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# Control Valve Sizing

Introduction
Fisher Method
For liquid service, the valve area is characterized by the coefficient CV and for gaseous
service valve area is characterized by the coefficient C9.
Select a value of C1 from manufacturer’s data. The valve selected should have C9 which
equals or exceeds the calculated value. Accurate valve sizing for gases requires the use of
coefficient, C1, C9 where C1 is the pressure recovery factor and is a function of valve
geometry.
The coefficient CV = Q (ϒ / ∆P)0.5 Equation 1

## The coefficient C9 = C1 CV Equation 2

The mass flow rate through the valve is defined by: -

## W = 0.4583 C9 ρ P1 sin (3417 / C1)(∆P / P1)0.5 Deg Equation 3

The sine term checks for critical flow, if the value of this term (in degrees) is 90o or
greater, the flow is critical and the quantity in the brackets should be set to 90o
Notation: -
Q = Flowrate, m3 / hr
∆P = Pressure drop through valve, bar
P1 = Upstream pressure, bar
ϒ = Fluid relative density
W = Mass flowrate kg / hr
ρ1 = Upstream density kg / m3
Masoneilan Method
This method introduces Cf, the critical Flow Factor which is dimensionless expression of
the pressure recovery ratio in a control valve, Cf is comparable to term C1 used in Fisher
method. Values of Cf are determine by flow test and are listed in the Masoneilan sizing
handbook.

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Vapor / Gaseous Service
Critical flow, if P2 / P1≤ 0.55, flow through the valve is critical and the following
equation should be used.

## CV = 0.545 W (Z)0.5 / Cf P1 (G)0.5 Equation 4

If P2 / P1 ≥ 0.55, flow is sub-critical and the following equation should be used.

## CV = 0.0472 W (Z)0.5 / (∆P G (P1 + P2)0.5 Equation 5

Where: -
P1 = Upstream pressure, bara
P2 = Downstream pressure, bara
W = Mass flowrate kg / h
Z = Compressibility
T = Flowing temperature oK
G = Sp Gr at flowing conditions G = 288 mol wt / 29 T
Liquid Service
\

## If P2 / P1 ˂ 0.5, ∆Ps = P1 - PV else ∆Ps = P1 – PV {0.96 - 0.28(P1 / PC )0.5}

Subcritical flow: -
PV ˂ P2 and ∆P ˂ Cf2∆Ps
CV = 1.16 Q (G / ∆P)0.5 Equation 6
Critical flow: -
∆P ˃ Cf2∆Ps
CV = 1.16 Q (G / ∆Ps)0.5 Equation 7
Cf = Critical flow coefficient
PV = Fluid vapor pressure bara
P1 = Upstream pressure, bara
P2 = Downstream pressure, bara
PC = Pressure at thermodynamics critical point bara
∆P = Actual pressure drop P1 – P2 bar
Q = Liquid volumetric flowrate at upstream conditions m3 / hr
G = Sp Gr at flowing conditions

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Typical C1, and C9 Values for Fisher Valve Sizing
Valve Flow Characteristic
Valve Valve Body Travel
Style Size inch inch Equal Percentage Linear
0.5 0.75 34.3 48 ------ -----
0.75 0.75 34.5 216 ----- -----
1 0.75 37..7 355 33.23 688
1.5 0.75 35.8 623 34.95 1220
2 1.125 36.8 2070 34.92 2280
Globe
2.5 1.5 35.6 3100 37.2 3220
3 1.5 34.79 4210 34.7 4680
4 2 36.3 7360 35.6 7540
6 2 36.13 12900 34.5 14400
8 2 33.3 19000 34.8 24400
Reference: Fisher Control Valve Handbook, Single ported Globe Style
Valve Bodies.
Table shows values given at 100% open.
For preliminary gas/vapor sizing purpose, use:
C1 = 25 (Butterfly Valves).
C1 = 28 (ball Valves).

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Example: Control Valve Sizing for Liquid Service

A control valve is to be installed on the outlet of the tank to regulate the supply of fuel oil
to 3 fire heaters. During normal operation, there are two heaters in operation at 75% load,
however during start up all the three heaters at 100% load. Determine the most suitable
valve size for this application using either method and ensure the valve is operating
within the 25-75% region during normal operation and start up. Assume ∆P across the
valve is 1 psi and the valve Cf = 0.9
The fuel oil demand on one heater is 425 kg/hr at 75% load and 500 kg/hr at 100%
The fuel oil in the tank is at atmospheric pressure and temperature.
The outlet nozzle on the tank is located 150 mm above the base of the tank to avoid
sediment and water being drawn off.
The relative density of the fuel oil is 0.85 at 15 oC and atmospheric pressure.
The vapor pressure of the fuel oil is 3 kpa(a) at 150 oC and atmospheric pressure.
Solution: -
Calculate the flowrate during normal and start-up conditions: -
Flowrate at normal operating conditions 850 kg/hr
Flowrate during start-up 1500 kg/hr
Calculate the CV for both conditions: -
Q = CV / (ϒ / ∆P)0.5
Start-up: CV = 1.76(0.85 / 0.069)0.5 = 6.18
Normal Conditions: CV = (1)(0.85 / 0.069)0.5 = 3.51
Select 1˝ equal percentage, CV at 100% open = 9.39
Determine the maximum flow through the valve:
Q = CV / (ϒ / ∆P)0.5 = 9.39 / (0.85 / 0.069)0.5 = 2.675 m3/ hr
Determine the flow as a percentage of maximum flow through the valve at start-up and
normal operating conditions
Start-up 1.76 / 2.675 = 66%
Normal: 1 / 2.675 = 37%

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From the graph of percentage of maximum flow against percentage of valve travel, the
operating region of the valve is above the acceptable region.
A larger valve size must therefore be selected.
Repeat calculation for 1.5˝ valve size, CV = 17.4, again assume the pressure drop across
the valve is equal to 1 psi
Q = CV / (ϒ / ∆P)0.5 = 17.4 / (0.85 / 0.069)0.5 = 4.96 m3/ hr
Maximum flow through valve = 4.96 m3/ hr
Percentage of maximum flow: -
Start-up 1.76 / 4.96 = 35.5%
Normal: 1 / 4.96 = 20.2%
From the graph, this corresponds to a maximum valve travel, which is in the acceptable
region.
Using the Masoneilan method gives exactly the same answer.