. 2/3rd of the width.
2
 x  (1  x ) 

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Differential Calculus - 2 Vidyamandir Classes

Illustration - 67 The area of the greatest isosceles triangle that can be inscribed in a given ellipse having
its vertex coincident with one end of the major axis.
3 3 3 3
(A) ab (B) ab (C) ab (D) 3ab
4 2 4
SOLUTION : (C)
Area of triangle = 1/2 (BC) (AM)
 A = 1/2 (2b sin t) (a – a cost)
B (a cost, b sint)
 A (t) = ab (sin t – sin t cos t)
A (t) = ab (cost – cos 2t)
A (t) = 0  cost – cos 2t = 0
O M A (a, 0) 2
 cost + 1 – 2 cos t = 0
 cost = 1, – 1/2
C
  1  2
 t  cos 1    is the relevant value.
 2  3
Let the equation of the ellipse be : A (2/3) = ab 3/2 (– 1 – 1) < 0

x2 y2 Hence area is maximum for t 
 1 3
a 2 b2
Consider an isosceles  2 
Maximum area = A  
ABC where AB = AC  3 
Let the coordinates of B be (a cost, b sin t). = ab (sin 2/3 – sin 2/3 cos2/3)
 The coordinates of C are: (a cost, – b sin t)  3 3 1 3 3
Because BC is a vertical line and BM = MC. = ab  2  2 2  = ab
  4

Illustration - 68 The shortest distance between the line y – x = 1 and the curve x = y2 is :
3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2
(A) (B) (C) (D)
2 4 8 16
SOLUTION : (C)
Let P (t2, t) be any point on the curve x = y2. f  (t) = 0  t = + 1/2  f  (t) = 2 > 0
1
The distance of P from the given line is Distance is minimum for t  
2
|  t 2  t  1| t2  t  1
= =  t 2  t  1
12  12 2 Shortest distance = 
2 

 t  1/ 2
because t2 – t + 1 is a positive expression
We have to find minimum value of this expression. 1 1
 1
= 4 2 3 2
Let f (t) = t2 – t + 1 ; f ’ (t) = 2t – 1 
2 8

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Vidyamandir Classes Differential Calculus - 2

Illustration - 69 The point on the curve 4x2 + a2 y2 = 4a2; 4 < a2 < 8 that is farthest from the point
(0, – 2) is :
 a  a 
(A) (0, 2) (B) ( a, 0) (C)  , 2 (D)  , 3 
 2  2 
SOLUTION : (A)
The given curve is an ellipse. Let us first discuss the possibility of
2 2
x y  4 
2
1 t  sin 1  
a 4 2
a 4
Consider a point P (a cost, 2 sint) lying on this
ellipse. We are given that 4 < a2 < 8
The distance of P from (0, –2)  0 < a2 – 4 < 4

= a 2 cos 2 t  (2  2 sin t ) 2 4
 0 1
This distance is to be maximised. a2  4
Let f (t) = a2 cos2 t + 4 (1 + sint)2
 4 
f  (t) = – 2a2 sint cost + 8 (1 + sint) (+ cost)  as 2 is greater than 1
f  (t) = (8 – 2a2) sint cost + 8 cost  a  4 
f  (t) = 0
4
4 t  sin 1 is not possible.
 cost = 0  sin t  2
2 a 4
a 4
Hence t = /2 is the only value.
 4 
 t  /2  t  sin 1  2 
Now, f  (t) = (8 – 2a2) cos 2t – 8 sin t
a 4 f  (/2) = 2a2 – 8 – 8 = 2 (a2 – 8) < 0
 The farthest point corresponds to t = /2
(t = 3/2 is rejected because it makes the distance
and its ordinates are
zero).
 (a cos /2, 2 sin /2)  (0, 2)

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Differential Calculus - 2 Vidyamandir Classes

Illustration - 70 The semi-vertical angle of right circular cone of minimum curved surface that circum-
scribes a given sphere is :
(A) sin 1  2 1  (B) sin 1  3 1  (C) sin 1  3 2  (D) None of these
SOLUTION : (A)
A  h R 2 (h  R )  h R (h  R )
 C 
R (h  2 R ) (h  2 R )
 [in terms of h]
P dc R
R  [(h  2 R ) (2h  R )  (h 2  hR )]  0
dh (h  2 R ) 2
O
 h2 – 4 Rh + 2R2 = 0  h = (2 + 2) R
B M r C d 2c
Can be shown that is > O for this value of h.
When cone is circumscribed over a sphere dh 2
we have : AMC ~ APO Substituting h = 2R + 2R in (ii), we get :
r2 = (2 + 1) R2
AC AO l hR
    . . . (i) Semi-vertical angle = 
MC OP r R
Using this with r2 + h2 = l2, we can also get r2 2 1
 tan   
2
2 hR 2 h (2  2)2
r  . . . (ii)
h  2R
It can be shown that  = sin–1 ( 2  1 ).
curved surface area of cone in
r (h  R)
C   r l  r
R

Illustration - 71
 max [ f (t )] 0  t  x 0  x  1
Let f (x) = x3 – x2 + x + 1 and g ( x)   . Then the
 3 x 1 x  2
function g (x) is :

## (A) Continuous at x = 1 (B) Differentiable at x = 1

(C) Discontinuous at x = 1 (D) Non-differentiable at x = 1
It is given that f (x) = x3 – x2 + x + 1 Consider 0  t  x
f  (x) = 3x2 – 2x + 1  f (0)  f (t)  f (x)
f  (x) > 0 for all x. [as f (t) is an increasing function]
[as coeff. of x2 > 0 and Discriminant < 0]  Maximum [ f (t)] = f (x) = x3 – x2 + x + 1
Hence f (x) is always increasing function

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Vidyamandir Classes Differential Calculus - 2

At x = 1
 x3  x 2  x  x  1 , 0  x  1
 g ( x)   LHL = 2, RHL = 2 f (1) = 2
 3 x , 1 x  2
 g (x) is continuous at x = 1
As g (x) is polynomial in [0, 1) and (1, 2], it is
continuous and differentiable in these intervals. LHD = 2 and RHD = – 1
 g (x) is non-differentiable at x = 1.

Illustration - 72  3 (b3  b2  b  1)
 x  , 0  x 1
Let f ( x )   (b 2  3b  2)

 2x  3 , 1 x  3

All possible real values of b such that f (x) has the smallest value at x = 1 are:
(A) ( ,  2) (B) [1,  )
(C) ( ,  2)  ( 1, 1) (D) ( 2,  1)  [1,  )
SOLUTION : (D)
The value of function f (x) at x = 1 is f (x) In order that this value is not less than – 1, we must
have
= 2x – 3
 2 (1) – 3 = – 1  b3  b 2  b  1  (b 2  1) (b  1)
1     1  0
The function f (x) = 2x – 3 is an increasing func-  b2  3b  2  ( b  2) (b  1)
 
tion in [1, 3]. hence, f (1) = – 1 is the smallest value (b  1)
of f (x) at x = 1.  (b  2) (b  1)  0 [as b2 + 1 > 0]
3 (b3  b2  b  1)
Now f ( x)   x  Now the following three cases may be distinguished
(b 2  3b  2)
is a decreasing function on [0, 1] for fixed values 1. (b – 1)  0, b + 2 > 0 and b + 1 > 0
of b.  b1
Its smallest value will occur as 2. (b – 1)  0, b + 2 > 0 and b + 1< 0
 –2<b<–1
3 (b3  b 2  b  1)
lim f ( x)  lim x  3. (b – 1)  0, b + 2 < 0 and b + 1 > 0
x  1 x  1 (b2  3b  2)
(b3  b 2  b  1) Hence, the possible real values of b such that f (x)
= 1 
(b2  3b  2) has the smallest value at x = 1 are b  1
and – 2 < b < – 1 i.e. b  (– 2, – 1)  [1, )

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Differential Calculus - 2 Vidyamandir Classes

IN-CHAPTER EXERCISE-E

2 1
1. In a submarine telegraph cable speed of signaling varies as x log where x is the ratio of radius of
x
the case to that of covering. Show that the greatest speed is attained when this ratio is 1: e .
2. A wire of given length is cut into two pieces. One piece is bent into a shape of circle and other piece
into the shape of a square. Show that the sum of the areas of the circle and square will be minimum
when the side of the square is equal to the diameter of the circle.
3. Find the point of local maxima and local minima for the following functions. Also find respective
maximum and minimum values.
( x  1)( x  4)
(i) y  x 4  14 x 2  24  3 (ii) y
( x  1)( x  4)
(iii) y  x( x  1)2 ( x  1) 2 (iv) y  (log x ) / x

## (v) y  e x sin x in [  ,  ] (vi) y  sin x  cos x in[0, 2 ]

4. A running track of 400 m is to be laid out enclosing a football field, the shape of which is a rectangle
with a semicircle at each end. If the area of the rectangular portion is to be maximum, find the
lengths of its sides.
5. Show that a conical tent of given capacity will require the least amount of canvas it its height is 2
6. For a given curved surface of a right circular cone, show that the volume is maximum when semi-
vertical angle of the cone is sin 1(1/ 3).
7. Find the equation of normal at any point q to the curve x  a cos   a sin  ,
y   a sin   a cos  . Also show that it is at a distance ‘a’ from the origin.
n n
 x  y x y
8. Show that the curve       2 touches the straight line   2 at the point (a,b)
a b a b
Whatever the value of n may be.
2  x
9. Prove that all the point on the curve y  4a  x  a sin  at which the tangent is parallel to the
 a

## X-axis lie on the parabola y 2  4ax.

10. Find the points of local maxima and local minima for the following function. Also find the respective
maximum and minimum values :
(i) y  x3  27 x (ii) y  x 2  2 x3 (i (iii)ii) y  x3  2 x 2  7 x  2 (iv) y  ( x  1) ( x  1)3

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1 x
(v) y ((vi) vi) y  ( x  1) ( x  2) ( x  3)
x2  x4
11. Show that x / sin x is an increasing function in 0  x   / 2.
12. The three sides of a trapezium are equal, each being 6 cm long. Find the area of the trapezium when
it is maximum.
13. Find the dimensions of the rectangle of perimeter 36 cm which will sweep out a volume as large as
possible when revolved about one of its sides.
14. Show that the radius of the right circular cylinder of greatest curved surface which can be inscribed
in a given cone is half that of the cone.
15. The cone of the greatest volume which can be inscribed in a given sphere has an altitude equal to
2 / 3rd of the diameter of the sphere, Prove this.
16. Find the greatest and least values of f ( x )  x 2 log x in [1, e].

17. Prove that sum of intercepts of the tangents to the curve x1/ 2  y1/2  a1/ 2 upon the coordinate
axes is of constant length.
1 1 
18. (a) Show that 0  x sin x  sin 2 x  (  1) for 0  x 
2 2 2

## (b) Show that 1  x log  x  x 2  1   1  x 2  x  0.

 
19. Find the coordinates of the points on the parabola y  x 2  7 x  2 which is closest to the line
y  3 x  3.

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THINGS TO REMEMBER

y
1. The average rate of change = .
t
When limit t  0 is applied, the rate of change becomes instantaneous and we get the rate of change of
y w.r.t. time at an instant.
y dy
i.e., lim 
t  0 t dt .

## 2. Errors and Approximations

(a) Errors Let y = f (x)
y dy
From definition of derivative, lim 
 x  0 x dx

y dy  dy 
 approximately or y    . x approximately
x dx  dx 

Definition :
(i) x is known as absolute error in x.
x
(ii) is known as relative error in x.
x

(iii) x
 100 is known as percentage error in x.
x
(b) Approximations From definition of derivative,
f (a  x)  f (a )
As Derivative of f (x) at (x = a) = f  (a) or f  (a )  lim
x  0 x
f ( a  x )  f ( a )
or  f  (a ) (approximately)
x
f (a + x) = f (a) + x f  (a) (approximately).

3. Slope of tangent
 dy 
 dx   tan  = slope of tangent at P.
 P
Where  is the angle which the tangnet at P (x1, y1) makes with the positive direction of x-axis as shown in the
figure.

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## Note : (i) If tangent is parallel to x-axis  = 0°  tan  = 0

 dy 
   0
 dx ( x1, y1 )
(ii) If tangent is perpendicular to x-axis (or parallel to y-axis) then
 = 90°  tan  or cot  = 0
 dx 
   
 dy ( x1 , y1 )

## 4. The equation of tangent at P (x0, y0) is : y – y0 = f  (x0 ) [x – x0]

If the tangent is parallel to x-axis then f  (x0) = 0.
1
If tangent is perpendicular to x-axis, then f  (x0)   or 0
f  ( x0 )

1
5. The equation of normal at P (x0, y0) is : y – y0 = (x – x0)
f   x0 

## 6. Equation of tangent and normal in parametric form

Let the equation of the curve be expressed in the parameteric form x = g (t) and y =  (t) where t is the
parameter.
The equation of the tangent at a point P (t),
  t 
y   t    x  g  t   and
gt  
 g  t 
the equation of normal is y    t    x  g  t  
  t  

## 7. Angle of intersection of two curves

Let y = f (x) and y = g (x) be two curves intersecting at a point P (x0, y0). The slopes of the tangents to
these two curves at P are m1 = f  (x0) and m2 = g(x0) respectively. The angle of intersection of these two
curves is defined as the angle between the tangents to the two curves at their common point P. Hence if 
is the angle between the tangents, then
m  m2 f   x0   g   x0 
tan  =  1  
1  m1m2 1  f   x0  g   x0 
If  = /2, then the two curves are said to cut each other orthogonally and the condition for this to happen
is :
m1 × m2 = – 1  f (x0) × g(x0) = – 1

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If  = 0, then the two curves are said to touch each other and the condition for this to happen is :
m1 = m2  f (x0) = g(x0)
8. Tangent, Normal, Subtangent and Subnormal
Let the tangent and normal at a point P (x, y) on the curve y = f (x), meet the x-axis at T and N respectively.
If G is the foot of the ordinate at P, then TG and GN are called the cartesian subtangent and subnormal,
while the lengths PT and PN are called the lengths of the tangent and normal respectively.
dy
If PT makes an angle  with x-axis, then tan   . From the figure we can find that :
dx
y
 Subtangent = TG = y cot  =
 dy 
 
 dx 
dy
 Subnormal = GN = y tan  = y
dx
2
 dy 
y 1  
 dx 
 Length of the tangent = PT = y cosec = y 1  cot 2  
dy
dx
2
2  dy 
 Length of the normal = PN = y sec y 1  tan   y 1   
 dx 
9. Rolle’s Theorem
Let f be a real valued function defined on the closed interval [a, b] such that
(i) it is continuous on the closed interval [a, b],
(ii) it is differentiable on the open interval (a, b), and
(iii) f (a) = f (b).
Then there exists a real number c  (a, b) such that f  (c) = 0.
10. Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorem
Let f (x) be a function defined on [a, b] such that
(i) it is continuous on [a, b],
(ii) it is differentiable on (a, b).
f (b)  f (a )
Then there exists a real number c  (a, b) such that f  (c )  .
ba

## 11. Strictly increasing function

A function f (x) is said to be a strictly increasing function on (a, b) if
x1 < x2  f (x1) < f (x2) for all x1, x2  (a, b)
Thus, f (x) is strictly increasing on (a, b) if the values of f (x) increase with the increase in the values of x.

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## 12. Strictly decreasing function

A function f (x) is said to be a strictly decreasing function on (a, b) if
x1 < x2  f (x1) > f (x2) for all x1, x2  (a, b)
Thus, f (x) is strictly decreasing on (a, b) if the values of f (x) decrease with the increase in the values of x.
13. Monotonic Function
A function f (x) is said to be monotonic on an interval (a, b) if it is either increasing or decreasing on (a, b).
Definition :
A function f (x) is said to be increasing (decreasing) at a point x0 if there is an interval (x0 – h, x0 + h)
containing x0 such that f (x) is increaisng (decreasing) on (x0 – h, x0 + h).
Definition :
A function f (x) is said to be increasing on [a, b] if it is increasing (decreasing) on (a, b) and it is also
increasing (decreasing) at x = a and x = b.
14. Condition for function to be increasing and decreasing
Let f be a differentiable real function defined on an open interval (a, b).
(a) If f  (x) > 0 for all x  (a, b), then f (x) is increasing on (a, b)
(b) If f  (x) < 0 for all x  (a, b), then f (x) is decreasing on (a, b).

## 15. Properties of Monotonic functions

(i) If f (x) is strictly increasing function on an interval [a, b], then f –1 exists and it is also a strictly
increasing function.
(ii) If f (x) is strictly increasing function on an interval [a, b] such that it is continuous, then f –1 is continu
ous on [ f (a), f (b)].
(iii) If f (x) and g (x) both are monotonically (or strictly) increasing (or decreasing) functions on [a, b],
then gof (x) is a monotonically (or strictly) increasing (in either case) function on [a, b].
(iv) If one of the two functions f (x) and g (x) is strictly (or monotonically) increasing and other a strictly
(monotonically) decreasing, then gof (x) is strictly (monotonically) decreasing (in either case) on
[a, b].
1
(v) If f (x) is increasing function then is decreasing function.
f ( x)
(vi) If f (x) and g (x) are increasing functions then f (x) + g (x) is also increasing function.
(vii) If f (x) is a monotonic increasing function in the interval [a, b] then greatest value and least value of
f (x) in the interval [a, b] are f (b) and f (a) respectively.
16. Critical Point
We say that x = c is a critical point of the function f (x) if f (c) exists and if either of the following are true.
f  (c) = 0 or f  (c) doesn’t exist

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## 17. Stationary point

We can say x = c is a stationary point of f (x) if f (c) exits and f  (c) = 0.

## Concave upwards Convex upwards

(Inverted bowl shape)

Convex downwards
Concave downwards (bowl shape)

19. y = f (x) is said to be concave upwards (convex downwards) in x  [a, b], if f  (x)  0  x  (a, b).

20. y = f (x) is said to be convex upwards (concave downwards) in x  [a, b], if f  (x)  0  x  (a, b).

21. Therefore, point of inflexion is a point where sign of f  (x) changes from either negative to positive or
positive to negative.
22. How to find points of inflexion
The following steps can be applied to determine points of inflexion of f (x).
(a) Find f  (x) and equate numerator and denominator both to zero to find potential points of inflexion.

Method - I :
(b) Let us assume that values obtained in (a) are x = x0, x1, x2 . . . . . . . Now consider these values one
by one and determine whether they are points of inflextion or not.
Now consider these values to determine this, we have following methods.
Let us take x = x0 first and then repeat the following steps for x = x1, x2, x3 . . . . . . .
If f  (x0 – h) > 0 and f  (x0 + h) < 0
OR f  (x0 – h) < 0 and f  (x0 + h) > 0,
then x = x0 is point of inflexion provided f (x0) exists (x0  Domain of f (x)).
It means if sign of f  (x) is changing about x = x0 from either positive to negative or negative to positive,
then x = x0 is point of inflexion provided f (x0) exists x0  Domain of f (x).
If f  (x0 – h) > 0 and f  (x0 + h) > 0
OR f  (x0 – h) < 0 and f  (x0 + h) < 0
then x = x0 is NOT a point of inflexion.  reject this point.
It means if sign of f  (x) is NOT changing about x = x0, then it is NOT a point of inflexion.

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## Method - II : (“nth derivative test”)

Differentiate f  (x) again and again till you get first non-zero derivative at x = x0 i.e.
f 3 (x0) = f 4 (x0) = f 5 (x0) = . . . . . . . f n – 1 (x0) = 0 and f n (x0)  0
It means we are assuming that first (n – 1) derivatives are zero and first non-zero derivative is f n (x0).
Based on the value of f n (x0), we can conclude the following :
(a) If n is odd and f n (x0) > 0, then x = x0 is point of inflexion when shape of curve is changing from
convex upwards to concave upwards.
(b) If n is odd and f n(x0) < 0, then x = x0 is a point of inflexion where shape of curve changes from
concave upwards to convex upwards at x = x0.
(c) If n is even, x = x0 is NOT a point of inflexion. Therefore reject x = x0.
23. Local Maximum
A function attains a local maximum at a point if value of the function at this point is greater than its value at all
points other than this point in a certain interval (infinitely small) defined around this point. In other words,
A function f (x) attains a local maximum at x = x 0 if f (x0) > f (x) for all x0  (x0, – , x0 + ),   0 and
x  x0.
It means f (x) possesses a greatest value in the neighbourhood of x0.
24. Local Minimum
A function attains a local minimum at a point if value of the function at this point is less than its value at all
points other than this point in a certain interval (infinitely small) defined around this point.
In other words,
A function f (x) attains a local minimum at x = x0 if f (x0) < f (x) for all x  (x0 – , x0 + ),   0

and x  x0.

## 25. Local Extremum

The point at which a function attains either the local maximum value or the local minimum values are known
as extreme point or point of local extremum and both local maximum and local minimum values are called
the “extreme values” of f (x) or “Local Extremum values”.
26. Algorithum to find points local maximum and local minimum
(i) Find critical points of f (x). Let us assume critical points are x = x0, x1, x2, . . . .
(ii) Consider each critical point and check whether it is point of local maximum, point of local minimum
or neither of the two.

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Note : The following examples help you in understanding that every critical point is not a point of local maximum
or local minimum. It can be neither of the two.

x0 x0 x0 x0
f  ( x0 ) = 0 f  ( x0 ) = 0 f  (x0) is not defined f  (x0) is not defined

In above examples x0 is critical point but it is neither point of local maximum nor point of local minimum.

## Method - I : (First derivative test)

Let us check x0 first. Then same procedure can be applied on x1, x2, x3 . . . . . . following methods can be
used to check whether x0 is local maximum or local minimum or neither of the two.
If f  (x0 – h) > 0 and f (x0 + h) < 0, then x = x0 is point of local maximum.
else, if
f  (x0 – h) < 0 and f  (x0 + h) > 0, then x = x0 is point of local minimum.
else,
x = x0 is neither point of local minimum and nor it is local maximum.
It means if derivative towards left of x0 is positive and toward right is negative, then x0 is point of local
maximum. Similarly if derivative towards left of x0 is negative and towards right is positive, then x0 is
point of local minimum.
If sign of f  (x) is not changing around x = x0, then it is neither local maximum nor local minimum.

## Method - II : (Second derivative test)

This method can only be used if all derivatives of f (x) exist, i.e. f  (x), f  (x), f  (x), . . . . all exist.
Let us check x0
To know whether it is local maximum, local minimum or neither of the two. Follow the steps given below
(i) Find f  (x0).
(ii) If f  (x0) < 0, then x = x0 is point of local maximum
else if f  (x) > 0, then x = x0 is point of local minimum
else if f  (x0) = 0, then test fails and apply extension of second derivative test.

## i.e., nth derivative test.

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## Nth derivative test (Extension of second derivative test)

This test is applied on a differentiable function f (x) at x0 to decide whether x0 is local maximum, local
minimum or neither of the two.
27. How to find absolute Maxima
(a) Find all points of local maximum of f (x) in interval [a, b]. Let points of local maximum
x0, x1, x2 . . . .
(b) Find corresponding values of f (x) at x = x0, x1 . . . . . . i.e. find f (x0), f (x1), f (x2)
(c) Find f (a) and f (b)
(d) Compare f (a), f (b), f (x0), f (x1), f (x2) . . . . and find maximum of all
i.e. find maximum value of { f (a), f (b), f ( x0 ), f ( x1 ), f ( x2 ) . . . . .}
(e) Max value obtained in (d) is absolute maximum value (or Global maximum value) of f (x) in
[a, b].
28. How to find absolute Minima
(a) Find all points of local minimum of f (x) in interval [a, b]. Let points of local minimum x0, x1, x2 ....
(b) Find corresponding values of f (x) at x = x0, x1 . . . . . . i.e. find f (x0), f (x1), f (x2)
(c) Find f (a) and f (b)
(d) Compare f (a), f (b), f (x0), f (x1), f (x2) . . . . and find minimum of all
i.e. find minimum value of { f (a), f (b), f ( x0 ), f ( x1 ), f ( x2 ) . . . . .}
(e) Min. value obtained in (d) is absolute minimum value (or Global minimum value) of f (x) in [a, b].

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3. (i) Local Max. : (1, 8), Local Min. : (3, 120) , (2, 5)
 1
(ii) Local Max. : (2,  9) , and  2,  .
 9

 1 16 5   1 16 5 
E (iii) Local Max. :  ,  , (1, 0) Local Min. :  ,  , (1, 0).
 5 125   5 125 

 1
(iv) Local Max. :  e, 
 e

 3 1 3 /4    1  / 4 
(v) Local Max. :  , e  ; Local Min. :  , e .
 4 2   4 2 

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## 1. x2/3 + y2/3 = a2/3. Let P  (a cos3, asin3) be general point on curve.

a
Equation of tangent is : y cos + xsin = sin 2
2
Equation of normal is : x cos – y sin = a cos2
a
sin 2
2 a
P1 =  distance of tangent from origin =  sin 2 . . . . (i)
cos 2   sin 2  2

a cos 2
P2 =  distance of normal from origin =  a cos 2 . . . . (ii)
cos 2   sin 2 

## From (i) and (ii), 4P12  P22 = a2 (sin22 + cos22) = a2

2. [Same as Q. 14 in INE - E]
3.

dy
 tan t    t ; PM = y cosec = y cosec t
dx
 PM = a sin t.cosec t = a = const.
Alternate Method :
Find the equation at P. Then, find coordinates of M.
Find PM by distance formula and check it is independent of ‘t’ i. e. constant
 C
4. (a) Consider general point  Ct ,  on curve xy = C2
 t 
 C
 Eq. of normal at  Ct ,   xt3 – yt + C – Ct4 = 0
 t 
C C
It passes through  Ct ,   Ct  .t 3  .t  C  Ct 4  0
 t  t

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## (b) Equation of normal at P  y – 3 = –2(x – 0)  y = –2x + 3

On solving equation of normal and given curve : 5x5 – 10x3 + x + 4x – 6 + 6 = 0
 x = 0 , 1, –1  y = –3, –1, –5
 other points are (1, – 1), (–1, –5)

## 1. Let f(x) = 2sinx + tanx – 3x

2 sin x 2 sin x  
 f (x) = 2cosx + sec2x – 3 and f   x    2 sin x 
cos 3 x

cos3 x
1  cos3 x   0  x  0, 
 2
 f (x) is an increasing function.
Consider x > 0  f (x)  f (0) = 0  f (x)  0
 f (x) is increasing :
Consider x > 0  f (x)  f (0) = 0  f (x)  0 [Hence proved]

1/ 3
b 2 b  b 
4. Consider : f  x   ax   c  f   x   2ax 
2
0  x  
x x  2a 
1/ 3 1/ 3
2b  b   b 
f   x   2a   0 for x     x  is Local minimum
x3  2a   2a 
  b 1/ 3 
As f  x   0  x  R , f      0
  2a  
 
2/3 1/ 3
 b  b 3b  b 
 a .   c  0  c   27ab2  4c3
 2a  1/ 3 2  2a 
 b 
 
 2a 
x3 x3
5. To Prove : x   tan 1 x  x  where 0 < x < 1
3 6
4
1 x3 f   x   1 1  x2  x
f  x   tan x  x  ;
3 1 x2 1 x2
 f (x) > 0  f (x) is increasing in (0, 1)
x3
Consider x > 0  f (x) > f (0)  f (x) > 0  tan 1 x  x  0
3

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x3 x2 1
Consider f  x   x   tan1 x ; f   x  1  
6 2 1 x 2

2  x2  x 4

   0  x  0,1
x 2 1 x2
 f (x) is increasing.
2 1  x 2  2 1  x 2 
Consider x>0  f (x) > f (0)  f (x) > 0
3 3
x x
 x   tan1 x  0  tan 1 x  x 
6 6

## SOLUTIONS TO IN-CHAPTER EXERCISE-D

2 1
1. (a) f  x    x  2 2 / 3  f   x   .
3  x  2 1/ 3
For critical point : f(x)= 0 or f(x) is not defined.
Now, f (x) = 0 but f (x) is not defined at x = 2 and also, f (2) is defined. So, x = 2 is a critical point.
(b) f (x) = xe–x  f (x) = e–x(1 – x)
For critical point : f(x) = 0  e–x(1 – x) = 0  x = 1(e–1 > 0) and also at x = 1, f (x) exists.
 x = 1 is a critical point.
(c) f (x) = x2e–x  f (x) = e–x(2x – x2)
For critical point : f (x) = 0  x = 0, 2 and at x = 0,2 f (x) exist. So, critical points are x = 0, 2
(d) f (x) = x logx  f(x) = 1 + logx
1
For critical point : f   x   0  x 
e
1 1
Also, at x  , f  x  exist.  x is the critical point.
e e
log x 1  log x
(e) f  x    f  x 
x x2
For critical point : f(x) = 0  1 – logx = 0  x = e and x = 0
But at x = 0, f (x) is not defined and f (0) does not exist.  x = e is the only critical point.
(f) f(x) = sinx + x  f(x) = cosx + 1
For critical point : f(x) = 0  1 + cos x = 0  x = (2n + 1)  .
Also , at x = (2n + 1) both f (x) and f(x) exist. Critical point : x = (2n + 1) 
(g), (h), (i) Do yourself

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## SOLUTIONS TO IN-CHAPTER EXERCISE-E

2 1 1 x2  1  1 1
2. f  x   x log ; f   x   2 x.log  .    2 x log  x  0  x  0 and x 
x 2
x 1/ x  x  x e
Reject x = 0 as f(0) is undefined.
 1  1
Check yoursel f : f     0  speed is greatest for x 
 e e
3. Let L be the length of the wire which is divided into two parts of length x and L – x.
2
 x   L x 
2 2x 2  L  x L
Sum of areas = f(x) =    ; f  x   0  x
   4 16  4
 2   4 
 Radius of circle = side length of square
 L 
Check : f   0
 4
4. (i) Local max : (1, 8) ; L -min : (–3, –120) and (2, 5)
 1
(ii) Local max : (2, –9) and L -min :  2,  
 9
 1 16 5 
,  1 16 5  , (1, 0)
(iii) Local max :   and (–1, 0) ; Local min :
  , 
 5 125  5 125 

 1  3 1 3 / 4    1  / 4 
(iv) Local max :  e,  (v) Local max :  , e  ; L-min :  , e 
 e  4 2   4 2 

5. 2y + x = 400 ; Area = xy
x 1
 Area = A  x    400   x  and A  x    400  2 x   0
2 2
 200  200
A     200  Area is max. for x 
   
200 200
For x  , y 100  Dimensions are , 100
 

1 3V
6. V   r 2h  r 2 
3 h
Curved surface Area (C.S.A.) = rL
3V  3V 
  C.S .A.2   2r 2 L2   2 r 2  r 2  h 2   f  h  
.   h2 
h h 
 3V   6V 
 f  h   3V  2  h   f   h   3V  3  1  0
 h  h 

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6V  6V 
 h3   ; Check : f   3   0
   
1  h3
V   r 2h   h 2  2r 2  h  2 r
3 6

## 7. C = rL where C = curved surface area (given) . . . . (i)

1 1 1 C2
V   r 2h   r 2 L2  r 2   r 2  r2
3 3 3 2 2
 r
1  C2  1  C2 2 6 
 V 2  f  r    2 r 4   r2    2  .r  r 
9   2r 2  9 2 
   
2 2
1  2C r  C
f r    2   6r 5   0  r 4  . . . . (ii)
9   2  3 A2

 C 
Check : f   0
 3 A 

Combining (i) and (ii),
r2 1 r 1 1
 2r 2 L2  3 2 r 4      sin   where ‘’ is semi-vertical angle.
2 3 L 3 3
L

## dy a cos   a cos   a  sin 

11. = = tan . Slope of normal = – cot .
dx  a sin   a sin   a  cos 
Equation of normal : y – a sin  + a  cos  = – cot  (x – a cos  – a  sin )
 y sin  + x cos  = a
|a|
distance from origin = = | a | = constant.
2 2
sin   cos 
12. Find the equation of tangent to curve at (a, b) and compare.
 1 x x
13. Slope of tangent = 0  0 = 4a  1  a cos   cos = – 1
 a a a
2 2
 x = (2n + 1)  a and hence y = 4a (x + 0)  y = 4ax.

## 14. & 15. [Do your self]

1
16. Area = ( 12 + 2x) 36  x 2
2
Letf (x) = (area)2 = (x + 6)2 (36 – x2)
Maximise f (x).

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17. 2 (x + y) =36  x + y = 18
Volume = x2y =  x2 (18 - x)  V (x) =  x2 (18 – x)
V (x) =  [36x – 3x2]  x = 12.
V (x) =  [36 – 6x]  V (12) < 0
 volume is max for x = 12.
So, dimensions are 12 and 6.
18. Curved surface area = C = 2  RH
R h H R
from similarity   H=h– h
r h r

 R  R2 
 C.S.A = C (R) = 2  R h 1   = 2  h  R  
 r  r 

 2R 
C(R) = 2  h 1  = 0  r = 2R.
 r 
 2 
C(R) = 2  h   < C
 r 
 C (R) is maximum for r = 2R

## 20. In  OAB (h – R)2 + r2 = R2

1 1
Volume =V =  r2 h =  [R2 – (h – R)2] h
3 3
1 1
 V (h) =  h2 (2R – h) =  [2R h2 – h3]
3 3
1
V(h) =  [4Rh – 3h2] = 0  4R = 3h  2D = 3h
3
1 4
V(h) =  [4R – 6h] = R  < 0 (where D is diameter).
3 3
2
 Volume is maximum for h = Diameter..
3

## 21. f (x) = 2x log x + x which is positions in [1, e].  f (x) is increasing.

Hence 1  x  e  f (1)  f (x)  f (e)  fmin = f (0) = 0, fmax = f (e) = e2.

## 22. Equation of curve is : x1/2 + y1/2 = a1/2

1 1 dy dy y
On Differentiating,  =0  =–
2 x 2 y dx dx x

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dy  y1
dx  ( x , y ) = – x1
1 1
y1
Equation of tangent at (x1, y1) is : y – y1 = – x (x – x1)
1
To calculate intercept on x-axis put y = 0 ; x1 y1 + x1 = P
To calculate intercept on y-axis, put x = 0 ; q = y1 + x1 y1
2
Sum of intercepts on x-axis and y-axis = x1 + y1 + 2 x1 y1 =  x1  y1  . . . . (i)

## (xl, y1) is a point or the curve, so x1  y1 = a

On substituting in (i), Sum of intercepts = a
1
23. (a) Let f (x) = x sin x – sin2 x
2
 f (x) = x cos x + sin x – sin x cos x
x  
= x cos x + 2 sin x sin2 which is +ve in  0, 
2  2

 f (x) > 0 in 0 < x <  f (x) is increasing.
2
  1
 f (0) < f (x) < f    0 < f (x) < 
2 2 2
 2 2
. (b) Let f (x) = 1 + x log  x  1  x   1  x
 
x x
f (x) =  log  x  1  x 2    log  x  1  x 2 
1 x 2   1 x 2  
1
f (x) = >0  f (x) is increasing.
1  x2
Hence x  0  f (x)  f (0)  f x)  log (0 + 1)
 f (x)  0  f (x) is increasing.
Hence x  0  f (x)  f (0)  f (x)  1 + 0 – 1  f (x)  0

## 24. Let (x1, y1) be a point on y = x2 + 7x + 2

| y1  3 x1  3 | | x12  7 x1  2  3x1  3 |
its distance from (y – 3x + 3 = 0) is =
10 10
x12  4 x1  5
Let D (x1) = . Minimise D (x1) to get x1 = –2 and y1 = – 8.
10
2l  2a  2l
V (x) = a  b (2a – bx)  V    = a  b (–2a) < 0
 3 

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