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Notes on metamodernism

Timotheus Vermeulen & Robin van den Akker

To cite this article: Timotheus Vermeulen & Robin van den Akker (2010) Notes on
metamodernism, Journal of Aesthetics & Culture, 2:1, 5677, DOI: 10.3402/jac.v2i0.5677

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© 2010 Timotheus Vermeulen and Robin

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Vol. 2, 2010

Notes on metamodernism
Timotheus Vermeulen1* and Robin van den Akker2
Department of Cultural Studies, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; 2Department of
Philosophy, Erasmus Universiteit, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

Abstract Timotheus Vermeulen is a

The postmodern years of plenty, pastiche, and parataxis teaching fellow in Cultural Stu-
are over. In fact, if we are to believe the many academics, dies and Theory at the Radboud
critics, and pundits whose books and essays describe the University Nijmegen, the Neth-
decline and demise of the postmodern, they have been over erlands. He is also currently in
for quite a while now. But if these commentators agree the the process of completing his
postmodern condition has been abandoned, they appear AHRC-funded PhD in Film and
less in accord as to what to make of the state it has been Television at the University of
abandoned for. In this essay, we will outline the contours Reading, UK. He has published
of this discourse by looking at recent developments in on inter- and transmediality, spa-
architecture, art, and film. We will call this discourse, tiality, contemporary aesthetics,
oscillating between a modern enthusiasm and a postmo- cinema and television, and the
dern irony, metamodernism. We argue that the metamo- work of Jacques Rancière.
dern is most clearly, yet not exclusively, expressed by the Robin van den Akker is a
neoromantic turn of late associated with the architecture of Doctoral candidate in the
Herzog & de Meuron, the installations of Bas Jan Ader, the Department of Philosophy at
collages of David Thorpe, the paintings of Kaye Donachie, the Erasmus University Rotter-
and the films of Michel Gondry. dam, the Netherlands, and a
researcher at TNO Information-
and Communication Technolo-
gies. He is writing a dissertation
on the remediation of urban
space by mobile media practices.
He has published on everyday
life and urban space, digital
culture and contemporary design, and the work of Henri
Timotheus and Robin are also currently working on an
international research project documenting trends and
tendencies in current affairs and contemporary aesthetics
that can no longer be explained in terms of the post-
modern but should be conceived of as metamodern. As
part of this project they also co-edit a blog
called ‘‘Notes on metamodernism’’ (http://mtmdrn.blogs

Keywords: metamodenism; New Romanticism; structure of feeling; contemporary aesthetics

*Correspondence to: Timotheus Vermeulen, Department of Cultural Studies, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, Nijmegen,
the Netherlands. Email:

#2010 Timotheus Velmeulen and Robin van den Akker. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License (, permitting all non-commercial use, distribution,
and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Citation: Journal of Aesthetics & Culture, Vol. 2, 2010 DOI: 10.3402/jac.v2i0.5677
(page number not for citation purpose)
Timotheus Velmeulen and Robin van den Akker

The choice in this election is not between characterized by the oscillation between a typically
regions or religions or genders. It’s not about modern commitment and a markedly postmodern
rich vs. poor, young vs. old. And it is not
detachment. We will call this structure of feeling
about black vs. white. This election is about
the past vs. the future. It’s about whether we metamodernism.2 According to the GreekEnglish
settle for the same divisions and distractions Lexicon the prefix ‘‘meta’’ refers to such notions as
and drama that passes for politics today or ‘‘with’’, ‘‘between’’, and ‘‘beyond’’. We will use
whether we reach for a politics of common these connotations of ‘‘meta’’ in a similar, yet not
sense and innovation, a politics of shared indiscriminate fashion. For we contend that me-
sacrifice and shared prosperity. . . . Yes, we
can. Yes, we can change. Yes, we can.
tamodernism should be situated epistemologically
(Barack Obama, ‘‘Yes, we can change’’, with (post) modernism, ontologically between
speech addressed at Democratic Assembly, (post) modernism, and historically beyond (post)
28 January 2008) modernism. And finally, we will take a closer look
I’m noticing a new approach to artmaking in at some tendencies that exemplify the current
recent museum and gallery shows. . . . It’s an dominant sensibility, in particular the Romantic
attitude that says, I know that the art I’m turn in contemporary aesthetics.
creating may seem silly, even stupid, or that it Some remarks, finally, on our approach. As the
might have been done before, but that doesn’t essay’s title ‘‘Notes on metamodernism’’ suggests,
mean this isn’t serious. At once knowingly self-
we intend what follows as a series of linked
conscious about art, unafraid, and una-
shamed, these young artists not only see the observations rather than a single line of thought.
distinction between earnestness and detach- We seek to relate to one another a broad variety of
ment as artificial; they grasp that they can be trends and tendencies across current affairs and
ironic and sincere at the same time, and they contemporary aesthetics that are otherwise in-
are making art from this compound-complex comprehensible (at least by the postmodern
state of mind. (Jerry Saltz, ‘‘Sincerity and
Irony Hug it Out’’, New Yorker Magazine, 27 vernacular), by understanding them in terms of
May 2010) an emergent sensibility we come to call metamo-
dern. We do not seek to impose a predetermined
The ecosystem is severely disrupted, the financial system of thought on a rather particular range of
system is increasingly uncontrollable, and the cultural practices. Our description and interpreta-
geopolitical structure has recently begun to appear tion of the metamodern sensibility is therefore
as unstable as it has always been uneven.1 CEOs essayistic rather than scientific, rhizomatic rather
and politicians express their ‘‘desire for change’’ than linear, and open-ended instead of closed. It
at every interview and voice a heartfelt ‘‘yes we should be read as an invitation for debate rather
can’’ at each photo-op. Planners and architects than an extending of a dogma.
increasingly replace their blueprints for environ-
ments with environmental ‘‘greenprints’’. And
new generations of artists increasingly abandon
the aesthetic precepts of deconstruction, para-
ART’’ . . .
taxis, and pastiche in favor of aesth-ethical notions
of reconstruction, myth, and metaxis. These The postmodern years of plenty, pastiche, and
trends and tendencies can no longer be explained parataxis are over. In fact, if we are to believe the
in terms of the postmodern. They express a (often many academics, critics, and pundits whose books
guarded) hopefulness and (at times feigned) and essays describe the decline and demise of the
sincerity that hint at another structure of feeling, postmodern, they have been over for quite a while
intimating another discourse. History, it seems, now. Some argue the postmodern has been put to
is moving rapidly beyond its all too hastily an abrupt end by material events like climate
proclaimed end. change, financial crises, terror attacks, and digital
In this essay, we will outline the contours of this revolutions. Others find that it has come to a more
emerging structure of feeling. We will first discuss gradual halt by merit of less tangible develop-
the debate about the alleged demise of ‘‘the’’ ments, such as the appropriation of critique by the
postmodern and the apparent rise of another market and the integration of différance into mass
modernism. We will argue that this modernism is culture. And yet others point to diverging models

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Notes on metamodernism

of identity politics, ranging from global postcolo- and human autonomy’’.8 But many of these con-
nialism to queer theory.3 As Linda Hutcheon puts ceptions*and Lipovetsky, Kirby, and Samuels’s,
it, in the epilogue to the second edition of The however useful they are for understanding recent
Politics of Postmodernity: ‘‘Let’s just say it: it’s developments, are exemplary here*appear to
over’’.4 radicalize the postmodern rather than restructure
But if these commentators agree the postmo- it. They pick out and unpick what are effectively
dern condition has been abandoned, they appear excesses of late capitalism, liberal democracy, and
less in accord as to what to make of the state it has information and communication technologies
been abandoned for. Hutcheon therefore con- rather than deviations from the postmodern
cludes her epilogue with a pressing question*a condition: cultural and (inter) textual hybridity,
question to which she herself does not yet know ‘‘coincidentality’’, consumer (enabled) identities,
the answer: hedonism, and generally speaking a focus on
spatiality rather than temporality.9
The postmodern moment has passed, even if
its discursive strategies and its ideological
Nicholas Bourriaud’s suggestion, altermodern-
critique continue to live on*as do those of ism, is probably the most well-known conception
modernism*in our contemporary twenty- of the latest discourse. However, it also appears to
first-century world. Literary historical cate- be the least understood. In response to the exhibi-
gories like modernism and postmodernism tion of the same name Bourriaud curated at Tate
are, after all, only heuristic labels that we Britain in 2009, Andrew Searle reported in The
create in our attempts to chart cultural
changes and continuities. Post-postmodern-
Guardian that ‘‘Postmodernism is dead . . . but
ism needs a new label of its own, and I something altogether weirder has taken its
conclude, therefore, with this challenge place’’.10 Similarly, the art critic for The Times,
to readers to find it*and name it for the Rachel Campbell-Johnston, testified that ‘‘Post-
twenty-first century.5 modernism is so last year but [that] its re-
placement . . . is all over the shop’’.11 Bourriaud’s
Some theorists and critics have attempted to accompanying essay invites a similar reaction: the
answer Hutcheon’s question. Gilles Lipovetsky, precise meaning of altermodernism is as slippery
of course, has claimed the postmodern has given and evasive as the structure of the argument is
way to the hypermodern. According to Lipovetsky, unclear. As we understand it, Bourriaud ultimately
today’s cultural practices and social relations have defines altermodernism as a ‘‘synthesis between
become so intrinsically meaningless (i.e. pertaining modernism and post-colonialism’’.12 According to
to past or future, there or elsewhere, or whatever Bourriaud, this synthesis is expressed, respectively,
frame of reference) that they evoke hedonistic in heterochronicity and ‘‘archipelagraphy’’, in
ecstasy as much as existential anguish.6 The ‘‘globalized perception’’ as well as in nomadism,
philosopher Alan Kirby has proposed that the and in an incorporation and/or affirmation
current paradigm is that of digimodernism and/or of otherness as much as in the exploration of
pseudomodernism. The cultural theorist Robert elsewheres.
Samuels has further suggested that our epoch is the Many of Bourriaud’s observations appear to be
epoch of automodernism. And a number of critics spot-on. The developed world has extended*and
have simply adopted the syntactically correct but is still in the process of expanding*far beyond
semantically meaningless term post-postmodernism. the traditional borders of the so-called West.
Most of these conceptions of the contemporary Bourriaud argues that this development has led
discourse are structured around technological to a heterochrony of globalized societies with
advances. Kirby’s digimodernism, for instance, various degrees of modernity and a worldwide
‘‘owes its emergence and pre-eminence to the archipelago without a center; to globally inter-
computerization of text, which yields a new form secting temporalities and historically interrelated
of textuality characterized in its purest instances by geographies. Consequently, he justly asserts, our
onwardness, haphazardness, evanescence, and current modernity can no longer be characterized
anonymous, social and multiple-authorship’’.7 by either the modern discourse of the universal
And Samuels’s automodernism presupposes a gaze of the white, western male or its postmodern
correlation between ‘‘technological automation deconstruction along the heterogeneous lines of

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Timotheus Velmeulen and Robin van den Akker

race, gender, class, and locality. He suggests that, yellow, one blue, one is circular, one angular, and
instead, it is exemplified by globalized perception, so on. But he cannot see that they are all produced
cultural nomadism, and creolization. The alter- by the same tension: an oscillation between
modernist (artist) is a homo viator, liberated from metals, sulfurs, and potassium nitrates. We will
(an obsession with) his/her origins, free to travel call this tension, oscillating between*and be-
and explore, perceiving anew the global landscape yond*the electropositive nitrates of the modern
and the ‘‘terra incognita’’ of history. and the electronegative metals of the postmodern,
Bourriaud’s conception of altermodernism is at metamodern.
once evocative and evasive; it is as precise in its
observations as it is vague in its argumentation.
However provocative his writing may be therefore,
it is also problematic. For instance, his notion of a
‘‘globalized perspective’’ is somewhat difficult, for What do we mean when we say that ‘‘the’’
it implies a multiplicity and scope of (simulacral) postmodern has been abandoned for the meta-
vision neither phenomenologically nor physically modern? It has become somewhat of a common-
possible (it appears to us to be more appropriate to place to begin a discussion of the postmodern by
speak of a ‘‘glocalized perception’’, in which both stressing that there is no one such thing as ‘‘the’’
the a priori of situation and situatedness are postmodern. After all, ‘‘the’’ postmodern is merely
acknowledged). Similarly, his intriguing account the ‘‘catchphrase’’ for a multiplicity of contra-
of a progressive creolism is opposed to the retro- dictory tendencies, the ‘‘buzzword’’ for a plurality
spective multiculturalism of the artworks he illus- of incoherent sensibilities. Indeed, the initial
trates it with. And his description of the restless heralds of postmodernity, broadly considered to
traveler and the Internet junky as embodiments of be Charles Jencks, Jean-Francois Lyotard, Fredric
altermodern art also seem rather anachronistic. Jameson, and Ihab Hassan, each analyzed a
For that matter, Saatchi’s (long the personification different cultural phenomenon*respectively,
of the postmodern, late capitalist art made flesh) a transformation in our material landscape; a
recent shift away from the Young British Artists distrust and the consequent desertion of meta-
toward contemporary artists from the Middle- and narratives; the emergence of late capitalism, the
Far East is far more telling*precisely because it fading of historicism, and the waning of affect;
implies an interest in a variety of ‘‘glocalized and a new regime in the arts.13 However, what
perceptions.’’ these distinct phenomena share is an opposition to
The main problem with Bourriaud’s thesis how- ‘‘the’’ modern*to utopism, to (linear) progress,
ever, is that it confuses epistemology and ontology. to grand narratives, to Reason, to functionalism
Bourriaud perceives that the form and function of and formal purism, and so on. These positions can
the arts have changed, but he cannot understand most appropriately be summarized, perhaps, by
how and why they have changed. In order to close Jos de Mul’s distinction between postmodern
this critical gap, he simply assumes (one could call irony (encompassing nihilism, sarcasm, and the
this the ‘‘tautological solution’’) that experience distrust and deconstruction of grand narratives,
and explanation are one and the same. For the singular and the truth) and modern enthu-
Bourriaud, heterochronicity, archipelagraphy, and siasm (encompassing everything from utopism to
nomadism are not merely expressions of a structure the unconditional belief in Reason).14
of feeling; they become the structures of feeling We do not wish to suggest that all postmodern
themselves. And, indeed, it is because he mistakes a tendencies are over and done with.15 But we do
multiplicity of forms for a plurality of structures, believe many of them are taking another shape,
that his conception of altermodernism*as and, more importantly, a new sens, a new meaning
expressed in the irregularity of the exhibition and and direction. For one, financial crises, geopoli-
the inconsistency of his writing*‘‘is all over the tical instabilities, and climatological uncertainties
shop’’, never becomes wholly comprehensible let have necessitated a reform of the economic system
alone convincing. (‘‘un nouveau monde, un nouveau capitalisme’’, but
Bourriaud perceives, say, seven types of fire- also the transition from a white collar to a green
works, in seven kinds of disguises: one is red, one collar economy). For another, the disintegration

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Notes on metamodernism

of the political center on both a geopolitical level ‘‘positive’’ idealism. Some argued that this notion
(as a result of the rise to prominence of the of history dialectically progressing toward some
Eastern economies) and a national level (due to predetermined Telos had ended because human-
the failure of the ‘‘third way’’, the polarization of kind had realized that this Telos had been
localities, ethnicities, classes, and the influence of achieved (with the ‘‘universalization of Western
the Internet blogosphere) has required a restruc- liberal democracy’’).17 Others suggested that it
turation of the political discourse. Similarly, the had come to a conclusion because people realized
need for a decentralized production of alternative its purpose could never be fulfilled*indeed,
energy; a solution to the waste of time, space, and because it does not exist. The current, metamo-
energy caused by (sub)urban sprawls; and a dern discourse also acknowledges that history’s
sustainable urban future have demanded a trans- purpose will never be fulfilled because it does not
formation of our material landscape. Most sig- exist. Critically, however, it nevertheless takes
nificantly perhaps, the cultural industry has toward it as if it does exist. Inspired by a modern
responded in kind, increasingly abandoning tac- naı̈veté yet informed by postmodern skepticism,
tics such as pastiche and parataxis for strategies the metamodern discourse consciously commits
like myth and metaxis, melancholy for hope, and itself to an impossible possibility.
exhibitionism for engagement. We will return to If, epistemologically, the modern and the post-
these strategies in more detail shortly. modern are linked to Hegel’s ‘‘positive’’ idealism,
CEOs and politicians, architects, and artists the metamodern aligns itself with Kant’s ‘‘negative’’
alike are formulating anew a narrative of longing idealism. Kant’s philosophy of history after all, can
structured by and conditioned on a belief (‘‘yes we also be most appropriately summarized as ‘‘as-if’’
can’’, ‘‘change we can believe in’’) that was long thinking. As Curtis Peters explains, according to
repressed, for a possibility (a ‘‘better’’ future) that Kant, ‘‘we may view human history as if mankind
was long forgotten. Indeed, if, simplistically put, had a life narrative which describes its self-move-
the modern outlook vis-à-vis idealism and ideals ment toward its full rational/social potential . . . to
could be characterized as fanatic and/or naive, and view history as if it were the story of mankind’s
the postmodern mindset as apathetic and/or development’’.18 Indeed, Kant himself adopts the
skeptic, the current generation’s attitude*for it as-if terminology when he writes ‘‘[e]ach . . .
is, and very much so, an attitude tied to a people, as if following some guiding thread, go
generation*can be conceived of as a kind of toward a natural but to each of them unknown
informed naivety, a pragmatic idealism. goal’’.19 That is to say, humankind, a people, are
We would like to make it absolutely clear that not really going toward a natural but unknown
this new shape, meaning, and direction do goal, but they pretend they do so that they progress
not directly stem from some kind of post-9/11 morally as well as politically. Metamodernism
sentiment. Terrorism neither infused doubt about moves for the sake of moving, attempts in spite
the supposed superiority of neoliberalism, nor did of its inevitable failure; it seeks forever for a truth
it inspire reflection about the basic assumptions of that it never expects to find. If you will forgive us
Western economics, politics, and culture*quite for the banality of the metaphor for a moment, the
the contrary. The conservative reflex of the ‘‘war metamodern thus willfully adopts a kind of don-
on terror’’ might even be taken to symbolize key-and-carrot double-bind. Like a donkey it
a reaffirmation of postmodern values.16 The chases a carrot that it never manages to eat because
threefold ‘‘threat’’ of the credit crunch, a collapsed the carrot is always just beyond its reach. But
center, and climate change has the opposite effect, precisely because it never manages to eat the
as it infuses doubt, inspires reflection, and incites carrot, it never ends its chase, setting foot in moral
a move forward out of the postmodern and into realms the modern donkey (having eaten its carrot
the metamodern. elsewhere) will never encounter, entering political
So, history is moving beyond its much- domains the postmodern donkey (having aban-
proclaimed end. To be sure, history never ended. doned the chase) will never come across.
When postmodernist thinkers declared it to have Ontologically, metamodernism oscillates betwe-
come to a conclusion, they were referring to a en the modern and the postmodern. It oscillates
very particular conception of history*Hegel’s between a modern enthusiasm and a postmodern

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Timotheus Velmeulen and Robin van den Akker

irony, between hope and melancholy, between metaphor for an existential experience that is
naı̈veté and knowingness, empathy and apathy, general to the condition humaine, but as a meta-
unity and plurality, totality and fragmentation, phor for a cultural sensibility that is particular to
purity and ambiguity. Indeed, by oscillating to and the metamodern discourse. The metamodern is
fro or back and forth, the metamodern negotiates constituted by the tension, no, the double-bind, of
between the modern and the postmodern. One a modern desire for sens and a postmodern doubt
should be careful not to think of this oscillation as about the sense of it all.
a balance however; rather, it is a pendulum
swinging between 2, 3, 5, 10, innumerable poles.
Each time the metamodern enthusiasm swings METAMODERN STRATEGIES
toward fanaticism, gravity pulls it back toward Let us take a closer look at some recent trends and
irony; the moment its irony sways toward apathy, tendencies in contemporary aesthetics to illustrate
gravity pulls it back toward enthusiasm. what we mean by metamodernism, and to demon-
Both the metamodern epistemology (as if) and strate the extent to which it has come to dominate
its ontology (between) should thus be conceived of the cultural imagination over the last few years.
as a ‘‘both-neither’’ dynamic. They are each at Just as modernism and postmodernism expressed
once modern and postmodern and neither of themselves through a variety of often competing
them. This dynamic can perhaps most appropri- strategies and styles, the metamodern also articu-
ately be described by the metaphor of metaxis. lates itself by means of diverse practices. One of the
Literally, the term metataxis (motajý) translates as
most poignant metamodern practices is what the
‘‘between’’. It has however, via Plato and later the
German theorist Raoul Eshelman has termed
German philosopher Eric Voegelin, come to be
‘‘performatism’’. Eshelman describes performa-
associated with the experience of existence
tism as the willful self-deceit to believe in*or
and consciousness. Voegelin describes metaxis as
identify with, or solve*something in spite of itself.
He points, for example, to a revival of theism in the
Existence has the structure of the In- arts, and the reinvention of transparency, kinesis
Between, of the Platonic metaxy, and if any- and impendency in architecture.22
thing is constant in the history of mankind it
is the language of tension between life and Performatist works are set up in such a way
death, immortality and mortality, perfection that the reader or viewer at first has no choice
and imperfection, time and timelessness, but to opt for a single, compulsory solution
between order and disorder, truth and to the problems raised within the work at
untruth, sense and senselessness of existence; hand. The author, in other words, imposes a
between amor Dei and amor sui, l’âme ouverte certain solution on us using dogmatic, ritual,
and l’ame close; . . .20 or some other coercive means. This has two
immediate effects. The coercive frame cuts
For Voegelin thus, metaxis intends the extent to us off, at least temporarily, from the context
which we are at once both here and there around it and forces us back into the work.
and nowhere. As one critic puts it: metaxis is Once we are inside, we are made to identify
‘‘constituted by the tension, nay, by the irreconcil- with some person, act or situation in a way
that is plausible only within the confines
ability of man’s participatory existence between
of the work as a whole. In this way perfor-
finite processes on the one hand, and an unlim- matism gets to have its postmetaphysical cake
ited, intracosmic or transmundane reality on the and eat it too. On the one hand, you’re
other’’.21 Now, the debate about the meaning of practically forced to identify with something
metaxis is one of the longest running and most implausible or unbelievable within the
intriguing in the history of philosophy and frame*to believe in spite of yourself*but
deserves (and requires) much more attention than on the other, you still feel the coercive force
causing this identification to take place, and
we can possibly offer here. The account intellectually you remain aware of the parti-
we provide is therefore inevitably reductive, the cularity of the argument at hand. Metaphy-
arguments we lend from it inexorably precipitate. sical skepticism and irony aren’t eliminated,
For our purposes, we intend the concept not as a but are held in check by the frame.23

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Notes on metamodernism

The leading American art critic Jerry Saltz and naivety, empathy and apathy, wholeness
also has observed the surfacing of another kind and fragmentation, purity and ambiguity, . . .
looking for a truth without expecting to find
of sensibility oscillating between beliefs, assump-
tions, and attitudes:
I’m noticing a new approach to artmaking in Elsewhere, the cultural critic Jörg Heiser has
recent museum and gallery shows. It flickered perceived the emergence of what he calls ‘‘Ro-
into focus at the New Museum’s ‘‘Younger mantic Conceptualism’’.27 Heiser argues that
Than Jesus’’ last year and ran through the
the rational, calculated conceptual art of Jeff
Whitney Biennial, and I’m seeing it blossom
and bear fruit at ‘‘Greater New York,’’ MoMA Koons, Thomas Demand, and Cindy Sherman
P.S. 1’s twice-a-decade extravaganza of emer- is increasingly replaced with the affective and
ging local talent. It’s an attitude that says, I often sentimental abstractions of Tacita Dean,
know that the art I’m creating may seem silly, Didier Courbot, and Mona Hatoum. Where
even stupid, or that it might have been done Demand reproduces the most concrete simulacra,
before, but that doesn’t mean this isn’t serious. At
Dean creates affective illusions that can never
once knowingly self-conscious about art,
unafraid, and unashamed, these young artists materialize. Where Koons obsesses over the ob-
not only see the distinction between earn- scene, Courbot is concerned with the increasingly
estness and detachment as artificial; they obsolete. And whereas Sherman criticizes subjec-
grasp that they can be ironic and sincere at tivity, Hatoum celebrates the felt heterogeneity of
the same time, and they are making art from identity. If the postmodern deconstructs, Heiser’s
this compound-complex state of mind*what
Emerson called ‘‘alienated majesty’’.24 Romantic Conceptualism is concerned with
Saltz writes exclusively about tendencies in Amer- The film critic James MacDowell, finally, has
ican art, but one can observe similar sentiments noted the emergence of the so-called quirky
across the European continent. Only recently, the cinema associated with the films of Michel Gondry
established BAK Institute in the Netherlands and Wes Anderson.28 MacDowell describes quirky
initiated a group exhibition that was called as a recent trend in Indie cinema characterized by
‘‘Vectors of the Possible’’. The exhibition, curator the attempt to restore, to the cynical reality of
Simon Sheikh explained, adults, a childlike naivety*as opposed to the
postmodern ‘‘smart’’ cinema of the 1990s, which
examines the notion of the horizon in art and
politics and explores the ways in which art
was typified by sarcasm and indifference. And yet
works can be said to set up certain horizons others have recognized movements as diverse as
of possibility and impossibility, how art Remodernism, Reconstructivism, Renewalism,
partakes in specific imaginaries, and how it the New Sincerity, The New Weird Generation,
can produce new ones, thus suggesting other Stuckism, Freak Folk, and so on. The list, indeed,
ways of imagining the world. Counter to the
of trends and movements surpassing, or attempt-
post-1989 sense of resignation, [it] suggests
that in the field of art, it is the horizon*as an ing to surpass, the postmodern is inexhaustive.
‘‘empty signifier’’, an ideal to strive towards, Nicholas Bourriaud would undoubtedly argue
and a vector of possibility*that unites . . . that this multiplicity of strategies expresses a
and gives . . . direction. The art works in plurality of structures of feeling. However, what
this exhibition can be seen as vectors, reck- they have in common is a typically metamodern
oning possibility and impossibility in
oscillation, an unsuccessful negotiation, between
(un)equal measures, but always detecting
and indicating ways of seeing, and of being, two opposite poles. In performatist attempts to
in the world.25 defy the cosmic laws and the forces of nature, to
make the permanent transitory and the transient
And the much lauded up-and-coming Gallery permanent, it expresses itself dramatically. In
Tanja Wagner introduced its opening exhibition Romantic Conceptualist efforts to present the
with the remarkably analogous words: ordinary with mystery and the familiar with the
The works [at display] convey enthusiasm as seemliness of the unfamiliar it exposes itself less
well as irony. They play with hope and spectacularly, as the unsuccessful negotiation
melancholy, oscilliate between knowledge between culture and nature. But both these

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Timotheus Velmeulen and Robin van den Akker

practices set out to fulfill a mission or task they words, between a ‘‘modern enthusiasm and a
know they will not, can never, and should never postmodern irony’’, is sufficient.35 It is from this
accomplish: the unification of two opposed poles. hesitation also that the Romantic inclination
toward the tragic, the sublime, and the uncanny
stem, aesthetic categories lingering between pro-
jection and perception, form and the unformable,
coherence and chaos, corruption and innocence.
The world must be romanticized. In this way its
original meaning will be rediscovered. To It is somewhat surprising that we appear to be
romanticize is nothing but a qualitative among the first academics to discern in contem-
heightening [Potenzierung]. In this process porary arts a sensibility akin to Romanticism. For
the lower self is identified with a better self. in the arts, the return of the Romantic, whether as
[...] Insofar as I present the commonplace style, philosophy, or attitude, has been widely
with significance, the ordinary with mystery,
the familiar with the seemliness of the
professed. In 2007 Jörg Heiser, co-editor of Frieze,
unfamiliar and the finite with the semblance curated an exhibition in Vienna and Nurnberg
of the infinite, I romanticize it. (Novalis29) called ‘‘Romantic Conceptualism’’. A mere
2 years earlier, The Schirnhalle in Frankfurt
At the time of writing, metamodernism appears to hosted ‘‘Ideal Worlds: New Romanticism in Con-
find its clearest expression in an emergent neor- temporary Art’’. In addition, the TATE Britain
omantic sensibility. This can hardly be called has recently held a Peter Doig retrospective, while
surprising. For Kant’s negative idealism too was the MOMA looked back at the life and work of
most successfully expressed by the early German Bas Jan Ader. And then we have not even
Romantic spirit.30 Now, of course, Romanticism mentioned the multitude of galleries exposing
is a notoriously pluralistic and ambiguous (and the often-figurative paintings and photographs of
consequently uniquely frequently misinterpreted) twilights and full moons, ethereal cityscapes and
concept. Arthur Lovejoy once noted that there are sublime landscapes, secret societies and sects,
so many different, often differing definitions of the estranged men and women, and strange boys
concept that we might rather speak of Romanti- and girls. It appears that, after all those years,
cisms.31 And Isaiah Berlin, one of our time’s most the parody and pastiche of Jeff Koons, Jake and
adept critics of the Romantic worldview, observed Dinos Chapman, and Damien Hirst, the ironic
that Romanticism, in short, is deconstruction of Cindy Sherman and Sarah
unity and multiplicity. It is fidelity to the Lucas, and the nihilist destruction of Paul
particular . . . and also mysterious tantalising McCarthy, are finally as out of place as they
vagueness of outline. It is beauty and always pretended to be*but, in times where
ugliness. It is art for art’s sake, and art as ‘‘anything goes’’, hardly ever were.
instrument of social salvation. It is strength This Romantic sensibility has been expressed in
and weakness, individualism and collecti-
a wide variety of art forms and a broad diversity of
vism, purity and corruption, revolution and
reaction, peace and war, love of life and love styles, across media and surfaces. It has been
of death.32 visible in Herzog and de Meuron’s negotiations
between the permanent and the temporary; in Bas
However, essentially, the Romantic attitude can Jan Ader’s questioning of Reason by the irrational;
be defined precisely by its oscillation between in Peter Doig’s re-appropriation of culture
these opposite poles.33 Romanticism is about the through nature; and in Gregory Crewdson and
attempt to turn the finite into the infinite, while David Lynch’s adaptation of civilization by the
recognizing that it can never be realized. As primitive. It can be perceived in Olafur Eliasson,
Schlegel put it, ‘‘that it should forever be becom- Glen Rubsamen, Dan Attoe, and Armin Boehm’s
ing and never be perfected’’.34 Of course, it is also obsessions with the commonplace ethereal, in
specifically about Bildung, about self-realization, Catherine Opie’s fixation with the quotidian
about Zaı̈s and Isis, but for our purposes, sublime. It can be observed in Justine Kurland,
this general idea of the Romantic as oscillating Kaye Donachie, and David Thorpe’s fascination
between attempt and failure, or as Schlegel wrote, with fictitious sects (Figures 1 and 2), or in
between ‘‘enthusiasm and irony’’, or in de Mul’s Darren Almond and Charles Avery’s interest for

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Notes on metamodernism

Figure 1. David Thorpe, Covenant of the East (2003). Mixed media collage. Courtesy Saatchi Gallery, Maureen Paley, and
303 gallery.

fictional elsewheres. And one can see it in the and ethereal bushes they are supposed to resem-
plethora of works of artists anew attempting to ble. The reason these artists haven’t opted to
come to terms with their unconsciousness (think, employ methods and materials better suited
for example, of Ragnar Kjartansson’s at once to their mission or task is that their intention is
grotesque and heartfelt attempts to (re)create not to fulfill it, but to attempt to fulfill it in spite of
both his ‘‘erotic fantasies of death, longing and its ‘‘unfulfillableness’’. The point of Ader’s jour-
eternity’’36 and the Weltschmerz stemming from ney is precisely that he might not return from it; of
his failure to do so entirely, or of Selja Kameric’s his tree climbing precisely that he cannot but fall
attempts to retrieve an irrevocably irretrievable eventually. Similarly, the point of Rubsamen’s
past, or of Michel Gondry, Spike Jonze, and Wes pursuit also is exactly that it cannot be fulfilled:
Anderson’s attempts to rekindle the naivety and culture and nature cannot be one and the
innocence of their childhood). What these strate- same, nor can any one of them ever entirely
gies and styles have in common with one another overtake the other.
is their use of tropes of mysticism, estrangement, One should be careful, however, not to confuse
and alienation to signify potential alternatives; and this oscillating tension (a bothneither) with some
their conscious decision to attempt, in spite of
those alternatives’, untenableness.
Indeed, both Ader’s attempts to unite life and
death*and Reason and the miraculous, and self-
determination and faith*and Rubsamen’s efforts
to unify culture and nature might have been more
‘‘successful’’ had they employed other methods
and materials. Ader could have equipped himself
with a better boat in order to sail the seas (In
search of the miraculous, 1975); and he could have
trained himself better in the art of tree climbing in
order to longer hang on to branches (Broken fall,
1971). Similarly, Rubsamen could have applied
strategies of simulation and/or techniques of
postproduction in order to make the electricity
poles and lampposts (I’ve brought you a friend, Figure 2. Kaye Donachie, Early Morning Hours of the
2007; Figure 3) look more like the magical trees Night (2003). Oil on Canvas. Courtesy Maureen Paley.

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Timotheus Velmeulen and Robin van den Akker

Figure 3. Glenn Rubsamen, I’ve decided to say nothing (2006). Acryllic on linen, dyptich. Courtesy Robert Miller Gallery.

kind of postmodern in-between (a neithernor). intensely colorful, with a darkness full of light,
Indeed, both metamodernism and the postmodern depicts places that are simultaneously the places
turn to pluralism, irony, and deconstruction in we live in and places we have never experienced
order to counter a modernist fanaticism. However, before. Crewdson (Figure 4) photographs towns
in metamodernism this pluralism and irony are haunted by the nature they repress, disavow, or
utilized to counter the modern aspiration, while in sublimate. In his work of tree-lined streets, white
postmodernism they are employed to cancel it out. picket-fenced gardens, and picture-windowed
That is to say, metamodern irony is intrinsically houses are sites for inexplicable natural events,
bound to desire, whereas postmodern irony is from local twilights to people shoveling earth into
inherently tied to apathy. Consequently, the their hallways, and planting flowers in their
metamodern art work (or rather, at least as the lounges, to robins picking at limbs buried below
metamodern art work has so far expressed itself ground. And Lynch’s films too frequently thrive on
by means of neoromanticism) redirects the mod- moments that are, at once repulsive and attractive,
ern piece by drawing attention to what it cannot beyond our grasp. They often tend toward the
present in its language, what it cannot signify in its uncanny, abound with local animism, haunted
own terms (that what is often called the sublime, houses, and surreal characters. A film like Blue
the uncanny, the ethereal, the mysterious, and so Velvet (1995) not merely convinces us to distrust
forth). The postmodern work deconstructs it by Reason. It persuades us to believe there are matters
pointing exactly to what it presents, by exposing Reason cannot account for: a flickering light, a
precisely what it signifies. sadomasochistic relationship, a man wearing
The difference between the metamodern oscil- sunglasses at night, a blind man who can somehow
lation that marks contemporary art and the see, the behavior of robins, an ear in the grass, and
postmodern in-betweenness that signified much so on. The film presents these instances as haunt-
of the art of the 1990s, 1980s, 1970s, and 1960s is ing apparitions, within its texture as much as in its
perhaps most visible in the work of those artists diegesis. They are woven into it, at times divulging
and architects who engage with everyday life, the the film’s plot slowly, then again disrupting it
commonplace, and the mundane. Postmodern abruptly. Each apparition signifies a narratively
works, like Rachel Whiteread’s reconstructions, inexplicable (but, and that is the point, incredibly
Daniel Buren’s installations, or Martha Rosler’s fertile) change in tempo, tune, and tone; alternat-
videos, deconstruct our assumptions about our ing from comic to tragic, from romantic to horrific
lived spaces. Metamodern ‘‘Romantic’’ works, and back; turning the commonplace into a site of
such as Armin Boehm’s city vistas, Gregory ambiguity, of mystery, and unfamiliarity, to us as
Crewdson’s small townscapes, and yes, David much as to its characters.
Lynch’s close-ups of suburban rituals, redir- In architectural practices this distinction be-
ect*and indeed, heighten*our presuppositions tween a metamodern oscillation and a postmodern
about our built environment. in-between is even more pronounced*perhaps
Boehm paints aerial views of commuter towns as especially because an emergent metamodern style
at once enchanted and haunted. His oil painting, still needs to distinguish itself from the dominant
both tentative and figurative, both atonal and postmodern discourse,37 or perhaps especially

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Notes on metamodernism

Figure 4. Gregory Crewdson, Untitled (2004). Photograph. Courtesy Luhring Augustine and White Cube.

because architecture cannot but be concrete. The giant iceberg washed ashore; and Project Triangle
works of ‘‘starchitects’’ Herzog and De Meuron are (Paris, under construction) is an immense glass
exemplary here. Their more recent designs express pyramid that casts no shadows while it hovers over
a metamodern attitude in and through a style that the city.
can only be called neoromantic. A few brief These buildings attempt to negotiate between
descriptions suffice, here, to get a hint of their such opposite poles as culture and nature, the
look and feel. The exterior of the De Young finite and the infinite, the commonplace and the
Museum (San Francisco, 2005) is clad in copper ethereal, a formal structure, and a formalist
plates that will slowly turn green as a result of unstructuring (as opposed to deconstruction).
oxidization; the interior of the Walker Art Center Crucially, these attempts are unsuccessful as the
(Minneapolis, 2005) holds such natural elements buildings never so much seem to balance these
as chandeliers of rock and crystal; and the façade of distinct poles as oscillate between them. Fragile
the Caixa Forum (Madrid, 2008) appears to be (bird’s nest), disappearing (iceberg), or perishing
partly rusting and partly overtaken by vegetation. (eroded rock) natural phenomena question the
While the above examples are appropriations or solidity of structures more or less built for
expansions of existing sites, their recent designs for permanence; while a mythical building (castle)
whole new structures are even more telling. The from the days of old seems to be either resurrected
library of the Brandenburg Technical University from the past or mysteriously unaffected by time.
(Cottbus, 2004) is a gothic castle with a translu- Some edifices seem to be either left to the
cent façade overlain with white lettering; the elements (oxidizing copper, rust) or seamlessly
Chinese national stadium (Beijing, 2008) looks integrated with nature (overgrown walls, hanging
like a ‘‘dark and enchanted forest’’ from up close gardens); yet others seem to defy the basic laws of
and like a giant bird’s nest from a far38; the geometry and gravity by means of their torsions.
residential skyscraper at 560 Leonard street Lucid surfaces, radiating with light, give the most
(NYC, under construction) is reminiscent of an of ordinary sites a mysterious appearance; while
eroded rock; the Miami Art Museum (Florida, ancient symbols (Pyramid) points toward transi-
under construction) contains Babylonic hanging ent cultures and the infinity of the cosmos.
gardens; the Elbe Philharmonic Hall (Hamburg, Ader’s, Thorpe’s, Lynch’s and Herzog & De
under construction, see Figure 5) seems to be a Meuron’s unsuccessful negotiations*the double-

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Timotheus Velmeulen and Robin van den Akker

Figure 5. Herzog & de Meuron, Elbe Philharmonie. Copyright Herzog & de Meuron.

bind of both/neither*expose a tension that cannot express themselves have led us precisely to those
be described in terms of the modern or the three concerns: a deliberate being out of time, an
postmodern, but must be conceived of as meta- intentional being out of place, and the pretense
modernism expressed by means of a neoromanti- that that desired atemporality and displacement
cism.39 If these artists look back at the Romantic it are actually possible even though they are not.
is neither because they simply want to laugh If the modern thus expresses itself by way of a
at it (parody) nor because they wish to cry for it utopic syntaxis, and the postmodern expresses
(nostalgia). They look back instead in order to itself by means of a dystopic parataxis, the
perceive anew a future that was lost from sight. metamodern, it appears, exposes itself through
Metamodern neoromanticism should not merely be a-topic metaxis. The GreekEnglish lexicon trans-
understood as re-appropriation; it should be inter- lates atopos (atopow), respectively, as strange,
preted as re-signification: it is the re-signification of extraordinary, and paradoxical. However, most
‘‘the commonplace with significance, the ordinary
theorists and critics have insisted on its literal
with mystery, the familiar with the seemliness of
meaning: a place (topos) that is no (a) place. We
the unfamiliar, and the finite with the semblance of
could say thus that atopos is, impossibly, at once a
the infinite’’. Indeed, it should be interpreted as
place and not a place, a territory without bound-
Novalis, as the opening up of new lands in situ of
aries, a position without parameters. We have
the old one.
already described metaxis as being simultaneously
here, there, and nowhere. In addition, taxis
CONCLUSION: ATOPIC METAXIS (ta?jiw) means ordering. Thus, if the modern
Conceiving of the metamodern at the closing of a suggests a temporal ordering, and the postmodern
decade in which about every other philosopher, implies a spatial disordering, then the metamo-
cultural theorist, and art critic has attempted to dern should be understood as a spacetime that is
conceptualize the aftermath of the postmodern both*neither ordered and disordered. Metamo-
might be considered to be anachronistic, out of dernism displaces the parameters of the present
place, and*if one still feels the need to conceive it with those of a future presence that is futureless;
anew despite the multiplicity of attempts that and it displaces the boundaries of our place with
conceptualized it priori*pretentious. It is there- those of a surreal place that is placeless. For
fore ironic that our inquiries into the discursivity indeed, that is the ‘‘destiny’’ of the metamodern
by which current geopolitical tendencies can be wo/man: to pursue a horizon that is forever
explained and the sensibility by which the arts receding.

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Notes on metamodernism

NOTES 14. J. de Mul, Romantic Desire in (Post)modern Art &

Philosophy (Albany: State University of New York
1. The authors would like to thank Jos de Mul, Press, 1999), 1826.
Gry Rustad, Jonathan Bignell, and departmental 15. Our understanding of history, or rather historical
colleagues for their invaluable comments to earlier periodization, is influenced by Raymond Williams’s
versions of this essay.
canonical description of dominants, emergents and
2. Although we appear to be the first to use the term
residuals. See R. Williams, Marxism and Literature
metamodernism to describe the current structure of
(Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 1977),
feeling, we are not the first to use the term per se. It
has been used with some frequency in literature
16. Consider, for example, the immediate differentia-
studies in order to describe a post-modern alter-
tion between us (the so-called west) and them (the
native to postmodernism as presented in the works
so-called axis of evil), the broadly shared sense of
of authors as far apart as, amongst others, Blake and
urgency*visible in the rhetoric of Bush and Blair
Guy Davenport. However, we would like to stress
among others*to ‘‘defend western values’’, the
that our conception of metamodernism is by no
general usage and acceptance of the frame of ‘‘the
means aligned to theirs, nor is it derived from them.
gift of democracy’’ used in the build-up to the
It is in so far related to these notions that it too
invasion of Iraq, the initial broad support for the
negotiates between the modern and the postmodern;
Afghan War, and so on and so forth. This is not to
but the function, structure, and nature of the
say that there have not been critiques of this reflex,
negotiation we perceive are entirely our own and,
as far as we can see, wholly unrelated to the previous but it is only of late that these critiques have become
perception. more widely acknowledged, if not accepted.
3. For an excellent consideration of the debate about 17. F. Fukuyama, ‘The End of History and the Last
the ‘end of the postmodern’, see Josh Toth’s The Man’, New York Free Press, 1992, 3.
Passing of Postmodernism: A Spectroanalysis of the 18. C. Peters, Kant’s Philosophy of Hope (New York:
Contemporary (Albany: SUNY Press, 2010). Peter Lang, 1993), 117. Our emphasis.
4. L. Hutcheon, The Politics of Postmodernism (New 19. I. Kant, ‘Idea for a Universal History from a
York/London: Routledge, 2002), 1656. Cosmopolitan Point of View’, in Kant On History,
5. Ibid., 181. ed. L. White Beck (Upper Saddle River: Prentice
6. G. Lipovetsky, Hypermodern Times (Cambridge: Hall, 2001), 1112.
Polity Press, 2005). 20. E. Voegelin, ‘Equivalences of Experience and Sym-
7. A. Kirby, Digimodernism: How New Technologies bolization in History’, ed. E. Sandoz, vol. 12 of The
Dismantle the Postmodern and Reconfigure our Culture Collected Works of Eric Voegelin (Baton Rouge:
(New York/London: Continuum, 2009), 1. Louisiana State University Press, 1989), 11920.
8. R. Samuels, ‘Auto-Modernity after Postmodernism: 21. R. Avramenko, ‘Bedeviled by Boredom: A Voegeli-
Autonomy and Automation in Culture, Technology, nian Reading of Dostoevsky’s Possessed’, Humani-
and Education’, in Digital Youth, Innovation, and the tas 17, nos. 1 & 2 (2004): 116.
Unexpected, ed. T. Mcpherson (Cambridge, MA: 22. R. Eshelman, ‘Performatism, or, What Comes After
The MIT Press, 2008), 219. Postmodernism: New Architecture in Berlin’, Art-
9. Although it should be noted here that Kirby is Margins (April 2002),
careful to point out that he appreciates temporality index.php/archive/322-performatism-or-what-
and spatiality equally. comes-after-postmodernism-new-architecture-in-
10. A. Searle, ‘The Richest and Most Generous Tate berlin
Triennial Yet’, The Guardian, March 2, 2009. http:// 23. R. Eshelman, Performatism, or the End of Postmodern- ism (Aurora: Davies Group, 2008), 3.
modern-tate-triennial 24. J. Saltz, ‘Sincerity and Irony Hug It Out’, New York
11. R. Campbell-Johnston, ‘Altermodern: Tate Triennal Magazine, May 27, 2010,
2009 at Tate Britain’, The Times, March 2, 2009, T2, art/reviews/66277/
2021. 25. BAK, ‘Press Statement Vectors of the Possible’
12. N. Bourriaud, ed. Altermodern. Tate Triennal 2009 (August 2010),
(London: Tate Publishing, 2009), 12. [pressrelease]
13. C. Jencks, The Language of Post-Modern Architecture 26. Galerie Tanja Wagner, ‘Press Statement The Door
(London: Academy Editions, 1991); J. F. Lyotard, Opens Inwards’ (September 2010), http://www.tan
The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge
(Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984); 27. J. Heiser, ed. Romantic Conceptualism (Bielefeld:
F. Jameson, Postmodernism, or, The Cultural Logic of Kerber, 2008).
Late Capitalism (Durham: Duke University Press, 28. J. MacDowell, ‘Notes on Quirky’, Movie: A Journal
1991); I. Hassan, The Postmodern Turn: Essays on of Film Criticism 1:1 (2010), http://www2.warwick.
Postmodernism and Culture (Columbus: Ohio State
University Press, 1987), 8496. pdf

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Timotheus Velmeulen and Robin van den Akker

29. Novalis, ‘Fragmente und Studien 17971798’, in most affected by the fluctuations of the industrial
Novalis Werke, ed. G. Schulz (Munchen: C.H. Beck, and financial markets and the shifting priorities of
2001), 3845. Our translation. political decision making, simply requires more
30. Although we would argue that Kant’s negative time, money, and political intervention in order to
idealism inspired early German Romanticism, we take form more than other arts do. But the lack of
by no means intend to say that they are alike or even address could also simply indicate that metamodern
comparable. For Kant, there is no purpose in architecture has so far expressed itself primarily by
history or nature, but he imagines one nevertheless means of other topoi. Of course, there is widespread
in order to progress. For the early German Roman- agreement that contemporary architecture is no
tics, nature has a purpose; they simply can never longer postmodern. The end of the postmodern is
grasp it. To explain this difference by way of the most clearly signaled here by the return to commit-
donkey-and-carrot parable: the Kantian donkey ment. The growing awareness of the need for
never manages to eat the carrot it chases because sustainable design has led to an ethical turn in
the carrot is virtual; the early German Romantic the attitude toward the built environment. Roof
donkey never manages to eat the carrot merely gardens and solar panels are heavily subsidized,
because, although actual, it is too far away. carbon neutral buildings and ecologically friendly
31. A. Lovejoy, ‘On the Discrimination of Romanti- neighborhoods are widely commissioned, and, yes,
cisms’, PMLA 39, no. 2 (June 1924). even entirely green cities are being designed from
32. I. Berlin, The Roots of Romanticism (Princeton: scratch. Necessitated by a competitive market, urged
Princeton University Press, 2001), 18. by demanding politicians, and inspired by the
33. Ibid., 1015. changing Zeitgeist, architects increasingly envision
34. F. von Schlegel, ‘Atheneum Fragments’, in Friedrich schemes for a sustainable urban future. But it is also,
Schlegel’s Lucinde and the Fragments, ed. P. Firchow as we intend to show, increasingly paired to a new
(Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, form.
1975), 175. 38. N. Ourossoff, ‘Olympic Stadium with a Design to
35. J. de Mul, Ibid., 25. Remember’, The New York Times, May 8, 2008,
36. A. Coulson, ‘Ragnar Kjartansson’, Frieze 102
(October 2006) 05nest.html
ragnar_kjartansson/ 39. Several Internet critics have made similar
37. Now, we should stress once more that we do not observations. M. Van Raaij of Eikongraphia (http://
intend to say that metamodernism expresses itself commented the following on
solely by means of neoromanticism. Contemporary the ‘‘erosion iconography’’ of the residential sky-
architecture, for instance, has to our knowledge not scraper in NYC: ‘‘It is beautiful in its celebration of
often been associated with Romanticism. Further- nature. There is however also something apocalyptic
more, the one critic that has compared recent and frightening about the reference to decay. It
architectural practices with a Romantic spirit, Reed reminds me of the sublime landscapes in romantic
Kroloff, has mistakenly reduced that Romantic spirit painting: beautiful, yet horribly desolate and unin-
to some kind of soothing sensuality and pastel habitable’’. And K. Long of Icon Eye (http://www.
patterning. One might argue that this lack of address described Cotbuss’ Castle, accord-
might to some extent be explained by the uneasy fit ingly: ‘‘It is possible to photograph this building as if
between architecture and Romanticism. Architec- it were a classical folly, stumbled upon by a German
ture, after all, is the art of the ‘‘permanent’’’; romantic painter in an idealised German landscape.
Romanticism is the attitude of the transient. Or Schinkel or Caspar David Friedrich would under-
one may suggest that architecture, as the applied art stand the references’’.

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