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Vanessa Ohaya

Professor Granillo

English 101

26 September 2018

Analysis of Exotic Fruit

Ethos, pathos, and logos are so much more than really strange names that sort of sound

like a name for a really exotic fruit. All three of these modes of rhetoric help to build a central

argument. Each type of rhetoric appeals to the audience differently and collectively as a means to

strengthen a proposed argument. Ethos is the ethical value that a person may have that could

have sparked the argument in the first place. Pathos is the emotions that the speaker exudes to

make the argument more relatable and Logos is the evidence, such as: data, statistics, and quotes

that help build the argument as well. “Minority Student Clubs: Segregation or Integration?”, Is

an article written by Gabriela Moro that discusses the disadvantages of race related clubs and

how they could be harming students rather than helping them feel more inclusive. Cultural and

minority student organizations have become an important factor in schools as a way to build a

comfortable environment for students. On the other hand, clubs like this could also serve as a

disadvantage. Moro states that minority student clubs can help as well as hinder students. She

believes that these clubs are belittling diverse interactions within the school. The speaker uses

the rhetorical modes, logos, ethos and pathos in order to provide reasoning for the main idea.

Gabriela Moro attended the University of Notre Dame where she was required to write a

persuasive essay. The author was inspired by her racially and culturally diverse student body.

Attending a school with a variety of students from different backgrounds gives the author a clear

motivation for this topic. Another motivation is the fact that many schools are presented to an
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assortment of racial backgrounds and culture. For example, Gabriela Moro, in her article, “

Minority Student Clubs: Segregation or Integration?,” explains how many schools have made it

more of a priority to create an environment where students feel more comfortable around similar

peers. In the first paragraph of Moro’s article she states that, “Minority representation on United

States college campuses has increased significantly in recent years… schools prepare students

for a diverse democratic society”(269). Being that the author’s first year of college was spent at

such a diverse school shows that a racially diverse campus was the focus which makes the

speaker a primary source and therefore reliable. Lastly, another motivation could be the current

racial tensions that are present in the United States. This article was published in 2015, which

was not too far from when the present United States president was running for office. During this

time, many issues of discrimination and self-segregation were being shown in the media which

could also be a motive for this article. Not only does the author's personal experience help build

her credibility but so does the author's credentials.

The Author's credentials also builds her credibility as well. Gabriella Moro is a pre-

health and neuroscience major. “Fresh Writing; An interacting archive of exemplary first year

writing projects,” states that Moro’s research paper was “ inspired by her experience as a first

year college student exposed to both minority and multicultural student clubs”(Moro 259). It is

evident that essay writing is one of Moro’s specialties due to the fact that one of her essays was

previewed on such a website. Moro is an exceptional writer with first hand experience of racially

exclusive. Though the reader is not professionally pursuing essay writing, it is apparent that she

excels in that particular ability. The authors motivation branches off of the personal experience

that comes with attending a school such as her own. The educational environment had a huge
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influence on the content of her article. Her values and ideals with promoting diversity builds her


The author uses ethos in order to expand on her argument to her advantage. The author

states that, “ minority groups can lead to self- segregation and that is what most universities

claim to be their diversity goals” (Moro 270). This shows that the author believes that although

minority based groups do create a comfortable environment, they also promote a seperation of

races. The speaker believes that creating clubs that consists of majority of the same race is also a

way to “enrich an educational experience” (Moro 276). The author uses ethical values in her

argument in order to build the argument but she also has a lot to improve on when using ethos.

Though the speaker utilizes ethos to her advantage, the main argument would have made

more of an impact to the audience if her values were obvious and not hidden within the article.

Rather than including the “they say, I say” she only states the “ they say” without really

including any clear argument (Moro 269). In order to make an argument stronger it is important

to include commentary. The author does not effectively utilize that. She only includes her own

commentary in the introduction which does not properly illustrate her point of view. Being able

to include ethos also helps to make the argument more personal. This could help give the

audience the assumption that the main argument is significant to the speaker.

To build the argument’s significance and credibility the author also uses logos

effectively. Throughout the article, the author includes various reliable outside sources to prove

her point. She does an amazing job of this. Moro’s ability to use various articles and sources

adds more credibility to her argument. For example, the speaker states,” To frame my discussion,

I will use an article from College Student Journal” (Moro 270). Moro uses other sources and

testimonials that assist her in proving her point to the audience. Another example of this is the
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evidence that she pulls out from multiple studies. Each paragraph begins a new point and in each

point another study or article is used to her advantage. Not only does the author pull information

from scholars and professors but she also gets supporting claims from members of her age group.

Three students from Harvard University also assisted her with proving her point (Moro 272). She

appeals to her targeted audience (college students) by including arguments presented by other

college students. This makes it possible for members inside of her age group to relate more.

Another example of logos is the author's ability to tie all her sources back to her central argument

within her article. “These findings indicate that minority students can be helpful to those who

have not previously engaged with other minority student clubs”( Moro 272). Every example that

the author uses connects back to the central idea that minority student clubs are indeed helpful.

All the evidence that is used in the article helps build the argument more. The author makes use

of the outside information that was gathered and makes sure that the audience recognizes the

reliable sources used in order to increase her credibility.

In conclusion, the author argues that minority student clubs are promoting self-

segregation but also helps create a more comfortable environment for students. In order to state

this the author uses ethos by stating her beliefs in the first paragraph of the article. She clearly

stating that minority based clubs are both positive and negative towards students. The author also

uses pathos by stating the motivation which ties to the current racial tensions that are occuring in

the United States. The author also Utilizes logos to her advantage, by including multiple outside

sources and statistics in order to make her argument more reliable for the readers.
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Works cited

Moro, Gabriela. “Minority Student Clubs: Segregation or Integration”. Fresh Writing: An

interactive Archive of Exemplary First- Year Writing Projects, University of Notre

Dame. They Say, I say, NORTON, 4th Edition, New York/ London.
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