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# CHAPTER 16 SINGLE-PHASE PARALLEL A.C.

CIRCUITS

## 1. A 30  resistor is connected in parallel with a pure inductance of 3 mH across a 110 V, 2 kHz

supply. Calculate (a) the current in each branch, (b) the circuit current, (c) the circuit phase

angle, (d) the circuit impedance, (e) the power consumed, and (f) the circuit power factor.

## The circuit is shown below.

V 110
(a) Current in resistor, I R   = 3.67 A
R 30

## Inductive reactance, X L  2 f L  2  2000   3 103  = 37.70 

V 110
Current in inductance, I L   = 2.92 A
X L 37.70

## (b) Circuit current, I = I R

2
 IL 2   3.67 2
 2.922  = 4.69 A

IL  2.92 
(c) tan   hence, circuit phase angle,   tan 1   = 38.51 lagging
IR  3.67 

V 110
(d) Circuit impedance, Z =  = 23.45 
I 4.69

## (e) Power consumed, P  VI cos   (110)(4.69) cos 38.51 = 404 W

P  I R 2 R   3.67   30  = 404 W
2
or

## (f) Power factor = cos  = cos 38.51 = 0.782 lagging

2. A 40  resistance is connected in parallel with a coil of inductance L and negligible resistance

across a 200 V, 50 Hz supply and the supply current is found to be 8 A. Sketch the phasor

## The circuit diagram is shown in (a) below.

(a) (b)

V 200
Current, I R   =5A
R 40

## From the phasor diagram in diagram (b) above,

current IL  I 2
 IR 2   82  52  = 6.245 

V 200
Inductive reactance, X L  i.e. 2 f L 
IL 6.245

200
from which, inductance, L = = 0.102 H or 102 mH
 6.245 250

Exercise 92, Page 257

## 1. A 1500 nF capacitor is connected in parallel with a 16  resistor across a 10 V, 10 kHz supply.

Calculate (a) the current in each branch, (b) the supply current, (c) the circuit phase angle, (d) the

circuit impedance, (e) the power consumed, (f) the apparent power, and (g) the circuit power

## The circuit diagram is shown in (i) below.

(i) (ii)
V 10
(a) Current in resistor, I R   = 0.625 A
R 16

1 1
Capacitive reactance, X C   = 10.61 
2fC 2 10 10 1500 109 
3

V 10
Current in capacitor, IC   = 0.943 A
X L 10.61

## (b) Supply current, I = I R

2
 IC 2    0.625
2
 0.9432  = 1.131 A

IC  0.943 
(c) tan   hence, circuit phase angle,   tan 1   = 56.46 leading, as shown in the
IR  0.625 
phasor diagram in (ii) above
V 10
(d) Circuit impedance, Z =  = 8.84 
I 1.131

2
or

## (g) Power factor = cos  = cos 56.46 = 0.553 leading

2. A capacitor C is connected in parallel with a resistance R across a 60 V, 100 Hz supply. The

supply current is 0.6 A at a power factor of 0.8 leading. Calculate the values of R and C.

(a) (b)

## and current in capacitor, IC  Isin   0.6sin 36.87 = 0.36 A

V 60
Resistance, R =  = 125 
I R 0.48

V 60 1
Capacitive reactance, X C   = 166.67 =
IC 0.36 2fC

1
from which, capacitance, C = = 9.55 F
166.67  2100 

Exercise 93, Page 259

## 1. An inductance of 80 mH is connected in parallel with a capacitance of 10 F across a 60 V,

100 Hz supply. Determine (a) the branch currents, (b) the supply current, (c) the circuit phase

angle, (d) the circuit impedance, and (e) the power consumed.

(i) (ii)

## (a) Inductive reactance, X L  2 f L  2 100  80 10 3  = 50.265 

V 60
Hence, current in inductance, I L   = 1.194 A
X L 50.265

1 1
Capacitive reactance, X C   = 159.155 
2fC 2 100  10 106 

V 60
Hence, current in capacitor, IC   = 0.377 A
X C 159.155

## (b) Supply current, I = IL  IC = 1.194 – 0.377 = 0.817 A

(c) From the phasor diagram in (ii) above, circuit phase angle,  = 90 lagging

V 60
(d) Impedance, Z =  = 73.44 
I 0.817

## (a) Inductive reactance, X L  2 f L  2  200  80 103  = 100.53 

V 60
Hence, current in inductance, I L   = 0.597 A
X L 100.53

1 1
Capacitive reactance, X C   = 79.577 
2fC 2  200  10 106 

V 60
Hence, current in capacitor, IC   = 0.754 A
X C 79.577

## (b) Supply current, I = IC  IL = 0.754 – 0.597 = 0.157 A

(c) From the phasor diagram in below, circuit phase angle,  = 90 leading

V 60
(d) Impedance, Z =  = 382.2 
I 0.157

## (e) Power consumed, P = VI cos   (60)(0.157) cos 90 = 0 W

Exercise 94, Page 261

## 1. A coil of resistance 60  and inductance 318.4 mH is connected in parallel with a 15 F

capacitor across a 200 V, 50 Hz supply. Calculate (a) the current in the coil, (b) the current in the

capacitor, (c) the supply current and its phase angle, (d) the circuit impedance, (e) the power

consumed, (f) the apparent power and (g) the reactive power. Sketch the phasor diagram.

(i) (ii)

## (a) X L  2 f L  2  50   318.4 103   100 

Hence, ZLR  R 2  XL 2   60 2
 1002   116.62 

V 200
Current in coil, I LR   = 1.715 A
ZLR 116.62

XL  100 
Phase angle,   tan 1  tan 1   = 59.04 lagging
R  60 

1 1
(b) X C    212.2 
2fC 2  50  15 106 

V 200
Current in capacitor, IC   = 0.943 A leading by 90
X C 212.2

## Total horizontal component = 0.8823 + 0 = 0.8823 A

Vertical component of ILR  ILR sin 59.04  1.715sin 59.04  1.4707 A

## From the diagram below, resultant current, I =  0.8823 2

 0.52772  = 1.028 A

 0.5277 
Phase angle,   tan 1   = 30.88 lagging
 0.8823 

V 200
(d) Circuit impedance, Z =  = 194.6 
I 1.028

## (e) Power consumed, P = V I cos  = (200)(1.028) cos 30.88 = 176.5 W

P = I LR 2 R  1.715   60  = 176.5 W
2
or

## 2. A 25 nF capacitor is connected in parallel with a coil of resistance 2 k and inductance 0.20 H

across a 100 V, 4 kHz supply. Determine (a) the current in the coil, (b) the current in the

capacitor, (c) the supply current and its phase angle, (d) the circuit impedance, and (e) the power

consumed.

## Hence, ZLR  R 2  XL 2   20002

 5026.552   5410 

V 100
Current in coil, I LR   = 18.48 mA
ZLR 5410

XL  5026.55 
Phase angle,   tan 1  tan 1   = 68.30 lagging
R  2000 

(i) (ii)

1 1
(b) X C    1591.55 
2fC 2  4000   25 109 

V 100
Current in capacitor, IC   = 62.83 mA leading by 90
X C 1591.55

## The phasor diagram is shown in (ii) above.

(c) Total horizontal component = 18.48 cos 68.30 + 62.83 cos 90 = 6.833 mA

Total vertical component = - 18.48 sin 68.30 + 62.83 sin 90 = 45.660 mA

## From the diagram below, resultant current, I =  6.833 2

 45.6602  = 46.17 mA

 45.66 
Phase angle,   tan 1   = 81.49 leading
 6.833 

V 100
(d) Circuit impedance, Z =  = 2166  or 2.166 k
I 46.17 103

(e) Power consumed, P = V I cos  = (100) (46.17 103 )2 cos 81.49 = 0.683 W

P = ILR 2 R  18.48 103   2000  = 0.683 W
2
or

Exercise 95, Page 265

1. A 0.15 μF capacitor and a pure inductance of 0.01 H are connected in parallel across a 10 V,

variable frequency supply. Determine (a) the resonant frequency of the circuit, and (b) the current

## circulating in the capacitor and inductance.

1  1 R2  1  1 
(a) Parallel resonant frequency, fr =      when R = 0
2  LC L2  2  LC 

1  1 
=  6 
2  (0.01)(0.15 10 ) 

1
= (25819.0) = 4109 Hz = 4.11 kHz
2

## (b) Current circulating in L and C at resonance,

V V
ICIRC = = = 2π fr C V
XC  1 
 
 2f r C 

## Hence, ICIRC = 2π(4109)(0.15 × 10-6)(10) = 0.03873 = 38.73 mA

V V 10
(Alternatively, ICIRC = = = = 38.73 mA)
XL 2f r L 2(4109)(0.01)

## 2. A 30 F capacitor is connected in parallel with a coil of inductance 50 mH and unknown

resistance R across a 120 V, 50 Hz supply. If the circuit has an overall power factor of 1 find

(a) the value of R, (b) the current in the coil, and (c) the supply current.

## The circuit is shown below.

Since power factor = 1, then cos  = 1 and   cos1 1  0 , hence the circuit is at resonance.

1  1 R2 
(a) Resonant frequency, f r    
2  LC L2 

 
1  1 R2 
i.e. 50 = 
2   50 103  30 106   50 103 2 
 

 R2 
and 2(50)   666.667 103  
 0.0025 

2
i.e.

## 400R 2  666.667 103   2  50    567.97 103

2
Hence,

567.97 103
from which, R2   1419.927
400

## Hence, ZLR  R 2  XL 2  37.682

 15.712  = 40.824 

V 120
and current in the coil, I LR   = 2.94 A
ZLR 40.824

V V VCR
(c) Current at resonance, I r   
RD L L
CR

= = 2.714 A
50 103

## 3. A coil of resistance 25  and inductance 150 mH inductance is connected in parallel with a

10 F capacitor across a 60 V, variable frequency supply. Calculate (a) the resonant frequency,

(b) the dynamic resistance, (c) the current at resonance and (d) the Q-factor at resonance.

The circuit is shown below.

 
1  1 R2  1  1 252 
(a) Resonant frequency, f r     
2  LC L2  2  150 103 10 106  150 103 2 
 

=
1
2
 666.667 10 3
 27.778 103  = 127.2 Hz

L 150 103
(b) Dynamic resistance, R D   = 600 
CR 10 106   25 

V 60
(c) Current at resonance, I r   = 0.10 A
R D 600

3

R 25

## 4. A coil having resistance R and inductance 80 mH is connected in parallel with a 5 nF capacitor

across a 25 V, 3 kHz supply. Determine for the condition when the current is a minimum, (a) the

resistance R of the coil, (b) the dynamic resistance, (c) the supply current, and (d) the Q-factor.

(a) The supply current is a minimum when the parallel circuit is at resonance

1  1 R2 
and resonant frequency, fr =   
2  LC L2 

1 R2
Transposing for R gives: (2πfr)2 = - 2
LC L
R2 1
2
= - (2πfr)2
L LC
 1 2
and R 2  L2    2f r  
 LC 

  1 2 
from which, R   L2    2f r   
  LC 

## When L = 80 mH, C = 5 109 F and fr = 3000 Hz,

 2  
80 103  
1
    
2
then resistance, R = 2 3000

 
  80  10 3
 5  10 9
  

= 3704.9 Ω = 3.705 kΩ

L 80 103
(b) Dynamic resistance, R D   = 4.318 k
CR  5 109  3.705 103 

V 25
(c) Supply current at resonance, I r   = 5.79 mA
R D 4.318 103

## 2f r L 2  3000   80 10  = 0.41

3

(d) Q-factor = 
R 3.705 103

5. A coil of resistance 1.5 k and 0.25 H inductance is connected in parallel with a variable

capacitance across a 10 V, 8 kHz supply. Calculate (a) the capacitance of the capacitor when the

supply current is a minimum, (b) the dynamic resistance, and (c) the supply current.

The circuit is shown below. Since the supply current is a minimum, the circuit is at resonance.

1  1 R2 
(a) Resonant frequency, fr    
2  LC L2 

1 R2
 2 f r   
2
from which,
LC L2

R2 1
 2 f r   
2
i.e. 2
L LC

1 1
from which, capacitance, C =  = 1561 pF
 R 2
 15002 
L  2 f r   2  0.25  2  8000   
2 2

 L   0.252 

L 0.25
(b) Dynamic resistance, R D   = 106.769 k or 106.8 k
CR 15611012 1.5 103 

V 10
(c) Current at resonance, I r   = 93.66 A
R D 106.769 103

## 6. A parallel circuit as shown below is tuned to resonance by varying capacitance C.

Resistance, R = 30 , inductance, L = 400 H, and the supply voltage, V = 200 V, 5 MHz.

Calculate (a) the value of C to give resonance at 5 MHz, (b) the dynamic impedance, (c) the

Q-factor, (d) the bandwidth, (e) the current in each branch, (f) the supply current, and (g) the

## power dissipated at resonance.

1  1 R2 
(a)Transposing f r     for C:
2  LC L2 

 1 R2  1 R2
 r   2   2f r   
2
2f  and
 LC L  LC L2

R2 1 1
 2f r   
2
from which, and  LC
L2
LC R2
 2fr   2
2

1 1
and C= 
 R  2
 
L  2f r   2   30 
2
 
2
400  10  2 5  10  
6 6 2

 L 
 400 106  
2


## i.e. capacitance, C = 2.533 pF

L 400 106
(b) Dynamic impedance, Z D =  = 5.264 M
CR  2.533 1012   30 

## X L 2f r L 2(5 106 )(400 106 )

(c) Q-factor =   = 418.9
R R 30

f r 5 106
(d) Bandwidth,  f 2  f1    = 11.94 kHz
Q 418.9

V 2000
(e) Capacitive current, IC = 
XC  1 
    90
 2  5 106  2.533 1012  
 

2000
=
12566.517  90

= 0.01591590 or 15.91590mA

## Inductive branch current,

V V 2000
I LR =  
ZLR R  jX L 30  j  2  5 106  400 106  
 

2000 2000
= 
30  j12566.3706 12566.406489.863

= 15.915-89.863mA

V 200
(f) Supply current, I r =  = 38 A
ZD 5.264 106

## = (0 + j15.915) + (0.038 – j15.915)

= 0.038 mA or 38 A

## (g) Power, P = V I cos  = (200)(38 10 6 ) cos 0 = 7.60 mW

Alternatively, P = IR 2 R  15.915 103  (30) = 7.60 mW
2

(Note that if the latter formula is used, the current must be the current flowing through the

## resistor, i.e. I LR in the above circuit)

Exercise 96, Page 270

1. A 415 V alternator is supplying a load of 55 kW at a power factor of 0.65lagging. Calculate (a) the

kVA loading and (b) the current taken from the alternator. (c) If the power factor is now raised to

## (a) Power = VI cos  = (VI)(power factor)

power 55 103
Hence VI = = = 84615 VA = 84.6 kVA
p.f . 0.65

84615 84615
(b) VI = 84615 VA hence I = = = 203.9 A
V 415

(c) The kVA loading remains at 84.6 kVA irrespective of changes in power factor

2. A single phase motor takes 30 A at a power factor of 0.65 lagging from a 240 V, 50 Hz supply.

Determine (a) the current taken by the capacitor connected in parallel to correct the power factor

to unity, and (b) the value of the supply current after power factor correction.

The circuit diagram is shown below in (i) and the phasor diagram is shown in (ii).

(i) (ii)

(a) Power factor = cos  = 0.65 from which, phase angle,  = cos 1 0.65 = 49.46

For unity power factor, current taken by capacitor, IC = ab in the phasor diagram

## = 30 sin 49.46 = 22.80 A

(b) After power factor correction, new supply current = oa in the above phasor diagram

## = 30 cos 49.46 = 19.50 A

3. A 20  non-reactive resistor is connected in series with a coil of inductance 80 mH and

## negligible resistance. The combined circuit is connected to a 200 V, 50 Hz supply. Calculate

(a) the reactance of the coil, (b) the impedance of the circuit, (c) the current in the circuit,

(d) the power factor of the circuit, (e) the power absorbed by the circuit, (f) the value of a power

factor correction capacitor to produce a power factor of unity, and (g) the value of a power

## (b) Circuit impedance, ZLR  R  jXL   20  j25.13  = 32.1251.49 

V 2000
(c) Circuit current, I LR   = 6.227-51.49 A
ZLR 32.1251.49

## (e) Power, P = ILR 2 R   6.227   20  = 775.5 W

2

(f) The circuit including the capacitor is shown below in (i) and the phasor diagram in (ii).

(i) (ii)

Power factor = cos  = 1 from which  = 0 Hence the new circuit current I is shown as oa in

diagram (ii).

V V
Capacitor current, IC  ab  6.227sin 51.49 = 4.873 A. IC    2 f C V from
XC 1
2 f C

IC 4.873
which, capacitance, C =  = 77.56 F
2 f V 2  50  200 

(g) Power factor = cos  = 0.9 from which,  = cos 1 0.9 = 25.84

## The phasor diagram is shown in (iii) below where IC  bc  ab  ac

(iii)
ab = 4.873 A from part (f) and oa = 6.227 cos 51.49 = 3.877 A
ac ac
tan 25.84 =  from which, ac = 3.877 tan 25.84 = 1.878 A
oa 3.877
Hence, bc = ab – ac = 4.873 – 1.878 = 2.995 A = IC

V V
IC    2 f C V from which,
XC 1
2 f C

IC 2.995
capacitance, C =  = 47.67 F
2 f V 2  50  200 

4. A motor has an output of 6 kW, an efficiency of 75% and a power factor of 0.64 lagging when

operated from a 250 V, 60 Hz supply. It is required to raise the power factor to 0.925 lagging by

connecting a capacitor in parallel with the motor. Determine (a) the current taken by the motor,

(b) the supply current after power factor correction, (c) the current taken by the capacitor, (d) the

capacitance of the capacitor, (d) the capacitance of the capacitor and (e) the kvar rating of the

capacitor.

## power output 75 6000

(a) Efficiency = hence, 
power input 100 power input

6000
from which, power input = = 8000 W
0.75
Hence, 8000 = VIM cos    250 IM  0.64 since cos  = power factor = 0.64

## where   cos1 0.64  50.21

8000
Current taken by motor, IM  = 50 A
 250 0.64

(b) To improve the power factor to 0.925 lagging, the new phase angle = cos 1 0.925  22.33 as

## shown in the phasor diagram below.

After power factor correction, the supply current is shown as I in the phasor diagram.

## In triangle oab, oa = 50 cos 50.21 = 32 A and ab = 502  322 = 38.42 A by Pythagoras

oa 32 32
In triangle oac, cos 22.33 =  from which, current, I = oc = = 34.59 A
oc oc cos 22.33

(c) The current taken by the capacitor, IC , is given by length bc, where bc = ab – ac

## Hence, capacitor current, IC = bc = ab – ac = 38.42 – 13.14 = 25.28 A

V 250
(d) Capacitive reactance, X C    9.89 
IC 25.28

1 1 1
i.e.  9.89 from which, capacitance, C =  = 268.2 F
2 f C 2 f  9.89  2  60  9.89 

V IC  250  25.28
(e) The kvar rating of the capacitor =  = 6.32 kvar
1000 1000

5. A supply of 250 V, 80 Hz is connected across an inductive load and the power consumed is 2 kW,

when the supply current is 10 A. Determine the resistance and inductance of the circuit. What

value of capacitance connected in parallel with the load is needed to improve the overall power

factor to unity ?

2000
Power, P = I2 R hence, 2000 = (10)2 R from which, resistance, R = = 20 Ω
10 2

V 250
Impedance, Z =  = 25 Ω
I 10

## Impedance, Z = R 2  XL 2 from which, X L  Z2  R 2  252  202 = 15 Ω

XL 15
XL  2 f L from which, inductance, L =  = 29.84 mH
2f 2(80)

The circuit including the capacitor is shown below in (i) and the phasor diagram in (ii).

(i) (ii)

Power factor = cos  = 1 from which  = 0 Hence the new circuit current I is shown as oa in

diagram (ii).

X   15 
  tan 1  L   tan 1   = 36.87º
 R   20 
V V
Capacitor current, IC  ab  10sin 36.87 = 6 A. IC    2 f C V from
XC 1
2 f C

IC 6
which, capacitance, C =  = 47.75 F
2 f V 2 80  250 

6. A 200 V, 50 Hz single-phase supply feeds the following loads: (i) fluorescent lamps taking a

current of 8 A at a power factor of 0.9 leading, (ii) incandescent lamps taking a current of 6 A at

unity power factor, (iii) a motor taking a current of 12 A at a power factor of 0.65 lagging.

Determine the total current taken from the supply and the overall power factor. Find also the

value of a static capacitor connected in parallel with the loads to improve the overall power factor

to 0.98 lagging

(i) Fluorescent lamps take a current of 8 A at a phase angle of cos 1 0.9 leading, i.e. 25.84 leading

## (ii) Incandescent lamps take a current of 6 A at a phase angle of cos 1 1 , i.e. 0

(iii) Motor takes a current of 12 A at a phase angle of cos 1 0.65 lagging, i.e. 49.46 lagging

## Total supply current, I = 21.02  5.6322 = 21.74 A

 5.632 
at a phase angle of   tan 1   = 15.01 lagging
 21.0 

## Hence, power factor = cos 15.01 = 0.966 lagging

If power factor is 0.98, then cos  = 0.98 and  = cos 1 0.98  11.48

If a capacitor is connected in parallel with the loads, the capacitor current, IC , is as shown in the

## From triangle oac, oa = horizontal component of I = 21.0 A

and ac = vertical component of I = 21.72 sin 15.01 = 5.631 A

ab ab
From triangle oab, tan 11.48 =  from which, ab = 21.0tan11.48 = 4.265 A
oa 21.0

## Hence, capacitor current, IC = ac – ab = 5.631 – 4.265 = 1.366 A

V V IC 1.366
IC    2 f C V from which, capacitance, C =  = 21.74 F
XC 1 2 f V 2  50  200 
2 f C