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Chapter 1 Stress

Review of Statics (1.1-1.2)

External loads
• Surface force (N/m2)
concentrated force (N)
linear distributed load (N/m) (can be replaced by a resultant force)
• Body force (can be represented by a single concentrated force)
Linear distributed Loads, w
w = Force / unit length
= N/m
FR   w( x)dx

location X of FR

 x w( x)dx
X 0
Unit: SI
Surface force and body force example

Wind on sign
Example 1: calculate the resultant force for the linear distributed force
and its location
w(x) = 0.8x4 - 2.5x3 - 2x2 + 3x + 1.5 (kN/m)
-2 0 1 2 3
w (kN/m)

-10 Results:
Specially, what is the resultant force for uniformly 0
and linearly distributed loads? and location? -2 0 1 2 3
w (kN/m)

-10 2.64 m
FR = -11.75 kN
Types of external supports and their resulting

• Support reactions are determined by what motions they prevent

(translation prevention results in a force; rotation prevention results in a
• Cables, rollers, smooth supports, and pins can’t resist moments!
Internal Loads (acting within the body)
Resultant force and moment : holding the body together.
• Determination: Method of sections
• Types: Normal force N, shear force V, torsional moment (or torque)
T and bending moment M. These resultants are normally placed at the
geometric center of the sectioned area when draw the FBD.

What internal loads will develop

depends on the external loads
Sign convention for moments and torques
(in equilibrium equations)

We will use the right hand rule:

Point your right thumb in the positive direction of the axis, (X, Y, or Z) that the
moment or torque tends to rotate the body around. If it rotates the body in
the same direction as pointed by your fingers, M or T is positive.

y x

We’ll make an exception for the case of calculating stress in bending beams
and torsional shafts…….but don’t worry about this yet!
Procedure for determining internal loadings in a body

1 Draw the Free-Body Diagram (FBD) for the entire body and apply the
equilibrium equations to determine the reactions at all the support points.

2 Draw an imaginary section through the body at the point where the internal
loadings are to be determined.

3 Draw a FBD of one of the “cut” segments and indicate the unknown resultants
N, V, M, and T at the section. These resultants are normally placed at the
centroid of the sectioned area.

4 Establish the x,y,z coordinate axes with origin at the centroid and show the resultant components
acting along the axes. (not mandatory, but it is more convenient some time).

5 Apply the following equilibrium equations to determine the reactions N, V, M,

and T.
F  F  F  M
x y z x  M y  Mz  0

Specially, for in-plane problem (subjected to coplanar forces)

F  F  M
x y o 0

Caution: If there exist distributed loading, keep this distributed loading exactly
where it is on the segment until after the section is made. Only after this step
this loading can be replaced by a single resultant force.
Example 2:
Given: The linkage ABC shown below supports a downward distributed load of w=1.25 kN/m

Find: The resultant internal loadings on the cross section through point D, and on the
inclined section with an inclined angle
Stress (1.3-1.5)

Assumptions in Mechanics of Materials

• Continuous (materials filling everywhere, no voids)

• Homogeneous (same physical and mechanical
properties throughout)
• Isotropic (same properties in all directions)
Stress: the intensity of internal ∆F force on a
specific area ∆A passing through a point

Generally, F
  lim
A 0 A

Normal stress
 z  lim
A0 A

Shear stress

Fy Fx
 zy  lim  zx  lim
A0 A A0 A

The first subscript indicates the normal direction for the plane,
while the second one indicates the direction

Unit : 2
 Pascales ( Pa )
Seems complicated, but do NOT worry, m
we will only consider average stresses at the current stage!
Jean Claude Saint-Venant (08/23/1797-01/06/1886)

A French mechanician and mathematician

who contributed to early stress analysis and
developed the unsteady open channel flow
shallow water equations, also known as the
Saint-Venant equations that are a
fundamental set of equations used in modern
hydraulic engineering.

-Saint-Venant's Principle

"... the difference between the effects of


two different but statically equivalent

loads becomes very small at sufficiently
large distances from load."
From Saint-Venant’s Principle:

The localized effects caused by any load acting on

the body will dissipate within regions that are
sufficiently removed from the location of load

We will NOT consider the local distortion!

The Concept of Average Stress

Internal resultant force

Stress 
Load Bearing Area
Units of stress :
 Pascales (Pa)

1 MPa  106 Pa
1 GPa  10 Pa
Two Types of Stress
Normal Stress,  Fapplied
when the applied force is  to
the area

Sign Convention for normal stress
If  tends to stretch the body it is referred to as a
tensile normal stress and it is given a positive sign.

If  tends to compress the body it is referred to as a

compressive normal stress and it is given a negative sign.
Shear Stress, 
when the applied force is  to the area.

V Fapplied



V Freaction

Sign Convention for shear stress

If the shear stress results from simple planar shear, the sign of  is the same as
the direction of internal shear V. Otherwise, it will be explained later
Example 2:
Calculation of normal stress

Given: The bar shown below has a constant width of 35 mm and a thickness of 10

Find: The maximum average normal stress in the bar.

Example 4: Calculation of shear stress
Given: The clevis shown below is subjected to an axial load of 12 kN. The clevis
pin, abc, is 10 mm in diameter.

10 mm diameter
Plane 1
12 kN
12 kN
applied forces
acting directly
on this piece

Find: The average shear stress in the pin along Plane 1.

Example 5: Calculation of combined stress

Given: The bar shown below has a square cross section of 30 mm x 30 mm.
An axial force of 1 kN is applied to the bar.

1 kN

Find: The average normal and the average shear stress acting on the material
along section b-b.

Plot the results:
F sin 2  
sin 2
 
Ao 2 Ao




Stress (MPa)


0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
 (Degrees)

normal stress
-0.8 shear stress

Brittle Ductile
Plastic Deformation of Metals During
Tensile Loading
Example 6:

Given: The beam is subjected the loading as show below. Assume

the reactions at the supports A and B are vertical; the beam cross
sectional area s=1000 mm2

Find: (1) the support reactions at A and B; (2) the resultant

internal loadings on the cross section through point D; (3) the
average normal and shear stress on the same cross section.
Example 7:
Given: the bucket weight is 150 kg bucket. Each pin is at A and D is
subjected to double shear.
Find: (a) the average normal stress in the 6-mm diameter wire CF
and the 15-mm diameter short strut BD;
(b) the average shear stress developed in these pins.