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Stella Seremetaki
Pure Mathematician
Defining the cognitive object.
a Similar amounts - Properties of similar amounts
b. Define the goal.
• Identify whether there is a proportion of the two-dimensional change
• Fill in tables of similar amounts when giving their reason
• Calculate the ratio of two similar amounts when giving their tables
• Use rate as a special case rate factor
c. Organizing matter.
(1) Development of proposed activities (20 min):
1st Students discover (Bruner) that when two amounts change together the change
is not always proportional
2nd The use of the coefficient and the proportional tables.
(2) Suggested applications presentation (20 min)
d. Method selection.
Method: Building knowledge (according to Knowledge Theory) through the active participation
of students (Piaget) through the development of activities.
1st activity: Students compare 56: 1.60, 81: 1.80, 63: 1.75, 68: 1.70
and find the ratio ratios: 35, 45, 36 and 40, which are different from each other. They are
expected to conclude on their own that the original claim does not apply.
2nd activity: If the students divide the proceeds with the value of kilo 0.4e they will find the
pounds they sold each time and in total, ie 15 + 7 + 13 + 8 + 9 + 12 + 6 + 4 + 11 + 5 =
90 So it would seem that he forgot to score 10 pounds for 4e.
An attempt is made to draw students conclusions about:
(a) the wording of the definition of the relevant amounts or sizes; (b) the relationship that
links them; and (c) the role of the proportion as a ratio factor.
e. Assignment of work.
(3) Exercises are offered for exercises - problems (5 min)
f. Recap.
(4) The suggested exercises - problems (20 min)
(5) Self-assessment test (20 min)
(6) The definitions and rules (5 min)
d. Materials and Supervisory Tools: Student Book, Table.
Chapter first
Similar Amounts - Conversely Amounts Amounts
1.1. Showing points at level
1.2. Two Number Ratio - Ratio
1.3. Similar amounts - Properties of similar amounts
1.4. Analog proportional graph
1.5. Proportional problems
1.6. Inversely proportional amounts
Repetitive Self-Assessment Questions
Showing points at level
1.1 I design a wheelchair system
I find the coordinates of a point
I find a point when given its coordinates

Two Number Ratio - Ratio

1.2 I understand the meaning of speech and the meaning of analogy
I solve equations of the form αx = β, by searching for the fourth analog
of the relationship. I know that it is generally
Similar amounts - Properties of similar amounts
1.3 I recognize if there is a proportion of the two-dimensional change
I fill out tables of similar amounts when given their reason
I calculate the ratio of the two proportional sums when their tables are
given. I use the rate as a special case rate factor
1.4. Analog proportional graph
I graphically represent a ratio
I find that the points with coordinates of the pairs of the corresponding
values of two similar sums are in a semi-alignment beginning at the
beginning of the axes
Proportional problems
1.5 I organize the data of a table-size problem and build
it on the basis of this table, where necessary, and graph
1.6 I solve problems by applying, where necessary, the
properties of such sums in two frames: numerical and
In order to determine the location of a point in the plane: We design
two perpendicular half-axes Ox and Oy. On each of them we define the
same unit of measurement. These semi-axles are a semi-axle system.
The half-axle Οx is called half-axle of the abscissa or x-axis of x.
The semi-axle Οy is called semi-axle of the ordinate or semi-axle of y.
Point C is called the beginning of the axles
3 is the abscissa of point A(3,1)
1 is the ordinate of point A(3,1)
The abscissa and ordinate of point A are named coordinates of A and usually
when we want to refer to point A, we write A (3.1).The pair (3,1) whose first
number 3 is the abscissa of point A and the second number 1 is the ordinate of
point A is called ordered pair, because the order, ie the order in which the
numbers that make up it.With this system, we assign to each point A a pair of
numbers (3,1), that is, an ordered pair whose numbers are called coordinates
of the point.Conversely, any ordered pair of positive numbers e.g. (2,4)
corresponds to a point M of the plane.
The semi-axle system we use is called ortho-normal, because the semi-axles are
intersected vertically (ortho-) and we have the same measuring unit on them
The reason for two similar sizes, expressed in the same unit of measurement,
is the quotient of their measures.
Equality of words is called analogy.
Two shapes are said to be the same when one is smaller or larger than the
The ratio of the two-point distance of an image of an object to the actual
distance of the two corresponding points of the object is called a scale.
If the ratios of the respective sides of two parallels are equal, then they
will be equal to the ratio of their perimeters.
Each image ratio ratio is equivalent to the Image relationship
We measure a distance on a map with a scale of 1: 10,000,000
and we find it equal to 2.4 cm. What is the true distance of the
two points?
After the scale of 1: 10,000,000 is given, 1 cm of the map corresponds to
10,000,000 cm in reality.

Therefore, if the 2.4 cm of the map corresponds to x cm in reality

we will have: Picture. It therefore follows that:

1 · x = 2.4 · 10.000.000 or x = 24.000.000 cm = 240.000 m = 240 Km.

Two sums are called accordingly, if they are changed in such
a way that when the values of one are multiplied by a number
then the respective values of the other are multiplied by the
same number.
Two sums x and y are proportional when their respective
values always give the same quotient: Figure. Quotient a is
called a ratio factor.
The proportional sums x and y are associated with the relation:
Image where α is the ratio coefficient.
When the amount y is a percentage of the x, the two sums are
linked to the Image relationship and are proportional, with a
ratio factor of the Image or%.

The relation y = α · x expresses an interaction of the x and y

In particular, doubling, tripling, and so on. of one amount
results in doubling, tripling, and so on. of the other amount.
Which of the following amounts are appropriate:
(Place an "x" in the corresponding position)
The number of beverages and the money they cost
(b) The floor area and the number of slabs that are paved
(c) The number of workers and the time required to complete a project.
(d) The length and width of a rectangle of a given area
(e) The speed and time required to cover a distance.
(f) The side of a square and its area.
(g) The age of a person and his property.
(h) The amount that someone spends to buy lotteries and the amount they
Ratio / Definition: Equality of ratios is called
analogy, ie the relations α / β = γ / δ, α / β = 3/5
express ratios
Exercise 1. page 92 Fig
Find the reasons for the aligned parts of the drawing on page 92
of the school book,at the link below
Solution: I see from the exercise scheme of Fig. 6 on page 92 that AB
= 4 pm, DG = 1 pm, EZ = 5 μm, RH = 2 μm, K = 3 μm
Therefore the proportions are as follows
(a) AB / DT = 4/1, EZ / RH = 5/2, CL / AB = 3/4, AB / CL =
4/3, RH / EZ = 2/5, DG / AB = 1/4
b) DG / RU = 1/5, RU / RL = 2/3, AB / AB = 4/4 = 1, RU / 1/1
Exercise 2 p.92 fig
Rectangle ABDC is given. Design another rectangle with sides similar to
the sides of the ABGB so that the ratio of their respective sides is 2: 1
Solution: AB = 4.5m and DB = 2.5m
Let the desired rectangle with x and y sides. From the exercise case, I
make the ratios of 4.5 / χ = 2/1 (1) and 2.5 / β = 2/1 (2)
From (1) multiplying the buckle I have 2x = 4.5 division and both
members with 2 and i have x = 2.25
From (2) multiplying buckle I have 2y = 2.5 divided and both members
with 2 and I have y = 1.25
Exercise 3. page 92 Fig

At the link

Actual height 1.76 m = 176 cm, Fantastic 4cm. How

Much Are Items Diminished?

Solution: The ratio is P / Φ = 176/4 = 44. Now I have

shrunk by 44 times
Lost exercises similar to the book for practice:
1. Give the ABGB rectangle with side AB = 4 and the AB relationship is valid
= 6.GD. (1) Check whether the AB and DD sides are analogous.
Solution: From relationship (1) I have: AB / DG = 6/1. So I have equality of
reasons, so it's analogy.
Generally: A relation of the form a = w, where k is a physical number expresses
a ratio between α and β
2. Give a rectangle with sides x and x + 1 .1) Find the perimeter of P. 2) If x =
2, examine whether the x and p sums are analogous
Solution: 1) P = x + 1 + x + 1 + x + x = 4x + 2. 2) For x = 2 I have Π = 10,
therefore Π / χ = 10/2 = 5. The sums Π and x are analogous
2. Give rectangle with sides x and x + 1 .1) Find the perimeter of P. 2)
aIf x = 2, examine whether the x and p sums are analogous

Solution: 1) P = x + 1 + x + 1 + x + x = 4x + 2. 2) For x = 2 I have

Π = 10, therefore Π / χ = 10/2 = 5. The sums Π and x are analogous

3. If the dimensions of a room in a 1: 100 scale is 2 x 5. Find the

actual dimensions of the room.

Solution: Let x and y be the actual dimensions of the room. I will have
2 / x = 1/100 equivalents x = 200 and 5 / y = 1/100 equivalent y =
500. Then the actual dimensions are 200x500
Thank you !