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Noah Kozminski SURF Research Report 2018

Organizational Network Analysis of Humanitarian 3D Printing in Rural


Kenya
By: Noah Kozminski, Scientific and Technical Communications
Advisor: Dr. Karla Kitalong (Humanities)
In correspondence with: Dr. John Gershenson (Kijenzi.org, Pennsylvania State University)

Abstract
This study was conducted using an interview and survey method to identify the interests, capabilities,
and needs of organizations in East Africa which have a focus on technology, innovation, and
healthcare, especially 3D printing. The co-investigator was also a communications specialist for Kijenzi,
one of the key groups involved in the study. Data collected through surveys was used to analyze the
similarity between participating organizations and to create an organizational network map depicting
these groups’ overlapping and separate interests, specialties, and needs, to promote easier and more
effective coordination and collaboration.

Introduction
The potential for 3D printers in humanitarian aid work has captured the interest of practitioners in the
field [1], as 3D printing can have positive effects on nearly every step of the humanitarian supply chain
[2]. Use of 3D printing technology has been adopted by organizations operating in the East Africa, such
as Field Ready [3], and has been demonstrated as effective in medical and humanitarian response
contexts [4, 5]. However, this idea and many of the ventures pursuing it are in a pilot or even
conceptual stage [6], and while there have been efforts to form like-minded consortiums [7], there is
no consolidated service demonstrating their strengths and focuses.

Methodology
Participants in this study consisted of 11 individuals, for which no individual demographic information
was recorded. The participant population consisted of members and leaders of organizations working
in East Africa in the fields of technology, innovation, and healthcare, especially 3D printing. Participants
were identified from a list of collaborators and contacts assembled by Kijenzi. Other participants were
found through websites of organizations known to be involved in the technology and humanitarian
sphere in East Africa, and through “snowball” sampling following early interviews. Potential
participants were contacted by email and/or phone to determine if they would be interested in taking
the survey.

Oral consent forms were used (appendix I), with the interviewer reading aloud a script detailing the
purpose of the study, information about procedures, benefits and risks of participating, voluntary
participation, and information about the researchers. Surveys were conducted via phone, video call, or
face-to-face conversation. In-person interviews took place in Kisumu, Kenya, and Nairobi, Kenya, at
locations agreed upon between the interviewer and the participant. The survey was orally distributed,
with the interviewer manually writing down responses on the survey form (appendix II). The survey
included 14 questions asking participants to explain and quantify their organization’s interests,
capabilities, and needs, as well as provide other details regarding their organization. Participation in
Noah Kozminski SURF Research Report 2018

the study was voluntary. After completing the survey, participants were asked if they had any
questions and thanked for their cooperation.

Results
Quantifiable data collected from the surveys regarding
several aspects of the organizations (constituent groups,
networking frequency, organization interests, and
capabilities/needs) was compiled for easier analysis and
processing. Responses regarding organization interests
were analyzed with an 11-dimensional Euclidean
distance calculation. This information matrix was then
entered into a physics-based network simulation to
create a visual representation of the
similarities/differences in the organizations’ overall
interests (Fig. 1). Remaining quantified results were
displayed with a series of bar graphs (Fig. 2).

Qualitative responses were used to generate written profiles for each of the organizations, which
provide a general overview of each organization.
Combined with a collection

Discussion
Responses to the survey provided an overview of the
organizations’ interests, which was used to create the
visual network map demonstrating the similarities and
distances between indicated organization interests. The
data collected will be shared with the participating
organizations, and this map provides a guide to which
organizations are most closely aligned in terms of
interest.
Noah Kozminski SURF Research Report 2018

References
1. James, E.; Gilman, D. ​Shrinking the Supply Chain: Hyperlocal Manufacturing and 3D Printing in
Humanitarian Response​; OCHA Policy and Studies Series; OCHA: New York, NY, USA, 2015; Volume
14.
2. Tatham, P.; Loy, J.; Peretti, U. ​Three Dimensional Printing—A Key Tool for the Humanitarian
Logistician?​ J. Humanit. Logist. Supply Chain Manag. 2015, 5, 188–208.
3. Field Ready. Available online: ​http://www.fieldready.org/ ​(accessed on 6 June 2018).
4. Bhatia, S.K.; Ramadurai, K.W. ​3D Printing of Medical Devices and Supplies. In 3D Printing and
Bio-Based Materials in Global Health​; Springer: Berlin, Germany, 2017; pp. 63–93.
5. Wong, J.Y. ​Ultra-Portable Solar-Powered 3D Printers for Onsite Manufacturing of Medical
Resources. ​Aerosp. Med. Hum. Perform. 2015, 86, 830–834.
6. Ott, D. ​Can Digital Fabrication Revolutionise Humanitarian Action?​ ICRC Blog, 2016. Available
online:
http://blogs.icrc.org/gphi2/2016/02/22/can-digital-fabrication-revolutionize-humanitarian-action/
(accessed on 6 June 2018).
7. MakerNet. Available online: ​http://www.makernet.global/​ (accessed on 6 June 2018).
Noah Kozminski SURF Research Report 2018

Appendix I: Oral Consent Form

ORAL CONSENT FORM


Title of Project: ​Organizational Network Analysis of Humanitarian 3D Printing in Rural Kenya

Principal Investigator:​​ Dr. Karla Kitalong, kitalong@mtu.edu, 906-487-3252


Co-investigator:​​ Noah Kozminski, nkkozmin@mtu.edu, 906-370-9870

Interview Code: ​______________

Explanation of Research Project:

I am Noah Kozminski, a Scientific and Technical Communications student from Michigan Technological University in the United States of
America. I am conducting a study at my school to assess the interests, capabilities, and needs of organizations in East Africa with a focus on
technology, innovation, and healthcare, especially 3D printing. This information will be used to create an organizational network map depicting
these groups’ overlapping and separate specialties, to promote easier and more effective coordination and collaboration. I will ask you some
questions and write down your responses. Your participation in this study should take between 30 minutes and one hour.

You have been asked to participate in this study because of your involvement with an organization focused on promoting, expanding, and/or
exploring technological innovation in East Africa. I would like to talk to you about your organization’s interests, specialties, and needs, the
services the organization provides and their constituents, and the organization’s interactions with similar groups. You may ask me questions at
any time and talk about things you think I should know about, even if I don’t ask. You should feel free to interrupt me if you want to ask
questions about the project. You are not required to talk to me or answer my questions. Even if you decide now to talk to me about your
organization’s interests, capabilities, and needs, you may later ask me to stop asking you about it. When you ask me to stop, I will stop asking
you about your organization. There will be no negative outcomes if you decide to not answer my questions.

I will not reveal anything that you say to me beyond the team helping me, whom I trust to maintain your confidentiality. I will do everything I can
to protect your privacy, but there is always a slight chance that someone could find out about our conversation.

I am asking if you would agree to participate in this study, and to talk to me about your organization’s interests, capabilities, and needs, and the
organization’s interactions with similar groups.

If you agree to be in this study, and to talk to me the interests, capabilities, and needs of your organization, please let me know by saying YES.
[ACTION: Interviewer] Circle: YES or NO

[If NO] (not wishing to participate in the study) May I ask you your reasons?: _________________________
[ACTION: Interviewer: END here.]

[If YES] ​Thank you for agreeing to participate in this study. I will now begin the survey.

________________________________________ _________________________
Name Signature of Interviewer

________________________________________ _________________________
Location of Interview Date and Time
Noah Kozminski SURF Research Report 2018

Appendix II: Survey Form

SURVEY FORM

Title of Project: ​Organizational Network Analysis of Humanitarian 3D Printing in Rural


Kenya

Principal Investigator: ​Dr. Karla Kitalong, kitalong@mtu.edu, 906-487-3252


Co-investigator: ​Noah Kozminski, nkkozmin@mtu.edu, 906-370-9870

Date: ________________

Interview Code: __________________________________

Interviewer: ______________________________________

Interviewer Signature: ______________________________________

Organization Represented: ________________________________________


Noah Kozminski SURF Research Report 2018

1. What is the full title of the organization you are involved with?

2. What year was your organization established?

3. What are the services your organization provides?

4. To which population(s) does your organization provide services?


Population Comments
General local population

Specialty audience of interest

Medical professionals

Hospital/clinic patients

Local entrepreneurs/businesses

3D printing audience

Makers

Students

Other

4a. How does your organization want to expand the demographic it serves in the future?
Noah Kozminski SURF Research Report 2018

5. If applicable, how many individuals does your organization provide services to in one month?
Individuals Comments
Between 1 and 20

Between 20 and 100

Between 100 and 1,000

More than 1,000

Other

5a. What are limiting factors affecting the number of individuals your organization reaches?

6. Where is your organization’s local headquarters located? (City, town, county, etc.)

7. If applicable, where is your organization’s international headquarters located? (Country, city)

8. How many individuals are involved or are members of your organization?

9. If applicable: What is the parent organization for your organization?


Noah Kozminski SURF Research Report 2018

10. How frequently do you interact with other organizations with similar focuses or individuals
involved with such organizations?
N A M W D
e f o e a
v e n e i
e w t k l
r t h l y
i l y
Organization m y Comments
e
s
a
y
e
a
r
Education

Entrepreneurship

Humanitarian/
community outreach
Innovation

Local businesses

Medical

Product design

Sustainability

Other types of
organizations

10a. In what ways would you like to improve your organization’s involvement with these groups?
Noah Kozminski SURF Research Report 2018

11. Rank your organization’s interest level in the following areas, from extremely disinterested to
extremely interested.
E D S I E
x i o n x
t s m t t
r i e e r
e n w r e
m t h e m
e e a s e
Area of interest l r t t l Comments
y e i e y
d s n d i
i t t n
s e e t
i d r e
n e r
t s e
e t s
r e t
e d e
s d
t
e
d
Education

Entrepreneurship

Humanitarian/
community outreach
Innovation

Local businesses

Medical

Product design

Sustainability

3D printing

Other digital
manufacturing
Other areas of interest
Noah Kozminski SURF Research Report 2018

11a. How would you increase your organization’s involvement in these areas?
Noah Kozminski SURF Research Report 2018

12. Rank your organization’s capability or need for each of the following resources, from ‘strong need
and interest’ to a ‘strong existing capability.’ If any of the options are not relevant to your
organization, choose ‘no interest or need.’
* S S N S S
N t o o o t
o r m n m r
i o e e e o
n n n e e n
t g e d x g
e n e , i e
r e d n s x
Resource e e a o t i Comments
s d n c i s
t a d a n t
o n i p g i
r d n a c n
n i t b a g
e n e i p c
e t r l a a
d e e i b p
r s t i a
e t y l b
s i i
t t l
y i
t
y
Available personnel

Branding and marketing

Connections (government,
academia, NGOs, etc.)
Education and training

Organization incubation

Manufacturing capabilities
and equipment
Product design

Space (workspace and


conference)
Technical skills
Noah Kozminski SURF Research Report 2018

3D printing

Other digital
manufacturing
Other capabilities or
needs

13. How well does your organization collaborate with other groups working in similar fields?

14. Is there anything else you would like to add regarding your organization’s interests, specialties, and
needs?