Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research
Off-Site Pottery Distributions: A Regional and Interregional Perspective Author(s): John Bintliff and Anthony Snodgrass Source: Current Anthropology, Vol. 29, No. 3 (Jun., 1988), pp. 506-513 Published by: The University of Chicago Press on behalf of Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2743472 Accessed: 15/10/2010 01:54
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Bulletin the of
Since ig80 the Cambridge/Bradford BoeotianExpedian tion. At individual and collective countsand an assessment thesurface of are visibility recorded teamleaders. 1972.
Sahara. of Ill. Cambridge University World.506 | CURRENT
NegevandtheSinai. I984. C. Gaffney. AND 0. i982. Animal exploitation
Morethan40 squarekilometers rural of in landscape the of province Boeotia.
Research. I986. soon found thatoff-site scatters an formed alpottery Orientalia 42:247-58. Negev. I983a. A." Patterns thepast: Studiesin of honour David Clarke. P. A.vol. Neolithic settlement economic to earlier and and times.Paperpresented thecolloquium at "L'urbanisation la Palestine l'age du Bronze de a ancien:Bilanet perspectives recherches des actuelles.New York:AcademicPress. de ROSEN. by pp. Kirkby. of AnnArbor: University Microfilms. Nahal MitnanII (in Hebrew). 1973. by Levy. they record visiblesurface on pottery a hand-held counting deviceorclicker. grounds. Thefield-walking in with proceeds regular transects.D. M. . ROWTON. from Hellenistic Dallas: Southern Methodist University. Cambridge. SHERRATT. we don: SteinandDay. Central Negev. I986. Edited A. Bradford Ph. S.. A. I983c. HadashotArhkeologiyot 86:36. Davidson. The Bedouin: Aspects of the material culture of Jordan.U.."in Shiqmim Edited T. I World Archaeology 5 (I:90-104.. I987a.K.
m mately 21/2 on eitherside of each field-walker. theendofeachtransect.P. I980.southern
Press." October de 20-24. Cambridge University. Joumnal of Archaeological Science 11:467-75. Haselgrove. Thornes. withlessercontributions prehistoric. elucidation the processes of thatmayhave led to the Ph. The tabular scraper A trade: modelfor material culture dispersion.University Chicago. thatwereamenable human landscape to settlement and Joumal of Near Eastern Studies 36:I8I-98. Prehistory the eastern of
WEIR. 261-305. WENDORF. amounts to 5 one-third the overallground of area in each transect walked. A has aim.andN. observers It normally spacedat I5 -mintervals. Demographic trends theNegevHighlands: in Preliminary results from Emergency the Survey. 1976. "Plough andpastoralism: Aspects thesecof ondary products in revolution.London: World of Islam Festival Publishing Co. I983. E. F. H. Were these King Solomon's mines? LonROTHENBERG. Paperpresented thecolloquium at "L'urbanisationde la Palestine l'age du Bronze a ancien:Bilanet perspectivesdes recherches actuelles. . Reynolds. J. areas"). C. "Nahal Divshon:A Pre-Pottery Neolithic B thatthevastmajority thepottery given of observed behuntingcamp.oo..
TCHERNOV. Pal6orient 8(2):17-37. I983b.
tal Research 249:79-86. recently.
Israel Exploration Joumal 33:15-29. I. Although this first aim provedrealistic. M. Radiographic for evidence of changing patterns animalexploitation the southern in Lein thePre-Pottery Neolithic at period WadiTbeik.Chicago..CentralGreece. Marks. AND L. Millett. Early SIMMONS. M. post-medieval
THE RECORDING OF OFF-SITE DATA
Foundation Anthropological byThe Wenner-Gren for
9 IX 87
behavior theWestern in Negevdesert thesouthem Levant." in Prehistory and paleoenvironments in the longsto the Classical Greekand Late Romanperiods. The ecology and energetics early of pastoral exploitation.D.Salt Lake City. 1977. theobservers alongtheir As pass swathes. secondary and cerealfoodproduction theNearEastandNorth in Africa. B.have been fieldwalkedby members the Boeotiaproject of since ig80. Centre Recherche Francais Jerusalem. I987b. amongst others. Initiallyourpurposewas to and
SMITH."October de 20-24. I984. S.
arevery for comments thepreparation in grateful many helpful of this article M. is assumed that is observation limited a range approxito ground of thedirect in coverage. S. and Whitelaw. SERVELLO. Davies. Hammond. medieval. AND M. The secondary of exploitation animalsin theOld
justify quantitatively separation habitation our of sites from less permanent tracesof humanactivity ("nonsites"or"off-site until a activity since. of by G. I98I. AND R. strips m in width. HAIMAN. Isaac. A. KvishHarif: Preliminary investigations a late at Neolithicsitein the CentralNegev. 295-3i2. archaeological under jointdirection. Cambridge: pp. from. Archaeological Reports International Series.
American Schools for Oriental Research 266:45-58.T. University. "site"found field was by survey distinguished merely by or qualitativejudgement even on purelyhistorical B. . Lithics theBronze in andIronAgesin Israel. beenthe RUS SELL.University Utah. our survey has been recording density pre-modern the of surface in of Greece(Bintliff pottery a landscape Central i985. J. 6 Io-i2. All rights reserved oo0I-3204/88/2903-ooo8$I. Centre Recherche Francais Jerusalem. Bradford BD7 iDP/Museum of Classical . K. . diss.Edited I. "The potentials lithicanalysis theChalof in colithic thenorthern of I. I980. F. Bulletin of the American Schools for Orien-
Off-Site Distributions: Pottery A Regionaland Interregional Perspective'
Archaeology. Dimorphic structureand theparasocial element. A. S. creation preservation suchan off-site and of landscape. Roman. of Utah. w.therefore. British pp. de JOHN BINTLIFF AND ANTHONY SNODGRASS ROSEN. S CHILD. School ofArchaeologicalSciences. Autonomy and nomadism in WesternAsia.Pal6orient Io: II-I21. E. Hodder.
vant. Environmental change theEarly in Bronze AgeofPalestine. mostunbroken thosesectors the carpet of throughout . Limbrey.. The CanaaneanbladeandtheEarly Bronze Age. 349-70. hence
Sinai. Israel. HORVITZ. I985.
Bintliff Snodgrassi985). diss. ROSEN. 1976. BAR-YOSEF.areaswithunby counts be in detail usually high maythen studied greater
. . . ....In distribution thusan observed is This surface it.... .. .. ..... Solid areas. .... ... .... .... . ... ....40-100 northto south.. . ... ... ... .. How didtheoriginal of a scatters... .. .. ........ ...... . . . . . .. .. ... . .. .... . ......... ...... .. . . .... .
. ........... . . ....... . . . ioo-6oo sherdsperhectare. ... . . .. . . .. the degree namely. ... . .. .. . . . ... . . .. . thelandscape......... ... . . .. . ... .... .. .. ....... . .. . ...
. .. ... ... . .
.. ........ ...... ... . . ..........
..... ... . . ... . .. . .. .. ... . .. . .. .... ..... .... .. . ....... . . ... . ... .. . . ........... .... .. .. .. .... ... .. .. . .. ... . .. ... ..... . .. . . .. .. . .. ..... .... . .. . . .
...... . . sherdsper hectare... . ... remarkable the third question.. ... ..... . .
r . .. . ... .... ...... . ....... .. . . .... .... ... . ... ..... How far in trailsof sherds leaving to are supposed have fallen. .. ..... .... ...thesheerquantity off-site and scatter subsurface surface the between present of as distribution.. .... ... ... .... . .. . ..thegroundslopes steadilyfrom 10-40 sherdsper hectare. . ..... . ......... .... sherdsper hectare. ..... fact...... .. .. ... countsare multi.... . . . . ... .. ...... ... . ....... . ......icalfolklore.. thismodel to to our answer Questioni... .. it is virtually
FIG. .. . . . .... . . .... ... ..wider-spaced dots...
. . . ...... . . ... ..... . . .... . . . ... ..
.. .. ..
.. ..... ...... ... ...
. ... .. . ....... . .... .. . . ... .. . ...
of an attempting explanation By surveys... .. . ...... .. ... in the southern.. ... .... .. ......... .intensive as potential at we plotsof thisphenomenon. .. . .. . . ... ..otherwise 3.. ........ .. otherwise. .. .... . ... used thanthe "normal"permain areas less intensively recorded densities variation surface of geographical
.. .. ... . .... ... .. . .... finedots. . ......
. .. .... ... Thespiai..... . . .. ...
Number 3... ........ . . . . ..... ... .. sector.. . ... . .. ... ..... ... .. . ...... ..... . ..... .... .wellas theclearcorrelation itsdensity centrations? sites (fig. .VOlUMe
29. ...... .. ... ...... .. ..... .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. ... .... . ..... . .. .... ... ....... .............. ... themythical has displacement takenplacein the 2... .. ... . . ... . ... ... . ... .. . . . .... . . . .. . .. ... ... .... .. of shallraisea number problems in and convincing North tested found model. . .. ...... ... ... .. .. ..
6.. .... ... . ..
V .. ...... .. .....
.. .. .....checkerboard...... .. . .. . ....... .. . .. ..... .... .... .. hatching.. . .. . .. . . ... . ... . .. .. .... . .... .. .... .. .. .... ....
..... . .. ... ....... ..... . . . Iiine i988 1507
.... .. . . diagonalstriping. .. A second to andthenturn an issuewhichbearson boththisand to scatters activity relatesoff-site of American surveys. ..... .... .. . . .. ... . .I).. . . . . .. . . .. .... ... .... ...... ....... ..... ...........In thenorthern level..... .... . .. . ... A typicalBoeotian density plot.... . .. ............ .. . .. . .if
.. ..... . .... .... .......... (fig. . . ..... . ...... . .... . . .. ......... ... .... feature archaeologOne modelforoff-site occur? thelandscape off donkey whosebackpots is verti... . . .. .. Whatis the relationship..
.. .. . .. . .. ............... ..... . .. ....... .... .. . ..... ........ ... .. ..
... ..... .. .... .
. . .. ..... .. .... . . . ... ..
i... . . ...... .. ..... . . . .... .. . ..
in. showingan area immediatelywest of thehuge citysite ofancient over 6oo urbanperiphery... . . .. .... ...... . ...... ... .. . .... ..
.. ........ ..... .... ... .. ... .. .i: zR. ... .... . .... .... .. ... ... . . .... ... ..: z:eN. . .. .... . .. .. .... ... ....... ....... ... .. .. . . ... .... . . first the "sites".... .. ... .. .. . ... ... ........ .. ..... . . .. .. .. and whatprocesses? cal dimension. . .. .. ... .. ... .. .
... . . ..... ..... ..... ..... hopeto offer leasta regionally total and pliedbythree usedtoconstruct density to questions. .... ... .... ... ..... . .. we withproximity occupation After offering preferred 2 in involved Question mustbe ruledout as a majorcausalexplanation...... .... ..... . ... ... .. through Given zones of the landscape.... . ........ . . ........ .... ... ... ........ ..
.. .................. . .sites (withserial numbers)... .... .... . .. . . . . .. .. . . . ... . . ........ ...... . ..... . . .. .... ..... validanswer theselatter by kilometer kilometer I). .... . . ....... . . . .... . ............. .. ... . . .. ... ... unimportant onwhether or off-site.. .. to attempting explain we pose a seriesofquestions: MODELS FOR OFF-SITE SCATTERS across distribution horizontal i........ and pottery its carpet-like of con. ........ ..: Z: .... ..... . . . ......... ..... .. .... .. ...... ... .....
gestthatlong-term is to The creation "haloes" of to deposition likely be rare.introduced here appearsat present offer most pointsin satisfactory for distribution stancessuch as the discarding projectile of explanation the carpet-like primehuntingzones (see Thomas I973).Humanandanimalmovement a (Reynolds982: 325). Ourcurrent analyview. distri. Commonsense beencovered withpotsherds pationsitesand other activity analservation surface of findson sites confirms disposal. this Large areas Leaveningthis mainly organicmaterialwas some against modelas a primary explanation.crement. regularly and together household bution actuallyrecorded over the landscapeargues spreadit acrossthe cultivated landscapeas fertiliser.Boeotiasystematically arieshavebecome blurred themillennia. sites. decayproduced abunon within site and sherds a from of but to quarters the danceofmaterial thesurface. existence the the of reaching everysectorof a settled the of to it has thatsurface of pot. in themedium outlying thissurface Thattheoff-site does to suffered attripottery progressive landscape. an Initially.right.it deliberate bothin timeand This spread from manuring.in its own and activity for travelled worn fragmented and condi. a substantial be of impactfromlateral by sitematerial to in ought be highly preferentiallandscape transport.habitation sitesunderwent seriesofprocesses difa on scopeofploughing smears.sometimeas having residloci. A third modelemphasises roleofnatural the on transport Thatancient manure stored fertilising populations in and it fields wellattested is and post-depositional disturbance. thissamefashion. whilst conceivablyreflecting lo. uniform levels. material up.Furthermore.bybothnature theplough.however. a will contributions Pottery eroding and Lesser imal upslopedistribution.their farms spread overtheir referthe creteconcentrations artifacts. clear contradictions naryinvestigations. The modelto be continuous in spreadof artifacts tic pattern theBoeotian tionthanto a virtually to the like ours. and encebeing description themanure of heapbeside piecesareremoved from the incidental human activity and palace in Ithakain Book I7 ofthe Odyssey). experiments Isles has sherds planted in the immediatesubsoil undergo between in was landscapes whichsoil enrichment praclateral displacement withinseveralyears tised counter natural a in in decline fertility those and significant to experiments by whichmiddenand manurematerial I985). Medieval ploughing) (especially for occu. over the with rubbish. a lateralmovement beyond site of tile (Davidson I986).there no regular tion in qualityof preservation betweensherdsfound ferent time-scales. "sites. and earlymodern ancient. that nentoccupation Thisinterpretation site. medieval.vestigial temporary the from supposed and to source. of products downslope. demonstrates ofthesepredictions. thephysical cational preference an occupation abovean area tery for site to madeit very by susceptible stresses (induced exmore posureto varying of concentrated humanactivity. proposes Put it thatprehismorethanlikely thatwithin Boeotian the of farmers in carpet off.From combination empirical sites and beyondthe reasonable Kirkby and Kirkby (I976) suggested that abandoned slope fromexisting is distinc.The Boeotian off-site from prelimiour material. weathering especially from site shouldhave min. should equallyclearthatthedistribution suchoff.toric.comminuted of and nature thepotI sherds.5o8 | CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY
a is better suited Itseemsclear. is followed. collected animalandhumanexthere exist minor foci sitepottery activity whosebound. whilstit is undeniable But that primefactor is the scatters pottery underlying off-site out domestic artifacts sitesin thisway.Northern ofScotland beenable to distinguish sphere. recent A sophisticated thatthis ual from night-soil modelaccounts somecontribution artifacts the ysisofhistoric prehistoric for to and of soils anthropogenic inthe off-site and have shownthatpot. at doparticularly any distance have comefrom activity areas.pottery scape. therefore. Originating dis."individual in thehistorical of or sources(perhaps best-known the their context rain. current simplyaccumu(Ammermann ferbecauselocal soilswereinherently I987) sug. piecesto a highly tion. naturalbarriers movement to ignoring knownsites. pottery tend be more longterm across former a site heavily concentrated downslopefromknown sites tion.landscapes Western Europe havebeenrecognised in smeared across landscape the between intervening ob. Althoughit is we have described.fer alter order significance. therefore the most probable withsite weathering. However.latedat thefarm Reynolds(i982 and personalcommunication.and density ceramicdebris-broken pots. by wind. does.preparatory moredetailed as withdecreasing from sis of the exactcomposition micro-distribution of density one movesoutwards and in sitesmight be perhaps connected. off-site is that material.modelto explain leasta major landscape. barriers long-distancemestic the and loss. and within soil) thathastened break-up pot the of the
.in importance. indeed. simply. beenargued is feature and carpet an undoubted striking stress from natural and human the "fossillandscape"thatis worthy moredetailed of tery undergoes regular that should reducelong-exposed much.attention otherreasonsand.there plentiful is of from found a and experiment theory. landscape site.house tile-which thus displayrelatively density tends decrease to with from known foundits way continuously a of regularly distance into thosesectors the mostassiduously cultivated. on of and degrees warmth moisture plausibly reflect influence downslope the of transport.unless one is dealingwith special circum. casualartifact Whether reader movement shouldbe commonenough prevent site accepts to or thisrelative as ranking reasonable wouldprefrom material land. context. thedatarequire further of at of part thecharacteristo a pattern withat leastsomedegree localconcentra. off-site The stretches across EROSIONAL HISTORY AND SURFACE POTTERY carpet the landscape.
The implications Thomes's Spanishresearch for from sites. it is widely attestedby practitioners in theappearance a well-documented of study sitesappearand disappear regional fieldsurvey thatsurface of the team from seasonto season. with buried sherd replics at Butser the main phasesof farming Bronze (from exploitation experiments of periods landthat I6-I7% ofthe totalsubsoil Age to present). for able confirmation the Atticsequencehas now apin Recent work by Thornes in south-eastern Spain pearedfrom regional a landscapestudy the Argolid iden(Thornesand Gilman I983. peaks. A virtually pot.tuated short ing event. may of and an early dis. to or it regolith soil the overlying landforms-the products Forthe purposes thispaper.Volume 29. Kirkby Kirkby and predictedprogressive withtraditional a views. cientsitesvisible thesurface today.or even C) is. by and exerted human Recent macro. burying highly susceptible soil gradually assumedprogressive increment. results the Remarkterialmustreenter subsoil(cf. or propose. argues however.Hatziotis. in a growth soil depth and. Gilman and Thornes I985) peninsula (Popeand VanAndelI984). ifthe absence a corresponding after collapse the and upward of event migration stream is is stableovermillennia.tanceofclimatic that instead continual of the Mediterranean landscapesuggests fluctuations. alluvialburial noteverywhere of sites thatsurface nonetheless Kirkby Kirkby's haveshown pirical studies soil modelsituation positive inof and on as loss suffer downward ofartifacts a result crement sites.phological events.and theLateRomanera.microfauna pressure and on of history theGreek research theerosional over the surface predic(Hemingway landscape surprisingly withThornes's and animal movement well fits of tions. In therefore.Boeotiaare clear-cut.scape stability to may puncpottery be brought thesurface and maintenance) (soil growth for here.(Paepe. impression very that It striking and haveremained tionand neglect terraces. he wouldargue. of sinceourprime is the likelithe concern to confirm strong maticinstability during Holocene.witha recurrent into appearance surface to other is appropriate.similar of lithicsin FrinkI984). mustnowconsider effects the appreciable over we activities soil surface of of such processesas the burrowing of densities cyclesoftopsoilstripping. mustaccept pottery also distributions for and farming the probability present surface be highly favoured prehistoric ancient that the beartheimprint one ormoresevere erosional soil of underlying phases. of and unresolved eroded marls sandstones marine are for question mosteasily likewise.confidently recurrent the Yet oursampleemanates. (Bintliff I977).butthe isationare highly But the of of headwaters. The commonest type has in is surface part carpet Boeotia justsucha sediment.and undeniably an. itmustbe noted But lithologies. Thornes American that. in fieldwork alluvialplainenvi.theClassicalera. Argolid se.Once cleared in soils show a wide hoodofregular truncation redeposition the naturalvegetation. across unburied which responsible major phasesoferosion collection wouldremain for surface oftheoriginal are large areasoftheMediterraThe that thelandscape.however. valleys of such timesof destabilisation the landscape succeed of the little changed during Holoceneeraandarerelicts to earlier Exceptions thisgeneral. contrast. carpets. team. such as the EarlyBronze population cliff mobilesectors involving retreat Age. was derived of and may not be applicableat all to non. he maintains current athighnorparticularly i982:3 i6) nual weathering with ratesare neither tackon potsherds age (seealso Reynolds erosion it Rather. on Paepe and his team correlated for thesecycleswithsecularchanges climate.assuming continual or of at only proportionevents.The mostimportant camein i980.pursuein detailthisfascinating question processes.The tery concentrating thechanging by minimises importhe whilethegeomorphology matrix. by thatsitesof neanlandsarecurrently covered soilsofan immature it From thisstudy. is certainly of linesofplateaux. increasing wouldbecomeless andlessvisible the profile (A[B]C. postulating withdepopulais as erosion associated are this misleading. with advance I98I).thechanging one locality environment Atticaby a Belgian of evenduring singlefieldseason(es.
.truncation the soil profile. is notnecessary of a of research cover. em. Number 3.Demonstrably instability loss (soil phasesoflandscape by mostofthisma. fact for surface observation.for Boeotiasur. Amongst Whatever of range susceptibility natural landscape Boeotia. thesimilarly to oftheorigin surface we whosesoilshaveproved lacustrine sediments of origin. contrast removed Thornes's findings Here once again.occurring intervals a century more.tical sequenceof stableand unstablephasesis docuon has opened a majornew perspective surface up of on as nature thesoil mentedwith the same chronology in Attica. is extreme to overthe damaging theregolith.and Thorez I980).which workeddifferently and condition. argued eventually a tiny that landscape. Indeed.apparent weathering processes. wouldseemto follow the on age A/C. Careful a geomorveythisoccurred witharwhichcan bothre. ronments of Giventhenature thesoils and of zones such as thehill-land Boeotiawhence climate riverine we history landclearance. Mediterranean soil and the long-settled we to solution of erosion. the phasesofintense vereerosion. of consisting lengthy (i982:322) demonstrate after eachplough. hillslopes. Mycenaean shapeof landforms relatively (Late BronzeAge) civilisation a serious of is the opposite trueof the thincoating weathering flawin theargument. in whicha significant ofthe soil matrix been pottery from original its location. pecially and pedological a and showed seriesofcyclesduring expose and reburysurfacesites). although progressive to infer phasesofsoilerosion have of pottery thesubsoilowingto takenplace since BronzeAge times. aboutby exbrought and morefragmented in poorer resultof truncated development surface thepottery and on that Kirkby Kirkby's tremerainfallevents. combined through ploughing studies. HereThornes's detailed suggests dra. JuneI988 1509
anthat for fragments.and riveralluviation). Peter Reynolds's chaeology history.
In chronological this terms.though seems thatprehistoric and Classical predominate(Hodder and Malone it and table I.4
. is certainly presnot represent single-period both surface densities stillnotregularly ent.is 8 to I 5 per Ioo m2.average2.6 . and halo 40-I00 + per Ioo m2. Sohar.5-I0. Gaffney.05
. predominantly prehistoric Hellenistic (WilkinsonI982:328).5IO
Total Roman Total PrehistoricMedieval
EAST HAMPSHIRE MADDLE FARM (BERKSHIRE)
SOUTHERN I ITALY I BOEOTIA
Intensive Total Background Manure Halo
TELL SWEYHAT ///. 8I.2).southern Italy. Roman Essex.. thesmall multiperiod and scatters. intended be complete. all ofthese.
.Maddle Farm. of from same surItalyto Greeceand thenvia Syriato Oman. Tell Sweyhat.medieval. Roman for finds O.In simple withthe density Romanpottery the withRomanpottery densisteeply vey. total prehistoric-to-medieval 0. figure seems to include portionsofsites bisected by transects).2
. there In Nonetheless.2).Gal. scatters being recorded Old World primarily prehistoric. finds (I1985). density surface in survey from through periods the East Hampshire clusters England closely whichfits clinerunning a values./
*.5 transectsystemforall periods.8
30 40 50 60
90 100 1000
2000 3000 4000
SHERD DENSITIES PER 100 m2 FIG.
Prehistoric Classical to
average 500 mm
Rainfall average 2-300 mm
. site haloes 4 ormoreper hectare (Williamson I984:228 and fig.
. 9I. comparable the denserend of off-site the IonianIslandsoff westcoastofGreecedemonstrates in Boeotiain thispaper.8. density off-site the ties in Essex and Berkshire.densities CentralGreece(cf.Boeotia. Europe through Certainof our sites in fromtemperate north-western Boeotiaare.1 .01
. figures backgroundo.2
"background" pottery the lant'soff-site in density pottery all periods 4I7) of for 2. per Ioo m2 (Gaffney personal communication). peak 37.001 . seem to include portionsofsites bisected by transects).whichin turnclusters the of pottery increases terms.ourfig.Berkshire. to for the of pottery all of pattern to be a highlyconsistent (fig. essentially also to oneMediterranean theMiddleEast. to phenom. 2. background o.005.o5. Roor Yet is to sampleherereviewed in any case not man. halo and TingleI985. East Hampshire. example. and personal communication.
Aninitial query mustrelate thehomogeneitythe to of data.5 per m2 (Wilkinson I982:328). 2) in absolute England.Bintliff Snodgrass I984:I27.I.background 20-40.withtheir peripheries. Sherddensitiesper Ioo m2 at a sample ofsites.as thedataplotted are and pottery Off-site in field surveys.2I per 200 m2 (Shennan I985:75..007 per m2 on a 0.0. The recentstudyby Gallant (i986) of off-site (P. it is difficult argue comparative doesappear thatsuch variability explainsthe cline of density. a walked stripioo m long and 2 m wide. ena identicalto thosediscussedfrom
and preserved" (personal communication) one probable that indepen. wherearidity com4.Coins. It maybe noteworthy thethree that English surveys evenovermillennia.Wilkinson A more (i982) has plained adequately anyofthem.000 years.56 millionyears).conditions soil for Sweyhat Syriais farhigher in thaneven multiperiod increase would becomeincreasingly unfavourable. mustbe multiplied I77 to reach bined withstorm violence a lowdegree vegetative of Boeotian densities and by We thelowerend ofthe Oman scatters.and the ing an averageof 40 cm displacement over200. we hypothesis wouldtherefore north-western sugOne might arguethattemperate Europe As our working the factors underlying apfor wouldbe an idealenvironment humusdevelopment gestthatthemostsignificant
. feelthatthefunda. ther.stantdownward over Thereis likely be an exponential in tancesof space and time. to The ity. whether natural human origin.ityofmuchoftherelevant fauna. burial direct overgrowth is by soil showa tendency increased for sherd densities associated unlikely be a major to factor surface in pottery availabilwithlithologies greater of susceptibility erosion. can therefore The thatsoil stripping predict of would becomeincreasingly fromEnglandto Oman. aregrateful John such as potsherds increasingly We to are favourable we as Thornes thesuggestion. as we or in is. density correlates withannualrainfall temperature 2). stripping. Infiltrationartifacts thesubsoil incidental of into by Essex data stem predominantly fromBoulderClay. pottery supply use wouldneedto fol. far produce slower rates of muchsmaller Amatain Mediterranean characteristically employ assemblages (Terra France datasuggesthas pottery comparison by withGreeceand Italy. gold ornaments. Aldensities Italyand Greecebutis in turn in eclipsed by though observation in general this is the correct. chronological.000 of scape. pots in the as hiscounterpart Roman picture. to inclusions downward through soilprofile. of will of in by Martin Millettand Colin Haselgrove have suggested be buried thecastings worms a fewyears. and (fig. Hofman (I986) provides is and for supply pottery consumption unitofsettled per land.Volume 29. less extreme cliin the Mediterranean Gilmanand ThornesI985).thusbe safely (DarwinI896:I76. whilst further southand east.the current to thata established muchshorter over for time-spans. protection. it can to in but significant sector Chalk.000samewouldholdfor the and 400. wholerange. Limbrey pointed (personal thesefigures shouldnotbe takento imply relative and conFirst. northern between latter evidence up of comparisons Kenya produces the MiddleEast. postulate Ifwe turn theopposite in to soil we Roman farmer Central had Greece twiceas many tendency. requiresa multiplier I.beginning withprehistorictime-periods. But more therateofmovement a limiting depth theactivis of soil It that to damaging thisexplanation theelement scaleop. where scatters be subdivided creatures: can are not byperiod.muchthey as this owe to worms thepreservation many for of the underlying trendis clearlyinterregional not ancientobjects.gions be mentalregularity scale of thisclinecannot ex. The multiplier from for (based on observations the AmericanSouthwest in Boeotiato Syria.cation). and stone implements.figures stone tool verticaldisplacementof20-40 cm wouldhavehad in temperate environments periods 7. is demonstrable. Number 3. the Especially in commonsense suggests will be potent temperate Although thatthere climates earthworm is activity. is possible basal positions displaced of it be artefacts were erating alongthedensity cline:whereas might rea. S. for basedon his ownresearches movealongtheclimatic clinefrom MiddleEastto the Europe. examination. whoseactivexposure pottery of might a clineofpottery be density itywithin soil tends the overall sift to through surthe within and eachregion reflecting geological pedological face and subsurface and thereby levigateartefactual controls oversusceptibility erosion. Howas the following considerations has out communiweakenits significance. whereas the East Hampshiredata base includes a havesaid. processes. peripheral England over Morearidenvironments a poorer pottery supplysystem and ruralsiteswould years. far by promising tremely thatthehighly soilsundergo arid massive wind The cline argued avenue ingeographical lies variability.The MaddleFarm of datacome be shown that conditions theburial smallartefacts for of entirely from Chalkdownland. and it in to ruins measurable variability all regions according the indeed was Darwin'sworkon Romanandother that length humanoccupation its scale ofactivity inEngland demonstrated power these of and in the of humble "Archaeologists probably awarehow thelandscape-indeed.from In deserves to Although each of theseconsiderations England Syria(peakerosion conditions). primarily prehistoric density around Tell depth. north-western (see thata corollary a climate/vegetation for of cline surface matespromote more a soil vigorous fauna.. the sake of argument. to etc.000-9.Again. in EastHampshire. in soilgrowth Britain in fact slight average in is so on that. rewithlower with8o mm. But forOman. low an almostunchanging movement artefacts suchlong of cline acrossthesevast dis. JuneI988 15II
period Romansitesandso maybe fairly compared with and the progressive burialof pottery increased soil by these.ifdropped thesurface theground.The moister. required and is is general background scatter. deflation. a further while the [Langbein SchummI958]). Whilstthisfactor cannotbe ignored. sonable.500! important alongour cline fur. moredetailed we rainfall-and hereOman.The average Essex.is well below the erosionpeak-water erosionis exand limited.likely be important all regions. to 50 cm displacement overI. rateof medieval scatters Oman.In thismodel. actualmultiplier have an even more promising of densities valuesfor normal erosion from environrequired elevatetheupper to range English rise temperate to thelower of is ments to a peak in areas with 2oo-300 mm of rainfall part thecorresponding in Greece range io. quotedin dentandregionally distinct factor therateofpottery Wood and JohnsonI978). to fall to and to Syria and extending medievalOman.ever.
to testing: susceptible empirical differential effects soil of full Thomes.Kirkby Kirkby and ground. was to survey. pottery differential loss shouldrevealdifferential soil It locatedin thesubsoil. of of understandingrates soil the to eliminate more localised which is anomalies. Whitelaw offers provi. However. organic to We areled immediately ask how. at high yielded surprisingly surface theless. This at leastgivesa pointer theorder mag. least. absoluteyield.Thisconclusion the soil couldbe observed. years. soil intensity soil loss. the jointdirector the the conclusions of Reynolds (i982:334) regarding for us of survey. I985 . is thephasesof be predominantly at densities. have created. I985. manuring artefacts pointed (seeJameson which is burying surface and subsurface is into is oflimited valueunlessthefertiliser ploughed temperate areas. Plow-zone experiments Calabria.and pusheddownwards The yields. L. trialtrenching met References I972:262-63) (Taylour Subsequent Cited at and bedrock 50-70 cm depth meagre artefactual and A. muchof the off-site has pottery been
. out conforms better current to averaged sionalestimate thatthesurface densities. whichis exposing densities and surface withcomparable off-site. an Aegean discussion on In some intriguing questions. are very grateful F. in remain pottery) beenreported. (I976) arguefora process has whereby finesoil particles washed the are This modeof proceeding not yet.here the soil growth longperiods often appears be thecase). amount soilloss wouldbe irrelevant Ithas been of that in out I978). the nextfew curred. it has a chance become available from the Kea Survey. especially pits. J. site excavated John to. Naturalenvironment humansettlesmeared from out sitesbyweathering would BINTLIFF. thislocation. Thisaspectoftheproblem.however. shouldmakeit possibleto establish ratiobe. burialfor tinual pushinginto the subsoil of surface have already to limittheroleofnatural had internal of from which.Forone thing.at the site of Asteri/Karaousi. and J.ment humus accumulation thetopoftheprofile.preservation thesubsoilovermillennia.in proportion the begin subsoilpottery semi-arid of here. whicherosion wouldbe predictably high.We can therefore additions.5I21
in proby densities differentialspread manoverthelandscape themanuring are pottery parent clinein off-site would at seemthatall regions of cess. surface and soils ranean undergoes what in value" cyclical displacement. Colemanwitha fairly detailed recording pottery "lagged" of overtimeby man and nature. might growth Limbrey.awaybuttheheavier edge.stripping our cline.should suchas thosedescribed events by especially wherean intensively instability. of does not simply washedawaywiththe get the ouslyvisibleon thesurface exactly samepieceof thepottery of fines. surveyed visiblesurface densities to acting differentiate and of by recording sherddensities bothsurveyor ex. Central Greece. fac. will downwards laterally. leastfrom at anywhere Mediter. i960:89-92) gave plentiful toric from to Neolithic LateBronze in date.cellars.but some interesting are shortly position (leaving if begins againandpersists. further will be many surveys doubtless published southern information will serveto test and reconnaissance (Waterhouse with off-site that Laconia. region maysuggest some consistent Coleman'sexcavation. we be lost to plantroots. significant in Todd M.wardsby bedrock from the den.oftheoriginal has beenleft situ. (S. also agrees are It we with (personalcommunication.Without to of a single. and nutrients oxidise will the place. and differential levigation. explanademonstrating undeniable nitudeof soil loss thatmight expected have oc.it might first sight evergreater amounts soil erosion. on to soil ratioofpottery obsidian. Here migration that a reservoir is surface understablesoil conditions. in of measurements Greek palaeolandscapes At leastin the areasofthemostextensive trenches susceptibility in in trends the suchas theBoeotiaSurvey that. in structural remnants. of Whitelaw and to John Cherry. sitereservoirs.for by previously (as deposit reincorporated a newsoilmatrix is into E. sequence.carpet as prevalent watersheds on lowerslopes. Age sherds. the to in areas. whenaddedto thefurther originates somepottery processes many areas.thatsee the potent to localityis latersubjected excavation. allowing to make use of theseobserva.British Archaeological Reports Inalsofollow clineofdensity erosion a values.andhencecreate density a cavator question remains: thesoilmatrix Mediterif in The density A final tween surface subsoildensities. contrast the total or all-but-total replacement to in for and in the ratioof surface densities bothmaterials outlined earlier erosion a amount cycles.to ourknowl.tionfor pattern be to the we visible. personal communication). subjected laterintensive of is downtorsare obviously morecomplicated herethanthose Thisprocess soilrecovery in anycase chiefly withonlyslightincrewiththe reverse thatwould operate weathering.in thefirst if its expecta conthepottery visiblefound wayintothesubsoil. and belowthe surface. highly to in i0-20 cm's worth"of deposit a veryslow processin the semi-arid environment correspond "perhaps to whichlag deposits predominant.refine suggested explanations. "The BoeotiaSurvey. survey and the and bothofpottery ofobsidian.Never. depth soilwhosesherd that is on as in correspond.When data so-called surface raneanlands. and rubbish etc.withthe amountprevi. as by ternational Series28. in prehistoric Pottery ment Greece." Archaeoin we have argued. to armoured soil). successoffield-resistivitymagneticat sities. sincethepottery to happens its sherd of content proved namely.surface and Hope-Simpson our prehis. The site is an exposedhill on AMMERMANN.the to Neolithic ofKephala. havetried openup for to oversome fiveor six millennia. in island site. thesoil:ifitis not. I977. tions). Again.Butif. exactly be of then expressed terms a "deposit might to content? Clearly. Joumal FieldArchaeology of I2:33-40. Italy. ."lagging" in items(stones.
from this littlecultural material as allu. I973). GeomorPAEPE. Potential or otherthanpottery. London: for evidence surmised 238-41). L. Artifact behaviour within plowzone. j." Archaeological in field of intothe origins evolution and research chaeological in survey Britain and abroad. tery an overview theLapitacultural (for AND J. A. Papua New Guinea'
WATERHOUSE. I980. THORNES. well as the shell qualities. by pp.Volume 29. St. AND A. ? I988 byThe Wenner-Gren for Foundation Anthropological Research. Prehistoric H. H. H. at Annual TAYLOUR.
supported generously project research described was a doctoral here StudSchoolofPacific Research of bytheDepartment Prehistory. AND M... recoveries. I984. M. JOHNSON. D. Agriculture and slavery Classical in Athens. I986. recorded theareabyHarding others. I96-2I6. where the similarities SchoolofArchaeology Athens67:205-70. of whilethe exploitation local marine wereimported. I986. I984.Lapita Mesopotamian plain. i967) (fig.
processes in archaeological site formation. Geophysical see of complex. end. H.
in Vertical movement artifacts alluvialand of stratified CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY 27:i63-7I. B. I984. the for evidence two-way communication. Observations thelength on andbreadth of from Hermitage RockShelmeasurements wholeflakes the Muchoftheanalyat Sio on theNew Guineamainland. Steward's there no is the Great Basin settlementpatterns. Shackley. Classical Journal 73:I22-45. "The MaddleFarm (Berks. AND M. Green. activity 76. I985. to similar those ties pursued thattimeare broadly at P.remains suggest of do ical Scienceii:28I-306. and petrological toricsitesin theStiloregion.SussexArchaeological Collections I9:30-36. "Geomorphic and processes
j. 229-53. I985. GILMAN. Kirch.Edited W. Thompson. T.Proceedings thePreof
HOFMAN. networks be suggested 2).Edited S. The
. The Romancountryside: Settlement WILLIAMSON. Essex. London:Society Antiquaries. M. pp. ago (Harding GILMAN. New York:Appleton. 3I5-40. Orkney. der der Jubildum Abteilung ioojahrigen Vorgeschichte Naturproducts pigs and horticultural sidian. I984. Australia.
Exchange Prehistoric across the Vitiaz Strait. ering.University actionofworms. and gathon fishing shellfish resources focussed inshore Sheffield: of and Department Archaeology Prehistory. I958.Edited S.a preliminary report: first years.Roger Jack and WinMumford of careful scrutiny mywork. by Ritchie al. Intensive survey prehis. M. Macby ready F. FRINK. All rights reserved OOII-3204/88/2903-0009$I. The four Journal Field of Archaeology I2:I23-6i. I). I976.thestylistic of characteristics pottery. An empirical testfor modelof THOMAS.. Aberdeen: et Press. Late Quaternary they the are. as and sourcesof obsidian. 2 x 87 the nal ofFieldArchaeology II:356-63.Advances in Archae-
I978. J. I ter. historischen Gesellschaft Numberg. by and at i986).movement anything THORNES. 67-73. can Geoarchaeology.) This paper of results arsomeofthemajor summarizes Project micro-regional and analysis. Journal FieldArchaeol. andagriculturein N. Ifthesequences from three of model of the development rea culture-historical the surfacesurveyof archaeological sites in semi-aridareas. I983. S. K. VAN ANDEL. "The ploughzone. theearliest (pp.. University IAN LILLEY DARWIN. TINGLE. I. Laconia. Project I46: River FloodandLake LevelChanges..American cross-Strait Antiquity 38:I55 during Lapitaphase." in Festschrift zum REYNOLDS. C.. JAMES ON. and assemblages faunal andboneartefact the sitesareamalgamated. to I National University.
i. I985. "Anthropogenic soils andlandforms in R. AnnualoftheBritish at SchoolofArchaeology
The definition ancient zones of manured Journal bymeansofextensive sherd-sampling techniques. very POPE. at oftheBritish hintsat limited of analysis pottery petrological though D. R. H. of thatthenature range activiand causes. Australian and Jim Pat Geoff Irwin.and probably pp.
WOOD. Macready F. I986. in DAVIDSON. j. Lucia. A.Transactions of the and of to thetimeofthedevelopment spread LapitapotAmerican Union39:I076-84. As (fig.intermittent. and TuamandMalai Islandsin theSiassigroup another HEMINGWAY. Theformation vegetable of mouldthrough the and DepartmentofAnthropology Sociology.Asurveyof
ologicalMethodand Theory I:3I5-8I. AND D.jour. am indebted Jim ies.andarchaeological implications.
Attention also paidto aspectsofthestoneartefact was in variations the quantities. in evolution theeastern Mediterranean and belt phological and GreenI979. AND C.of Queensland. B. I98I.
historic Society 50:I2I-5O. Number 3. 4067. M.(International GeologicalCorrelation in mayhavebeenonly presence theSiassiIslands gramme. T. SCHUMM. Journal Archaeolog. D. Mellor. J. Allen. gionalexchange Duckworth. DavidsonandM. J. oband in Pottery. M. Land use andprehistory on focussed one site on each of The investigations in south-east Spain. Catena on of volvement Sio oranyother community theHuon Suppl. AND J. THOREZ. of FieldArchaeology 9:232-33 3.. SNODGRASS.northeastern of ArchipelNew GuineawiththeBismarck ogy I3:403-I8. W. KIRKBY. WILKINSON. BINTLIFF. Excavations AyiosStephanos. cross-Strait andactualero. L. viationand soil formation thesouthern in Its Argolid: history. W. i982." in Edited D. D. Britazmia I5:225-30. 4:9I-II3.
I960.refer Osborne Betsy-Jane foracknowledgment others of who assistedwiththeproject. however... I896. A. "Background noise" andsitedefinition: contribution survey to methodology. S. I985. GAFFNEY. H. London:Society and pp. in and analysis SHENNAN. AND R. T.oo. AND S. MALONE.London:AllenandUnwin.PartI. which thetime (Lilley system theSiassitrading Thompson.W. AND T. HATZIOTIS. I973. particularly assemblages. E. O. H. V. I978. Golson. of Antiquaries. Alis That. see also Pawley GreenI984. Yield ofsediment dates in region exchange theVitiazStrait long-distance in relation to mean annual precipitation. the inof sion around archaeological sites in south-east Spain. deposits. Experiments thecollection data: TheEast Hampshire ofarchaeological survey Survey. W. Harding LANGBEIN. Specht. The Pro.. AND A. B. was though Fragmentary period recovered. fune I988 15I3
logicalfield survey Britain in and abroad. Qld. their Doug Yen for to I readers mythesis the prepared figures. in changes cultural material examined sis ofexcavated of HODDER.
Athens 55:67-I07." Essaysfor Professor E. HOPE-SIMPSON.. The BoeotiaSurvey. Nurnberg. R. Calabria. KIRKBY. I972. of to contactspannedthe Vitiaz Strait link of European A GALLANT. A. i982.) MS. W.