INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY NATURE, SCOPE, HISTORICAL BACKGROUND, AND BRANCHES OF PSYCHOLOGY NATURE OF PSYCHOLOGY DEFINING PSYCHOLOGY The term Psychology is derived from two Greek words psyche and logos that mean soul and science respectively. Thus, etymologically psychology means the science of soul. This definition of Psychology has been rejected, and now psychology is held to be the science of behavior and cognitive processes. It is important to understand how and why this change came about. Psychology is the science of soul This definition, given by Aristotle, is based on the literal translation of the word psychology. The Greek philosophers such as Aristotle and Plato gave a very important place to soul in human life. They felt that life has no meaning without the soul. In Greek times, philosophers studied all aspects of knowledge. Thus, psychology was regarded as only a branch of philosophy. Their definition of the term persisted over the centuries. In English, when Rudolf Goeckle first used the term psychology in 1590, he also defined it as the science of soul. However, as psychology became more scientific, this definition was rejected for the following reasons:  The concept of soul is very vague. The philosophers could not clarify the origin, nature, or the place of soul. Some said that the soul is as big as the thumb; others believed it to be the shape and size of the human body. Yet others said that the soul is as large as the universe. Nor could they explain the relationship between the soul and the body.  The concept of soul brings in the concept of God, which is as mysterious as the soul. It has religious implications that are against the spirit of science, and can retard the development of psychology as a science.  Soul is a metaphysical concept beyond experience and knowledge. It cannot be observed, measured, analyzed, or experimented upon. It cannot be verified. Consequently, it is an unscientific concept. Psychology is the science of mind This definition was emphasized by the structural school of psychology who established psychology as a science distinct from philosophy. Wilhelm Wundt, the father of Experimental Psychology, first established a psychological laboratory in the University of Leipzig, near Vienna, in 1879, and thus established psychology as a science distinct from philosophy. His student, Titchener, gave a systematic account of Psychology in his influential book Experimental Psychology, wherein he defined Psychology as the science of mind. This definition was also eventually rejected for the following reasons:  The concept of mind is very vague and ambiguous. Mind may be conceptualized as the whole nervous system, just the brain, a mental process, the sum total of experience, conscious or unconscious, as a part of personality, or personality itself. We do not know how it relates to the body.  Mind is a metaphysical concept that cannot be observed, measured, analyzed, or experimented upon. It cannot be verified. Mind does not exist as an object. What exists is the brain, which is a part of the body and not distinct from it. Mind is thus an unscientific concept.  Mind is restricted to a particular individual, who alone can tell us what is going on in his mind. Others cannot observe one’s mind. Thus, this definition reduces psychology to an individual, private search within oneself. Introspection is the only method, which delves into the mind, but introspection has been shown to be a faulty method.  Titchener reduced mind to three elements – sensation, affection, and images. However, he did not clarify how these elements were made up and what principles of organization they followed.  The definition of psychology as a science of mind not includes overt behaviors of human beings, particularly their social behavior, that is a major topic of study in psychology nowadays.  This definition also excludes the study of animals, abnormals and children, who cannot tell us what is going on in their mind. Psychology is the science of consciousness William James the philosopher, who was the harbinger of functionalism, defined psychology as the science of consciousness. This definition is based on the fact that we are always aware of mental and motor behavior, and whatever exists outside awareness does not exist for the individual. However, this definition was rejected because:  There is little agreement on the meaning of consciousness. Moreover, it is difficult to measure consciousness in quantitative terms. A concept that cannot even be measured cannot be experimented upon and hence is unscientific.

have criticized the reductionist view of behavior. According to Skinner learning is not possible without reinforcement. and above all their striving for self actualization. Science has certain goals. Lahey (1998): “Psychology is defined as the science of behavior and mental processes. Showing a revival of interest in the cognitive processes. assumptions and particular methods. in Psychology.” 2. memory. Some specific definitions are: 1.” 3. we fail to understand a large part of the behavior of the individual that springs from the unconscious. Eysenck (2000): “Psychology is the science that makes use of behavioral and other evidence to understand the internal processes leading people and members of other species to behave in the ways they do. Taking his cue from Watson.g. etc. Murray has given a taxonomy of 20 needs such need for achievement. response. Skinner uses reinforcement as an explanation for learning.” PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE Psychology is today generally defined as a positive science of behavior. He felt that all phenomena that cannot be observed should be banished from psychology. he did not include thinking. psychologists define psychology as the science of human behavior and cognitive processes. Yerkes Dodson Law states that an optimum level of arousal is necessary for good performance. Maslow has given a hierarchy of needs. M. need for dependence etc. the rest of the mind is submerged and hidden. Psychology is the science of behavior Watson. Similarly in our daily lives. the founder of behaviorism. which cannot be directly observed. he meant overt behavior that could be independently observed and experimented upon. it was not without its problems:  The advent of computers since the 1930s led to the cognitive revolution in psychology in the 1960s.  The psychoanalytic school maintains that 90% of the individual mind is unconscious. Goals of science shared by Psychology The goals of science shared by the Psychology are in a hierarchy. Rather it is a way of thinking which is based on the experimental method. They are:  Description: In Psychology. whereas Eysenck uses only three dimensions. need for power. specially the aspects that are unique to human beings such as their intelligence. there will be decrease in the time taken by a rat to run through a maze. intelligence. a research may predict that due to training. and reinforcement. Thus. If the lower needs are satisfied. both of whom emphasize the global. These psychologists were not satisfied with the definition of psychology as a science of behavior. like mind. and it is not the use of mathematics. By behavior. The idea that theories should be tested out in the real world in an experiment is the essence of science.  The gestalt school and the humanistic school. and groups. is a subjective concept. SECTION A.  Prediction: Prediction finds an example in almost all psychological experiments where conditions are manipulated to achieve certain results e. only then are the higher needs manifested in behavior. PAPER A. Skinner emphasized the experimental analysis of behavior. Psychology is a science because it shares the goals. basic level of stimulus. Science cannot exist without the scientific method. However. so that it can be measured precisely and studied scientifically. and hence can be studied through introspection only. He felt that all behavior should be reduced to the elementary. motivation etc.  Explanation: Ultimately science is a search for the causes of phenomena. E. popularized this definition. many psychologists worked in the areas of thinking. The links with behaviorism have not been broken. molar level of behavior. Science is not a set of principles. Psychology uses various methods to uncover the causes of behavior.g. This can be seen during exams where highly aroused students do not . Cattell describes personality in terms of 16 source factors. but new advances have been made in the area of cognition. For example. examples of description come from the area of motivation. their tendency to form social bonds. Consciousness is only the tip of the iceberg. creativity. it is not technology or advancement. problem solving. children. personality etc. imagination. Baron (2001): “Psychology is best defined as the science of behavior and cognitive processes. It is not open to experimental investigations. They feel that psychology should study all aspects of human behavior in totality. Today psychology is in a state of flux. The definition of psychology as the science of behavior prevailed through most of the last century. not only from others but also the individual himself. If we define psychology only as the study of consciousness. phenomena can be predicted using psychological principles. abnormals. who are either not aware of the reality around them or cannot report on it. UNIT I 2  Consciousness.  This definition also excludes the study of animals. and this reduces the scope of psychology. Their consciousness cannot be studied. Currently. assumptions and methods of science.BA I.

In Psychology. it may not apply in the same way to mentally retarded individuals or highly creative persons.g. criminologists change behavior of criminals and prisoners using psychological principles. more exact the results and more do they conform to the truth. sometimes even going against universal moral values.  Guided by theory and hypotheses: Scientific research is not based on hunches. “Scientific research is a systematic. However.  Controlled: Control implies manipulating the independent variable to see its effect on the dependent variable. PAPER A. This is called deductive reasoning (general to specific). This implies that mental ideas are tested out in the real world. The aim of scientific research is to uncover the relationships among phenomenon.g. This implies that personal biases. Thus. his well-designed research showed that this was not true. he revised his theory because of evidence that incentives were also powerful motivating factors. if all other conditions remain the same. Objectivity is perhaps the most important assumption of science because it leads to the self-corrective nature of science. Scientific laws and principles are based on experiments. in scientific explanations. Teachers use the principle of learning and reinforcement to control the behavior of students. Nevertheless the search starts from naturally occurring phenomenon and results of the search have to be relevant to the natural phenomenon. Sometimes. Similarly. E. In real life situations. In fact. and interpretation of his experiments. SECTION A. prejudices or ideas of the scientists in no way effect the design. controlled. If the observation in the real world do not confirm to our mental ideas then the idea is wrong. a very good example of objectivity comes from Hull. scientists are curious about naturally occurring phenomena and it is this curiosity. This definition emphasizes the following characteristics of scientific research:  Systematic: Scientific research is a rule bound procedure.g. etc. Effects are not attributed to chance. clinical psychologists try to manipulate the behavior of their patients.BA I.  Invariance: The relationship between various phenomena remains the same from time to time and place to place. Sometimes they even experiment and invent new things or phenomena to study. . Germans were no different from other in their obedience to authority. if this principle has been originally derived on normal individuals. simpler theory explaining the same phenomenon (Law of Parsimony).. E. E.  Objectivity: Science assumes objectivity on the part of the scientists. UNIT I 3 perform well and neither do those who are low in arousal.  Empirical: Scientific research implies the experimental method. At the same time. This is the process of inductive reasoning (specific to general). He started a research programme to find whether the Germans are more authoritarian than other nationalities or not.  Investigation of natural phenomena: Essentially. The fact that science corrects itself as it finds that it’s principles or laws do not conform to the real world or there is a different. Most people blindly confirm to authoritarian orders. empirical and critical investigation of natural phenomena guided by theory and hypothesis about the presumed relations among such phenomena”. other potential variables are held constant. Many aspects of human behavior are controlled. it is difficult to control human behavior though it is not impossible.  Critical Investigation: The term critical investigation implies that scientific research is a strict and object evaluation of existing laws and principles (theories). which leads them to the more complex phenomena. result. Thus scientific research is not haphazard. a Jew psychologist persecuted by Germans. Greater the control.g. However. It is based on objectivity on the part of the scientists and leads to the self-corrective nature of science. for defining beauty various aspects can be considered like physical walking style. Assumptions of Science shared by Psychology: Determinism: It implies that every phenomenon has a natural cause that can be discovered through the appropriate means. Another example is of Milgram (1949). it is students with a moderate level of arousal who our-perform the others. at times we derive specific information or hypotheses on the basis of a general law. Practice leads to learning is a mental idea which can be easily demonstrated in a laboratory on animals or in a classroom situation with children. based on specific data we frame a general law. Scientific Method shared by Psychology According to Kerlinger (1986). Nevertheless controlling every single person in a desired way is not possible.  Control/ Influence: Control has been achieved in the psychology laboratory to quite a great extent. hair etc. In 1936 he stated that motivation comes from drive alone.  Empiricism: Empiricism is the idea that only the knowledge gained through senses is valid. Conversely.  Operationism: It is a principle that all scientific concepts must be defined in a measurable way. the investigation needs to be critical and not biased in a predetermined way. God. the psychological principle that a certain amount of practice leads to improvement in a particular task remains true. All mental ideas are tested out in the real world. Rather research is based on hypotheses which may be based on theories and existing data. However in 1951. E.

Secondly. the subject gives good answers. to study in the laboratory. attitudes. The laboratory is an artificial situation. Problems of Psychology Psychology is not a complete science i. not shared by other branches of psychology. and if the research program involves informed consent and debriefing then psychological research is justified. UNIT I 4  Presumed relations among phenomena: Scientific research seeks to understand various phenomena by putting them in relation to each other. The predictor is himself a part of the human race. This has made experimental laws less reliable but more valid. Human beings are the most complex organism on earth.  Complexity of Human Life: It is difficult to predict human behavior because it is complex. finding the results. Many people still believe that the human mind should not be studied because if it is studied. Many experimental effects are weak. Consequently. dignity. However. these qualities influence the research process. personality. These characteristics may also unknowingly influence the design and conduct of the experiment or the interpretation of the results. This is the factor of social desirability. and other such terms are myths. In all sciences. PAPER A. It is a tough job getting the subject to the laboratory at all. One special case of relationships is a causal relationship in which the cause and effect relationship between a two phenomena is studied in experiments. it has also decreased the “pure science” nature of psychology. However. and finally interpreting the results. in his book Beyond Freedom and Dignity shows how almost all aspects of life and behavior are controlled by their consequences. human life is complex because of a rapid pace of change. interaction between various factors is the rule rather than the exception. Instead of giving true answers. Nevertheless. their behavior is difficult to manipulate. Thirdly. There are people who believe that manipulation or control of human behavior is against human freedom and dignity. eventually we will want to control it. Skinner. The scientist always tries to structure his environment in terms of an interrelated system. The subject desires. Psychological research is a social interaction between the researcher and the subject. It is questionable how far the laws and principles generated in the rather simple situation of the laboratory are applicable in the complex real world. understand. He holds that control and manipulation of behavior is an inalienable part of human life. But such interactions are difficult. freedom. Thus. (ii) Secondly. it was thought that human beings are sacred and hence should not be studied. Moreover they are obtained under ideal conditions.  The problem of ethics: All Psychological research involves manipulating human behavior. and some researches may also be stressful to human beings. Freedom and Dignity are mere . in psychology. However. and predict. desires. Even if human beings are not considered sacred and the researcher decides to study human behavior. the scientific procedure involve a gap in knowledge. Essentially. and intelligence. there is no guarantee that he will reveal his real self to the researcher.  The problem of generalization from the laboratory: This problem is perhaps unique to experimental psychology. conducting the test of the hypothesis. The fact that psychology deals with human behavior leads to the following problems:  Availability of human subjects: In earlier times. research and review of previous ideas regarding the gap.  Subjectivity of the researcher: The researcher herself is a human being. human life is complex because man exists in a society and his behavior is largely determined by social norms. She has her own motivations. subjects do not want to spare the time and effort for psychological research.BA I. psychologists believe: (i) When manipulation is done for good ends.  Social desirability: even if the subject is willing to participate in a research program. framing a possible answer to the problem (hypothesis). it cannot predict and control behavior to the same extent as physical sciences because its subject matter is a human being. some researchers feel it is easier to conduct research on animals. framing the problem in specific terms so that it can be solved. Experimental psychologists have tried to overcome this problem by conducting field experiments. which in turn gives feedback to the original gap in the knowledge which is now narrowed down. In the real world.e. consciously and unconsciously. SECTION A. it is difficult to generalize results from animals to human beings except for laws governing very simple basic behaviors such as learning. to show his good self to the researcher. they assume even greater importance because all psychological research is an interaction with the subject who is going to be influenced by these characteristics of a researcher. Thus they have traded control for realism. One may conclude that psychology as a science is a systematic search for laws governing an individual’s relationship with his environment and the application of such principles and laws to daily life.  Animal Research: Since research on human being has the above stated problems. if not impossible. the subjectivity of a researcher is an important problem in psychological research. which is against human dignity and individualism and is hence not an attractive idea.

Place of Psychology in Science As scientists. soon after the beginning of psychology. and creativity. psychology as a natural science differs from psychology as a social science: PSYCHOLOGY AS A NATURAL SCIENCE PSYCHOLOGY AS A SOCIAL SCIENCE Believes in physiology as the basis of human behavior Do not favor physiological explanations. physiology. It includes processes such as attention. Memory implies recalling what has happened earlier.e. values etc. Despite similar aims and assumptions. psychologists use intervening variables such as motives attitudes. which can be directly observed and measured. we are for them. Learning is a change in behavior due to past experience. sensation. The future will decide if psychology becomes a part natural science or joins the camp of social sciences or simply remains as it is. then physiology is the father. decided that psychology should study only overt behavior. Cognitive. Nevertheless. However. which combines all the processes . particularly the relationship of individual with other people. SCOPE OF PSYCHOLOGY Psychology is primarily interested in human beings. widely considered the greatest physiologist of all times. Both internal and external processes are of interest to a psychologist. and internal. sociology. It is a unique human quality. It must be understood that the physiological and social are only two aspects of the same individual. There are correlated psychological changes in the organism. They are inferred from the external behavior of the person. Creativity implies doing something new with the knowledge that has already been acquired. The experimental method was then applied to these aspects of human life as well. E. Focus on the individual in the context of society. Internal processes such as thinking imagination etc. Perception implies giving meaning to the sensations received. in his quest to make psychology even more scientific. All intervening variables explain the S-R connection and are generally internal to the individual. to imagine news ideas. the blood pressure rises which can be measured by sphygmomanometer. how the mind responds to the sensations received by the sense organs from the external physical environment. It is obvious that the same overt behavior may lead to variety of inferences depending upon the training and orientation of psychologist. Attention implies awareness of certain stimuli. attitudes. SECTION A. The cognitive aspect of behaviour is traditionally the focus of the cognitive Psychologist.. The unit of analysis for a psychologist is the individual organism. psychologists became impatient with the restricted scope of psychology and broadened it to include social. perception. The behavior which of interest to psychologist has three aspects: Affective. Focus on the individual apart from the society. one might infer that he performs this action because he has a hunger drive. But mental processes made a comeback with the cognitive revolution in psychology. experimental psychology is the synthesis of mental philosophy. If we turn to the history of psychology for a solution. and communication. if a person is cooking food and then eats it. when a person is angry. emotions. value etc. PAPER A. The affective aspect of behavior includes motivation. psychologists do not always agree on whether they are allied with the natural sciences or social sciences. political science etc. we find that psychology evolved due to the interaction between natural sciences and epistemology (a branch of philosophy which studies knowledge). and to communicate with others through language. In this regard Psychology differs from other social sciences such as anthropology. but he also served as a laboratory assistant to Helmholtz. and physics. to explain such externally observed behavior. Not surprisingly it is often said that if philosophy is the mother of psychology. Emphasizes the contemporary factors to explain behaviour. despite his training Wundt worked on psychophysical problems i. and Conative. E. It is the focusing of mental energy. Wundt was a physicist by training. The experimenter can directly observe external processes such as psychomotor performance. social interaction. which intervene in the connection between the stimulus and response (S-R). UNIT I 5 words. he has a habit of eating food at that particular time.g. Sensation is mere reception of stimulus energy from the environment. mental processes should be banished from psychology. They emphasize environmental/cultural factors. cultural and inter-personal problems. can be studied only as the organism gives a verbal report about them. learning. Watson. Various aspects of human being are studied in psychology. thinking and imagination. he likes the dish. Thinking involves acquiring concepts and using them to solve problems. Thus.g. Both motivation and emotion refer to a stirred up state of organism. Watson repeatedly reiterated that psychology should focus only on overt processes. However. or that there is no one else to cook for him.BA I. memory. Psychology is essentially the study of intervening variables. When we exercise control for the benefit of human race we are not against human hangs. Emphasizes on past factors in present behavior. that study behavior of groups.

planned social change etc. social perception. which makes each person unique. and the study of the extent to which individual differences are inherited or are shaped environmentally. With increasing impact of experimentation. the principles and laws derived from the laboratory are usually applied to cure and manage abnormal behavior. spare flights. . SECTION A. UNIT I 6 mentioned before and indeed something extra. which uses an experimental analysis of behavior to study personality. attitudes. Actions are both psychological and physiological in nature. The insight gained by such research is used to rear animals. This implies the existence of personality. sports. whereby all applications of psychological principles are evaluated using single group designs. which includes the actions of the individual. and motivating aspects of human behavior. while others are more experimental in nature. Some of the divisions within psychology are applied fields. to study change in behavior from the pre-test to the post-test (taken after the application). acting. social integration. Based on specialization within psychology the following branches of psychology may be distinguished: Pure science branches of psychology General Psychology: It studies the fundamental principles of human behavior. the behavioral/situational approach to personality has emerged. conative and affective. cognition. Application of knowledge gained about human and animal behavior is the essence of psychology. All psychologists study the individual in relation to the environment. In the very recent years a reverse trend has also started. perception. industry.g. community services.BA I. standing still is a motor aspect and thinking at the same time is the psychological aspect. who deviate from the social norms are the subject matter of abnormal psychology which studies the causes. medicine. The study of conative aspect of behavior is important to understand how an individual responds to the environment. mental disorders. like some others and like no others. train them for various purposes. values. BRANCHES OF PSYCHOLOGY The broad reach of psychology sometimes gives it the appearance of disunity and promotes the lack of a universally accepted theoretical structure. Thus psychology has two aspects: pure science and applied. individual behavior is always psychomotor. memory etc. They can be inferred only through an observation of the actions and reactions of the individual to the environment. animal research has been carried out not only for comparative purposes. implying the thinking. The issues studied by psychologists cover a wide spectrum. Thus the scope of psychology has led tremendously over the last few decades and it is likely to increase further as human beings by to understand themselves more and more and apply this knowledge for the benefit of mankind. personality. Depending on their theoretical orientation. Personality is an organization of traits. E. Animal experiments have helped psychologists to understand processes such as learning. The former is known as the nomothetic approach and the latter is known as the idiographic approach. More recently. Psychomotor performance refers to development of organized patterns of muscular activities guided by changing signals from the environment. intelligence. emotion. comprising learning. Individual who fails to adapt to the social demands. The scope of general psychology includes attention. at times dominated by the psychological aspect and at other times dominated by the motor aspect. social interaction communication etc. motivation. In their search to understand the human beings. These cognitive processes are all being currently investigated. It studies three aspects of behavior: cognitive. psychologists often use animals. perception. In essence. army or military aviation. Social psychologists are particularly interested in the individual in the context of society. Animal behavior reflects human behavior in a simpler. perception. Despite these three aspects of behavior the individual acts as an organized integrated whole. Moreover. PAPER A. Social Psychology studies behavior at three levels:  Individual  Interpersonal  Group The relationship of the individual with the socio cultural environment is studied under various headings such as socialization. Traits made us like all others. research which cannot be carried out human beings for ethical reasons or because it may be dangerous to them is done on animals. All aspects are finally manifested in action. but for the sake of studying animals behavior itself. The third aspect of behavior is the conative aspect. psychologists focus on the common or the unique characteristics of the individual. organizations. motivation. symptoms and cures for abnormal behavior. prejudices. The principles and facts collected by psychologists are applied to diverse areas such as law. It deals particularly with normal adults. and to help to save endangered species of animals. more manageable way. In fact. education.

intelligence personality etc. These processes are studied from the psychological standpoint. Its main aim is to study the relation between the individual and society. The method used by Abnormal Psychology includes the traditional case history method in which abnormality was understood by focusing on a single individual. More recently experimental investigations involving comparisons between various groups as well as correlational studies have started to dominate the field. informal groups etc. sensations. emotionality. hallucination. It studies what we inherit and what we acquire. one can compare the animal mind with the human mind.g. delusions and amnesia. individual behavior in groups. PAPER A. organizations. These people are below average in their adjustment to social norms. Thus comparative psychology. because it is very important to know how they affect the mind and how in turn the mind affects the body. personality. How do we become what we are. Developmental Psychology: The problems of Genetic Child Psychology are subsumed under Developmental Psychology. social interaction and communication. illusions. It is the study of physiological processes in relation to human behavior and mental life. It uses a special method of study called the field experiment. primarily interested in individual differences. cognitive. attitudes. Genetic Psychology concerns itself with the relationship between genes and behavior. Social Psychology was the result of this interest. Secondly with the help of experiments on animals. It makes use of introspection. Genes determine many diverse behaviors throughout the lifespan of the individual. It also studies how inheritance is modified in various ways. broadly classified in four categories:  Psychoneuroses  Psychoses  Mental Retardation  Anti Social personalities Abnormal Psychology deals with unusual phases and processes of mind such as dreams. intelligence is determined by heredity up to an extent of about 80%. which carry information from the parents to the offspring. what factors determine character. prejudices. social perception. Genetic Psychology also known as behaviour genetics. muscles and endocrine glands. It also helps to understand maladjustments.BA I. This branch studies the growth or development of the child from conception till death. Genes determine not only the physical characteristics but also psychological characteristics such as intelligence. institution. Pinel (1990) has advocated the use of the term Biopsychology to describe this study. Developmental Psychology studies emotional. It studies topics such as the formation of groups. and experimentation as the methods of psychological investigation. Abnormal Psychology is concerned with mental health and peculiar behavior of people. . which directly affect an individual’s behavior. Social psychology is also specially interested in the application of Psychology to diverse areas of social life such as social groups. The laws determined on the basis of animal behaviour can then be generalized to human beings because sometimes the human mind is not available for experiments. UNIT I 7 learning. E. Its favored method of investigation is experimentation. moral. and how these differences are related to heredity and environment of the person. uses the experimental method to study behaviour. and physical development across the lifespan of the individual. observation. Various areas of interest are the nervous system. Comparative Psychology: This is the study of differences and similarities in behaviour among men and also between man and animal. Longitudinal studies which study the same sample of individuals over a period of time. Now many psychologists interpret human behavior based on biochemical changes in the body. Physiological Psychology: It studies psychological processes. sociability. Biopsychology primarily uses the method of experiment. Social Psychology: During the period between the two world wars psychology became extremely interested in the individual as a part of the society. Abnormal Psychology: An important branch of psychology. The primary aim of comparative psychology is to study individual differences in detail. their structure and function. Genetic Psychology: Genes are the basic unit of heredity. It studies the problem of individual difference in learning. It deals with the behavior of persons who deviate from the norms of a particular social group. SECTION A. personality and intelligence – in short. which come from childhood experiences. studies how much genetic potential is expressed during a lifetime. studying them at various stages of life. social. level of arousal etc. intelligence etc. Developmental Psychology mainly uses two kinds of research methods: Cross-Sectional studies which study different groups of individual of the same age.

which uses experiments and quantitative methods extensively. Applied Aspect of Psychology The application of psychological principles and facts to other fields of life is called Applied Psychology. and memory. In USA. superstitions. Later on Jung. However. It also studies the problems of student’s life. It deals with problems such as extra sensory perception. the Institute of Parapsychology has been established in Rajasthan under Dr. and their . psychologists are confronted with the problems of maturation and development of behavior. Sullivan and Erikson added to.e. It is a distinct way of thinking about psychology. propaganda etc.BA I. formation of concepts etc. the problem of classroom teaching. their adjustments with teachers and vice-versa. It encourages participation in intercultural research. discussions of effective assessment and treatment models in working with particular cultures. learning. However it has been criticized because it does not use the scientific method of experimentation as the basis for its concepts. medicine. Perhaps for this reason it is now known as cross cultural psychology or international psychology. Its major area of interest is the history and philosophy of psychology. In India. Animal Psychology uses the experimental method of study. circuses etc. Experimental Psychology: It is that branch of psychology. Applied Psychology emphasizes prediction and control of phenomena but not without description and explanation. SECTION A.e. These phenomena are studied under controlled conditions so that experiments can be repeated if desired. discipline. industry. Even if it is not very scientific. For a number of years. recent researchers who have tried to study the phenomena of parapsychology have given a scientific and experimental touch to the treatment of data. Its data was collected through the anecdotal method and stray impressions of people. Rules and principles derived from experimental psychology are applied in almost all other branches of psychology including applied psychology. Thus it is now emerging as a respectable branch of Psychology. Industrial Psychology deals with the problems of workers. The Universities of London and Cambridge also work in this area. laborers. PAPER A. Wilhelm Wundt established the first laboratory in Leipzig. administration. It has also helped a great deal in focusing attention on animal behaviour and has helped to save many animals from extinction. The knowledge of psychological principles is being utilized these days in all spheres of life – from domestic to international affairs. Industrial and Organisational Psychology: Psychology applied to industry and organizations is mainly concerned with commerce and business. Folk Psychology is the study of tradition. and modified the basic concepts and applications. law. The clearly defined aspects of Applied Psychology are: Educational Psychology It is concerned with the application of psychological principles to the problem of educating students i. literature etc. Generally the problems of educational psychology are classified as learning and testing i. Studies are also conducted in the Panjab University. Animal Psychology: Animal Psychology studies animal behaviour in particular and not for the purpose of generalization to human beings. Psychoanalysis is also a method of treatment of abnormal people. Parapsychology: It has come into its own very recently. It also makes cross-cultural comparisons. UNIT I 8 Psychoanalysis: Many people consider psychoanalysis to be a branch of medicine or sub specialty in Psychiatry. language. Folk Psychology: The branch of psychology which studies folk culture is becoming very important. Educational psychology covers memory. auto kinesis. architecture. The major areas of interest are learning. and a better understanding of the sort of psychological problems which predominate in a given region of the world. parapsychology was not given recognition as a branch of psychology because it was considered a pseudo science. telepathy etc. Rhine is studying parapsychology. Banerjee and Dr. mythology. the measurement of what the learner has learnt and the suitability of the methods of teaching to the learner. He is known as the Father of Experimental Psychology. It’s concepts and ideas have been applied to diverse fields such as art. It throws light on educational methods and new techniques with the help of which teachers can impart knowledge in a systematic and interesting way. Sinha. motivation. particularly in developed countries. it provides the most interesting literature in Psychology. Adler and neo – Freudians such as Horney. conduct of the members of staff. The founder of this branch was Sigmund Freud. Instead it uses the case history method to support its arguments. While investigating the conditions of learning. commercial. However psychoanalysis is also considered a school of psychology with it’s own set of concepts and their application. Applied Psychology is extended to education. The direct aim of Applied Psychology is to provide the means for achieving the universal goals of human beings. etc. Philosophical Psychology: encourages and facilitates informed exploration and discussion of psychological theories and issues in both their scientific and philosophical dimensions and interrelationships. Dr. The principles of Animal Psychology are frequently applied to train animals for advertisements. cultures. thinking. music and religion of various cultures.

Environmental Psychology: A relatively new area of psychology. music. Psychological principles are used during training. the need for achievement and assertion so that ultimately the sportspersons’ performance is not hampered by his inner fears and anxieties. civil war. form. . all of which contribute to the stress of modern life which is the single major reason for the origin of psychopathology. Psychologists have also helped to make the rules fairer and more stringent in various sports. literature. tested. The recruitment and selection process uses psychological tests. and postmodern psychologies are applied to diverse artists. colleges. it studies three interrelated topics: creativity (including developmental. the arts (including aesthetic content. Clinical psychology: It is that branch of psychology that studies various mental disorders. Health Psychology: It seeks to advance contributions of psychology to the understanding of health and illness through basic and clinical research. symptoms and different kinds of therapies and medication that they require. Broadly conceived. Clinical Psychology also studies the trends of urbanization. war. and function). To this end. etc. Organizational Psychology is chiefly concerned with the higher-level managers. and environmental design etc. personality. leadership. natural calamities and their effects. SECTION A. consumer behavior etc. In general. their motivation. both theoretical and empirical. In fact all issues concerning labour and capital. fall within the scope of Industrial and Organisational Psychology. Counseling is the essence of guidance. and enhancement of production and efficiency. their training. Other areas of interest of Industrial and Organisational Psychology include personnel selection. pollution. cognitive. lawyers. marketing. since law deals with human behavior. It can be merely informative or therapeutic i. salesmanship. Space Psychology: Psychology has been involved with the Space Programs of all nations right from the beginning. and applied. and epochs Sports Psychology: Recently Psychologists have been engaged in the area of sports to increase the morale and efficiency of sports persons. profit by using psychologists who work in this area.BA I. education. Interventions in these areas are also designed. migration. protection of the environment. Currently. loneliness. Perhaps it is the oldest branch of Applied Psychology. It helps in detection of crime and criminals. conditions of work. An understanding of psychology also helps in rehabilitating military personnel in civilian life after retirement.e. It studies phenomena such as crowding. They also indulge in counseling to clarify the complexes within the personality and to increase the morale. and service activities and encourages the integration of biomedical information about health and illness with current psychological knowledge. destruction of habitats of man and animals due to environmental or man-made causes. Thus universities. it cam remove the difficulties and problems that arise in the life of a normal individual. their causes. and dance. an appreciation of psychology is useful for judges. personality. styles. clinical. poetry. It deals with physical rather than psychological illnesses. environmental perception and cognition. witnesses and all others who are concerned with law and justice. advertisements. UNIT I 9 satisfaction from jobs. The recruitment and training of personnel is an obvious area of contribution. cultural. Legal Psychology: Psychology has been used in the field of law and justice. studied from the psychological perspective. refugees. and cognitive processes). Psychologists are also interested in the effects of outer space on the functioning of human mind and body. training leadership behavior etc. it is specifically addressed to environmental protection through a study of man’s relation to the environment and his attempts to master it. affective. terrorism. communication. PAPER A. to find if the witness is telling the truth and helps in management and rehabilitation of criminals. Clinical Psychology has a special interest in psychotherapy. over population. Psychology and the Arts: Psychology is committed to interdisciplinary scholarship. Counseling and Vocational Guidance: One of the most valuable applications of psychology is in the field of vocational guidance. During war (and even in peace) propaganda techniques are extensively used to keep the force motivated. Psychology and the armed forces: The armed forces use psychology extensively and employ a large number of psychologists. Psychology helps young men and women to choose their career according to their talent and capacity. and audience response to the arts (including preferences and judgments). encompassing the visual arts. perceptual. Confinement in the small area of the spacecraft for long periods of time creates stress that has to be understood and dealt with. work style. Psychologists generally use selection techniques and various methods of training to increase the performance of sportspersons. stress. which is used to treat the patients. motivational. industrial centers and employment exchanges.

the American Psychologists’ Association lists 53 divisions of psychology. Measurement.SPSSI 10. Experimental Psychology 4. Consulting Psychology: These psychologists share an interest in the consultative process including applied activities. Frequently the individual is assessed on a battery of tests such as intelligence. Society for General Psychology 2. Adult Development and Aging 21. skills. History of Psychology 27. Psychotherapy 30. Developmental Psychology 8. personality. Psychopharmacology and Substance Abuse 29. This further helps to decide the psychiatric conditions of the person. Society for the Teaching of Psychology 3. research and evaluation. Psychometricians devise new tools for data collection. 1. Society for Community Research and Action: Division of Community Psychology 28. etc. Psychology and socioeconomic progress: Psychologists are increasingly working for human welfare directly by involving themselves in issues related to all mankind and not one or few persons particularly. and education and training. Population and Environmental Psychology 35. There is no Division 11 12. Youth. Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 25. and creativity tests to give a global assessment of the individual so that he is able to actualize his inherent potential. Society of Clinical Psychology 13. The most practical aspect of psychology. and Family Services 38. and new designs for experimental research to study individual differences. theory and knowledge development. aptitude. Counseling Psychology 18. Rehabilitation Psychology 23. and Statistics 6. Military Psychology 20. Humanistic Psychology 33. the suitability of a person in a particular job and in general to give self-knowledge to the individual. Society for Personality and Social Psychology 9. Child. Society for the Psychology of Women 36. PAPER A. motivation.BA I. Psychology and the Arts 11. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities 34. Psychology of Religion 37. violence. Evaluation. Thus psychology is studied and applied to enhance human life in diverse areas. Health Psychology 39. the selection of the person for job or training. Society for Consumer Psychology 24. In these areas psychologists help by their insight into human behavior so that planned social change can be brought about with respect to these issues. In fact the premier organization of psychology. Psychoanalysis . Psychological Hypnosis 31. Division of Behavior Analysis 26. There is no Division 4 5. State Psychological Association Affairs 32. SECTION A. UNIT I 10 Psychometrics: It implies measurement of psychological phenomena or traits to assess the person as compared to other similar persons. it is concerned with consultation skill. Most governments employ the services of psychometricians for different public service selections especially for selection to the armed forces. Behavioral Neuroscience and Comparative Psychology 7. poverty. and dissemination. School Psychology 17. each with a distinct area of interest. Applied Experimental and Engineering Psychology 22. Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology 15. Psychologists in Public Service 19. Educational Psychology 16. Psychologists are intensely interested in issues such as war. Consulting Psychology 14. over population. analysis. Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues .

49. 47. SECTION A. 46. 50. . 55. 52. 41. Conflict and Violence: Peace Psychology Division Group Psychology and Group Psychotherapy Addictions Society for the Psychological Study of Men and Masculinity International Psychology Clinical Child Psychology Society of Pediatric Psychology American Society for the Advancement of Pharmacotherapy. and Bisexual Issues Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues Media Psychology Exercise and Sport Psychology Society for the Study of Peace. 43. 51. 53. 45. 42. 54. UNIT I 11 40. PAPER A. Gay. Clinical Neuropsychology American Psychology-Law Society Psychologists in Independent Practice Family Psychology Society for the Psychological Study of Lesbian. 48. 44.BA I.

began experiments on the relation between the stimulus that arouses a sense organ and the resulting sensation. fish. But Aristotle and his fellow Greeks used a method that we now refer to as armchair theorizing or a priori thinking. was Thorndike. rats. Today Ebbinghaus is famous for his material (NSS). He held that the stimulus and response were held together by a neural bond. David Hartley. PAPER A. he insisted that he was studying memory. Ebbinghaus was essentially an experimenter. till the dog gave the salivary response to the bell alone. partly because Greeks were pioneers. Ebbinghaus studied the associative process as it was taking place. However. these associationists were criticized for the tendency to reduce every phenomenon to association. Deeply impressed by Fechner’s careful experimental analysis of the sensory processes. He carefully observed the behaviour of the animal as it made various attempts to escape from the box and noted how with increasing number of trials the time taken as well as the irrelevant movements (errors) made by the animal decreased. Rather than assuming that associations had already been formed and studying them through reflection (as had been the case for many centuries). His retention curve is one of the major pioneer attempts in psychology to reduce experimental data to a mathematical form. John Locke. By 1900. SECTION A. Fechner. and Alexander Bain etc are classified as older associationists. broadened the field by applying Fechner's method to other problems.S Mill. it is indeed true that psychology has a short history. His strength was innovative experimental design and methodology. He designed carefully controlled experiments to study the anticipatory reflex in dogs. James Mill. Gradually psychologists tried to analyze human knowledge and thought in terms of other processes as well. Pavlov and Guthrie used the experimental method to study the association of stimuli and responses. His experiments on chicks. dogs. but also because of their defective method of obtaining knowledge. monkeys. And thus. Various viewpoints regarding the subject matter developed into the various schools of psychology. the basic methodology was to place the animal in a puzzle box so that the animal escaped when it made a certain kind of response. They held that association is the basic process in acquiring knowledge. Thus even though. Associationism: The philosophers such as Aristotle. He repeatedly paired food with a bell. Greeks were the first group of people to become interested in knowing about people simply for the sake of knowing. But Greek understanding of human behaviour was very limited. In almost all his animal experiments. and the middle age and well into the modern times. convinced Thorndike that learning was a matter of trial and error. the Russian physiologist. . In fact so common is the phenomena in our daily lives that virtually all training is now called conditioning and the term is used by laymen to refer to almost all acquired responses habits and skills. a German. with the connection referred to being the neural connection between the stimuli and the responses. J. It was only about 150 years ago that the first significant break with this tradition occurred. In fact they fell that it is the sole mental phenomena except sensation. Some years later. Consequently his theory is called Connectionism. Though he was not a great theorist. In 1850s. UNIT I 12 HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY Ebbinghaus’s comment written in 1885 holds true to this day – “Psychology has a long past and (going back to the Greeks) but only a short history (from 1860 0r 1879 to present)”. Thorndike.BA I. This inefficient approach persisted all through the Roman period. Watson. for actually it started as a science distinct from philosophy only when it adopted the experimental method and seceded from philosophy. Wilhelm Wundt. or as he called it initially “selecting and connecting”. Ebbinghaus (1850-1909) was a German who made the first thoroughly experimental study of association. the experimental method had been applied to almost all areas in Psychology. the founder of behaviorism acknowledged Pavlov’s work as the basis of his ideas on Behaviorism. he was actually studying learning. Later associationists. he was convinced that the same techniques could be adapted to the study of higher mental processes. the dark ages. contrast and contiguity – persist to this day. It was also felt that their use of a priori reasoning was not scientific enough for Psychology. conditioning also occurs with voluntary responses. one of his students. Another very important figure who contributed to an experimental analysis of associations was Pavlov. Psychology has been studied since the time of Aristotle. method (experimental) and analysis of data (savings). The 3 primary laws of association given by Aristotle – similarity. The Greeks studied human behaviour as a part of their general search for knowledge. The beginning of modern Psychology is often traced to the book Elemente Der Psychophysik written by Fechner in 1860 or the opening of the first psychological laboratory by Wilhelm Wundt in 1879. cats. George Berkeley. They made certain assumptions about the nature of phenomena and then tried to extend their knowledge by careful logical reasoning from these assumptions. Ebbinghaus. They investigated learning rather than memory and used the method of experimentation rather than a priori reasoning. The history of Psychology can be studied from these various perspectives as follows: 1. always giving the food after ringing a bell. and finally human beings. to the extent that eventually the animal escaped from the box as soon as he was placed in it. Though Pavlov restricted his study to reflexes. The person who actually started experimentation as we understand the term today.

Functionalism was founded in America. the Frenchman Auguste Comte’s (1797 – 1857) gave the idea of positivism. published in 1913 in the Psychological Review. An extract from this paper gives the essence of his position – “Psychology as the behaviorist views it. positive science of behavior owes its beginning to Watson. The founders of the school of functionalism were Dewey and Angell. Initially. The structuralists did not subscribe to the idea of interactionism and held that the sensations. The behaviorist recognizes no dividing line between man and brute…. They were also criticized for not giving due importance to the functioning of the body and emphasizing only the mind. Structuralists actually used the method of introspection to study the human mind. Functionalism: The method of introspection adopted by structuralists and the type of problems they selected for study were the focus of critical attack by the functionalists. Perception was a major area of interest for their chief spokesman and developer of the school. It arose as a revolt against the then current psychology i. Behaviorism: The school of behaviorism brought together the various strands that make up the fabric of experimental psychology today. is a purely objective experimental branch of natural science. structuralism. Harvey Carr. Psychology as an empirical. a movement that demands positive (non-debatable) knowledge. all functionalists are hard-core experimentalists. About a hundred years earlier than Watson. In their hands. Functionalism became mainstream Psychology and lost its distinct identity as a school in the earlier part of the previous century. An important antecedent influence on functionalism was the Harvard professor William James. they conducted animal experiments extensively. in many ways man was similar to animals. Children and abnormals also could not be studied because the method of introspection could not be used on these groups. They were also more concerned with analysis and structure rather than with synthesis and functioning. Watson’s ideas were a continuation of this thought.BA I. Introspection forms no essential part of its methods. He denied the importance of individual mind and vigorously criticized mentalism and subjective methodology. which gives access only to private experience and consciousness. affection. He was an empiricist. Since they were all influenced greatly by Darwin’s theory. Watson exaggerated the emphasis on objectivism. They felt that it would be easy to generalize from animals to human beings because having descended from animals. believing in nothing but the ever-changing empirical truth.e. introspection became a highly specialized method to be used only by trained observers with a rigorous methodology and mathematical procedures. and images. He advocated two types of study of affective and intellectual functions: (i) precise determination of organic conditions on which these functions depend (ii) observation of behavioral sequences. they did not take extreme positions. SECTION A. Wilhelm Wundt christened this psychology as Experimental Psychology. The subject matter of Psychology was held to be any process that helped in the adaptation of the individual to his environment. Following James in his rigorous empiricism. He defined psychology as the Science of Consciousness and sought to apply the empirical method in psychology and started an informal laboratory in 1875. Thus the greatest impetus for the use of experimental method came from functionalists. Philosophically moderate. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behaviour. could not provide “valid knowledge”. objective observation. PAPER A. except perhaps to emphasize the use of experiments as a method. The formal beginning of behaviorism in America is with Watson’s paper “Psychology as the behaviorist views it”. With James. UNIT I 13 2. the concern was with epistemological questions regarding the nature and source of human knowledge. 4. Introspection. Nevertheless. According to structuralists psychology was defined as the science of mind. Watson stressed . 3. Comte believed that positive knowledge could come only from public. As Boring (1950) writes “The times were ripe for more objectivity in Psychology and Watson was the agent of the times”. They were charged with narrowing down the scope of Psychology because they did not include animal behaviour in their study. affection and images merely sum up together to form the human mind. However functionalists expanded the scope of psychology much beyond the processes of sensation and perception. Today most psychologists follow the functionalist tradition without even knowing about it. Mind was reduced to 3 basic units – sensation. Essentially. The time seems to have come when psychology must discard all reference to consciousness”. Structuralists were criticized for this method as it become apparent that experimentation was far superior to introspection as a scientific method. a year before Wundt started his laboratory in Leipzig. They used a new method for the study of mind. but in-between there was a gap of about a hundred years forced by the ideas of structuralism. They were also eclectic in their approach. psychology ceased to be mental philosophy and became a laboratory science. it must be clarified that his conceptualization of the experiment was totally different from our modern concept of the experiment. All functionalists focused on the processes of behaviour or functioning of individual rather than merely the structure of the individual. believing in nothing but the data derived from experiments. The structuralists tried to analyze mind into its basic units. a method based on objectivity. Structuralism: The school of structuralism started with Wilhelm Wundt trying to investigate the mind – body question. the problems studied through experiments were philosophical in nature.

so much so that behviorism had to change its tough stance to incorporate gestalt factors. including man. Learning was also held to be insightful rather than through trial and error. The emphasis of the Gestaltists on the cognitive aspect of behaviour such as thinking. determine perception. He has perpetuated the vision of psychology initiated by Watson with a style. many psychologists owe a debt of gratitude to Tolman. The theme of Gestalt psychology was organization – the fact that the experience of the individual is organized into a whole. He was an advertising man and used his knowledge of behaviorism to design advertisements. and Rotter. was a strict experimentalist. Another important behaviorist was Hull. in fact how these variables are related to each other is of prime importance. mental sets etc. Hull’s book Principles of Behaviorism (1943) is to-date the most cited publication in psychology. Before him. which is cleaner and purer than Watson’s. he insisted on experimental analysis of behavior. learning and perception. Skinner studied operant conditioning and applied the phenomena to a variety of areas ranging from training astronauts to training dolphins for circuses. regarded as the greatest of them all. for clarifying issues and ideas with creative. and the initial . With the current emphasis on the study of cognitive processes.BA I. Kohler did experiments on chimpanzees to show how higher order animals. When they solve it. He is the forerunner of all cognitive behaviorists such as Miller and Dollard. Later Gestalt psychology contributed to the area of learning as well. He also emphasized central cognitive factors in learning such as beliefs. It is the basic process in socialization – the transformation of man from naïve child to a competent adult. For optimum movement a distance of 1cm and time of 60 milliseconds is required at normal intensity. Wertheimer's colleagues Kohler and Koffka also contributed to the study of perception. along with the advent of computers. Skinner. Following his lead. The cognitive factors in behaviour again became important. The contemporary face of cognitive behaviorism is Bandura. 5. A recent application of operant conditioning is to train monkeys to help paraplegic patients. all psychologists did not accept the extreme insistence on objectivity and reductionism of the classical behaviorists. and objectivity. Moving with the times. Not surprisingly. and a creative designer of apparatuses. In the Phi – phenomena we can perceive movement whereas actually the light is stationery. PAPER A. he saw the importance of Applied Psychology and was among the first people to extensively use his knowledge in the applied area. He is the forerunner of an increasing number of psychologists who use mathematics in psychology. SECTION A. which can also be transferred easily to other situations. reductionism. Organisms do not separate their reality into bits and pieces. expectancies. He felt that there is nothing innate in the child and the child can be molded and fashioned by the environment or the agents in the environment as they think fit. he was deeply influenced by Watson’s emphasis on experimentation. and which has now been shown to be essential for human learning. it is through the sudden grasp of a single general principle. Skinner also applied operant-conditioning principles to cure patients in clinics. UNIT I 14 upon the use of the experimental method to study psychological phenomena. led to a cognitive revolution within psychology. He has been able to change with the times. However. He held that all behaviour is purposively directed towards particular goals. to rehabilitate criminals etc. It started with Tolman’s insistence that behavior is purposive in nature. an area which had been neglected by other psychologists for years together. Little wonder that he is the most acceptable behaviorist to non-behaviorists. In 1912 Wertheimer published a paper on Phi – phenomena in which he stressed that the objective stimulus was different from its subjective experience. psychologists were debating theoretical issues like philosophers. that they redirected a science” Marx and Hillix (1987). He was primarily interested in area of learning holding that all knowledge comes from the experience of the world. He is a cognitive behaviorist who combines a belief in cognitive aspects of man with rigorous experimentation in the area of learning. Thus a new kind of behaviorism was born – Cognitive Behaviorism. after him they were researching postulates and theories like scientists. “one of those rare people whose influence was so great. In this book he attempted to lay down a comprehensive theory of all mammalian behaviour from which specific hypotheses could be derived for experimentation. It is not only a collection of factors that is required. how many factors together. Bandura has come to emphasize cognitive factors such as expectancies and beliefs regarding others and self. Perhaps his most significant contribution has been the analysis of observational learning. The Gestalt theory extended to the areas of personality and social psychology. The perception of movement depends upon the distance between the two lights. Nevertheless. Gestalt: The Gestalt school of psychology also made its beginning about the same time as behaviorism. the time between the two lights. Another important figure at this time was Guthrie who is sometimes classified as a modern associationist because he believed that contiguity between stimulus and response is sufficient to account for all learning. atheoretical. ingenious experimentation and a bold adherence to his own views in the face of almost universal opposition. Thus Wertheimer demonstrated. learn through insight. a generation of psychologists became behaviorists. as important determiners of behavior. Bandura. in the education set-up. In fact there is an innate tendency in all of us to organize our experience such that it becomes meaningful to us. His major distinction is the objective precision he gave to psychological terms and ideas. and intensity of lights. They treat a problematic situation as a problem to be solved.

Id is the irrational aspect of personality. When the parents and other important figures tell him to do certain things and not to do certain other things. It is a set of do’s and don’ts. These other needs are classified in a hierarchy. concerned only with stimuli and responses studying primarily animals. id and superego. cooperation etc. instincts. Yet it is questionable how far it is appropriate to base a theory for normal adult human beings on a few clinically ill women patients. It consists of all desires. SECTION A.e. He divided personality into 3 aspects – id. Secondly there is also a doubt about the efficiency of psychoanalysis as a treatment. They were also modified by neo-Freudians i. Their theories and ideas were accepted in Psychology largely without question. in diverse areas such as leadership. However. it was considered essentially a branch of medicine started by a German psychiatrist Sigmund Freud. group formation. Horney. PAPER A. Psychoanalysts have been criticized for being unscientific. Roger emphasized that fully functioning personality has 3 essential qualities:  Openness to new experiences  Internal locus of evaluation  Existential way of life Existential philosophy is quite close to the humanistic view of man. It is the emphasis of the Gestaltists on the cognitive aspect of behaviour such as thinking. 6. Every person has the potential for self-actualization. According to Freud all behaviour is motivated by psychic energy in the form of instincts. They also emphasized physiological factors in behavior. and superego. These stages are:  Oral stage  Anal stage  Genital stage (Phalic stage)  Latent stage  Late genital stage Adler and Jung further developed Freud’s ideas. Maslow. The main thrust of this school is that man is free to fashion his own destiny. It is acquired from the society primarily through parents. subconscious and conscious. Freud has also given five stages of psychosexual development. for all of them were based on experiments. learning and perception. In contrast humanistic psychologists believe that society is the natural result of the growth of human beings to their fullest potential. Every individual passes through these stages to emerge as a well-adjusted adult. Humanistic – Existential: The bleak picture that Freud painted regarding human personality was countered by the humanistic – existential school. Rogers also feels that openness to experience and self-realization inevitably leads to doing good for others i. he creates all the wonders of the world. As the individual intreracts with the environment.BA I. Both believe that man is inherently good and is born free. Psychoanalysts earlier claimed that the theory was justified because it was based on clinical experience and it was successful in treating patients. As Freud says. Maslow regards social interest as one of the key characteristics of self-actualization. He held that about 95% of the individual’s behavior is determined by the unconscious. Thus it lacks empirical evidence. To counter anxiety. superego and reality. UNIT I 15 field experiments were done by Kurt Lewin and his associates. is of three kinds: reality anxiety. ego uses different mechanisms. which led to a cognitive revolution within psychology in 1969. he gradually develops an ego. He started to study and analyze the human personality and gave a unique theory of personality. a socialized self evolves . and moral anxiety. 7. He is just a collection of desires and psychic energy. When a person is born. Abnormality may be shown if the individual is fixated in any one stage. It consists of the do’s and don’ts enforced by parents. It precluded psychology from becoming a complete behaviorist science. For existentialists the theme is always man vs society. competition. Psychoanalysis: Another school of Psychology that has been influential not only within psychology but also in other aspects of knowledge is Psychoanalysis. depending on the source.e. Freud was concerned with the disintegration of personality that happed in his abnormal neurotic patients. The ego is the reality oriented aspect of personality. a pioneer in humanistic psychology holds that self actualization is the highest need of the person. A person can be self-actualized only if all the other needs are satisfied. neurotic anxiety. However existential philosophy emphasized that the society imposes restrictions on man such that he cannot fulfill his potential. and Erikson. The Gestalt psychologists were rigorous experimentalists. It is the mediator between id. Fromm. However when there is an extreme and exaggerated use of different mechanisms. The theory is attractive but it is not based on experiments. He is inherently good and if left to his own devices. The superego is the moral force in the person. The threat that the ego feels is called anxiety. Superego is also unconscious and irrational. which is influential even beyond psychology. he develops the superego. Sullivan. Rogers uses the term fully functioning personality to describe people who are self actualized in Maslow’s view. which are present in the id. Freud held that mind had three layers – the unconscious. the person is termed abnormal. he is all id. ego. The two instincts are – eros (life instinct) and thanatos (death instinct). Psychoanalysis existed around the same time as Structuralism and Functionalism. This anxiety. ego has “three harsh masters” – reality. impulses and material repressed into the unconscious.

it maintains that the external world exists independently of our thoughts since God has created it. it considers memory as a source of valid knowledge. We do not have one grand theory. Without adhering to any school. and body. It further proposes twenty-five elements or guna in each individual. Indian scriptures dating back thousand of years deal extensively with the analysis of states and contents of mental activities. and intutition. Mind too is an annexe of the soul. Therefore the science of mind is but an outcome of the science and philosophy of soul or the self (Safaya. from external to internal evaluation. It stated objective was “to advance psychology as a science as a profession and as a means of promoting human welfare”.BA I. It is essentially the science of perception. the study of and emphasis on individual differences was responsible for the genesis of applied psychology. 1976). but was more concerned with reasoning and logical proof. also find mention in the Upanishads. and future. In the Vedic period Kama or desire was the motivating force. Cattell and Binet studied individual differences. The human personality was said to consist of five layers or Koshas. The concepts of sub conscious as a storehouse of past impressions. All these schools of psychology reflect upon and focus on different aspects of Psychology. which explains all phenomena. rebirth. enveloped by intellect. which directs all action. and Nyaya. Deep concentration and meditation are suggested to attain higher mental powers as a step towards self-realization and liberation. philosophy and psychology. It extends the field of perception to intuition. The Upanishads marks the transition from rituals to meditation. In fact this is exactly what applied psychologists do. Nevertheless they have helped to restore the view of man as a normal mature adult human. UNIT I 16 out of self-realization. it is possible to be eclectic and pick out the best of all schools. memory etc. it deals with illusions dreams. PAPER A. . In its current role. resolution. Next is Prana. the Upanishadic thoughts were synthesized in the Bhagvad Gita and the six major philosophical systems – Samkhya. For humanistic psychologists society is but the result of self-actualization of human beings. Most psychologists obliterate the distinction between theory and practice. Today the schools belong to the past of psychology. This removal of distinction was reflected in 1948 when the American Association of Applied Psychology for Practitioners and the American Psychological Association united to form the current American Psychological Association. Essentially. transmigration of soul. Psychology is perhaps unique among all sciences in its focus on human differences. Mana governs five organs of perception and five of action. Vaisheshika. feeling. We no longer think of human beings in psychoanalytical terms alone as constantly beset by difficulties. During the Sutra or epic period. which had the attributes of imagination. it also applies its knowledge to solve a variety of human problems. It gives the foremost rank to perception as the only source of knowledge. the human personality comprises the soul. Thought it is a realistic school. The essential feature of Indian philosophy is its emphasis on the soul or atman with everything else secondary and subsidiary to it. and pioneers such as Munsterberg and Scott applied psychology to advertising and other industrial fields. specialized. The Samkhya Doctrine: A dualistic doctrine. Also according to this doctrine. PSYCHOLOGY IN INDIA In ancient times in India psychology was an offshoot of Indian philosophy. Mental peace and pure thoughts are deemed to be essential for mental and physical well-being. an instrument of action. Vedanta. In its later period. and scientific. Currently we just have miniature theories. were developed. However. Atman is the innermost independent entity. Vaisheshika Doctrine: This school is basically an extension of Nyaya school. intelligence. In ancient India there were no rigid distinctions between religion. Thus Psychology today has become eclectic. the vital life of all beings and the outermost is the material self – the body. present. mind. The Nyaya Doctrine: It developed at the same time as Samkhya. This energy was directed by the mind. heredity. Mimamsa. Buddhist and Jain thought also developed during this period. it is not only studies phenomenon of human concern. Whereas other sciences seek to understand uniformity and universal principles. SECTION A. it distinguishes between Purusha (pure spirit) and Prakriti (matter) in all things at the cosmic as well as the individual level. Applied psychology was born towards the end of the nineteenth century when psychologists scientifically investigated and tried to solve practical problems. The main consideration was to help the individuals in their pursuit of self-realization and liberation from the miseries of life. The mind directs man to action. The humanistic – existential school has been criticized for evaluative constructs and for lack of hard scientific evidence. etc. from faith to reason. and consciousness of past. when Galton. which are specific to given phenomena in a specific area. psychology seeks to understand why people differ from each other. In addition to perception. inference. Yoga. This is also the time where we accept nothing but experimental facts. the Nyaya philosophy clearly distinguished between the Supreme soul and the individual soul.

On the whole. Human personality. These rich traditions. the department started an Applied Psychology wing.A) and doctoral program (PhD). research. had little bearing on academic psychology implanted in India as a Western science during British rule. The Indian Psychological Association was founded in 1924 and the Indian Journal of Psychology. Girindra Sekhar Bose succeeded Sengupta. it acquired the status of a science along with physical and biological sciences. Meyers and Spearman were invited to the Silver Jubilee session of the Indian Science Congress. they were engaged in scientific research based on western models. Girindra Sekhar Bose. was trained at London University with Spearman in mental testing. mind and soul to attain higher mental power and realize the divine potentialities inherent in man. and the means of securing this state. Ahamkara (Self-realisation). But this did not happen. In this process. Sir Brojendra Nath Seal who was the professor of mental and moral philosophy drafted the first syllabi of Experimental Psychology and established a laboratory in 1905. Indian psychologists existed in two different worlds. E. Personality has five aspects. the school contributed to the field of cognition. in 1916. which is essentially Atma is identical with Brahma. It is an affirmation of the absolute entity as the sole existence. He had obtained his doctoral degree on the concept of repression.V. the psychoanalyst. Their major aim was to acquire mastery over statistics and experimental methodology. it upholds the authority and eternity of the Vedas. at an early stage. Eleven years later. Bose promoted psychoanalysis. In psychology. making it richer in terms of Indian concepts and theories. . this laboratory was upgraded as the first psychology department and named the Department of Experimental Psychology offering masters (M. As professionals. Jung. Patna emerged as a center for teaching. He also set up the first animal laboratory in India and applied psychological principles in the area of education. UNIT I 17 Mimamsa Doctrine: This doctrine is basically concerned with Vedic rituals. Sir Brojendra Nath Seal was also a great historian of ancient Indian science. Maiti. who in turn was a student of Wundt. Yoga is a natural system of purification of body.N. wrote a commentary on Indian sacred texts and epics. Gopal Swami. something that western psychology could achieve only after a long struggle. dharma and religious rites. Most chairmen of psychology departments were trained in philosophy. Consequently the research that they did in one world was not applied in the other world. however. trained as an experimental psychologist. Being a psychiatrist in close contact with Freud. Moving from the outer to the inner core. In 1922. most Psychologists lived in two different worlds. Psychology was first introduced as a subject in the department of philosophy at Calcutta University. Vedanta Doctrine: The Advaita Vedanta doctrine is the only school of Indian philosophy. psychologists in India did not reap the fruits of this unique advantage. Gopal Swami at Mysore had his own private radio station and was equally involved in cultural activities. He adapted western intelligence tests for the Indian population. characteristics. It was the first doctoral degree from an Indian university in psychology. they became ardent advocates of western research methods. and counseling. The main thrust of the work is the superconscious state with its divine powers. In their enthusiasm to establish a new identity for themselves as scientists. SECTION A. contributed many papers to various journals covering areas such as the psychology of Mysticism to the psychology of western dance.g. Psychology in India made a new beginning in the first decade of the last century. The department at Patna University began in 1946 along with the institute of Psychological Research and Services headed by H. He also established Lumbini Park Mental Hospital in Calcutta in 1940 and in 1947 launched a journal Samiksha.BA I. He was educated at Harvard University with Munsterberg. the first psychology journal in India appeared in 1925. Narendra Nath Sengupta was the Chairman. Thus. Thus despite its roots in ancient Indian psychology/ philosophy. Scientific psychology with laboratory work was a new approach and had no parallel in traditional Indian Psychology. In doing so. Thus. the Chairman at Mysore. Psychology was included as a separate section in the Indian Science Congress in 1923. M. One might expect that they would bring a strong philosophical knowledge base to Psychology. N. It is both a positive science describing the matter of fact. it upholds the common sense views rather than the mystical ones. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali deal with psychology directly. Sengupta. his orientation was psychoanalytical and clinical. It provided vocational guidance and counseling not only to a large number of students but also to the general public. Manas. which is monistic (belief that everything is one) in its belief. Since he had trained with Girindra Sekhar Bose. and Atma. Buddhi. they completely disassociated themselves from their parent discipline. actual reality and a normative science guiding for the future development of mental and spiritual potentialities. Yoga Doctrine: The philosophical schools mentioned so far dealt with psychology only incidentally.P. PAPER A. But to satisfy their creative urge they would engage in other activities. he founded the Indian Psychoanalytic Society. specially verbal cognition holding the word to be eternal. In 1938. In most universities. psychology departments were established by splitting philosophy departments. psychology departments were also established at Mysore and Patna. these are: the gross physical body. Before India’s independence.

the growth of psychology in Indian universities was rapid but unplanned. UNIT I 18 However. Agrawal (1973) renamed psychology in India as “adaptology”. These various efforts reveal the contribution that Psychology could have made in different areas of national life. Mehrotra adapted many intelligence and aptitude tests in Hindi and provided counseling services to the public.  Psychology becoming more indigenous. Many psychological studies after the partition of India were concerned with the rehabilitation of human society. in the very recent times. advanced training programs were introduced at the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS). and memory is generally a replication of western work. following India’s independence in 1947. “Indian psychology has become not only imitative and subservient but also dull and replicative”. An important area that emerged during this period was counseling and guidance. SECTION A. though in the very recent times. and development of psychological tests for the Army. stress. and teaching. by the mid . educated samples. All IIMs have departments of organizational behaviour. and child rearing practices. The Ahmedabad Textile Industries Research Association (ATIRA) was established in 1950 where Kamia Choudhary conducted large-scale surveys to study motivational problems in textile Industry. morale. principal employment settings for psychologists include educational institutions. A strong need was felt to return to the Indian social reality and the treasure-trove of traditional psychological knowledge accumulated over centuries. we require that psychology actually and . Hindu – Muslim tension and psychological conditions of peace. This was given an impetus by McClelland’s work at Hyderabad. Nevertheless. Allahabad became known for research in the area of rural and social psychology. have become centers of applied research in different fields of psychology. Many national and international voluntary agencies seek the service of psychologists to carry out research and field projects. The findings of this innovative training were applied to many other areas as well. in the area of engineering. agriculture. Indian Psychology Today Today Indian psychology is at a crossroad. many surveys have been done to assess the general population. leadership. Another new development was the expansion of the teaching of Psychology in various professional courses. Psychology failed to make the best of these opportunities. Currently it is organizational behaviour that is the focus of research for many psychologists. Experimental work in the area of perception. Mysore for test construction. research.P.N. psychology is taught at the undergraduate level. The Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore. At present there are 67 universities offering advanced degrees in various fields. The U. rehabilitation. Bangalore in 1955 followed by the hospital for mental diseases in Ranchi in 1962. In 1950s and 1960s. Many government and autonomous bodies such as the NCERT. On the whole psychologists remained in the periphery of national development. In the area of Social Psychology there have been many studies of attitudes. management and medical sciences. The Indian Army also showed an interest in using psychological tests for selection. and Indian Statistical Institute in Calcutta. Four clear-cut streams can be distinguished in Indian psychology at presents:  Identification of unique feature of Indian culture to demonstrate empirically that western concepts and theories are not applicable to the Indian cultural reality. particularly school and college students. military establishments. there was some change in the content and concerns of psychological research. Patna for guidance and counseling. Bhatia and S. learning. Nevertheless many departments developed a distinct identity. The Psychology Research Wing of the Defence Science Organization was set up in 1947. prisons. In the area of psychological testing. Pune for experimental work in verbal learning. An applied area that drew attention of many scholars was industrial psychology. mental health. though they are suitable only for urban. prejudices. At its core is the idea that all knowledge including psychology is conditioned by historical and socio-cultural factors. In the future.  Emphasis on problem oriented research. In the response to this call. All IITs have Psychology with doctoral programs.70s it was clear that Indian psychology was not contributing to national development as it should.M. abundant adaptations of western tests exist. Nandy (1974) lamented. India has the largest number of psychologists outside the western block countries and is considered a publication grant among all developing countries. business and industry. In Home Science and Education Colleges. hospitals. Currently. which is not merely an academic exercise but has practical utility. and private practice.e. However.BA I. i. Many psychologists pursue a combination of private practice or consulting. The enthusiasm for the west was waning and the roots in our own history were forgotten. communal and caste conflicts. In mental health. In the clinical area.  Cross-cultural testing of psychological concepts and theories such that Indian ideas can also be tested around the world. the impact of variability in population. socialization.. traditional healing practices have also been investigated. Later it was elevated as the Defence Institute of Psychological Research concerned with motivation. Generally. there has been an increasing concern with Indian concepts and ideas. the western model has been followed. Psychological Bureau established in 1947 under the leadership of Sohan Lal and later C. PAPER A.

SECTION A.BA I. UNIT I 19 clearly provides a knowledge base to assist policy planners in the decision making process. It is the responsibility of psychologists to shape public opinion by informing people about the challenges of unprecedented technological advancement. PAPER A. . They have a major role in the smooth transformation of our society. They can act as catalysts in the process of change.

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