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CIRCUITS

supply. Calculate (a) the current in each branch, (b) the circuit current, (c) the circuit phase

angle, (d) the circuit impedance, (e) the power consumed, and (f) the circuit power factor.

V 110

(a) Current in resistor, I R = 3.67 A

R 30

V 110

Current in inductance, I L = 2.92 A

X L 37.70

2

IL 2 3.67 2

2.922 = 4.69 A

IL 2.92

(c) tan hence, circuit phase angle, tan 1 = 38.51 lagging

IR 3.67

V 110

(d) Circuit impedance, Z = = 23.45

I 4.69

P I R 2 R 3.67 30 = 404 W

2

or

2. A 40 resistance is connected in parallel with a coil of inductance L and negligible resistance

across a 200 V, 50 Hz supply and the supply current is found to be 8 A. Sketch the phasor

(a) (b)

V 200

Current, I R =5A

R 40

current IL I 2

IR 2 82 52 = 6.245

V 200

Inductive reactance, X L i.e. 2 f L

IL 6.245

200

from which, inductance, L = = 0.102 H or 102 mH

6.245 250

Exercise 92, Page 257

Calculate (a) the current in each branch, (b) the supply current, (c) the circuit phase angle, (d) the

circuit impedance, (e) the power consumed, (f) the apparent power, and (g) the circuit power

(i) (ii)

V 10

(a) Current in resistor, I R = 0.625 A

R 16

1 1

Capacitive reactance, X C = 10.61

2fC 2 10 10 1500 109

3

V 10

Current in capacitor, IC = 0.943 A

X L 10.61

2

IC 2 0.625

2

0.9432 = 1.131 A

IC 0.943

(c) tan hence, circuit phase angle, tan 1 = 56.46 leading, as shown in the

IR 0.625

phasor diagram in (ii) above

V 10

(d) Circuit impedance, Z = = 8.84

I 1.131

2

or

2. A capacitor C is connected in parallel with a resistance R across a 60 V, 100 Hz supply. The

supply current is 0.6 A at a power factor of 0.8 leading. Calculate the values of R and C.

(a) (b)

V 60

Resistance, R = = 125

I R 0.48

V 60 1

Capacitive reactance, X C = 166.67 =

IC 0.36 2fC

1

from which, capacitance, C = = 9.55 F

166.67 2100

Exercise 93, Page 259

100 Hz supply. Determine (a) the branch currents, (b) the supply current, (c) the circuit phase

angle, (d) the circuit impedance, and (e) the power consumed.

(i) (ii)

V 60

Hence, current in inductance, I L = 1.194 A

X L 50.265

1 1

Capacitive reactance, X C = 159.155

2fC 2 100 10 106

V 60

Hence, current in capacitor, IC = 0.377 A

X C 159.155

(c) From the phasor diagram in (ii) above, circuit phase angle, = 90 lagging

V 60

(d) Impedance, Z = = 73.44

I 0.817

V 60

Hence, current in inductance, I L = 0.597 A

X L 100.53

1 1

Capacitive reactance, X C = 79.577

2fC 2 200 10 106

V 60

Hence, current in capacitor, IC = 0.754 A

X C 79.577

(c) From the phasor diagram in below, circuit phase angle, = 90 leading

V 60

(d) Impedance, Z = = 382.2

I 0.157

Exercise 94, Page 261

capacitor across a 200 V, 50 Hz supply. Calculate (a) the current in the coil, (b) the current in the

capacitor, (c) the supply current and its phase angle, (d) the circuit impedance, (e) the power

consumed, (f) the apparent power and (g) the reactive power. Sketch the phasor diagram.

(i) (ii)

Hence, ZLR R 2 XL 2 60 2

1002 116.62

V 200

Current in coil, I LR = 1.715 A

ZLR 116.62

XL 100

Phase angle, tan 1 tan 1 = 59.04 lagging

R 60

1 1

(b) X C 212.2

2fC 2 50 15 106

V 200

Current in capacitor, IC = 0.943 A leading by 90

X C 212.2

© John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 206

Vertical component of ILR ILR sin 59.04 1.715sin 59.04 1.4707 A

0.52772 = 1.028 A

0.5277

Phase angle, tan 1 = 30.88 lagging

0.8823

V 200

(d) Circuit impedance, Z = = 194.6

I 1.028

P = I LR 2 R 1.715 60 = 176.5 W

2

or

across a 100 V, 4 kHz supply. Determine (a) the current in the coil, (b) the current in the

capacitor, (c) the supply current and its phase angle, (d) the circuit impedance, and (e) the power

consumed.

5026.552 5410

V 100

Current in coil, I LR = 18.48 mA

ZLR 5410

XL 5026.55

Phase angle, tan 1 tan 1 = 68.30 lagging

R 2000

(i) (ii)

1 1

(b) X C 1591.55

2fC 2 4000 25 109

V 100

Current in capacitor, IC = 62.83 mA leading by 90

X C 1591.55

(c) Total horizontal component = 18.48 cos 68.30 + 62.83 cos 90 = 6.833 mA

Total vertical component = - 18.48 sin 68.30 + 62.83 sin 90 = 45.660 mA

45.6602 = 46.17 mA

45.66

Phase angle, tan 1 = 81.49 leading

6.833

V 100

(d) Circuit impedance, Z = = 2166 or 2.166 k

I 46.17 103

(e) Power consumed, P = V I cos = (100) (46.17 103 )2 cos 81.49 = 0.683 W

P = ILR 2 R 18.48 103 2000 = 0.683 W

2

or

Exercise 95, Page 265

1. A 0.15 μF capacitor and a pure inductance of 0.01 H are connected in parallel across a 10 V,

variable frequency supply. Determine (a) the resonant frequency of the circuit, and (b) the current

1 1 R2 1 1

(a) Parallel resonant frequency, fr = when R = 0

2 LC L2 2 LC

1 1

= 6

2 (0.01)(0.15 10 )

1

= (25819.0) = 4109 Hz = 4.11 kHz

2

V V

ICIRC = = = 2π fr C V

XC 1

2f r C

V V 10

(Alternatively, ICIRC = = = = 38.73 mA)

XL 2f r L 2(4109)(0.01)

resistance R across a 120 V, 50 Hz supply. If the circuit has an overall power factor of 1 find

(a) the value of R, (b) the current in the coil, and (c) the supply current.

Since power factor = 1, then cos = 1 and cos1 1 0 , hence the circuit is at resonance.

1 1 R2

(a) Resonant frequency, f r

2 LC L2

1 1 R2

i.e. 50 =

2 50 103 30 106 50 103 2

R2

and 2(50) 666.667 103

0.0025

2

i.e.

2

Hence,

567.97 103

from which, R2 1419.927

400

15.712 = 40.824

V 120

and current in the coil, I LR = 2.94 A

ZLR 40.824

V V VCR

(c) Current at resonance, I r

RD L L

CR

= = 2.714 A

50 103

10 F capacitor across a 60 V, variable frequency supply. Calculate (a) the resonant frequency,

(b) the dynamic resistance, (c) the current at resonance and (d) the Q-factor at resonance.

The circuit is shown below.

1 1 R2 1 1 252

(a) Resonant frequency, f r

2 LC L2 2 150 103 10 106 150 103 2

=

1

2

666.667 10 3

27.778 103 = 127.2 Hz

L 150 103

(b) Dynamic resistance, R D = 600

CR 10 106 25

V 60

(c) Current at resonance, I r = 0.10 A

R D 600

3

R 25

across a 25 V, 3 kHz supply. Determine for the condition when the current is a minimum, (a) the

resistance R of the coil, (b) the dynamic resistance, (c) the supply current, and (d) the Q-factor.

(a) The supply current is a minimum when the parallel circuit is at resonance

1 1 R2

and resonant frequency, fr =

2 LC L2

1 R2

Transposing for R gives: (2πfr)2 = - 2

LC L

R2 1

2

= - (2πfr)2

L LC

1 2

and R 2 L2 2f r

LC

1 2

from which, R L2 2f r

LC

2

80 103

1

2

then resistance, R = 2 3000

80 10 3

5 10 9

= 3704.9 Ω = 3.705 kΩ

L 80 103

(b) Dynamic resistance, R D = 4.318 k

CR 5 109 3.705 103

V 25

(c) Supply current at resonance, I r = 5.79 mA

R D 4.318 103

3

(d) Q-factor =

R 3.705 103

5. A coil of resistance 1.5 k and 0.25 H inductance is connected in parallel with a variable

capacitance across a 10 V, 8 kHz supply. Calculate (a) the capacitance of the capacitor when the

supply current is a minimum, (b) the dynamic resistance, and (c) the supply current.

The circuit is shown below. Since the supply current is a minimum, the circuit is at resonance.

1 1 R2

(a) Resonant frequency, fr

2 LC L2

1 R2

2 f r

2

from which,

LC L2

R2 1

2 f r

2

i.e. 2

L LC

1 1

from which, capacitance, C = = 1561 pF

R 2

15002

L 2 f r 2 0.25 2 8000

2 2

L 0.252

L 0.25

(b) Dynamic resistance, R D = 106.769 k or 106.8 k

CR 15611012 1.5 103

V 10

(c) Current at resonance, I r = 93.66 A

R D 106.769 103

Resistance, R = 30 , inductance, L = 400 H, and the supply voltage, V = 200 V, 5 MHz.

Calculate (a) the value of C to give resonance at 5 MHz, (b) the dynamic impedance, (c) the

Q-factor, (d) the bandwidth, (e) the current in each branch, (f) the supply current, and (g) the

1 1 R2

(a)Transposing f r for C:

2 LC L2

1 R2 1 R2

r 2 2f r

2

2f and

LC L LC L2

R2 1 1

2f r

2

from which, and LC

L2

LC R2

2fr 2

2

1 1

and C=

R 2

L 2f r 2 30

2

2

400 10 2 5 10

6 6 2

L

400 106

2

L 400 106

(b) Dynamic impedance, Z D = = 5.264 M

CR 2.533 1012 30

(c) Q-factor = = 418.9

R R 30

f r 5 106

(d) Bandwidth, f 2 f1 = 11.94 kHz

Q 418.9

V 2000

(e) Capacitive current, IC =

XC 1

90

2 5 106 2.533 1012

2000

=

12566.517 90

= 0.01591590 or 15.91590mA

V V 2000

I LR =

ZLR R jX L 30 j 2 5 106 400 106

2000 2000

=

30 j12566.3706 12566.406489.863

= 15.915-89.863mA

V 200

(f) Supply current, I r = = 38 A

ZD 5.264 106

= 0.038 mA or 38 A

© John Bird Published by Taylor and Francis 215

Alternatively, P = IR 2 R 15.915 103 (30) = 7.60 mW

2

(Note that if the latter formula is used, the current must be the current flowing through the

Exercise 96, Page 270

1. A 415 V alternator is supplying a load of 55 kW at a power factor of 0.65lagging. Calculate (a) the

kVA loading and (b) the current taken from the alternator. (c) If the power factor is now raised to

power 55 103

Hence VI = = = 84615 VA = 84.6 kVA

p.f . 0.65

84615 84615

(b) VI = 84615 VA hence I = = = 203.9 A

V 415

(c) The kVA loading remains at 84.6 kVA irrespective of changes in power factor

2. A single phase motor takes 30 A at a power factor of 0.65 lagging from a 240 V, 50 Hz supply.

Determine (a) the current taken by the capacitor connected in parallel to correct the power factor

to unity, and (b) the value of the supply current after power factor correction.

The circuit diagram is shown below in (i) and the phasor diagram is shown in (ii).

(i) (ii)

(a) Power factor = cos = 0.65 from which, phase angle, = cos 1 0.65 = 49.46

For unity power factor, current taken by capacitor, IC = ab in the phasor diagram

(b) After power factor correction, new supply current = oa in the above phasor diagram

3. A 20 non-reactive resistor is connected in series with a coil of inductance 80 mH and

(a) the reactance of the coil, (b) the impedance of the circuit, (c) the current in the circuit,

(d) the power factor of the circuit, (e) the power absorbed by the circuit, (f) the value of a power

factor correction capacitor to produce a power factor of unity, and (g) the value of a power

V 2000

(c) Circuit current, I LR = 6.227-51.49 A

ZLR 32.1251.49

2

(f) The circuit including the capacitor is shown below in (i) and the phasor diagram in (ii).

(i) (ii)

Power factor = cos = 1 from which = 0 Hence the new circuit current I is shown as oa in

diagram (ii).

V V

Capacitor current, IC ab 6.227sin 51.49 = 4.873 A. IC 2 f C V from

XC 1

2 f C

IC 4.873

which, capacitance, C = = 77.56 F

2 f V 2 50 200

(g) Power factor = cos = 0.9 from which, = cos 1 0.9 = 25.84

(iii)

ab = 4.873 A from part (f) and oa = 6.227 cos 51.49 = 3.877 A

ac ac

tan 25.84 = from which, ac = 3.877 tan 25.84 = 1.878 A

oa 3.877

Hence, bc = ab – ac = 4.873 – 1.878 = 2.995 A = IC

V V

IC 2 f C V from which,

XC 1

2 f C

IC 2.995

capacitance, C = = 47.67 F

2 f V 2 50 200

4. A motor has an output of 6 kW, an efficiency of 75% and a power factor of 0.64 lagging when

operated from a 250 V, 60 Hz supply. It is required to raise the power factor to 0.925 lagging by

connecting a capacitor in parallel with the motor. Determine (a) the current taken by the motor,

(b) the supply current after power factor correction, (c) the current taken by the capacitor, (d) the

capacitance of the capacitor, (d) the capacitance of the capacitor and (e) the kvar rating of the

capacitor.

(a) Efficiency = hence,

power input 100 power input

6000

from which, power input = = 8000 W

0.75

Hence, 8000 = VIM cos 250 IM 0.64 since cos = power factor = 0.64

8000

Current taken by motor, IM = 50 A

250 0.64

(b) To improve the power factor to 0.925 lagging, the new phase angle = cos 1 0.925 22.33 as

After power factor correction, the supply current is shown as I in the phasor diagram.

oa 32 32

In triangle oac, cos 22.33 = from which, current, I = oc = = 34.59 A

oc oc cos 22.33

(c) The current taken by the capacitor, IC , is given by length bc, where bc = ab – ac

V 250

(d) Capacitive reactance, X C 9.89

IC 25.28

1 1 1

i.e. 9.89 from which, capacitance, C = = 268.2 F

2 f C 2 f 9.89 2 60 9.89

V IC 250 25.28

(e) The kvar rating of the capacitor = = 6.32 kvar

1000 1000

5. A supply of 250 V, 80 Hz is connected across an inductive load and the power consumed is 2 kW,

when the supply current is 10 A. Determine the resistance and inductance of the circuit. What

value of capacitance connected in parallel with the load is needed to improve the overall power

factor to unity ?

2000

Power, P = I2 R hence, 2000 = (10)2 R from which, resistance, R = = 20 Ω

10 2

V 250

Impedance, Z = = 25 Ω

I 10

XL 15

XL 2 f L from which, inductance, L = = 29.84 mH

2f 2(80)

The circuit including the capacitor is shown below in (i) and the phasor diagram in (ii).

(i) (ii)

Power factor = cos = 1 from which = 0 Hence the new circuit current I is shown as oa in

diagram (ii).

X 15

tan 1 L tan 1 = 36.87º

R 20

V V

Capacitor current, IC ab 10sin 36.87 = 6 A. IC 2 f C V from

XC 1

2 f C

IC 6

which, capacitance, C = = 47.75 F

2 f V 2 80 250

6. A 200 V, 50 Hz single-phase supply feeds the following loads: (i) fluorescent lamps taking a

current of 8 A at a power factor of 0.9 leading, (ii) incandescent lamps taking a current of 6 A at

unity power factor, (iii) a motor taking a current of 12 A at a power factor of 0.65 lagging.

Determine the total current taken from the supply and the overall power factor. Find also the

value of a static capacitor connected in parallel with the loads to improve the overall power factor

to 0.98 lagging

(i) Fluorescent lamps take a current of 8 A at a phase angle of cos 1 0.9 leading, i.e. 25.84 leading

(iii) Motor takes a current of 12 A at a phase angle of cos 1 0.65 lagging, i.e. 49.46 lagging

5.632

at a phase angle of tan 1 = 15.01 lagging

21.0

If power factor is 0.98, then cos = 0.98 and = cos 1 0.98 11.48

If a capacitor is connected in parallel with the loads, the capacitor current, IC , is as shown in the

and ac = vertical component of I = 21.72 sin 15.01 = 5.631 A

ab ab

From triangle oab, tan 11.48 = from which, ab = 21.0tan11.48 = 4.265 A

oa 21.0

V V IC 1.366

IC 2 f C V from which, capacitance, C = = 21.74 F

XC 1 2 f V 2 50 200

2 f C

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