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ELMAR

ELECTRONICS
~WWLEmmmr

Call 961-3611
2288 CHARLESTON ROAD
MOUNTAIN VIEW
CAUFORNIA 94040

p ototuns
and · . •

photocells
TECHNICAL MANUAL PT-60

Vacuum and gas photodiodes

Multiplier phototubes

Solid-state photocells


eS
RADIOCORPORATION OF AMERICA
Ij ® Electronic Components and Devices· Lancaster, Pa•
CONTENTS
THEORY AND MEASUREMENTS ............................. 3
Photoelectric Theory, Photoemission, Semiconductor Photocells, Photo-
conductivity, Photovoltaic Effect, Photoelectric Measurements, Light,
Photometric Units, Illumination From Uniformly Diffusing Surfaces,
Luminous and Absolute Rating Systems, Radiant Energy.
VACUUM PHOTOTUBES '" 22
Construction and Principles of Operation, Spectral Response, Current-
Voltage Characteristics, Linearity, Frequency Response, Noise, Environ-
mental Factors, Application Considerations.
GAS-FILLED PHOTOTUBES ................................. 33
Construction and Principles of Operation, Current-Voltage Character-
istics, Variation of Current with Light Flux, Time- Or Frequency-
Response Characteristics, Noise, Environmental Factors, Application
Considerations.
MULTIPLIER PHOTOTUBES ................................. . 38
Construction and Principles of Operation, Dynode Properties, Dynode
Configurations, Coupling Dynode System to Cathode, Design for Mini-
mum Transit-Time Spread, Gain Characteristics, Spectral Response,
Dark Current, Noise, Transit-Time Effects, Linearity of Output Current,
Temperature Effects, Effect of Magnetic Fields, Fatigue and Life
Characteristics.
PHOTOCELLS 71
Cadmium-Sulfide Photoconductive Cells, Junction Photocells, Ger-
manium P-N Junction Photocells, Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Data-
Processing Cells, Germanium and Germanium/Silicon Infrared Detectors
GENERAL APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS 80
Level of Light or Radiation, Spectral Energy Distribution, Frequency
Response, Typical Applications.
INTERPRETATION OF DATA ................................ 85
SelECTION CHART 90
TECHNICAL DATA 91
SOCKET AND SHielD INFORMATION ........................ 182
RCA PHOTOCelL CHART .................................. 186
INDEX 190

Copyright 1963 by Radio Corporation of America


(All Rights Reserved)

Trade Mark (s) Registered 10 - 63


Marca(s) Registrada(s) Printed in USA
phututubes
and photocells
THIS book has been prepared to assist equip-
ment designers in their use of vacuum, gas, and
multiplier phototubes, solid-state photocells, and
associated circuits. It covers theory, character-
istics, and applications of the four classes of
devices, as well as information on selecting the
right type of device for a specific application. The
section on Technical Data contains detailed infor-
mation on phototubes and photocells presently in
the RCA line.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT is given to Dr. Ralph W.


Engstrom for supplying the text material on
Theory and Measurements, Vacuum Phototubes,
Gas-Filled Photo tubes, Multiplier Phototubes, and
General Application Considerations, as well as
for technical guidance and review of other text
material in this manual.

RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA


Electronic Components and Devices
LANCASTER, Pit
For a broad spectrum of applications
for space. research. medicine,. and
industry,

·RCA
PHOTOTUBES
AND
PHOTOCELLS
Theory and
Measurements

T HE photosensitive devices de-


scribed in this manual are extremely
the latter part of the 19th century
the observation of a photovoltaic ef~
versatile tools for extending man's fect in selenium led to the develop-
sense of sight. The variety of types ment of selenium and cuprous oxide
developed during the past few dec- photovoltaic cells.
ades make it possible to equal and The emission of electrons result-
surpass many, if not all, of the ing from the action of light on a
human eye's remarkable capabilities photoemissive surface was a later
for detection and observation. These development. Hertz discovered the
devices exceed the sensitivity of the photoemission phenomenon in 1887
eye to all the colors of the spectrum, and in 1888 Hallwachs measured th~
and even penetrate beyond the visible photocurrent from a zinc plate sub-
region into the ultraviolet and infra- jected to ultraviolet radiation. In
red. They can observe a bullet in 1890, Elater and Geitel produced a
flight or track a cosmic-ray particle. forerunner of the vacuum phototube
They can accompany a rocket into which consisted of an evacuated glass
outer space or explore a hole drilled bulb containing an alkali metal and
deep into the crust of the earth. an auxiliary electrode used to col-
The availability of these devices lect the negative electrical carriers
has led to a wide range of practical (photoelectrons) emitted by the ac-
applications. Vacuum-type photo- tion of light on the alkali metal.
tubes are used primarily for radia- The development of the tran-
tion measurement. Gas-type photo- sistor and related devices has been
tubes made possible the addition of closely paralleled by the development
sound to motion pictures by convert- of solid-state photosensitive devices,
ing sound patterns traced on film such as photoconductive cells, p-n
into electrical signals. Multiplier photojunction cells, phototransistors,
phototubes, which have tremendous and silicon photovoltaic cells used as
amplification capability, are used ex- solar-energy converters.
tensively in photoelectric measure-
ment and control devices, and in the Photoemission
large and growing field of scintilla-
tion counting. Photocells are most The modern concept of photo-
widely used in the field of industrial electricity stems from Einstein's
photoelectric control because of their pioneer work for which he received
simplicity, low cost, and high sensi. the Nobel Prize. The essence of Ein-
tivity. stein's work is the following equation
for determining the maximum kinetic
energy E of an emitted photoelec-
Photoelectric Theory tron:
The earliest observation 01 a mY"
photoelectric effect was made by E= 2=hp-<p (1)
Becquerel in 1839. He found that
when one of a pair of electrodes in Eq. (1) shows that the maximum
an electrolyte was illuminated, a energy of the emitted photoelectron
voltage or current resulted. During mv"/2 is proportional to the energy
3
4 RCA Phototube Manual

of the light quanta hv less the energy


</> (the work function) which must METAL VACUUM
be given to an electron to allow it to
escape the surface of the photocath-
ode. For each metal, the photoelectric ",-WORK FUNCTION
effect is characterized by a value of ---FERMI LEVEl.
</>, which is usually expressed in
electron-volts.
In the energy diagram for a
metal shown in Fig. 1, the work func-
tion represents the energy which
1 FERMI
ENERGY

must be given to an electron at the


Fig. 1. Energy model for a metal showing
top of the energy distribution to raise the relationship of the work function
it to the level of the potential barrier and the Fermi level.
at the metal-vacuum interface.
According to the quantum for a temperature of absolute zero;
theory, only one electron can occupy all lower energy levels are filled. As
a particular quantum state of an the temperature is increased, some
atom. In a single atom, these states of the electrons absorb thermal en-
are separated in distinct "shells"; ergy which permits them to occupy
normally only the lower energy scattered states above the maximum
states are filled. In an agglomeration level for absolute zero. The energy
of atoms, these states are modified by distribution of electrons in a partic-
interaction with neighboring atoms, ular metal is shown in Fig. 2 for
particularly for the outermost elec- several different temperatures. At
trons of the atom. As a result, the absolute zero, all the lower states are
outer energy levels tend to overlap occupied up to the Fermi level. At
and produce a continuous band of higher temperatures, there is some
possible energy levels, as shown in excitation to upper levels. The elec-
Fig. 1. tron density at a particular tempera-
The diagram shown in Fig. 1 is ture is described by the Fermi-Dirac

o DEGREES KELVIN

I 2: 3 4
ELECTRON ENERGY- ELECTRON-VOLTS
____ FERMI ENERGY _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ WORK FUNCTION _ _ _
VACUUM
J.L = 2.028 FERMI LEVEl. ¢ =2.24 LEVEl.
OUTER WORK FUNCTION _ _ _ _ _ _
Wa =4.27

Fig~ 2. Energy distribution of conduction electrons in potassium at temperatures of 0, SOO,


and 1033 degrees Kelvin based on elementary Sommerfeld theory. (ref. 17)
Theory and Measurements 5

energy-distribution function, which can be used to predict the shape of


indicates the probability of occupa- the spectral-response curve near the
tion f for a quantum state having threshold; the work function can
energy E: then be calculated from these data.
Although many attempts have
1 been made to calculate entire
f = 1 + expo [(E - Ed /kT] (2) spectral-response characteristics for
metals, only order-of-magnitude
When E is equal to E" the value agreement with experiment has been
of f is lh. It is customary to refer to obtained. It was formerly assumed
the energy of level E" for which that surface electrons existing in an
there is a 50-per-cent probability of image-type force field accounted for
occupancy, as the Fermi level. At the threshold emission spectrum.
absolute zero, the Fermi level cor- Early work by Tamm and Schubin'
responds to the top of the filled postUlated that a threshold for a
energy distribution. Although the "volume photo effect" occurs at about
Fermi level is nearly the same at twice the frequency of that for the
higher temperatures, as at absolute surface threshold. More recent work
zero, as shown in Fig. 2, it is actually by Mayer and his associates' indi-
slightly lower. This reduction of the cates that in fact the threshold for
Fermi level occurs because the num- the volume effect and surface effect
ber of possible energy states in- may be the same. Because electrons
creases in a conductor as the square in the volume of the metal have been
root of E, whereas the probability described as "free", there has been
of occupancy function is symmetrical a dilemma in the explanation of con-
around a value of E E,. = servation of momentum in the ab-
If the energy derived from the sorption of photons. This dilemma
radiant energy is just sufficient to has been resolved by taking into
eject an electron at the Fermi level, account the interaction of the free
the following relation exists: electrons with the periodic field of
hvo = </> (3) the crystal lattice of the metal.
The yield of photoelectrons per
1'0the threshold frequency of the ex- incident photon must be low because
citing radiation, is related to the metals contain large numbers of
long-wavelength limit :>"0 and the these free electrons. On the one hand,
velocity of light c as follows: these electrons result in high optical
:>"0 = c/vo (4) reflectivity in the visible and near-
ultraviolet regions. On the other
The relationship may be rewritten to hand, the free electrons scatter the
relate the long-wavelength limit to excited electrons within the metal,
the work function, as follows: reducing the energy available for
12395 escape. Consequently, excited elec-
:>"0 = -cp- angstroms (5) trons originating at a depth of more
than 10 angstroms have only a slight
Because some of the electrons chance of escaping. These predictions
occupy states slightly higher than have been confirmed by measure-
the Fermi level, as shown in Fig. 2, ments of the photoelectric yield in
excitation of these electrons produces metals, which indicate a quantum
an extended response at the red efficiency of less than 10-" electron
threshold of the spectral-response per incident photon.
characteristic. As a result, there is Measurement of the work func-
no abrupt red threshold at normal tion and spectral response for clean
temperatures, and the true work metal surfaces has been of consider-
function cannot be obtained in a able importance in the development
simple manner from the spectral- of photoelectric theory. Table I shows
response measurement. However, a a number of the results obtained.
universal function devised by Fowler Fig. 3 shows spectral-response curves
6 RCA Phototube Manual

TABLE I
Photoelectric work functions and long-wavelength threshold
values for pure metals.l7· 18
Work Work
Element Function Threshold Element Function Threshold
(volts) (angstroms) (volts) (angstroms)
Ag 4.73 2610 Na 2.46 5040'
Al 2.5 - 3.6 3652 Ni 4.86' 2550
Au 4.82 2650 Pb 3.5 - 4.1 2980-3550
Ba 2.51 - 2.52 4920-4940· Pd 6.30 1962
Bi 4.32" 2870 Pt 6.20' 2000
C (4.7) 2565-2615 Rb 2.16 - 2.19 5660-5740'
Ca 2.706 4580' Rh 4.57 2500
Cd 4.24' 2920 Se 6.63" - 4.64' 2200-2670
Ce 2.88' 4300 Sn (B) 4.5 2740
Co 4.25,4.12 2900,3000 Sn (Y) 4.38 2820
Cr 4.36" 2840 Sn Liquid 4.21 2925
Cs 1.87 - 1.96 6320-6630' Sr 2.07' 6000
Cu 4.1 - 4.5 2750-3000 Ta 4.12" 3010
Fe 4.63' 2680 Th 3.40' 3650
Ge (4.3) 2880 Ti 3.93" 3150
Hg 4.53 2735 U 3.65' 3400
K 2.24 5530' W 4.59' 2700
Li 2.28 5430' Zn 3.32 3720
Mg 3.61 3430' Zn Single Crystal. 3.57 3460
Mo 4.35' 2850 Zr 3.76· 3300
• Calculated from 12395/\ (angstroms) = <p (volts)

for the alkali metals.· The curves Because a quantum of radiation


indicate a regular progression of the is necessary to release an electron,
wavelength for maximum response the photoelectric current is propor-
with atomic number. The most red- tional to the intensity of the radia-
sensitive of these metals is cesium, tion. This first law of photoelectricity
which is widely used in the activa- has been verified experimentally over
tion of most commercial photo tubes. a wide range of light intensities.
320 I600 For most materials, the quantum
260
f\Li I400 ~
efficiency is very low; on the best
w {\ No wZ sensitized commercial photo surfaces,
~240 I200~~
o the maximum yield reported is as
~200 IV I ooo2?~ high as one electron for three light
w
0: 160 I \ 8 00 f~
w>-
quanta.
~ I lA ~Rb ~o: Research on commercially useful
!;; 120 600 ~~
..J
~ 80
II '\\ \~ 400 ~~
photoemitters has been directed pri-
4r-----r-~~~~~~--,
40
/ ) l\ \1\ 2 00
"'5
'"
i"..... 1"-' ~ ~
o 0
3600 4400 5200 6000 6800
WAVELENGTH-ANGSTROMS
Fig. 3. Spectral-response characteristics for
the alkali metals showing regular pro..
gression in the order of the periodic
table. (ref. 17)

The energy distribution of emit-


ted photoelectrons has been meas-
ured for a number of metals and
photosurfaces. Typical results are
shown in Fig. 4 for a potassium film
of 20 molecular layers on a base of 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6
silver" The maximum emission en- ENERGY OF PHOTOELECTRONS-
ELECTRON~VOLTS
ergy corresponds to that predicted by Fig. 4. Energy distribution of photoelectrons
the Einstein photoelectric equation. from a potassium film. (ref. 4)
Theory and Measurements 7

marily toward developing devices shows an energy model for a semi-


sensitive to visible radiation. The conductor photoemitter. The band-
first important commercial photo- gap energy corresponding to the for-
surface was silver-oxygen-cesium. bidden gap between the valence and
This surface, which provides a spec- conduction bands is represented by
tral response designated S-l, is sensi- E. and is expressed in electron-volts.
tive throughout the entire visible The potential barrier from the bot-
spectrum and into the infrared. Al- tom of the conduction band to the
though it has rather low sensitivity vacuum outside the semiconductor
and high dark emission, the good surface is represented by E a, the
response in the red and near-infrared electron affinity.
regions provides a spectral response
which is a good match to the emis-
sion of a tungsten lamp. One of the VACUUM
most important early uses of this
photoemitter was in the sound head
ELECTRON
AFFINITY
-1----a
for motion-picture projectors. CONDUCTION BAND
Although other emitters using
rubidium and potassium as the prin-
FORBIDDEN Eg. Ea+lEG
cipal element were developed, none
was of great commercial value until G
the development of the cesium-anti-
'""77'7"7..,A...,P.-;r..,....,.-;r7-7"""'''''''''' _ _ _ _
mony photo emitter: which provides
an S-4 or S-l1 spectral response. The
spectral response of the cesium-anti-
mony photocathode includes most of Fig. 5. Energy model of a. semiconductor
the visible region; maximum re- photoemitter.
sponse is in the blue and the ultra-
violet regions. A recently developed
photoemitter," described as multi- When radiation of sufficient
alkali (Sb-K-Na-Cs), provides an energy hv excites an electron in the
S-20 spectral response and is re- valence band causing it to move to
markable for its high quantum the conduction band, photoconductiv-
efficiency and its extended red re- ity may result; however, photoemis-
sponse. Spectral-response curves for sion does not take place until the
these designations are shown in the electron escapes the barrier to the
TECHNICAL DATA section. vacuum. Therefore, the minimum
Because emitters such as the photon energy necessary to produce
cesium-antimony and the multialkali threshold emission is E. plus Ea.
cathode are semiconductors, the For the cesium-antimony photo-
theory developed for metals does not cathode, the value of E. plus Ea is
apply in all respects. In a semicon- 2.05 electron-volts; the value of E.
ductor, the highest filled energy band is 0.45 electron-volt. Corresponding
for electrons is called the valence values for the multialkali photocath-
band. Immediately above the valence ode are 1.55 and 0.55 electron-volts:
band, there is an energy gap for Although both of these emitters are
which no electron-energy states exist. believed to have impurity (p-type)
This gap is referred to as the for- levels in the band-gap region which
bidden gap. In a metal, this gap does account for minor effects, the photo-
not exist and the continuum of energy emission is primarily intrinsic (that
states directly above the filled energy is, originating from the valence
levels permits conduction. Above the band).
forbidden gap in a semiconductor, An important advantage of us-
there is a band of permitted energy ing semiconductors as photo emitters
states referred to as the conduction is that their quantum efficiency in the
band, which at ordinary temperatures visible spectrum is much higher than
contains very few electrons. Fig. 5 that of metals (up to 30 per cent
8 RCA Phototube Manual

instead of up to 0.1 per cent). In a VACUUM


semiconductor, a photo-excited elec- CONDUCTION VACUUM
BAND CONDUCTION
tron is less likely to lose its energy ~AND
by electron-electron collision than in FORBIDDEN __ _
FORBIDDEN FERMI
a metal. The principal mechanism of GAP-- FERMI GAP LEVEL
energy loss is through the process of LEVEL ..L...-
impact ionization and pair produc-
VALENCE
tion, i.e., the creation of a "hole" and BAND
electron across the band gap. Usually VALENCE
the threshold energy for such pair BAND
production is several times larger A B
than the band-gap energy. In semi-
conductors in which the electron af-
finity is small compared with the CONDUCTION VACUUM' VACUUM
CONDUCTION
threshold energy required for pair BAND BAND
production, the depth from which an
electron can escape may be expected
to be large; consequently, the quan-
tum yield should be large, as is
actually the case with materials
which are practical photoemitters.
VALENCE VALENCE
BAND BAND
Semiconductor C o
Photocells
Fig. 6. Energy models for intrinsic and
A photocell is deuned as a impurity-type semiconductors and for an
insulator. (A) an insulator, which has
photosensitive device in which the a large forbidden gap. (B) an intrinsic
movement of electrons is in a solid semiconductor, which has a smaller for-
(in contrast to a phototube in which bidden gap. (C) an n-type impurity
the movement takes place in a semiconductor. (D) a p-type impurity
semiconductor.
vacuum or gas). For photocells,
therefore, the electron affinity and
emission outside the solid material
need not be considered.
The behavior of semiconductor electrons from the filled-band level
photocells is most easily explained leaves vacant levels in the energy
by reference to energy-state models. structure, which are referred to as
Energy models for several types of holes. Electrons of the filled band
semiconductors and for an insulator may then move under the influence of
are shown in Fig. 6. The distinction the applied field to fill these holes.
between semiconductor and insulator As a result, the holes may also con-
is arbitrary; materials with band tribute to the conductivity as they
gaps smaller than two electron-volts travel across the semiconductor in
are usually called semiconductors; the opposite direction from the elec-
those with larger band gaps are trons.
called insulators. In an insulator (A), Conduction is also possible in
essentially no thermal excitation of substances which are insulators in
electrons from the valence band to the pure state because of the pres-
the conduction band takes place at ence of certain impurities or imper-
normal temperatures. In an intrinsic fections. Two types of impurity
semiconductor (B), the forbidden gap semiconductors are possible; n-type
is sufficiently small to permit some (donor, C) and p-type (acceptor, D).
thermal excitation; the amount of For an n-type semiconductor, the
excitation increases exponentially highest filled quantum level of the
with temperature. The thermally ex- impurity lies just below the conduc-
cited electrons contribute to a con- tion band of the original or parent
duction current. The removal of lattice (Fig. 6). Conduction becomes
Theory and Measurements 9

possible when electrons from the CONDUCTION BAND


donor impurity are thermally or
otherwise excited to the conduction
band.
In the p-type semiconductor, the
unfilled level of the impurity lies
just above the filled band of the
parent lattice. Excitation of an elec-
tron from this filled band to the
acceptor impurity is then possible
VALENCE BAND
and conduction takes place by means
of holes in the valence band.
The Fermi levels of these vari- Fig. 7. Basic electronic processes in an
ous types of materials are also n-type photoconductor such as CdS.
indicated in Fig. 6. For the insulators
and intrinsic semiconductors, the photoconductor such as CdS. Arrow
Fermi level lies approximately half- 1 illustrates the case in which the
way between the valence and conduc- host crystal is excited by an absorp-
tion bands; for an impurity-type tion of light having energy equal to
semiconductor, the Fermi level usu- or greater than the band gap. In this
ally lies in the forbidden band near case, one electron-hole pair is formed
the impurity level-close to the con- for each photon absorbed. Arrow 2
duction band in the case of a donor- represents the excitation of a bound
type impurity, and close to the electron at an imperfection level.
valence band in the case of an ac- These imperfections may be either
ceptor-type impurity. impurities or crystal defects such
as vacancies. Arrow 3 is the capture
Photoconductivity of a photo-excited hole by an im-
perfection center. Arrow 4 is the
In photoconductors, currents flow capture of a photo-excited electron
when light excites electrons from the by a center which has previously
filled band to the conduction band. captured a photo-excited hole,
Conduction may also be produced by thereby resulting in a recombina-
the excitation of electrons from an tion of the carriers. Arrow 5 is the
impurity level to the conduction band capture of a photo-excited electron
in an n-type semiconductor or by the by an electron-trapping center. Ar-
excitation of electrons from the filled row 6 is the thermal freeing of a
band to an acceptor level in a p-type trapped electron. The optical free-
semiconductor (in the latter case ing of a trapped electron and a cap-
conduction is by means of holes). tured hole is shown by arrows 7 and
Although excited electrons or 8, respectively. Arrow 9 is the
holes may travel freely through the thermal freeing of a trapped elec-
photoconductor to the electrodes, tron.
they may also be captured by vari- Transitions 1 and 2 determine
ous types of imperfection centers spectral response; 3 and 4 determine
in the photoconductor". If such a cap- free-electron lifetime and, hence,
ture site provides only temporary photoconductivity; 5 and 6 fre-
retention of the carrier and there quently determine speed of re-
is good probability of thermal re- sponse; 7 causes stimulation of
excitation, it is called a trapping conductivity; 8 and 9 correspond to
center. However, if the capture re- optical and thermal quenching of
sults in good probability of re- photoconductivity when the centers
combination with a carrier of the involved are those having small
opposite polarity, the center is re- cross-section for free electrons.
ferred to as a recombination center. Transitions 3 and 4 may be either
Fig. 7 shows the various modes radiative, that is, give rise to lumi-
of electron transition in an-type nescence emission, or nonradiative.
18 RCA Phototube Manual

Because of the relatively low Photovoltaic Effect


mobility of carriers in semicon-
ductors, space charge usually limits The same type of energy-state
the currents to low values. The effect model that applies to photoconduc-
of the charge is greatly increased by tors also applies to photovoltaic
the presence of trapping centers. In cells. In a photovoltaic cell, however,
some cases, the space-charge fields of a junction of two different materials
trapped holes result in the ejection of produces a contact potential. The two
electrons from the negative terminal materials may be a semiconductor
(or those of trapped electrons in the and a metal, or they may be an n-
ejection of holes from the positive and a p-type semiconductor. The
terminal) giving rise to a secondary silicon solar cell is this latter type of
current. As a result of such secon- photovoltaic cell. An n-type silicon
dary processes, it is possible to have wafer is formed with a p-type layer
a quantum efficiency greater than on one surface. The operation of such
one; that is, one photon results in the a cell is illustrated in Fig. 9. The p-
movement through the semiconductor type material is shown at the left
of more than one electron. Time de- and the n-type material at the right.
lays are observed in the photo cur-
rent which are associated with the
time spent by current carriers in
traps or recombination centers.' BARRIER
Fig. 8 shows some of these p-TYPE REGION~EGION
EXCESS n-TYPE
processes for an n-type photoconduc- ELECTRONs-...!, '" REGION CONDUCTION
tor. At condition (1), the absorption
~
" ...,..--BAND
of a photon forms a free electron- ENERGY - I - - - ---It-.-FERMI LEVEL
hole pair; (2) under the applied elec- h.~ fENERY GAP (1.1 avl
I-...VALENCE BAND
tric field, the photo-excited electron '---';W:-:-A"'FE=RC-:T=-H::-;IC::::K'""NE=S"'"S-
moves toward the anode; (3) simi- Fig. 9. Energy model of a silicon solar cell.
larly, the photon-excited hole moves
toward the cathode; (4) the hole is
captured at an imperfection center;
(5) after the initial electron has left For the p-type, the Fermi level lies
the photoconductor at the anode, the near the bottom of the forbidden
residual positive space charge due gap; for the n-type, it is near the
to the excess captured hole leads to top. When the two types of silicon
the entrance of an electron into the are in intimate contact, a potential
photo conductor from the cathode. adjustment takes place across the
Photo current continues until a free boundary. Electrons flow from the
electron recombines with the cap- n-type material to the lower vacant
tured hole. levels of the p-type material, and
holes flow across the boundary in
OHMIC CONTACT the opposite direction. When the
\5 Fermi levels are at the same height,
the current ceases to flow, as shown
in the potential-energy model. A con-
tact potential equal to the original
difference in Fermi levels exists; the
p-type material is negative. When
the area in the neighborhood of the
junction is illuminated, hole-electron
pairs are created. The minority car-
riers created (holes in the n-type
silicon and electrons in the p-type
Fig. 8. An n-type photoconductor in opera-
silicon) then flow across the junction
tion. Two ohmic metallic contacts to the and constitute the current developed
photoconductor are assumed.. by the photovoltaic cell.
Theory and Measurements 11

Photoelectric Measurements 3~-------------------'


2
Light
Historically, photoelectric meas- o
urements and specifications have E; _I
;:::
been related to the measurement of ~ -2
illumination. It is appropriate, there- i'5
-3
fore, to consider the characteristics (J)

of the eye and related photometric ~ -4

units. Although characteristics of the !i...J -5


human eye vary from person to per- ll:! -6
son, standard luminosity coefficients 8 -7
for the eye were defined by the ...J -8
Commission Internationale de Eclair-
age (International Commission on Il- -9
lumination) in 1931. These standard -10
C.I.E. luminosity coefficients are 30'=-00=-'-5--0"'0""0-'--=7""0'="00=-'-9--0='=0:-:0:-'--="'000,
listed in Table II. They represent the WAVELENGTH - ANGSTROMS
relative luminous equivalents of an Fill'. 10. Relative spectral sensitivity of the
equal-energy spectrum for each dark-adapted fovea and peripheral
retina. (ref. 10)
wavelength in the visible range, as-
suming foveal vision. An absolute have shown that the eye is sensitive
"sensitivity" figure established for to radiation of wavelength at least as
the standard eye relates photometric long as 10500 angstroms. Fig. 10
units and radiant power units. At shows a composite curve given by
5550 angstroms, the wavelength of Griffin, Hubbard, and Wald"° for the
maximum sensitivity of the eye, one sensitivity of the eye for both foveal
watt of radiant power corresponds to and peripheral vision from 3600 to
680 lumens. 10500 angstroms. According to
The sensitivity of the eye outside Goodeve" the ultraviolet sensitivity
the wavelength limits shown in Table of the eye extends to between 3125
II is very low, but not actually zero. and 3023 angstroms. Below this level,
Studies with intense infrared sources the absorption of radiation by the

TABLE II
Standard (C. I.E.) spectral luminous-effir:iency values (relative to
unity at 555 millimicrons wavelength). These values represent the
relative capacity of radiant energy of various wavelengths to
produce visual sensations. 12
Wavelength C.I.E. Wavelength C.I.E. Wavelength C.I.E.
(angstroms) Value (angstroms) Value (angstroms) Value
3800 0.00004 5100 0.503 6400 0.175
3900 0.00012 5200 0.710 6500 0.107
4000 0.0004 poe 0.862 6600 0.061
4100 0.0012 5400 0.954 6700 0.032
4200 0.0040 5000 0.995 6800 0.017
4300 0.0116 5600 0.995 6900 0.0082
4400 0.023 5700 0.952 7000 0.0041
4500 0.038 580G 0.870 7100 0.0021
4600 0.060 5900 0.757 720G 0.00105
4700 0.091 6000 0.631 7300 0.00052
4800 0.139 6100 0.503 7400 0.00025
4900 0.208 6200 0.381 7500 0.00012
5000 0.323 6300 0.265 7600 0.00006
12 RCA Phototube Manual

proteins of' the eye lens apparently A suitable substandard for prac-
limits further extension of vision tical photoelectric measurements is
into the ultraviolet. Light having a the developmental-type calibrated
wavelength of 3023 angstroms is lamp, RCA Dev. No. C70048, which
detected by its fluorescent effect in operates at a current of about 4.5
the front part of the eye. amperes and a voltage of 7 to 10
volts. A typical lamp calibrated at a
color temperature of 2870 degrees
Kelvin provides a luminous intensity
of 55 candelas. The luminous inten-
Photometric Units sity of a tungsten lamp measured in
candelas is usually numerically some-
Photometry deals with the meas- what greater than the power de-
urement of light in reference to the livered to the lamp in watts.
effect produced on the theoretical Luminous flux is the time rate of
standard C.LE. observer. Measure- flow of light energy-that character-
ments are made by visual comparison istic of radiant energy which pro-
or by some equivalent photoelectric duces visual sensation. The unit of
method. Units, standards, and sys- luminous flux is the lumen, which
tems of measurement have been is the flux emitted in unit solid angle
developed to correspond to the ef- by a uniform point source of one
fect as observed by the eye. candela. Such a source produces a
Luminous intensity (or candle- total luminous flux of 4 7r lumens.
power) is a measure of a light source A radiant source may be evalu-
which describes its luminous flux per ated in terms of luminous flux if the
unit solid angle in a particular direc- radiant-energy distribution of the
tion. For many years the standard source is known. If W (A) is the to-
measure of luminous intensity was tal radiant power in watts per unit
the international candle established wavelength, total radiant power over-
by a group of carbon-filament lamps
at the Bureau of Standards. In 1948
the International Commission on Il-
lumination agreed on the introduc-
all wavelengths is f: W (A) dA,
and the total luminous flux L in lu-
tion of a new standard of luminous mens can be expressed as follows:
intensity and recommended the adop-
tion of the name candela to dis-
tinguish it from the international
candle. The term candela is now
L J:
= [680 W (A)] [y (A)] dA
(6)
widely used abroad and is coming
into general use in the United States; where y (A) represents the luminos-
the older term candle is sometimes ity coefficient (Table II) as a func-
still used, but refers to the new tion of wavelength.
candle or candela. The lumen is the most widely
The candela is defined by the used unit in the rating of photo-
radiation from a black body at the emissive devices. For diode photo-
temperature of solidification of plat- tubes, typical test levels of luminous
inum. A candela is one-sixtieth of flux range from 0.01 to 0.1 lumen;
the luminous intensity of one square for multiplier phototubes, the range
centimeter of such a radiator. The is from 10-7 to 10'" lumen (0.1 to 10
major advantage of the new standard microlumens) .
is that it may be reproduced in any Stars of various magnitudes are
laboratory. The effective change in frequently measured photoelectri-
the value of the candle as a result cally. The flux in lumens L from a
of the 1948 agreement is of the order star of magnitude m which is re-
of tenths of one per cent and, there- ceived by a telescope having a diam-
fore, is negligible in practical meas- eter of d inches can be expressed
urements. as follows:
Theory and Measurements 13

2.5 log1. (L) 7.57 - 30


+5 log1. (d) - m

An increase of one magnitude indi-


cates a decrease of ~100 in illumi-
nation.
(7)

(/)

~IO
to

to
4

2
- - -.......
\
o
Illumination is the density of
luminous flux incident on a surface.
z
~ 10
\
A common unit of illumination is the
footcandle, which is the illumination
o
fZ
I I
\
produced by one lumen uniformly
distributed over an area of one
z
o
~ 10'
I \
square foot. It follows that a source
of one candela produces an illumina-
z
i
316
2 \\
:d
tion of one footcandle at a distance
of one foot. 103
Table III lists some common
values of illumination encountered in to4 1\
photoelectric applications. Further 5
information concerning natural radi- 10_ 4 3 -2 -I 0 I 2 3
ation is shown in Fig. 11, which HOURS BEFORE AND AFTER SUNSET
indicates the change in natural il- Fig. 11. Natural illumination on the earth
lumination at ground level during, for the hours immediately before and
before, and after sunset for a con- after sunset with a clear sky and no
moon.
dition of clear sky and no moon.'"
Photometric luminance (or levels of illumination. The term
brightness) is a measure of the luminance describes the light emis-
luminous flux per unit solid angle sion from a surface, whether the
leaving a surface at a given point surface is self-luminous or receives
in a given direction, per unit of pro- its light from some external luminous
jected area. The term photometric body.
luminance is used to distinguish a For a surface which is uniformly
physically measured luminance from diffusing, luminance is the same re-
a subjective luminance. The latter gardless of the angle from which
varies with illumination because of the surface is viewed. This condition
the shift in spectral response of the results from the fact that a uni-
eye toward the blue region at lower formly diffusing surface obeys Lam-

TABLE III
Typical values of illumination for various conditions.
Condition Illumination
(Footcandles)
Average solar illumination. 42° N latitude noon,
June 21. measured in a plane perpendicular to the
sun's rays., ..........................................•. 8800
Recommended for reading. ............................ 30 to 70
Moonlight. ....•.............•...........•..••.• ,...... 0.02
Natural night illumination, clear, no moon.. .......... 9 X 10-5
Natural night illumination, heavily cloudy,
no moon. ................................•....••.••.. 2 X 10-5
* Although published data are in some disagreement, it appears that starlight itself
is a substantial but not a major con1ponent of the quoted figure. Note also that zodiacal
radiation in the near-infrared is many orders of magnitude higher than in the visible
region.
14 RCA Phototube Manual

bert's law, or the cosine law of L in lumens from the area a may be
emission. Thus, both the emission obtained by integration over the
per unit solid angle and the pro- hemisphere as follows:
jected area are proportional to the
cosine of the angle between the di- "./2 1
L =/ - (A cos e)
rection of observation and the sur- o ".
face normal.
A logical unit of luminance (2". sin e) de =A (8)
based on the definition given above
is a candela per unit area. When the In other words, the total flux from
unit of area is the square meter, this a uniform diffuser having a lumi-
unit is called a nit; when the unit nance of one footlambert is one
of area is a square centimeter, the lumen per square foot.
unit is a stilb. It is also possible to
refer to a candela per square foot. Illumination From
However, none of these units is as Uniformly Diffusing
commonly used in photoelectric Surfaces
measurement as the f()()tlambert, An advantage of the above rela-
which is a unit of photometric lumi- tionship is that the illumination at
nance equal to 1hr candela per square a surface in front of and parallel
foot. The advantage of using the to an extended and uniformly diffus-
footlambert for a uniform diffuser is ing surface having a luminance of
that is it equivalent to a total emis- one footlambert is equal to one
sion of one lumen per square foot lumen per square foot or one foot-
from one side of the surface. This candle. As a result, an instrument
relationship can be demonstrated by reading illumination in footcandles
the following conditions as shown in indicates photometric luminance or
Fig. 12: an elementary portion of a brightness in footlamberts if the in-
strument is illuminated essentially
from the entire hemisphere. (This
statement neglects the possible per-
turbation caused by the measuring
instrument.)
In a typical application, a uni-
formly diffusing radiating surface
may be of such small size that it
can be considered practically a point
A
source. However, if the radiator is
assumed to be a flat surface radiat-
ing according to Lambert's law, the
Fig. 12. Diagram illustrating Lamberes law
and the calculation of total luminous
distribution of flux about the point
flux from a diffuse radiator. is not the same as for an ordinary
point source. In this case, if the sur-
face luminance is one footlambert
and the area is A square feet, the
diffusing surface, having an area of flux per steradian in a direction
A square feet has a luminance of one normal to the surface would be
footlambert, or 1/". candela per A(lI".) lumens, or at an angle e
square foot. Consider the light flux with respect to the normal line the
which is emitted into an elementary flux would be A(1/".) (cos e) lumens
solid angle, 2". sin e de. At an angle per steradian.
of e, the projection of the elementary Table IV provides a reference of
area is equal to A cos e. Because the luminance values for a number of
luminous flux in a particular direc- common sources.
tion is equal to the product of the All photometric data in this
source strength in candelas and the manual are presented in units of
solid angle, the total luminous flux candelas, lumens, footcandles, and
Theory and Measurements 15

TABLE IV
Typical values of luminance (photometric brightness) for
various sources.111
Source Luminance
(Footlamberts)
Sun. as observed from Earth's surface at meridian. 4.7 x lOS
Moon. bright spot. as observed from Earth's surface. ..•. 730
Clear blue sky. ...........•...•...•...•...........•....•• 2300
Lightning flash. .............•.......................•.... 2 X 10"
Atomic fission bomb, 0.1 millisecond after firing,
90-feet diameter ball. ...............................••... 6 x IOu
Tungsten filament lamp, gas-filled. 16 lumen/watt. ........ 2.6 x 10·
Plain carbon are, positive crater... ........................ 4.7 x 10'
Fluorescent lamp. T-12 bulb. cool white. 430 mao
medium loading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000

footlamberts; Table V permits con- the case of an infrared detector,


version to other units if such con- luminous sensitivity is practically
version is required. meaningless although luminous sen-
sitivity is sometimes arbitrarily de-
Luminous and Absolute fined as the response of the device
Rating Systems to the whole radiation of the test
Although the practice of using source (usually a tungsten lamp)
luminous ratings for photosensitive and the radiant flux from the lamp
devices is almost universal in the is defined by its luminous flux. Some-
photoelectric industry, there are times, in order to convey this par-
situations in which an absolute rat- ticular meaning, the term hololumen
ing system, or system based on is used in place of lumen. At other
radiant power units instead of photo- times, the device may be rated di-
metric units, is more appropriate. rectly in terms of radiant power-
All photodetectors do not have for example, by use of the power in
the spectral-sensitivity range of the watts projected on the device from
eye; most do not even closely ap- a black-body source of prescribed
proximate its spectral response. In temperature.

TABLE V
Conversion table for various photometric units.
1 footcandle (lumen/ft·) = 10.764 lux (meter candle)
(lumen/meterS)
= 0.001076 phot (lumen/em')
1 footlambert (1/ ... candle/ft') = 0.001076' lambert (1/ ... candle/em')
= 1.0764 millilamberts
= 3.426 nits (candle/meter")
= 0.0003426 stilbs (candle/eml)
== 0.3183 candle/ftS
= 10.764 apostilbs (1/,.. candle/meters)
16 RCA Phototube Manual

In general, the specification of in the visible spectrum. If the radiat-


the luminous sensitivity of a device ing body is one which may be de-
is not sufficiently definitive; the dis- scribed technically as "black", its
tribution of radiant energy from the behavior may be accurately described
source as well as the spectral re- by the laws of radiation. Because the
sponse of the device and the spectral black-body radiation is used as a
sensitivity of the eye must be known. standard for the infrared region and
However, because many photoelectric because other sources may be de-
devices are fabricated to approxi- scribed in terms of the black body,
mate the visual range, the rating of a brief review of black-body radia-
these devices in luminous terms is tion laws and standards is given be-
convenient, although not entirely low.
unambiguous. A black body is one which ab-
A practical advantage of using sorbs all incident radiation; none is
luminous standards for testing transmitted and none is reflected.
photoelectric devices is that the test Because, in thermal equilibrium,
standard usually is a tungsten lamp thermal radiation balances absorp-
calibrated for color temperature and tion, it follows that a black body is
luminous intensity. Secondary stand- the most efficient thermal radiator
ards can readily be prepared by possible. A black body radiates more
photometric comparison. total power and more power at a
Because the spectral emission of particular wavelength than any other
the tungsten lamp is known, the thermally radiating source at the
radiant sensitivity of a photodevice same temperature. There are two
can be calculated by rather simple general theoretical laws which de-
procedures if the relative spectral- scribe the radiation from a black
response characteristic of the device body.
is known. l3 Therefore, the luminous The Stefan-Boltzmann law de-
rating is not just an isolated value. scribes the total radiant flux W per
For devices sensitive primarily unit area from a black body as a
in the ultraviolet region, the tung- function of temperature, as follows:
sten lamp is a poor standard because
of the very small amount of ultra- (9)
violet radiation it provides. Such where 11' is equal to 5.6819 x 1O-1lI
devices are sometimes rated in terms
watt per square centimeter per de-
of watts of monochromatic power.
gree', and T is the temperature of
Similarly, in the infrared region
the radiator in degrees Kelvin.
luminous reference is of doubtful
Planck's radiation law describes
meaning. For this reason, and be-
the spectral distribution of black-
cause infrared-sensitive devices are
frequently used as detectors of ther- body radiation as follows:
mal radiation, such devices are C.!»T
often rated in terms of the radiation
of a black body at a temperature
J» =C 1 »""" (e _1)-" (10)
that can provide a spectrum rich in where J» is the power in watts in the
the energy of the spectral region complete solid angle of 211" steradians
characteristic of the device. on one side of the black-body plane
(Lambert's cosine law applying) per
Radiant Energy unit area for an increment of wave-
length of one centimeter; Cl is equal
Black·body radiation." As a body to 3.7413 x 10-12 square centimeter-
is raised in temperature, it first watts (the first radiation constant);
emits radiation primarily in the in- » is the wavelength in centimeters;
visible infrared region; then, as the and C. is equal to 1.4380 centimeter-
temperature is increased, the radia- degree (the second radiation con-
tion shifts to the shorter wavelength stant). Fig. 13 illustrates the dis-
Theory and Measurements 17

125
, I I
I , ,,4000° ABSOLUTE
:z
o
!i100 :
o
'"
c::
I IIi "" "~ ~ /

\5
>-
'"w
c::
75

II "" ~
----
3000°
........
15 50 ........
w
>
i=
II V / 2500° ~

II~ - --
:Jw 25 -.....
c:: 2000°

o 4000 ---
BOOO 12000
WAVELENGTH--ANGSTROMS
16000 20000

Fig. l~t Distribution of black-body radiant energy as a function of wavelength at various


temperatures.
tribution of black-body radiant en- ards for the visible range are
ergy as a function of wavelength for frequently given in terms of color
a number of different temperatures temperature, instead of true tem-
as calculated from Eq. (10). perature. The color temperature of
Although no materal is ideally a selective radiator is determined by
black, the equivalent of a theoretical comparison with the true tempera-
black body can be achieved in the ture of a black body; when the out-
laboratory by providing a hollow put of the selective radiator is the
radiator with a small exit hole. The closest possible approximation of a
radiation from the hole approaches perfect color match in the range of
that from a theoretical black radia- the visual sensitivity, the color tem-
tor if the area of the cavity is large perature is numerically the same as
compared with the area of the exit the black-body temperature. For a
hole. The characteristic of 100-per- tungsten source, the relative distri-
cent absorption is achieved because bution of radiant energy in the vis-
any radiation entering the hole is ible spectral range is very close to
reflected many times inside the that of a black body although the
cavity. For many years experimen- absolute temperatures differ. How-
tal physicists had to build their own ever, the match of energy distribu-
black-body radiators; however, well- tion becomes progressively worse in
designed commercial radiators are the ultraviolet and infrared spectral
now available. regions.
For a radiation source which is
not black, the radiation may be cal- Radiation sources and character-
culated from black-body radiation istics. Relative spectral-emission
laws provided the emissivity as a characteristics for a number of im-
function of wavelength is known. portant radiation sources are shown
Spectral emissivity e\ is defined as in Fig. 14. Each of these sources is
the ratio of the output of a radiator described briefly below.
at a specific wavelength to that of Tungsten lamps are probably
a black body at the same tempera- the most important type of radiation
ture. Tungsten sources, for which source for photoelectric applications
tables of emissivity data are avail- because of their availability, reli-
able,11i are widely used as practical ability, and constancy of operating
standards, particularly for the visi- characteristics. Commercial photo-
ble range. Tungsten radiation stand- tube design has been considerably
18 RCA Phototube Manual

MERCURY LAMP
40

~30
ffi
is
FLUORESCENT LAMP-DAYLIGHT w2 0
>

1~~lill+~ til I
ii
;;11 0

- . .-
II:

3800 5000 6000 7000


0
4000
-5000 6000 7000
....
WAVELENGTH-ANGSTROMS WAVELENGTH-ANGSTROMS

~8
-
CARBON ARC LAMP ZIRCONIUM CONCENTRATED
ARC LAMP-IOO WATT
70
;;;7
z
~
- -
60
~6
z ...... r-- >-
~50 1
Jo.../
~
1;;5 w
;:'i40 ~
~4 w V
'"
II: II ~30 /
.. 3 !¢ V
'"
::2 ;;120
or
:.lII. III 10 ./
'"3000 oIJu..'- V
4000 5000 6000 7000 4000 5000 6000 7000
WAVELENGTH-ANGSTROMS WAVELENGTH--ANGSTROMS

TUNGSTEN LAMP 2870· K (STANDARD TESTl


I

....
>-
0:&
1.6
SOLAR ENERGY DISTRI BUTION

l.O
8
'\
~~
ffit:
1.2
~ [l 6 / ~
~ao. 8
0'"
'1.
4 / l",.
~~ "-
~iO.4 I
11\
\ 1\ 2
/II l'.
~I 0 I \V k::: f""',
II: 2000 6000 10000 14000 18000 I-
WAVELENGTH-ANGSTROMS o 800 1600 2400 3 0 00
WAVELENGTH-ANGSTROMS

Flit. 14. Relative spectral-emission characteristics for several representative radiation sources.

influenced by the characteristics of cal curve for a fluorescent lamp of


the tungsten lamp. the "daylight" type.
The common fluorescent lamp, A very useful point source"6 is
which is a very efficient light source, the zirconium concentrated-arc lamp.
consists of an argon-mercury glow Concentrated-arc lamps are available
discharge. in a bulb internally coated having ratings from 2 to 300 watts,
with a phosphor that converts ultra- and in "point" diameters from 0.003
violet radiation from the discharge to 0.116 inch. Operation of these
into useful light output. There are lamps requires one special circuit to
numerous types of fluorescent lamps provide a high starting voltage and
having different output spectral dis- another well-filtered and ballasted
tribution depending upon the phos- circuit for operation.
phor and gas-filling. The spectral Although many types of elec-
response shown in Fig. 14 is a typi- trical discharge have been used as
Theory and Measurements 19

radiation sources, probably the most


important are the mercury arc and WTotal =/ : W(>.) d>. (11)
the carbon arc. The character of the
light emitted from the mercury arc If the total power of the source
varies with pressure and operating is known (as it usually is) and the
conditions. At increasing pressures, relative distribution of the radiant
the spectral-energy distribution from flux is known from data such as Fig.
the arc changes from the typical 14, an absolute value of W(;>..) may
mercury-line spectra characteristic be obtained by performing the inte-
to an almost continuous spectrum gration indicated in Eq. (11) with
of high intensity in the near-infra- the known relative values W reI (;>..)
red, visible, and ultraviolet regions. and solving for the calibration con-
Fig. 14 includes the spectral-energy stant W(;>..)
distribution from a water-cooled
mercury arc at a pressure of 130 W,el(;>")
atmospheres. The carbon arc is a If the receiver has an acceptance
source of great intensity and high area A normal to the line from the
color temperature. A typical energy- source to the receiver, and the dis-
distribution spectrum of a dc high- tance from the source to the receiver
intensity arc is shown in Fig. 14. is d, the total power intercepted by
the device (assuming a uniform
spatial distribution of radiant flux)
Matching sources and receiver. can be expressed as follows:
In applications involving a photo-
detector and a radiation source, it
is frequently necessary to estimate
WTotal A
-
A
--
fOO W(;>..) d>.
or calculate the expected response 4,,-d' - 4,,-d' 0
from the combination. For a tung- (12)
sten-lamp source operating at normal Let R(>.) represent the spectral-re-
brightness, the response is the sponse characteristic function for the
product of the luminous flux from receiver in amperes per watt. Be-
the lamp and the sensitivity of the cause the response of the device at
photodevice specified in terms of any wavelength is the product of the
response per lumen for a tungsten power intercepted at that wavelength
source (a standard color tempera- and the sensitivity at that wave-
ture of 2870 degrees Kelvin is length, the total response I in am-
usually specified). For other com- peres of the device to the source for
binations of source (or source tem- all wavelengths is given by
perature) and receiver, the same
simplification does not follow, unless
the spectral distribution of the 1= A
4,,-d'
fOO 0
W(;>..) R(>.) d>.
source in the range of the receiver
corresponds closely to that of the (13)
tungsten lamp with which the re- A linear relationship between re-
ceiver has been calibrated. sponse and radiation is assumed.
In general, the calculation of the Given only the relative spectral
expected response of a particular response of the photosensitive device
photodetector and a radiation source r(;>..), normalized to unity at the
involves a consideration of the point- wavelength of maximum response,
by-point match of the spectral emis- and the luminous sensitivity of the
sion and the spectral response. device s in amperes per lumen from
Specifically, the response may be cal- a tungsten lamp at a specified color
culated as follows: temperature, the absolute sensitivity
If W(;>..) is the radiant power of the device, R (;>..), may be calcu-
from the source in watts per unit lated" as follows:
wavelength, the total power from If (f is the absolute sensitivity of
the source is given by the device at the wavelength of peak
20 RCA Phototube Manual

sensitivity in amperes per watt, the through their representation in the


sensitivity R(x) is given by Electronic Industries Association
(EIA) have set up a series of regis-
R(x) = IT r(X) (14) tered S-numbers which indicate the
The term w(x) is used to rep- relative spectral response of the de-
resent the energy distribution of the vice, i.e., a combination of the trans-
radiation from the tungsten lamp mission characteristic of the en-
falling on the active area of the velope or window as well as the
photosensitive device. basic photosensitivity of the detector
The light flux in lumens on the element. These numbers are often
device is then given by misused to indicate the photosensi-

L = 680 J: y(X) w(x) dx


tive material or the basic photosen-
sitivity of the detector element
alone; it is important to note the
distinction. Table VI lists the cor-
(15)
rect meaning of particular S-num-
(See Eq. 6.) As in Eq. (13), the total bers.
current I developed is given by

I =J: w(X) fT r(x) dx


(16)
Because the sensitivity s is spe-
References
cified in amperes per lumen, the 1 Tamm and Schubin, "Theory of the Photo-
equation for s can be written as fol- effect of Metals", Z. Physik, 68 (1931)
lows: • Mayer, H. and Thomas, H.., "External

Jo OO
w(x) fT r(x) dx
Photoeffect of Alkali Metals", Z. Physik.
147 (1957)
• Seiler, E. F .. , "Color Sensitiveness of Photo-
s=I/L=
680 J: y(x) w(x) dx
£
sensitiveness of Photoelectric Cells". Astro-
phys. J., 52 (1920)
Brady, J. J., "Energy Distribution of
Photoelectrons as a Function of the Thick-
(17)
ness of a Potassium Film", Phys. Rev., 46,
Finally, the absolute sensitivity of (1934)
the device in amperes per watt at the a Goerlich, p .. Z. Phyg., 101, (1936)
wavelength of peak sensitivity can
be obtained by solving for fT. • Sommer, A. H., "New Photoemissive Cath-
odes of High Sensitivity", Rev. Sci. Instr.,

J:
680s y(x) w(x) dx 'I
26, No.7, (1965)
Spicer, W. E., "Photoemissive, Photocon..
ductive, and Optical Absorption Studies of

fT = J: w(X) r(X) dx
Alkali-Antimony Compounds", Phys. Rev.,
112, No. 1, (1958)
• Bube, R. H., Photoconductivity of Solids,
(18) John Wiley & Sons, New York, (1960)

Because w(x) appears in both the • Rose, Albert, "An Outline of Some Photo-
conductive Processes", RCA Review, 12,
numerator and the denominator, it (1951)
is not necessary that this value be
any more than a relative function 10 Griffin, D. R., Hubbard, R. and Wald, G.,
"The Sensitivity of the Human Eye to
showing the distribution of energy Infrared Radiation", JOSA, 37, No.7,
from the tungsten lamp. (1947)
11 Goodeve, C. F., ''Vision in the Ultraviolet".
Spectral-response designation. To Nature, (1934)
facilitate the designation of the spec- .. I.E.s. Lighting Handbook, Illuminating
tral response of photodetectors, the Engineering Society, New York, N.Y..
manufacturers of such devices (1959)
Theory and Measurements 21

TABLE VI
Typical combinations of photosensitive surfaces and window
materials which can provide the basic spectral-response
designations standardized by E.I.A.
Spectral
Response Type of
Number Photodetector Photosensitive Material Envelope
8-1 Photocathode Ag-O-Cs Lime~glass
8-2*
8-3 Photocathode Ag-O-Rb Lime-glass
8-4 Photocathode Cs-8b Lime-glass
8-5 Photocathode Cs-Sb UV-transmitting glass
S-6 Photocathode Na Unspecified
8-7 Photocathode Cs-Rb-O-Ag Pyrex
S-8 Photocathode Cs-Bi Lime-glass
S-9 Photocathode Cs-Sb (semitransparent) Lime-glass
S-10 Photocathode Ag-Bi-O-Cs Lime-glass
(semi tra nsparen t)
S-l1 Photocathode Cs-Sb (semitransparent) Lime-glass
8-12 Photoconductor CdS (crystal with piastic Lime-glass
coating)
S-13 Photocathode Cs-Sb (semitransparent) Fused silica
8-14 Photojunction Ge Lime-glass
(Photocell)
8-15 Photoconductor Cd8 (sintered) Lime-glass
(Photocell)
8-16 Photoconductor Cd8e Lime-glass
(Photocell)
8-17 Photocathode Cs-8b Lime-glass
(reflecting substrate)
8-18 Photoconductor 8b28s Lime
(Vidicon)
8-19 Photocathode Cs-8b Fused silica
8-20 Photocathode 8b-K-Na-Cs Lime-glass
(semitransparent)
8-21 Photocathode Cs-8b (semitransparent) UV-transmitting glass
8-22 Presently
unspecified
8-23 Photocathode Rb-Te Fused silica
8-24 Photocathode Na 2 K8b Lime-glass

* Now obsolete. Formerly a variation similar to 8-1, discarded by EIA action to reduce
confusion.

References cont'd
13 Engstrom, R. W.o "Absolute SpectraI- 17 Zworykin, V. Ie. and Ramberg, E. G .•
Response Characteristics of Photosensitive Photodectricity and its Application John
Devices", RCA Review, 21, (1960) Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, (1949)
a Forsythe, W. E., Measurement of Radiant 18 Hughes, A. L. and DuBridge, Photoelectric
Energy, McGraw-Hill Book Co.• N.Y. (1937) Phenomena. McGraw-Hill Book Co.. Inc..
New York (1932)
10 DeVos, J. C., Physica, 20, (1954)
,. Walsh, J. W., Photometry. Constable and
,. Buckingham, W. D. and Deibert, C. R.. Co. Ltd .• London, (1953)
uCharacteristics and Applications of Con-
centrated-Arc Lamps", J. Soc. Motion
Picture Eng., 47, (1946)
Vacuum
Photo tubes

Construction and Principles positive potential, approaching that


of the anode. If the applied voltage
of Operation is too low to provide an effective
secondary-emission ratio* greater
Isimplest
N a vacuum phototube, one of the
of photodetectors, the es-
than unity, the glass becomes
charged negatively to approximately
sential elements are a photocathode, cathode potential.
an anode, an envelope, and a suit- Fig. 15 shows a perfectly cylin-
able termination or base. The shape drical electric field in which the elec-
of the photocathode is determined by tron-emission energy is E electron-
the particular optical requirements volts and the emission velocity is
of the application and the general tangent to the surface of the cathode
electron-optical requirement that and in a plane normal to the axis of
electrons emitted from the cathode the tube. When the electron path is
must be collected by the anode. The
most common cathode shape is semi-
cylindrical; one side is open to admit
light and an anode rod is located ap-
proximately at the center line of the
cylinder. An ideal geometrical lay-
out for omnidirectional response
without interference from the anode
is provided by evaporating cathode
material on the inside of the en-
velope window to form a semitrans-
parent cathode and locating the
anode in the center of the bulb.
Cup-shaped cathodes have been used
with ring-shaped anodes.
The anode of a vacuum photo-
tube is usually made small to mini-
mize obstruction of the light falling
on the photocathode. As a result, the
anode may not collect all the elec- Fig. 15. Paths of electrons in a tube having
cylindrical geometry. Directions of
trons emitted from the cathode. This emission velocities are (a) tangential
situation arises because of the tan- and (b) radial.
gential component of the electron-
emission velocity which causes some
of the electrons to miss the anode just tangent to the anode, or when
and strike the glass window. When the electron path impinges on the
the energy of the electrons striking anode, a consideration of conserva-
the glass wall is sufficient, secondary tion of angular momentum and en-
electrons are emitted from the glass ergy leads to the following relation:
and may be collected by the anode.
* Effective secondary-emission ratio is de-.
If the secondary-emission ratio is fined as the ratio of collected secondary...
substantially greater than unity, the electron current (total secondary-emission
current less return current) to primary
glass window becomes charged to a current.
22
Vacuum Phototubes 23

b" V +E (19)
increase in the collected current. The
a" ~ --E-- top of the loop represents the condi-
tion in which the glass is positively
where b is the cathode radius, a is charged. Although the case of Fig.
the anode radius, and V is the poten- 16 is an exaggerated one because of
tial difference between anode and the small anode size, some instability
cathode. For an electron energy of of the output current is occasionally
one volt and an applied potential of observed in conventional tubes. An
100 volts, the anode radius must be anode voltage of about 250 volts
greater than one-tenth the radius of eliminates the condition entirely.
the cathode in order to collect the The construction of the photo-
emitted electrons. In a typical con- tube stem and envelope follows the
struction, the radius of the cathode standard practices of the electron-
cylinder is approximately 8 milli- tube industry. A typical construction
meters and the anode radius is 0.5 is shown in Fig. 17. Choice of metals
millimeter. In this case, the number and glasses for specific sealing con-
of electrons which strike the glass ditions is governed principally by
depends upon the wavelength of the their rates of thermal expansion.
exciting radiation. Table VII lists expansion coefficients
Fig. 16 shows the sort of erratic for the more common glasses and
behavior that occurs when the anode metals used in the manufacture of
radius is too small (in this case the phototubes!
ratio of the cathode radius to the
anode radius is about 30:1). Data

.--ANODE
C,lI.THODE
ARROWS INDICATE THE
ORDER IN WHICH DATA
WERE TAKEN

o 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 ACTIVATING


APPLIED VOLTS PELLET-
BASE
Fig.. 16. Erratic current-voltage character-
istic in a vacuum phototube caused by
bulb charges which result when the
anode is too small to collect all emitted
photoeleetrons.

shown are for a nonstandard 935


vacuum phototube having an anode-
wire diameter of 0.020 inch (one-
Fig. 17. Typical construction of a vacuum
half the normal dimension). The out- phototube.
side of the envelope was wrapped in
a metal foil except for the window;
the foil was at cathode potential. An essential process in the
The phenomenon was also observed manufacture of most phototubes is
when the foil was at anode poten- the introduction of cesium. Although
tial and when no foil was used. in some special phototubes cesium
On the lower branch of the is introduced from a side tube, the
"hysteresis" loop, as the voltage is most common method of introduc-
increased, the glass becomes nega- ing this activating material is by
tively charged. At the unstable point means of an activating pellet, as
on the right, the secondary-emission shown in Fig. 17. A mixture of
ratio reaches unity; the result is an cesium chromate and silicon is
24 RCA Phototube Manual

TABLE VII
Expansion Coefficients for Common Glasses and Materials Used
in the Manufacture of Phototubes
Coefficient of Expansion
Soft Glasses X 10-7 (per °C)
0080 92
0120 89
7285- 95
"Radioactivity less than 10 cpm/kilogram
Hard Glasses
7040 47
7052 46
7720 (Nonex) 36
77 40 (Pyrex) 32
7750 41
9741 39
Quartz
7912 (Vycor) 8
Lithium Fluoride 400
Sapphire Temperature - °C
Parallel to C-axis 50 666
500 833
1000 903
Perpendicular to C-axis 50 50
500 77
1000 831

Metals Temperature Range - °c


Tungsten 0-500 46
Molybdenum 25- 500 55
Nickel-Iron 20- 400 53
(42 alloy) 42 per cent Ni
Nickel-Iron 30 - 310 95
(52 Alloy) 50 per cent Ni
Kovar 25 - 300 60
Platinum 25-100 91
Chrome Iron 25 -500 108
Dumet 92 radial
65 axial

formed into a pill and held between Properties of


the two sides of a metal container.
During processing the activator con- Vacuum Phototubes
tainer is heated to a dull-red color
by the use of radio-frequency heat- Spectral Response
ing. An exothermic reaction takes
place in which silicon chromate is The spectral response of a
formed and metallic cesium is re- vacuum phototube depends upon the
leased. photocathode material and the spec-
Although microphonic problems tral transmission of the bulb win-
are not common in phototubes, it is dow. Although pure metals have
sometimes important to prevent the photoemissive properties, their re-
introduction of a modulated current sponse is usually rather poor and
caused by relative movement of the predominantly in the ultraviolet re-
elements of the phototube. Special gion; for most practical purposes,
beads and "snubbers" are sometimes therefore, pure metallic photo-
introduced for this purpose and cathodes are of little value. Use-
metal parts are usually spot-welded able sensitivity has been obtained
together. only with surfaces involving alkali
Vacuum Phototubes 25

metals. One of the first photoelectric are prepared by oxidizing a porous


surfaces to be used commercially was silver base in an oxygen glow dis-
potassium sensitized with hydrogen. charge to a degree determined by
This type of surface is produced by the appearance of interference colors
the evaporation of a thin layer of at the surface. Cesium is then intro-
potassium in vacuum. The surface is duced and the surface is baked at
sensitized by exposing it to a glow about 250 degrees centigrade until
discharge in a hydrogen atmosphere a characteristic straw color results.
to form a surface layer of potassium Maximum sensitivity at the SOOO-
hydride, which is presumed to be angstrom peak corresponds to only
covered with a potassium film. The about O.S-per-cent quantum effi-
resultant surface may be symboli- ciency, but the spectral range is
cally represented as (K) - KH wide. In addition, this type of photo-
K? This sensitization process cathode can tolerate a somewhat
greatly increases the photoelectric higher ambient temperature (100 de-
yield, but produces little change in grees centigrade maximum) than
either the threshold or the wave- most photocathodes.
length of maximum response. The A closely related photocathode
sensitivity at the wavelength of in which rubidium replaces cesium is
maximum response, 4400 angstroms, used in tubes having a spectral-re-
has been reported as high as 0.023 sponse characteristic identified as
ampere per watt (about 7-per-cent S-3. Although the sensitivity of this
quantum efficiency). However, as surface is not high, it has proved use-
shown in Fig. IS, the spectral re- ful in color-matching applications.
sponse is so limited (epecially The most important photocath-
for applications involving tungsten ode currently used in vacuum photo-
lamps) that the surface is not gen- tubes is the cesium-antimony "alloy"
erally used for commercial applica- surface developed by Goerlich." In the
tions. formation of this photocathode, an
evaporated layer of antimony is
treated with cesium vapor at 170
degrees centigrade. The resulting
photocathode, which is believed to be
a semiconductor CSsSb,. is character-
ized by high sensitivity in the visible
spectrum. The spectral response for
the cesium-antimony surface depos-
ited on a solid backing mounted in
a lime-glass bulb is shown in Fig. IS;
it is identified as S-4. Quantum ef-
ficiency is occasionally as high as 31
per cent at 4000 angstroms, the
wavelength of peak response.
The envelopes of most photo-
tubes are made of Corning OOSO lime
glass, which cuts off transmitted
Fig. 18. Spectral response characteristics of radiation in the ultraviolet region at
vacuum phototubes: (K) - KH - K; S-l;
S-3; S-4; S-5. about 3000 angstroms. Envelopes
have also been made of ultraviolet-
transmitting Corning 9741 glass. A
The silver-oxygen-cesium photo- cesium-antimony cathode having the
cathode (used in tubes having S-l latter type of window provides the
response) is more important com- spectral response identified as S-5 in
mercially because it is more sensitive Fig. IS. Some special phototubes
to long wavelengths than the potas- have fused-silica windows, which
sium-hydride photocathode. Com- further extend the spectral response
mercial photocathodes of this type in the ultraviolet region.
26 RCA Phototube Manual

100
A
B 0 0
I c

0
/; /j r~F
~ c I~ r---..
II JIll ICURVE MATERIAL THICKNESS \ \
AI fl I AB LITHIUM FLUORIDE Imm
\
0 SUPRASIL 10
) !/ I C
B
SAPPHIRE I 1"-
o I / I ED D G FUSED QUARTZ 10

j Ic I F
VYCOR
TYPE 9741 GLASS
I
I \ 1\
0
A
/ I G
H
TYPE 9823 GLASS
LIME-GLASS
I \ \
I
B H \
o
F{ G 1 1 1 I III 1 ~ c
Z 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Z 3 4 5 6 7 B 9
1000 10000 100000
WAVELENGTH--ANGSTROMS

Fig. 19. Transmission characteristics of various glasses used in phototube manufacture.

Transmission curves of several the output circuit. In the normal op-


glasses used in phototube manufac- erating range (region C), the in-
ture are shown in Fig. 19. These crease in current (approximately 5
curves are for a typical thickness of per cent) is caused by a number of
1 millimeter, except as noted; ultra- factors. Some of the increase is
violet cutoff is critically dependent the result of improved collection
on the thickness of the glass. The efficiency at higher voltage. Photo-
transmittance T of glass at a partic- emission is also slightly increased
ular wavelength is described by the as a result of the applied electric
following relationship: field at the cathode, which aids
T = K10-{1t (20)
where K is a factor (approximately
~0.3~
4
0.9) dependent upon the surface re- a:
flectivity, {1 is the coefficient of It
~O.2
absorption, and t is the thickness.
Near the cutoff wavelength it is im- ; 0.1 ENLARGED
portant to use as thin a glass as A SCALE
~~ A SECTiON
practicable. Some experimental . ----~ 0
-1.0 0 +1.0
phototubes have windows made of a VOLTS
thin inverted bubble of glass. OL-_AA~~L-____~~____~~____~
o 100 200 300
VOLTS

Current-Voltage
Fig. 20. Current-voltage characteristic for
Characteristics a typical vacuum phototube showing the
various regions of interest.
A typical current-voltage char-
acteristic for a vacuum phototube is
shown in Fig. 20. At the foot of the in the emission by reducing the
curve (region A), the energy of the voltage barrier at the surface as-
photoelectrons is sufficient to permit sociated with the photoelectric work
some collection by the anode, even function. The increase in emission
against an opposing field. As the from this field effect is primarily
voltage is increased in the positive observed in the neighborhood of the
direction (region B), more of the long-wavelength cutoff of the spec-
emitted electrons are collected. How- tral characteristic. Therefore, a
ever because of the finite size of the phototube operated at a higher volt-
anode, some of the electrons which age is slightly more red-sensitive. In
escape and strike the bulb are lost to some phototubes, the vacuum may
Vacuum Phototubes 27

not be sufficiently low to prevent all charge. At high current levels


ionization; this condition usually (recommended absolute-maximum
results in an increased slope of the current ratings are listed in the
current-voltage characteristic in the Phototube Data section) the tube
C range. may suffer both temporary and per-
manent fatigue, resulting from a
Linearity change in surface composition. Be-
cause such fatigue is usually a func-
Vacuum phototubes are charac- tion of both current and time,
terized by a photocurrent response phototubes can often be used safely
which is linear with incident light at very high light levels if the
level over a wide range-so much so exposure is brief. The use of pulsed
that these tubes are frequently used light makes it possible to develop
as standards in light-comparison large photocurrents (up to the point
measurements. Fig. 21 shows the where the space charge limits the
linear current-light relationship output current) without excessive
characteristic of a vacuum photo- fatigue effects.
tube. If a tube is to be relied upon as The problem of currents limited
a standard because of its linearity by space charge between coaxial
characteristic, the voltage used cylinders has been worked out by
should be sufficient to prevent in- Langmuir and Blodgett! In practical
stability of the type shown in Fig. 16. units, the expression for the current
I in amperes per unit length I of
axis is given by
f20r-------------.
I 14.66 X 10-8 VO/"
100 =--------0--- (21)
rtf
f3n: 80
where I is the length of the cylinder,
w
~ 60 r is the radius of the anode cylinder,
<I
o V is the applied voltage between
540 cathode and anode, and fJ is a non-
:. dimensional function of the ratio of
20 the cathode and anode radii. Fig. 22
shows an experimental current-volt-
23456 age curve for a 1P39 vacuum photo-
LIGHT FLUX-LUMENS tube; the current is plotted on a
Fig. 21. The linearity of current as a func-
2/3-power scale to show the limita-
tion of light for a vacuum phototuhe. tion resulting from space charge. The
theoretical line is for an assumed
cathode radius of 0.8 centimeter, an
Because the photosensitivity of the anode radius of 0.051 centimeter, and
photocathode may vary across the a cathode length of 2.22 centimeters.
surface, the same area on the photo- Because the cylinder is only half
cathode should be used throughout closed, there are large end effects.
the measurement. Caution should Although Eq. (21) does not take into
also be taken to avoid the effects of account the initial velocity of the
shadowing by the anode. The anode electrons, it is adequate for gen-
should either always occupy the same eral order-of-magnitude evaluations.
relative area in the light beam, or the Space charge is usually not a limita-
shadow effects should be avoided by tion in vacuum photo tubes because
placing the light beam to one side. steady currents of the magnitude
Two effects may limit the linear necessary to produce space-charge
operation of the phototube at high limitation would usually first produce
light levels, fatigue and space severe fatigue limitation.
28 RCA Phototube Manual

~,---.-------------~,,---~~

I
, LIMITED BY
Although the calculation indi-
cates that vacuum phototubes may
LIGHT LEVEL
theoretically be used at light-modu-
lation frequencies approaching 10'
EXPERIMENTAL
cycles per second (one gigacycle)
CURVE I
, practical difficulties preclude the
realization of such performance. For
I
,
I example, the 1P39 has an interelec-
,, trode capacitance of 2.6 picofarads
and its associated circuit further
I
'",TWO-THIRDS adds to this value; the total capaci-
I (Ats~%T~G LZA~O tance is approximately a minimum of

I
,
" INITIAL VELOCITY)
10 picofarads. In order that the cir-
cuit time constant not limit the
I
I response, the equivalent resistance-
I capacitance time constant of the cir-
I cuit should be less than 0.6 nanosec-
I
I ond. For a capacitance of 10 pico-
I I farads, the load impedance would
10" I
6 'I have to be less than 60 ohms. Unless
4 I I
Z / I
the light level were high, such op-
I L-L-~O----~5~--~IO----~15~--~~' eration would not be possible. Never-
VOLTS theless, for light pulses of high
magnitude and short duration, the
Fig. 22. Experimental current-voltage curve vacuum photo tube is capable of very
for a IP39 taken at high values of cur- short response time when coupled
rent to show the space-charge limitation. with a minimum load resistance.
Note that the current scale is drawn on
a two-thirds power scale so that the
space-charge law becomes a straight line.
Noise
Frequency Response As the light level and the photo-
The inherent response time of a current become less, it becomes dif-
vacuum phototube is exceedingly ficult to distinguish the photocurrent
short. No time delay between the from the dark current (current re-
incidence of light and the emission sulting from sources other than
of electrons has been measured." For radiant flux on the photocathode).
a vacuum phototube such as the One limit of detection is in the fluctu-
1P39 (anode radius of 0.051 centi- ation of the dark current, or dark
meter, cathode radius of 0.8 centi- noise.
meter) with an applied potential of Dark currents in vacuum photo-
100 volts, the transit time for an tubes arise from various sources.
electron having an initial velocity of When both the anode and cathode are
zero has been calculated to be 3.9 terminated in a base attached to one
X 10-' seconds (3.9 nanoseconds). end of the tube, the leakage across
The transit time itself does not the base may be a major source of
limit frequency response; rather it is dark current. Such leakage is par-
limited by the spread in transit time ticularly troublesome in an atmos-
resulting from differences in initial phere having high humidity, espe-
electron velocities. For an electron cially if the base of the tube is dirty.
energy of 1 volt and emission veloc- In a vacuum phototube, internal elec-
ity directed toward the anode, the trical leakage usually results from
transit time for an applied potential excess photocathode activating ma-
of 100 volts is 3.3 nanoseconds. Thus, terial. Tubes having anode and cath-
a total spread in transit time of ap- ode terminations at opposite ends of
proximately 0.6 nanosecond may be the tube, especially when the separa-
expected. tion is also maintained inside the
Vacuum Phototubes 29

envelope, have a minimum of elec- (Johnson noise) associated with the


trical leakage. resistor is given as follows:
In such phototubes, the main 1/2
source of dark current may be dark
emission of electrons from the photo-
[ 4 kTR L:,f ] "/"
(23)
cathode. Dark noise in the vacuum
photo tube is shot noise caused by where k is Boltzmann's constant
such random dark emission. The rms (1.38 X 10-23 J eule per degree), T is
fluctuation current in such cases is the absolute temperature, and L:,f is
given by the following shot-noise the bandpass.
relationship: The Johnson noise may be com-
pared with the voltage across the
1/2 [ ] 1/2 lead resistance resulting from the
P L:,f = 2e idl'>.i (22) fluctuating shot-noise current: R(2e
idL:,f) "/2. The signal voltage and the
where id is the dark emission current, shot-noise voltage across R both in-
e is the electron charge (1.6 X 10-1• crease directly as R, whereas the
coulombs), and L:,f is the bandpass Johnson noise voltage increases only
of the measuring circuit. When the as the square root of R.
signal current is just equal to this Consequently, if the load re-
rms fluctuation current, the condition sistance is made sufficiently high, the
is that of minimum signal detection. signal-to-noise ratio from the circuit
This minimum signal detection improves until the limitation result-
is rarely realized in vacuum photo- ing from shot noise alone is reached
tubes. The noise associated with the (see Fig. 23). The resistance R for
dark emission is usually very small which the two noise sources are equal
compared with the circuit noise. For may be determined as follows:
example, for a load resistor of value
R, the rms-thermal-noise voltage R(2e idL:,f)l/2 = (4kTRL:,f)"/z
1O-3 ',----------------------r----"7---.
,
SIGNAL VOLTAGE ACROSS LOAD RESISTANCE R CAUSED BY /
PHOTOCURRENT PROVIDING 10'1 SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO " / "

/'
SHOT PLUS /'
JOHNSON NOISE

""-"
/
,~/ ,/' JOHNSON-NOISE VOLTAGE
/' ,," ACROSS LOAD RESISTANCE

/'
" NOISE VOLTAGE ACROSS R
RESULTING FROM SHOT NOISE
. OF THE DARK-EMISSION CURRENT

10-7
10~6,-----~~.-----~~IO~B.--------10~9.--------10~lnO------~10~,'I------~1012
LOAD RESISTANCE-OHMS

Fig. 23. Variation of signal voltage, Johnson-noise voltage, and shot-noise voltage developed
across the load resistor by the dark emission-all as a function of the load resistor. Data
are for a vacuum phototube having 8-1 response, dark emission of 10 picoamperes, and
temperature of 300 0 K, and for a bandwidth of 1 cycle.
30 RCA Phototube Manual
or signed for environments of extreme
shock or vibration. In a nonrugged-
ized tube, the cathode would probably
(24) be distorted in its position relative to
the anode by such environments,
For example, for a vacuum even to the extent of causing a short.
phototube having S-l response and Even if no permanent damage is
total dark emission of 10-" ampere done to the phototube, difficulty may
(10 picoamperes) at room tempera- arise from modulation of the photo-
ture, the value of R from Eq. (24) is current resulting from vibration of
5000 megohms. For tubes having the photocathode in the beam of light
lower dark emission, such as those because different areas of the photo-
with S-4 response, the value of load cathodes may have different sensitiv-
resistance which must be exceeded to ities. A typical variation in cathode
override Johnson noise becomes or- sensitivity (sometimes resulting
ders of magnitude above practicabil- from the heat used to seal the bulb
ity. Even with a 5000-megohm load to the stem) is from low sensitivity
resistance, the time constant of the near the stem to high sensitivity
circuit limits the response to only a at the upper end of the cathode.
few cycles per second. For applica- Under normal operating condi-
tions requiring detection of very low tions, the vacuum photo tube is one
light levels with high-frequency re- of the most stable photosensitive
sponse, it is advisable to use a devices available. When stored in the
multiplier phototube. dark at normal temperatures and
operated at low photocurrents, vac-
Environmental Factors uum photo tubes can be used as a
As a rule, the sensitivity of a reasonably good laboratory standard.
vacuum phototube is only slightly They usually show a loss in sensi-
affected by the ambient temperature. tivity during continuous operation,
However, a small reversible effect depending upon the magnitude of the
may be observed in the spectral current. Fig. 24 shows typical life
range near the long-wavelength cut- characteristics of vacuum photo tubes
off where increasing the temperature having S-4 and S-l spectral re-
tends to increase the wavelength for sponses for continuous operation un-
cutoff. Permanent changes may der the test condition.
result from redistribution of the Most vacuum phototubes are
sensitizing metals at elevated tem- rated to several hundred volts; nor-
peratures. mally there is no need for higher
Most phototubes are rated to a voltages. Spacings of the leads in the
maximum temperature in the range stem and base are n,ot designed for
of 75 to 100 degrees centrigrade. very high voltages which would
Above the maximum rated tempera- cause arc-overs, usually across the
ture, the phototube usually suffers base. For best operation, high tem-
permanent loss of sensitivity depend- peratures, high humidity, high volt-
ing upon the length of exposure time. age, dirty or greasy environments,
As the temperature approaches the and excessive vibration or shock
temperature to which the tube is sub- should be avoided.
jected during processing sensitiza-
tion (in the range from 150 to 250
degrees centigrade), serious loss of Application Considerations
sensitivity occurs in less than an
hour. As the temperature is in- Vacuum phototubes are used to
creased, the dark emission also in- best advantage in applications which
creases exponentially; a typical exploit their stability, good fre-
increase is 2:1 for every 10 degrees quency response, flat current-voltage
centigrade. characteristic, and linearity of photo-
Most vacuum tubes are not de- current with radiant flux.
Vacuum Phototubes 31

,...100

~
ffi
i 80
!z 922 (5-11
'"~ IP39 (S-4)
G60

i
",40
> TEST CONDITIONS:

~
a: 20
IP39 -Ebb - 250 V, Rb =1 MEGOHM, Ib -10 MICROAMPERES AVERAGE INITIALLY
922-Ebb-500 V, Rb-I MEGOHM, Ib-4 MICROAMPERES AVERAGE INITIALLY

Fi•• 24. Typical life characteristics for two types of phototubes having 6-4 and 6-1 spectral-
response characteristics.

In applications requiring the ob- phototube is not critical because of


servation of light pulses of short the flat current-voltage characteris-
duration, or light modulated at rela- tic. A minimum of approximately 20
tively high frequencies, the vacuum volts is usually recommended for
phototube performs better than gas- most photo tubes to provide an ade-
filled phototubes or most solid-state quate collection field, although more
photocells. Because vacuum photo- than 100 volts may be desirable to
tubes are relatively stable over long prevent bulb charging caused by
periods, they may be used as stand- initial electron velocities. Voltages
ards of reference or in applications higher than the maximum rating
requiring long periods of operation (usually around 250 volts) should not
without recalibration. The vacuum be used because they may result in
phototube, because of its linear char- electrical breakdown between ex-
acteristic, may be used in many ap- ternal elements of the tube.
plications as an instrument for Usually, the life of a vacuum
measuring light flux. phototube (for a given decrease in
The maximum ratings provided sensitivity) is related approximately
in the data for vacuum phototubes inversely to the current drawn
should be carefully adhered to, espe- through the tube. More stable and
cially in commercial applications in reliable performance results if small
which many tubes are used in iden- areas of concentrated illumination on
tical circuits. In laboratory appli- the cathode surface are avoided.
cations, however, it is possible to Phototubes should not be stored
exceed published ratings if the ex- in light when not in use. Blue and
perimenter takes into consideration ultraviolet light especially can cause
the behavior of the device and the photochemical changes in the cathode
reasons for the stated limitations. which result in changes in sensitiv-
The minimum dc load resistance ity. It is especially important to
value shown in the data for each type avoid exposure to intense illumina-
is recommended to prevent damage tion such as sunlight even when no
to associated circuit components in voltage is applied to the tube. Perma-
the event of a short circuit in the nent damage may result if the tube
phototube, which normally serves as is exposed to light so intense that it
a high series resistance. causes excessive heating of the
The voltage supply for a vacuum cathode. Tubes should not be stored
32 RCA Phototube Manual

for long periods at temperatures silicones, or other non-hygroscopic


near the maximum rating of the insulators. For example, in the case
tube; high temperatures almost al- of a tube having a top-cap connec-
ways result in loss of sensitivity of tion, a continuous band of wax ap-
the tube. proximately a half-inch wide around
A vacuum phototube may be op- the top cap or around the bulb is
erated with either dc or ac applied sufficient to interrupt all external
voltage. Usually a dc supply is leakage paths.
preferred, especially for measure- Some phototubes have special
ments involving very small currents. nonhygroscopic bases which provide
However, in some applications an ac a substantial advantage in critical
supply can be used to advantage be- applications; special sockets can also
cause of the time relationship pro- be obtained which minimize leakage
vided; the ac supply may also be less in humid conditions. Teflon is one of
expensive in some applications. Be- the best materials for such sockets.
cause the vacuum phototube acts as In many applications, it is ad-
a rectifier, the use of steady illumi- vantageous to modulate the light flux
nation and an ac applied voltage which is to be detected by the photo-
results in approximately square tube. Modulation can be achieved in
waves of unidirectional current flow. a variety of ways: the most common
In this case, a dc current meter method is the use of a rotating disk
would indicate an average current or "chopper" which has a number of
approximately half that indicated holes that modulate the light beam;
when a dc power supply is used. other methods use a vibrating reed or
Whenever a small ac signal diaphragm, rotating mirrors, or a
from the phototube is to be observed Kerr cell.
and the amplifier gain is high or the Undesirable modulation may oc-
load resistance is large, it is recom- cur if vibration of the phototube
mended that shielding be provided causes a shift in the position of the
for the phototube and the signal out- light spot on the photocathode be-
put loads. It is advisable to make the cause the photosurface may not be
signal lead as short as possible to uniformly sensitive or because the
avoid pickUp and stray capacitance. anode may interrupt more or less of
This precaution is important if fre- the light. In general, it is desirable
quency response is a consideration. to use a large spot of light on the
Because a phototube is a high-re- photocathode to minimize micro-
sistance device, it is important that phonic effects and cathode current
insulation of associated circuit parts density.
and wiring be adequate. In very
critical applications it may be desir-
able to use a phototube in which the
signal lead (either anode or cathode
References
1 Kohl. W. R .• Material and Techniques for
depending upon polarity of signal Electron Tubes. Reiuhold Publishing Corp..
desired) is terminated through an New York (1960)
insulated bulb-top cap. The power I Lukirsky, P. I. and Rijanoff, S., "'Depend_
ence of Photoemission of Potassium on
supply should be connected between Arrangement of Atomic Hydrogen and
ground and the phototube element Potassium Layers on Its Surface", A.
not used for signal output to avoid Physik. 75, (1932)
8 GoerIich, Po, HO n Composite Transparent
unnecessary pickUp of extraneous Photocathodes", Z. Physik. 101, (1936)
signals. • Sommer. A .• "Photoelectric Alloys of Alkali
For maximum sensitivity of Metals", Pro •• Phys. Soc. (London). 65,
phototube circuits, leakage resistance (1943)
of circuit parts and wiring insulation '" Langmuir, I., and Blodgett, K. B.o "Cur_
should be high. Leakage across mois- rents Limited by Space Charge between
Coaxial Cylinders", Phys. Rev•• 22, (1923)
ture films on the surface of the glass
G Lawrence. E. O. and Beams, J. W., ''In-
can be prevented by coating the stantansity of the Photo-Electric Effect",
glass with pure white ceresine wax, (abstract). Phys. Rev., 29, (1927)
Gas-Filled
Phototuhes

Construction and Principles results in an ionization. As the


voltage on the phototube anode is
of Operation increased above the ionization po-
tential, the amplification of the
photocurrent increases. At 90 volts,
MOST gas-filled phototubes have an electron averages 3 ionizing col-
the same general construction as lisions while traversing the gap
vacuum phototubes except that an between cathode and anode. This
inert gas such as argon at a pressure degree of ionization results in an
of approximately 0.1 millimeter of eight-fold amplification (2 3 ) of the
mercury is introduced before the photocurrent.
final sealing of the tube. Ionization of However, in practice, the actual
the molecules of the inert gas results amplification is greater than that
in amplification of the primary which results from ionization because
photo emission. This amplification secondary effects become more im-
provides an important advantage portant as the voltage on the tube
over the vacuum phototube for appli- is increased. The most important of
cations in which the primary photo- these effects is the release of second-
currents are small and it is necessary ary electrons when positive ions
to minimize external amplification. strike the photocathode. Other ef-
With gas-filled tubes, amplification fects of minor importance are the
factors of from 5 to 10 become quite release of secondary electrons by
practical; even higher amplification metastable atoms produced by elec-
can be used under carefully con- tron excitation in the gas, ionization
trolled conditions. by positive ions, and electron emis-
When electrons are emitted from sion from photons created in the gas.
the cathode by photoelectric action, The combination of these effects
they are accelerated through the gas produces an amplified current i
by the applied voltage. If the energy described by the following equation:
of the electrons exceeds the ioniza-
tion potential of the gas (15.7 volts ad
in the case of argon), collision of an i = io e (25)
electron and a gas molecule can 1 - 'Y(e ad -1)
result in ionization, that is, the cre- where io is the initiating photoelec-
ation of a positive ion and a second tric current, a is the number of ions
electron. The probability of an ioniz- formed per electron per unit length
ing collision in a gas depends upon across the tube from cathode to an-
the energy of the electron and the ode, and 'Y is a lumped constant
density of the gas. The mean free (nominally the number of secondary
path of an electron also depends upon electrons emitted from the cathode
the electron energy. In argon the per impacting positive ion, but actu-
mean free path is of the order of 1.4 ally including the other miner and
to 3 millimeters at a gas pressure of secondary sources of regenerative
0.1 millimeter of mercury. (For a current in the tube).
general discussion of electrons in a Eq. (25) shows that, as the volt-
gas and related phenomena, see ref- age is increased on the tube and both
erences 1 and 2.) Not every collision a and 'Y increase, a point is ultimately
33
34 RCA Phototube Manual
reached at which the denominator ap- 14 Q (OPERATING POINT
proaches zero as a result of the FOR RL"I MEGOHM)
combined effect of the primary and 1201r--=l--t---t--t--t-!-t-+-1
secondary mechanisms. At this point, GR'~
:100 Ip
a state of uncontrolled current is 0::
~
reached, and the current increases to ~801~~--t-~-t--
the limit of the circuit or until a ~
glow discharge sets in, which may i" 60
result in permanent damage to the
photocathode.

Properties of
Gas-Filled Phototubes 100 120 140

Current-Voltage
Characteristics Fig. 25. Current-voltage eharacteristic for a
gas-filled phototube illustrating gas-
ratio (GR), load lines, operating point,
Fig. 25 shows the increase in and breakdown voltage.
anode current of a gas-filled photo-
tube as the voltage is increased. Most
commercial gas-filled phototubes are
designed to operate with a 90-volt 1 megohm) is referred to as the gas-
supply. The intersection of the load ratio or GR. The breakdown voltage
line and the anode-current character- is that voltage at which, with no light
istic defines the operating point. The on the tube, an uncontrolled dis-
ratio of this current to the current at charge occurs. This voltage is well
25 volts (with the same load) for a above the 90-volt maximum operat-
specified light flux (usually 0.1 ing voltage to provide for stable
lumen) and a specified load (usually performance.

40
LIGHT SOURCE IS A TUNGSTEN-FILAMENT
LAMP OPERATED AT COLOR TEMPERATURE
OF 2870· K

I
'"a:w .~ W
~
:;
~20
a:
W ~
l'
u
:E
w
o
!If
,." 0

..!!1 0
",.t
j / oc;y
V

~V V
V

~

--
o 20
-I--::::::~ [:::::::t:--I-' ~
40
-
ANODE VOLTS
60
- 80 100

Fia'. 26. Current-voltage characteristics for various light levels for a type 918 gas-filled
phototube. Some nonlinearity with light i. observed at maximum currents.
Gas-Filled Phototubes 35

Variation of Current which linear response is required


With Light Flux over a wide range of light levels,
it is best to use a vacuum photo-
A series of current-voltage tube.
curves for various values of light
flux is shown in Fig. 26 for type Time- Or
918. As the level of light increases, Frequency-Response
the current increases more than Characteristics
linearly. This relationship is illus-
trated more specifically in Fig. 27, The time of response of a gas-
which shows the current developed filled phototube, unlike that of a
as a function of light flux for a gas- vacuum tube, is limited by the sec-
filled phototube. The nonlinear be- ondary effects associated with gas
havior is caused by positive-ion amplification. Fig. 28 shows the fre-
space charge. The field strength quency-response characteristics of
near the cathode is low because of gas-filled photo tubes having cesium-
the cylindrical construction. The mo- antimony photocathodes and silver-
bility of positive ions is much less oxygen-cesium photocathodes. Be-
than the mobility of the electrons; cause response becomes increasingly
at a current of approximately 20 poor above 10,000 cycles per second,
microamperes, the accumulation of applications are limited to the audio
positive-ion space charge is suffi- range. Gas-filled phototubes are
cient to distort the cylindrical field widely used in pickups for sound
and increase the electrical gradient reproduction, both in theaters and
near the photocathode. This in- in 16-millimeter sound systems.
creased gradient provides a more The frequency-response character-
efficient field distribution for the istic shown in Fig. 26 was obtained
production of multiple ionization by passing light through a toothed
than when the bulk of the voltage wheel driven by a variable-speed
drop is concentrated near the anode, motor and then through a fixed
as in the case of the undistorted aperture and onto the photocathode.
cylindrical field. For applicatons in The teeth were so shaped that in

40

(f)
w
30
I
/
IEa. /
::;
g /
5 20
:E
w
o
V
o
z
c1
/'
10 /'

-- /
/
~
o
--- 0.02 0.04 0.06
LIGHT FLUX-LUMENS
0.08 0.1 0.12

Fig. 27. Anode current (at 90 volts, zero series resistance) in a gas-filled phototube as a
function of light flux showing the increasing nonlinearity at high levels of light flux.
36 RCA Phototube Manual
+I ANODE-SUPPLY VQLTS=90
VOLTAGE DROP IN LOAD VERY SMALL,
CAPACITANCE EFFECTS MADE NEGLIGIBLE
CURVE Ai PHOTOTUBE HAVING S-l OR
$-3 RESPONSE
CURVE Sf PHOTOTUBE HAVING S 4 RESPONSE
0
t-- :-- t--. B
.........
I
~
'" \\
~
'\
\

\\
\
3

4
10 20 40 100 200 400 1000 2000 4000 1000020000
FREQUENCY-CYCLES PER SECOND

Fig. 28. Frequency response of gas-tilled phototuhes:


(a) Response of a tube having S-l spectral response (Ag-O-Cs photocathode)
(b) Response of a tube having S-4 spectral response (Cs-Sb).

combination with the aperture they Fig. 29 shows this component


produced a sinusoidal variation of of the delayed current for a special
the light flux. gas-filled phototube designed for use
The loss in high-frequency re- in studying the mechanism of delay
sponse is chiefly the result of the in gas amplification." The very slow
transit time of the positive ions in- component of the gas-amplified
volved in the gas-amplification photocurrent results from second-
process. The loss of frequency re- ary-electron emission by metastable
sponse becomes more severe as the atoms. The transit time of metastable
gas amplification is increased. On atoms (of the order of 10~ second)
the other hand, when an argon-filled is governed by diffusion time and
phototube is operated at a voltage is not affected by the electric field.
below the ionization point for argon,

i~'~~H1NJLII
it behaves very much like a vacuum
phototube with no gas amplification
and little loss in frequency response.
At normal operating voltage
for a gas-filled phototube, the tran-
sit time of the positive ions is less
than 10 microseconds. Cumulative 0:0 123456
effects of the regenerative process TIME-MILLISECONDS
cause slightly longer delay times
for part of the current. However, a Fig. 29. Time response to a square wave
flight for a special gas-tiilled phototube
small component of the current is designed to emphasize the lag resulting
delayed by too great a factor to be from secondary effects of metastable
argon atoms (Ref. 3).
the result of positive-ion transit-
time effects. Ordinarily, only a small
percentage of the total current Noise
shows this effect. The slight falling
off of the frequency-response curves The gas-amplification process is
(Fig. 28) near 1000 cycles per sec- not entirely noise-free because the
ond and less which results from this gas ratio for an individual photo-
effect increases as the gas amplifi- electron is a statistically variable
cation is increased. quantity. However, additional noise
Gas-Filled Phototubes 37

resulting from the gas-amplification portant use of these tubes is in mo-


statistics is only a fraction of that tion-picture sound-on-film sensor
which results from the randon emis- systems for theater and home pro-
sion of electrons from the photo- jection equipment.
cathode. The Equivalent Noise Input It is especially important not to
for a gas-filled phototube is nearly exceed the absolute maximum volt-
the same as for a vacuum photo- age and current ratings of gas-filled
tube having equal photocathode phototubes; excessive voltages can
sensitivity provided the vacuum type cause damage from ionization ef-
is followed by a noiseless amplifier fects, and excessive currents can re-
having a gain equal to the gas ratio sult in loss of sensitivity.
of the gas tube and a bandpass Because the gas-filled photo-
limited by the frequency-response tube does not have the fiat current-
characteristic of the gas-filled photo- voltage characteristic of the vacuum
tube. The principal advantage of the phototube, it is usually not feasible
gas amplification in realizing low to use large load resistances without
equivalent-noise input is to reduce great loss in linearity of response,
the value of the load resistance for as shown by the current-voltage
which the resistor noise is equal to characteristic and load lines in Fig.
the thermionic shot noise of the 25. However, in special applica-
tube. tions it is possible to use a large
load resistance provided the light
Environmental Factors level is low so that the drop in volt-
The previous discussion of the age across the load is negligible.
effects of temperature on vacuum In fact, the maximum recommended
phototubes applies also to gas-filled operating point can be exceeded to
phototubes. Because the number of advantage in such cases; the large
gas molecules does not change with load resistance protects the tube and
temperature (even though the pres- circuit elements from damage in
sure does), the gas amplification case the glow potential should be
does not vary appreciably with tem- exceeded. Under very carefully con-
perature. trolled conditions, gas-filled photo-
In other respects (shock, vibra- tubes can be operated at very high
tion, humidity) the behavior of the gas ratios (of the order of 100);
gas tube is similar to that of the however, because of the inherent in-
vacuum phototube. However, be- stability of the tube under these
cause the positive ions bombard the conditions, such operation is nor-
photocathode during operation, the mally not recommended.
life and the stability of a gas-filled In some gas-filled phototubes,
phototube are not as good as the there is a slight tinting of the glass
life and stability of vacuum photo- envelope opposite the photocathode.
tubes operated at the same current. This tinting, which does not materi-
ally affect tube operation, is caused
Application Considerations by sputtering of cathode material
Gas-filled phototubes are used as a result of ion bombardment dur-
to best advantage in applications ing the processing and aging of the
which exploit the simplicity of the tube. Further tinting may occur dur-
circuit associated with the tube and ing long and especially severe
the low cost with which the addi- operation of the phototube.
tional sensitivity is achieved. Be-
cause linearity and frequency re- References
1 Cobine, J. D .. Gaseous Conductors, McGraw-
sponse are reasonably good, gas- Hill Book Co., New York (1941)
filled tubes may be used for a wide 2 Loeb. L. B., Basic Process of Gaseous Elec-
variety of practical applications, tronics, Univ. of Calif. Press (1955)
particularly when the more precise S Engstrom, R. W. and Huxford, W. S., "Time
Lag Analysis of the Townsend Discharge in
characteristics of the vacuum photo- Argon with Activated Cesium Electrodes",
tube are not needed. The most im- Phys. Rev., 58 (1940)
Multiplier
Photo tubes

Construction and Principles trons near the surface of the emit-


ter; some reach the surface and
of Operation overcome the work function (in the
case of metals) or the electron af-
A LTHOUGH photoelectric emis-
sion is a relatively efficient process
finity (for semiconductors) and es-
cape into the vacuum. In general,
on a per-quantum basis, the primary the number of secondaries created
photocurrent for low light levels is increases as the primary electron
so small that special amplification energy is increased. However, the
techniques are required for most ap- depth from which the electrons must
plications. The multiplier phototube, escape also increase as the primary
which uses secondary electron emis- energy increases because of the
sion to provide current amplifica- greater primary penetration; this
tion in excess of 10·, is a very use- factor tends to reduce the number
ful detector for low light levels. of secondaries at higher dynode
In a multiplier phototube, the voltages.
photoelectrons emitted by the photo- Fig. 30' shows the number of
cathode are, in general, electrostat- emitted secondary electrons II per
ically directed to a secondary emit- primary electron (secondary emis-
ting surface called a dynode. When sion coefficient) as a function of the
normal operating voltages are ap- energy of the primary electrons for
plied to the dynode, 3 to 6 secondary a number of practical dynode ma-
electrons are emitted per primary terials. The same general pattern
electron. These secondaries are fo- is observed for metals, but the yield
cused to a second dynode, where the is insufficient for use in multiplier
process is repeated. In addition to phototubes.
6 to 14 dynodes, a multiplier photo- An important property of the
tube may contain other electrodes secondary electrons is the energy
for focusing the electron stream, re- distribution of the emitted second-
ducing space-charge effects, or ac- aries. A typical distribution curve
celerating the electrons to reduce is shown in Fig. 31. The peak at the
transit-time effects. The last dynode extreme right corresponds to the
is followed by an anode which col- energy of the primary electrons,
lects the electrons and serves as the and probably represents elastically
signal-output electrode in most ap- scattered primary electrons. The
plications. true secondaries are represented by
the peak at the left. Although the
spread of secondary-electron veloci-
Dynode Properties ties of good secondary emitters is
generally much less than that shown
Secondary emission"-s in many in Fig. 31, it is nevertheless large
respects is similar to photoelectric in comparison with that of the
emission. The impact of primary photoelectron velocities. This ve-
electrons rather than incident pho- locity spread dictates to some ex-
tons causes the emission of elec- tent the type of electron optics
trons. One primary electron excites needed for efficient utilization of
several low-energy secondary elec- the secondary electrons.
38
Multiplier Phototubes 39

--
1

I- .- -~.;?-:. =-= ---


...z p
U
0:
...o
/ ' .....-::::;::.
:;;.---
I-~
- - [A9]-e8Zo, Age •
./ / ,../
h.

() 6 --- eS3 Sb
z ;I, /
1---- Ag MgO-e.
o
/
in
j, ' ,
// - - Cu BoO-C.
...'"$.~
0:

C!i
Z
o
/1 ?/
~ ZI/.I
'" (//
o 100 ZOO 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
ACCELERATING VOLTAGE OF PRIMARY ELECTRONS

Fig. 30. Secondary emission coefficient for a number of dynode materials.

The materials silver-oxygen- emission and instability of the


cesium (Ag-O-Cs) and cesium-anti- Ag-O-Cs surface, it is no longer used
mony (CssSb) used in the photo- commercially.
cathodes of phototubes having spec- The CSsSb emitter has the high-
tral responses of S-l and S-4 are est secondary emission of the mate-
also useful as secondary emitters. rials in the practical working range
They are practical from a manu- near 100 volts. This material, how-
facturing standpoint because the ac- ever, has certain limitations: it can-
tivation process is nearly identical not tolerate exposure to air, it is
to that used in the production of the damaged by temperatures in excess
corresponding photocathode. How- of 75 degrees centigrade, and it does
ever, it is very difficult to produce not have stable characteristics when
both the cesium-antimony and the subjected to current densities in ex-
silver-oxygen-cesium emitters in the cess of approximately 100 micro-
same envelope. Furthermore, be- amperes per square centimeter.
cause of the generally high dark During manufacture, the cesium-
en
z
o
0::
I--
a
w
...J
W
>-
0::
~
Z
o
a
w
en
(\
\
o
w
I--
I--
~
W
lL
o

~
0::
W
!Xl
:;
::>
z
w
>
" i'--
t--
fi
...J
-"
W
0:: 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
ELECTRON ENERGY--VOLTS
Fig. 31. Typical secondary-electron energy distribution'" for a silver target: primary electron
energy is approximately 150 volts.
40 RCA Phototube Manual

antimony dynode requires a slightly Secondary emission and stability are


different technique to achieve opti- similar to those of the Ag-Mg-O
mum secondary emission and stabil- dynode, although copper-beryllium
ity than does the cesium-antimony has some advantages in ease of
photocathode. Although this differ- handling and dynode manufacture.
ence is not of major consequence,
the result is that on the average the
photocathode sensitivity in tubes Dynode Configurations
having cesium-antimony dynodes is
slightly less than that achieved with One of the primary problems of
certain other combinations. design in a multiplier phototube is
A very practical secondary the shaping and positioning of the
emitter can be made from an oxi- dynodes (usually in a recurrent geo-
dized silver-magnesium alloy con- metrical pattern) so that all stages
taining approximately 2 per cent of are properly utilized and no elec-
magnesium. Oxidation by means of trons are lost to support structures
low-pressure water vapor or carbon in the tube or deflected in other
dioxide produces a concentration of ways. Although it is not necessary
MgO on the surface which does not that the electrons come to a sharp
occur when the alloy is heated in focus on each succeeding stage, the
oxygen directly (probably because shape of the fields should be such
the large H 2 0 or CO 2 molecules do that electrons tend to return to a
not diffuse as far into the surface, center location on the next dynode,
and therefore Mg migrates to the even though the emission point is
surface before oxidation). When not at the optimum location of the
cesium vapor is present during the preceding dynode. If this require-
processing of multiplier photo- ment is not met, the electrons in-
cathodes, it has the further benefit creasingly diverge from the center
of increasing the secondary-emission of the dynode in each successive dy-
ratio."-7 Although Ag-Mg-O dynodes node stage. This effect in turn leads
do not have as high a secondary- to skipping of stages and loss of
emission ratio as CSsSb dynodes, the gain. Magnetic fields may be com-
material is easily processed and is bined with electrostatic fields to
more stable at relatively high cur- provide the required electron op-
rents. In addition, it can tolerate tics, although today most multiplier
higher temperatures, and can be out- phototubes are electrostatically fo-
gassed at higher temperatures dur- cused.
ing exhaust. This surface has a low A number of different dynode
thermionic background emission, configurations (See Figs. 32 and
which is important in applications 33) are used in multiplier photo-
requiring detection of low-level light. tubes. The circular arrangement of
Without the cesium activation, the dynodes of the 931A and similar
oxygen-activated silver-magnesium types permits a compact layout, but
layer is used in demountable sys- allows little flexibility in adding dy-
tems for detecting ions and other nodes beyond the circle; however,
particles. fewer than the full circle of nine
A material with characteristics dynodes can be used. The collection
similar to those of Ag-Mg-O can be between stages and the transit-time
formed from an oxidized layer of dispersion is remarkably good for
copper-beryllium alloy8 in which the the circular cage which was one of
beryllium component is about 2 per the earliest systems developed"
cent of the alloy. Oxidation of the The Rajchman linear-dynode
beryllium is accomplished in a man- structure'O (as in type 68l0A) pro-
ner similar to that used to oxidize vides a good recurrent-field system,
the magnesium in the Ag-Mg emit- although the dynode shapes are
ter; secondary emission is enhanced rather complex. This design is fur-
by the bake-out in cesium vapor. ther complicated by a curvature not
Multiplier Phototubes 41

tal

INCIDENT
_-I+----J+--LIGHT

O'PHOTOCATHODE
10= ANODE
1-9=DYNODES

(bl

1
~~~~~~~~-V
I~ .. ' ) • ' ) • ' \ , ' ) ~
2
_
TRA~~~~RENr"\
PHOTOCATHODE \..

~MM
Ii ' " -
13 II 9 7 S 3
FACEPLATE/I INCIDENT
I LIGHT
I I
r- - ~r~~¥~~gE
ACCELERATING
ELECTRODE SHIELD-' INTERNAL ! I

CONDUCTIVE
COATING" ;
f
1-14=DYNODES
IS-ANODE LINEAR TYPE 6810A

\el

INCIDENT
LIGHT

1-10- DYNODES LINEAR TYPE 7746


II-ANODE

Fl•• 32. Various dynode configurations in general use: (A) circular-cage type. (B) and
(0) linear types.
42 RCA Phototube Manual

1-9-DYNODES
IO-ANODE

(bl

\ I

ia~d~d~~~d
II ~~~~01/.!~/1
F'"'' "' ' '' I
FACEPLATE--I_

!!~~~~/1~~~ I .....
INCI DENT
RADI ATiON

:1 ~?!~~a~~1 ~
--J

L
SEMI-
p1n)ATNJ'J'.M.f~E
~ /i~~~/j~?:~/1
I
I
10 8 6 4 2 INTERNAL
I
CONDUCTIVE

~ I
COA"\ING

I-IO-DYNODES
II-ANODE

Fig. 33. Various dynode configurations in general use: (A) box type. (B) venetian-blind
type.

only as shown in the drawing, but ode, as in the 931A, the cathode area
also at right angles to the plane is too small for many applications.
of the drawing. This curvature pro- Box-type dynodes provide very
vides a focusing field which main- efficient collection of electrons be-
tains the electron stream near the tween boxes, except for losses to the
middle of the dynode structure and grid wire. However, because of the
prevents bombardment of the sup- lack of specific focusing properties
porting spacers at the edges of the and the wide variation in with-
dynodes. For this reason, a larger drawal fields, the dynodes do not
number of dynodes can be used suc- provide a good transit-time disper-
cessfully without problems caused sion characteristic.
by lateral spreading of the electron The venetian-blind type of dy-
stream. In general, linear-style dy- node (as in type 8053) can be
node systems have good transit-time coupled simply and in a relatively
characteristics because of the focus- small space. More dynodes can easily
ing properties and the good with- be added to the chain if the system
drawal fields at the dynode surface. is opaque to feedback either by light
Although focused-dynode arrays or by ions. A disadvantage of this
have a minimum of stray electrons type of focusing is the rather low
between stages, the acceptance area value of electric field at the emitting
of the first stage is generally small. surfaces, which results in relatively
If the first stage is used as a cath- large transit-time dispersion. Some
Multiplier Phototubes 43

electrons are lost from one dynode a multiplier phototube for scintilla-
to the next because of the low with- tion counting because it can be
drawal field, and some electrons are mounted parallel to the photocathode
lost to the wire grid used to prevent and has a relatively large accept-
field interaction between dynodes. ance area. This arrangement per-
At the present time, the trans- mits the design of tubes having
mission type of dynode is only used larger photocathodes (8054) and
experimentally in multiplier photo- good collection efficiency at the first
tubes. The dynode is a thin mem- dynode.
brane on which primary electrons
impinge from one side and secondary Design For Minimum
electrons are emitted from the other.
Dynodes are mounted in closely Transit-Time Spread
spaced parallel planes. For this rea- When a tube is required for
son, the transit time and transit- scintillation-counting applications in
time spread can be made very small. which a minimum transit-time
Transmission secondary-emission dy- spread is desired, the venetian blind
nodes are not practical for ordinary dynode is not suitable. Mathesonl l
applications because of the difficulty has designed a special focused cage
and expense of construction and be- structure designed to solve both the
cause present dynodes have very problem of high speed and the prob-
poor life at ordinary current levels. lem of good collection. In this de-
sign (type 7746), the front end of
the cage deviates from a strictly
linear construction to present a
Coupling Dynode System large effective area for the collec-
To Cathode tion of photoelectrons on the first
dynode.
One of the design problems of The ideal arrangement should
a dynode system is the coupling of also provide for equal transit time
the recurrent dynode chain to the for all photoelectrons to the first
photocathode. In the circular-cage dynode. Fig. 34 also shows the
type, the first stage of the circle Matheson" solution to this prob-
serves as cathode (type 931A); lem: a curved cathode and annular
however, for many applications this rings just above the first dynode to
limited-area cathode is too small. correct and shape the potential field
In scintillation counting, it is de- between the cathode and first dy-
sirable to have relatively large flat node.
photocathodes at the end of the tube A multiplier phototube devised
for efficient coupling of the tube by G. A. Morton, R. M. Matheson,
to the scintillation crystal. When and M. H. Greenblattl l provides
the first stage of the circular cage minimum interdynode transit-time
is used as a dynode, as it is in the spread; accelerator electrodes placed
6342A. the effective size of the first between dynodes, as shown in Fig.
dynode is critically small for collect- 35, are connected to a highly posi-
ing all the electrons from the photo- tive potential. The proximity of the
cathode. high voltage provides a large with-
In the linear-cage type (type drawal field for the electrons, and
6810A), the problem is increased by although they are slowed down after
the requirement of housing the passing the accelerator electrode, the
whole assembly in an axial con- transit time and transit-time spread
figuration. In this case the first dy- are very short.
node is at an angle which presents The output sections of some
almost a minimum of projected area multiplier phototubes have special
to the photocathode. terminals for very high-speed pulse
The venetian-blind type of dy- counting and analysis. The construc-
node is well suited to the design of tion may be specially designed to
44 RCA Phototube Manual

50V"-
FOCUS RING
(AT CATHODE_ _
POTENTIAL) ---- --i I
/
I 100 V
/. ....
I ,/ 150V
I / /--
_

FOCUSING / I
ELECTRODE- - ,,-/
(SHIELD)

5TH
DYNODE

Fig. 34. Matheson-type front-end configuration showing equipotential lines and electron
trajectories feeding into a modified linear-type dynode cage which exposes more of the
first dynode area to the photoelectron stream..

provide a maximum pulse current In practice, some of the elec-


before space-charge limits the re- trons may skip stages, or become
sponse of the tube. lost to the amplification process by
impinging upon nonproductive sec-
ondary-emission areas.
Properties of It is customary to describe the
Multiplier Phototubes gain of the multiplier phototube as
a function of the applied voltage.
Fig. 36 shows two such curves on a
Gain Characteristics semilog scale. These curves illus-
trate the wide range of amplification
When several secondary-emis-
in a multiplier phototube. They also
sion stages are coupled together, so
indicate the necessity of providing
that the secondary electrons from
one become the primary electrons a well regulated voltage supply for
the dynode stages.
of the next, the total gain I" of the
multiplier phototubes is given by It is possible to operate a mul-
tiplier phototube so that each stage
(26) is at the voltage required for maxi-
mum secondary emission, as shown
where 0 is the secondary emission in Fig. 31. In such cases, the gain
per stage (assumed to be equal for could be made practically inde-
-each stage) and n is the number of pendent of voltage over a small
stages. It is also assumed in this ex- range. However, such a condition
pression that all the secondary elec- would require approximately 500
trons are collected at the next stage. volts per stage; thus the total volt-
Multiplier Phototubes 45

(~_______
5S_0_0______--J)

Fig. 35. Interdynode accelerator-electrode system designed by G. A. Morton to provide mini-


mum transit-time spread.

age required would be very high for


the amount of gain achieved.
In the design or operation of a
IP21 multiplier phototube having a fixed
supply voltage, the number of stages
can be chosen so that the gain of the
la' /
tube is maximum. For this purpose,
/ the optimum voltage per stage is
..:!- POINT OF MAXIMUM /, that value at which a line through
~ 10 4 GAIN PER VOLT
the origin (unity gain on the log-
!;; gain scale) is tangent to the curve,
o
ii: as shown in Fig. 36. This point is
i2 10 3 identified on the graph as the point
~ POINT OF MAXIMUM
of maximum gain per volt. (Note
GAIN PER VOLT
that this argument neglects the volt-
10 2
age used between the last dynode
and the anode and any discrepancy
10
resulting from nonuniform distribu-
tion of voltage per stage.) In most
applications of multiplier photo-
tubes, the tubes are operated above
40 60 80 100 120
VOLTS PER STAGE the point of maximum gain per volt.
It is customary to present tube data
Fig. 36. Log of gain as a function of volts with both the gain and the voltage
per stage for a tube (lP21) with Cs-Sb on a logarithmic scale; over the nor-
dynodes and for a tube (6342A) with
Cu-Be dynodes. mal range of operation the resultant
46 RCA Phototube Manual

curve is then closely approximated The first transmission-type


by a straight line. cesium antimony cathodes were used
in tubes having a spectral response
Spectral Response designated as S-9. Later, when tubes
began to be used in scintillation-
Photocathodes developed for counting applications, the processing
diode phototubes are also used in was modified to increase the blue
multiplier phototubes. Photoelec- sensitivity of the cathode because
trons emitted from the photocathode scintilla tors typically have a blue
are directed to the first dynode of emission. This modified response was
the tube instead of to the anode as designated S-l1; both response
in a photodiode. However, several characteristics are shown in Fig. 37.
special photocathodes which are
rarely used in photodiodes have been
used in multiplier phototubes. 100

~,l\\
Cathodes of the transmission
type are often used in multiplier
phototubes, in contrast with the
opaque type used in most photo-
diodes. A transmission-type photo- 80
if ,'}'I'" \
\
cathode is one in which a semi-
transparent layer is applied to the
I
II
\\
inside surface of the envelope win-
dow. Light impinges on the outer
(glass) side of the photocathode,
1:
~ 60
....
I
\\
and electrons are emitted on the in-
ner or vacuum side. The vacuum-
in
z
UJ
en
I
I
\\
evaporation and processing of a
transmission-type cathode require
~
....
~ 40
\\
careful control to achieve uniformity UJ
0::

,
and high sensitivity. The most com- I
mon transmission-type photocathode

,,
is made of antimony and cesium, the II I
same elements used for the opaque
photocathode in tubes having an
20
,,
S-4 spectral response. During the
processing of the tube, antimony is
vacuum-evaporated onto the inner
surface of the window. A metallic
o ~
3000 5000
\. 7000
WAVELENGTH -ANGSTROMS
substrate is often put on the window
first to improve the conductivity of
the photocathode or to facilitate the Fig. 37. Comparison of the 8-9 and 8-11
activation process. The antimony is spectral response characteristics. Both
curves are for transmission-type cesium-
usually evaporated from a heated antimony photocathodes. The 8-11 re-
filament pre-beaded with antimony; sponse was evolved to provide maximum
the beads are positioned to provide blue response for scintillation counting.
a uniform layer of antimony. The
thickness of the evaporated layer is The principal difference in
usually monitored photoelectrically processing which results in the S-l1
by measurement of the transmission response is the use of a thinner layer
of light through the layer during the of antimony. A photocathode layer
evaporaton procedure. After the of Cs.Sb tends to absorb blue light
antimony is evaporated, cesium and transmit red, as shown in Fig.
vapor is allowed to react with the 38. Two effects combine to explain
antimony. The resultant photo- the dependence of the spectral char-
cathode has a chemical composi- acteristic on the thickness of the
tion of approximately Cs.Sb. photocathode. (1) As the thickness
Multiplier Phototubes 47
10

~
I-
tlB 0

~
u
It:
~
~6 0
~
o
~
o
:3 4 0

~
C(
oJ
~
~2 0

o 400 500 600


~
700 BOO 900
WAVELENGTH A-MILLIMICRONS

Fig. 38. Optical absorption of CsaSb layer having a typical S-11 spectral response.

of the cathode is increased, more The multialkali photocathode'" is


light is absorbed; this increased ab- very difficult to process to uniformly
sorption tends to increase the sensi- high sensitivity. The process is
tivity in direct proportion. (2) As complicated and involves alternate
the thickness is increased, the photo- treatment with evaporated antimony
electrons must emerge from a and alkali vapors. The resultant
greater depth to escape into the photocathode is the most sensitive
vacuum; this effect tends to reduce known for the region from the ultra-
photoemission because of the ab- violet to the red end of the spectrum.
sorption of photoelectrons. The spec- However, compared with the cesium-
tral-response characteristic 8-9 was antimony photocathode, the multi-
evolved for use with a typical tung- alkali photocathode has only a
sten light source. The resulting slight advantage in the blue region.
rather thick surface provided better
response at the red end of the spec-
trum. A compromise to a thinner
cathode improved the blue response 100
(8-11) with the loss of some red re- I-
e
6
sponse. /
Two transmission-type photo- ~ 4
!K:o
" oS',
cathodes of importance, particularly
......
'" 2 II oS'y,
I ~
III
in the red region of the spectrum, It:
~ IQ
are the bismuth-silver-oxygen-cesium
,
8
::Ii 6
(Bi-Ag-O-Cs) cathode used in tubes C(
:::; 4 IJ \ \
having 8-10 spectral response, and
the multialkali ([Cs]Na.K8b) cath-
='
::Ii 2
!I \
ode, used in tubes having 8-20 spec- I
>
tral response. These spectral-re- I- ~
:;; 6
sponse characteristics are shown in j: 4 \
Fig. 39. in
z
III
The semitransparent Bi-Ag-O- 2

Cs cathode is prepared by first '" O. I


evaporating a thin layer of bismuth 2000 4000 6000 8000
and then a thin layer of silver. The WAVELENGTH-ANGSTROMS
silver is then oxidized, and cesium
vapor is allowed to react with the Fig. 39. Spectral response characteristics for
S-10 (Bi-Ag-O-Cs photocathode) and
layer. S-20 [(Cs) Na. KSb photocathode].
48 RCA Phototube Manual

The bialkali photocathode low dark current. Its tentative spec-


(N a 2KSb) also deserves mention tral response is also given in Fig 40.
although at the present time its At the present time, it seems that
use is only experimental. The N a 2KSb the most promising application is in
cathode has a spectral response scintillation counting, perhaps for
(tentatively identified as S-24) simi- low energy work, although the dark
lar to the S-l1 (See Fig. 40), but current and temperature character-
has the advantage of a lower istics may not be quite as promising
thermionic emission at room tem- as the Na 2KSb cathode.
perature of the order of 10-16 amperes As in vacuum photodiodes, the
per square centimeter. In fact, some spectral response of multiplier
data have indicated values as low as phototubes is generally limited in
10-"' amperes per square centimeter. the ultraviolet region by the type
Another advantage of the Na 2KSb of window used in the device, as
cathode is its ability to withstand shown in Fig. 19. Fig. 41 compares
somewhat higher temperatures than the spectral responses of multiplier
other cathodes; it can be used to phototubes having several photo-
about 100 degrees centigrade. The cathode-window combinations.
bialkali cathode promises to be use- In recent years, considerable
ful as a cathode for low-energy developmental effort has been ex-
scintillation counting because of its pended on cathodes made of the
good blue sensitivity and very low following materials: CS2Te, Rb2Te,
dark current. and CsI and CuI. All of these cath-
70r---~~---------------,
ode materials are useful in the
/ .... · \ _.. (K.CS)3 Sb ultraviolet region, particularly be-
I-
~60
/1'"" \ __ Na 2 KSb (5-24) cause of their lack of sensitivity in
the longer wavelength region. They
/,
...
!f)
,1 are generally combined with a win-
dow made of a material such as LiF
~50
w

..
"-
::;; f or sapphire.
The only photocathode useful in
:]40 I the infrared region is the silver-
oxygen-cesium (Ag-O-Cs) cathode
~
I I used in tubes having S-l response, as
~30
z
o .I shown in Fig. 18. For wavelengths
longer than 8000 angstroms to its
n. I limit of response, about 11000 ang-
'"
~ 20
..t;
-'
c::
10
/:Stroms, it is the most sensitive
photocathode .
Some multiplier phototubes have
w
"-
!f)
photosensitive dynodes-Cs-Sb, for
example. When the transmission-
type cathode is quite thin, as in the
case of Cs-Sb photocathodes used in
Fig. 40. Comparison of the absolute spectral tubes having S-l1 response, trans-
sensitivities of three antimony alkali mitted light may strike the first
photocathodes: Cs.8b, Na o K8b, and dynode and cause the emission of
(K,CS)38b. The 8-11 curve shown is
representative of the cathode on type photoelectrons. This effect is of sec-
8053: the 8-24 and (K, Cs).8b curves ond order because photoelectrons
are tentative. emitted from the first dynode do not
have the benefit of multiplication
Another two-alkali iintimony by the secondary emission from the
cathode has recently been announced first dynode; nevertheless, the ef-
by A. H. Sommer, (K,Cs)aSb. Al- fect is observable. The increase in
though its properties have not been sensitivity occurs primarily at the
thoroughly explored, it is apparent red end of the spectrum, where the
that it has high blue sensitivity and transmission of the photocathode is
Multiplier Phototubes 49
100

e
, ... - ... ..... ,
6
I ,
,- - I
I " MULTIALKALI AND
I
V-
I
XI ,'> ~-~ ........ ,- =--OUARTZ -

;/ '.
'\
4
(- \ ,
r1'-/'
/
""
5-5--"'1
.~

\,
\
\
\
\
\\
I- \ \-5-13 \
2
!;(
;;:
.....
c I \\.
\

\i
E
\
>-
I-
I
2: 10
I-
u;
II
/1 '\.
\\I,
I
,
\

\
Z
W 8 [ I' '\. \
m /. II \ \ \
...J
<t
0::
I-
u
w
n.
6
( .
J. ~
~
I

I'
\

\,
,
m
'4 I • ~\
I • \
• \ i\
\
,,
2 "Cs-Te+OUARTZ

j"--Cs-Te+LiF
\~
\\
I

I
1000 2000
3000 4000 5000
WAVELENGTH--ANGSTROMS
6000 7000
I '\
Fig. 41. Spectral response characteristics of various photocathode-window combinations useful
for the ultraviolet: 8-5 (Cs-8b with 9741 glass); 8-13 (transmission type Cs-8b with
quartz); Cs-Te with quartz; Cs-Te with LiF window; multialkali with quartz.

greatest. In the blue region, which the angle of incidence of light on


is most important in scintillation the cathode. The effect is compli-
counting, the maximum effect is of cated, but to a first approximation it
the order of 2.5 per cent (assuming is possible to explain the increased
10 per cent transmission, identical red sensitivity with angle of inci-
cathode and first-dynode sensitivity, dence in tubes having S-l1 response
and a secondary-emission ratio at (shown in Fig. 42) by the increased
the first dynode of 4:1). The effect absorption of red light with greater
would be negligible for dynodes angle of incidence.
made of silver-magnesium or copper- The effect of temperature on
beryllium. spectral response is minor and oc-
The spectral response of a curs primarily in the red region of
phototube is somewhat sensitive to the spectrum," as shown in Fig. 43.
50 RCA Phototube Manual

At higher temperatures, the distri- current is amplified in the same way


bution of electrons in the semi- as the photo-originated electrons.
conductor photocathode is shifted to Usually, only the dark current in
higher energy levels and, conse- the anode circuit of the tube is of
quently, more electrons are emitted importance to the observer. This
by the near-threshold energy radia- anode dark current is described in
tion. this section as the "dark current" of
the multiplier phototube.
Dark Current The dark current and the re-
sulting noise of the multiplier photo-
Even though a multiplier photo- tube is of particular concern because
tube is in complete darkness, elec- it is usually the critical factor in
tron currents may be observed to limiting the lower level of light
flow from dynode to dynode. These detection. It is important to under-
currents increase in magnitude to- stand the variation of dark current
ward the anode end of the tube since in the multiplier phototube as a
any electron component of the dark function of various parameters, in

8 TYPE 8058
6 SUPPLY YOLTS=IOOO I
,~: I,
4

(0 3
2
t?
..........
,-
,
8
6
~
;;: 4 ~
j:::
in t\\--8=85°
z
w 2

~~
rn
...
ffi 10 2
<5 8 "
\.~
«
a: 6
w \'
>
!i
4
\k 8 =Oo
J
W
2
1\ \
a:

(0
8
\\ \
6
'\ I'
4
"-
2

(
4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500
WAVELENGTH--ANGSTROMS

Fig. 42. Spectral-response characteristics for a Cs-Sb transmission-type photocathode (S-11) for
two different incident angles of. radiation. The increased red response for the large
angle of incidence may be explained in part by the increase in absorption due to the
longer path: compare the absorption characteristic shown in Fig. 38.
Multiplier Phototubes 51
1.0

0.8
V
....~w 06
/
..
'"
:z OA
/
:r:
(.) V
~ 0.2
~
"-
:3 0
/
0::
I-
~-0.2
/
(.)
V
0::
~-OA
/
-0.6

-0.8
2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
WAVELENGTH--ANGSTROMS
Fig. 43. Temperature coefficient of Cs-Sb cathodes as a function of wavelength; data taken at
20 degrees centigrade. Note the large positive effect near the threshold.

order to realize the ultimate in low- may also prevent external arc-overs
light-level detection. Although all of resulting from high voltage.
the peculiarities of dark-current Ohmic leakage is the predomi-
production in the multiplier photo- nant source of dark current at low-
tube are not well understood, the voltage operating condition. It can
possible sources of dark current are be identified by its proportionality
described below: with applied voltage. At higher volt-
Dark current in a multiplier ages, ohmic leakage is obscured by
phototube may be categorized by other sources of dark current.
origin into three types: ohmic leak- Fig. 44 shows the typical varia-
age, dark or "thermionic" emission tion of dark current of a multiplier
of electrons from the cathode and photo tube as a function of applied
other elements of the tube, and re- voltage. Note that in the mid-range
generative effects. of voltage, the dark current follows
Ohmic leakage, which results the gain characteristic of the tube.
from the imperfect insulating prop- The source of the gain-proportional
erties of the glass stem, the support- dark current is the dark or thermi-
ing members, or the plastic base, is onic emission of electrons from the
always present. This type of leakage photocathode and the first-dynode
is usually negligible, but in some stage. Because each electron emitted
tubes it may become excessive be- from the photocathode is multiplied
cause of the presence of residual by the secondary-emission gain of
metals used in the processing of the the tube, the result is a unipotential
photocathade or the dynodes. Con- output pulse having a magnitude
densation of water vapor, dirt, or equal to the charge of one electron
grease on the outside of the tube multiplied by the gain of the tube.
may increase ohmic leakage beyond (There are statistical amplitude
reasonable limits. Simple precau- variations which will be discussed
tions are usually sufficient to elimi- later.) Because the emission of
nate this sort of leakage. In thermionic electrons is random in
unfavorable environmental condi- time, the output dark ::urrent con-
tions, however, it may be necessary sists of random unidirectional pulses.
to coat the base of the tube with The time average of these pulses,
moisture-resisting materials, which which may be measured on a de
52 RCA Phototube Manual
1.0
= to operate the multiplier phototube
J~
81- UNSTABLE REGION_-
61-
41- ~ 10N,IZATI,ON
REGENERATIVE in the range where the thermionic
<II
E,FECTS component is dominant. In this
.... 2
II:
.... range, the relationship between sen-
a. 0 .1
SUM OF OHMIC-LEAK-
AGE AND AMPLIFIED / sitivity and noise is fairly constant
~
8 THERMIONIC-EMISSIO~
6
CURVES
as the voltage is increased because
:-'Y,
fi both the photoelectric emission and
-- --
4
i 2 ' / '/ the thermionic emission are ampli-
tz ..;'
?- '~9HMIC fied by the same amount.
~ 0.0 I LEAKAGE'::= At higher dynode voltages, a
II:
8
6
::>
u 4 I regenerative type of dark current
develops, as shown in Fig. 44. The
'"
II:
ct 2 / / dark current becomes very erratic,
o
~QOO I
-AMPL:FIED and may at times increase to the
THERMIONIC==
o
8
6 EMISSION , - practical limitations of the circuit.
:i 4 Continued flow of large dark cur-
2 / rents may cause damage to the
sensitized surfaces. Some possible
0.000I I causes of the regenerative behavior
o 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
VOLTS PER STAGE will be discussed in more detail later.
Fig. 44. Typical variation of dark current All multiplier phototubes eventually
with voltage for a multiplier phototube. become unstable as the gain is in-
creased.
The best operating range can
meter, is usually the principal dc generally be predicted from a con-
component of the dark current at sideration of the ratio of the dark
normal operating voltages. The limi- current to the output sensitivity of
tation to the measurement of very the tube. This ratio, known as the
low light levels is the variable char- equivalent anode-dark-current in-
acter of the thermionic dark-current put (EADCI), is shown as a func-
component. It is not possible to bal- tion of luminous sensitivity in Fig.
ance out this wide-band noise com- 45. The EADCI is equivalent to the
ponent of the multiplier phototube, light flux on the photocathode which
,as it might be to balance out a would result in an output-current
steady ohmic-leakage current. Nev- change equal to the dark current
ertheless, it is usually advantageous observed. If thermionic emission

LUMINOUS SENSITIVITY - AMPERES/LUMEN


10'2 10-1 I 10 1 102 104 10'
4 68103
~~ 10.10 10-7

zt-
II!
II:
:::> 7046
u
,\:
g~ '"
z
"'
~i
:I
:::>
oJ
0
z '10-12 7850

...'"z
I-
8
6
4
4
..J
~ 2
2
5
...
a 10'13 IC)"iO
10 102 103 104 2
468 105
106 107 108
AMPERES/WATT

Fill. 45. "Equivalent anode dark current input" as a function of the luminous sensitivity for
various multiplier phototubes. The Equivalent Anode Dark Current Input represents the
light flux which would result in an output current change just equal to the dark current.
Optimum operating range is usually where this function is near & minimum.
Multiplier Phototubes 53

were the sole source of dark current, were compiled, the thermionic emis-
the EADCI would be a horizontal sion shown is probably representa-
line on the graph. In some tubes a tive of the best achievable at the
regenerative condition sets in before present state of the art.
the really flat operating region has The variation of dark current or
been attained. noise with temperature is most im-
As may be expected, the thermi- portant for ultimate low-light-Ievel
onic component of the dark current sensitivity. Various cryostats have
is very much a function of the been designed to take advantage of
temperature. Fig. 46 shows the the reduced noise at low tempera-
temperature variation of the equiv- ture.'" An important practical con-
alent of the dark current at the sideration at low temperatures is the
photocathode (anode dark current prevention of condensation of mois-
divided by gain) per unit cathode ture on the window. In a Dewar-type
area. The data for this figure were arrangement, condensation is not a
obtained from a number of tubes problem; in simpler set-ups mois-
having well defined (flat) minima of ture condensation may be prevented
the EADCI curves. In some cases, by a controlled low-humidity atmos-
the photocathode equivalent of the phere at the external window.
output dark current was derived In most multiplier phototubes,
from noise measurements because of the electrostatic potential of the
the difficulty of separating the leak- walls surrounding the photocathode
age from the electronic component and dynode-cage region is important
of dark current at low temperatures. particularly with respect to the onset
(The relation between thermionic of the regenerative dark-current
emission and noise is discussed component. The bulb wall can be
later.) The data shown in Fig. 46 maintained near photocathode po-
represent the actual dark emission tential if the bulb is wrapped or
per unit area associated with par- painted with a metallic coating
ticular photocathode types rather maintained at cathode potential; the
than with particular tubes. Because connection of the metallic coating to
of the manner in which the data the cathode is usually made through
a high impedance to avoid shock
\ hazard. A positive potential on the
2
2 \ I bulb wall can cause noisy operation.
8
6
Even though the bulb is not con-
4 nected to a positive potential, the
~Sl
2 proximity of a shield or container
3 r\ I
at positive potential may lead to the
8
6
4
development of a positive charge.
2
\ Fig. 47 shows the effect of various
I
4 bulb-shield potentials on the dark
8
6 noise. This effect may not be ob-
4
I\. 511 \ served for all tubes and all types,
2
~
I but should be recognized as a pos-
8
6
sible source of increased noise.
4 Excess noise or dark current is
2
520--': '\ often accompanied by fluorescent
I I
6
8 effects on the inner surface of the
6
4 bulb. When the potential of the
bulb is positive, stray electrons at-
R~~'P~O~A~·8TE~~-1i~3/'r~·~· K tracted to the bulb cause the emis-
60 20 0 -20
I -~o sion of light on impact, depending on
TEMP.-·C the nature of the glass surface and
the presence of contamination. Sec-
Fig. 46. Temperature variation of dark cur-
rent for multiplier phototubes in the ondary electrons resulting from the
manner of a Richardson plot. impact of the stray electrons on the
54 RCA Phototube Manual
4
TUBE TEMPERATURE=2!5° C
I
l:b (SIGN!L)
2000 I00
V
2 V r--
V L I'-- !z
V I
8 1500 I '"o
75ffi
a.
S'
~
o
l! !!::
-1000 -800 -600 -400 -200
EXTERNAL SHIELD VOLTS
0 J.
~IOOO / E
50~
RELATIVE TO ANODE VOLTS

Fig. 47. Effect of external-shield potential


z
"- r---.... J '"'"
on the noise of a IP21 multiplier photo-
tube. Note the desirability of maintain- I'- V '"ooz
ing a negative bulb potential. NOISE
SOO 25'"

glass surface are collected by the


most positive elements in the tube
and help maintain the positive po- o
o 50 100 150 200 250 300
tential of the inner surface of the FOCUS-SHIELD POTENTIAL
(RELATIVE TO CATHODE)-VOLTS
glass. Under these circumstances, it
is possible to observe the formation Fig. 48. Typical variation of noise output
of glowing spots on the inside of the of a 6342A multiplier phototube as a
glass bulb, provided the eye is dark- function of focu ....hield potential. Al.o
indicated is the output signal current
adapted and the applied voltage is showing how only a minimum loss in
sufficiently high. Some of this emit- signal sensitivity results from a choice
ted light may reflect back to the of shield potential which minimizes
cathode and cause regenerative dark noise.
current.
Other surfaces within the multi- .
Id=l+bt
a +.1. (27)
plier phototube are also important
in the control of regenerative dark where i. is dark emission as a func-
current. In the 6342A, for example, tion of time, a and b are constants,
the focus-shield potential shows a t is time, and i. is the constant level
point of distinct noise minimum,'" as of dark emission. However, the sig-
shown in Fig. 48. The mechanism of nificance of this relationship is not
this behavior is not understood at apparent at present. It is possible
present. that the heavy initial exposure to
Another phenomenon which de-
serves mention in connection with
dark current is the effect of previous
exposure to light. If a photocathode
is exposed to strong light, with or
without an applied voltage, a meas-
urement made immediately after-
ward shows a higher-than-normal
dark current which decreases rapidly
with time. The effect is more marked
when the exposure is richer in short-
wavelength radiation. Very long
periods are required to attain the
low dark current associated with
equilibrium, as shown in Fig. 49.
Fig. 49. Variation of dark current following
An analysis of the rate of decay exposure of cathode to cool-white fluo-
of the dark emission suggests the rescent-lamp radiation. The various
cathodes are identified by their spectra!-
following reciprocal relationship: response symbol••
Multiplier Phototubes 55

light alters the Fermi level of the For an excess impurity semicon-
photocathode as a result of the intro- ductor where thermionic emission
duction of excited states and that originates from the impurity centers,
the photocathode then decays to its the equation for thermionic emission
initial state. For best operation and is written as follows:
low noise, therefore, it is recom-
mended that the photocathode be • _ 4". emk2 T 2 "/. hOI'
kept dark at all times,or at least J- h3 no (2". mkT)3j'
for many hours before making low- (E. + R/2) e
(31)
level measurements. e kT
Origins of Dark Current. In a
metal, the electrons which escape as where no is the impurity concentra-
thermionic emission are generally tion and R is the depth below the
from the top of the conduction band conduction band to the impurity
(see Fig. 1). Thus, the work func- level.'7 Photoemission still originates
tion for photo emission and thermi- primarily from the valence band.
onic emission is the same. Thermi- In Fig. 46, the slope of the
onic emission as a function of work curve of cathode dark current as a
function </> in volts and temperature function of reciprocal temperature
T in degrees Kelvin is given by the has approximately the magnitude
familiar Richardson equation: predicted, but it is difficult to explain
the change in slope. Perhaps there
4 k 2 T" -</> e/kT are "islands" of different impurity
j = 7r :~ e (28) level or concentration, or it may be
that the impurity concentration is a
where j is the thermionic current function of temperature. Exposure
density; e, the electron charge; m, to temperatures above the normal
the electron mass; k, Boltzman's operating range sometimes results
constant; and h, Planck's constant. in permanent reduction in dark
In MKS units, the equation becomes current.
Another source of dark emission
- </> e/kT from the photocathode results from
j = 1.2 X 10· T"e (29) radioactive elements in the tube or
surroundings which cause scintilla-
For semiconductor photocath- tions in the glass envelope of the
odes, the work functions of photo- tube. For example, it is very difficult
emission and thermionic emission to obtain glass that does not contain
may be quite different. The work potassium, which has a natural com-
function for photoemission (see Fig. ponent of radioactive K40. Some
5) is the potential height from the glasses, such as fused silica, have
top of the valence band to the comparatively low background radi-
vacuum level, or E. (the electron ation.
affinity) plus E. (the forbidden gap,
i.e., the separation of valence and Noise
conduction bands). For an intrinsic
semiconductor, thermionic emission The amplification of a multiplier
originates from the valence band, as phototube is usually high enough so
does photoemission but the "work that the noise in the dark current
function" is not the same as for completely dominates coupling-re-
photo emission. In the case of an sistor noise except for very small
intrinsic semiconductor, thermionic- resistances. Under normal operating
emission density can be expressed as conditions, the noise which limits
detectability results from amplified
thermionic emission. Thermionic
emission may originate from both
the photocathode and the dynode
• 4". emk'T" surfaces. The latter emission is
J= e kT (30)
h3 usually negligible as a result of the
56 RCA Phototube Manual

difference in gain through the tube. the operation of multiplier photo-


If the multiplication of the second- tubes is the ratio of the signal to
ary emission is assumed to be noise- the noise. The output signal current
free, the expression for the rms noise Is may be expressed as follows:
current is similar to that for a Is=p,FR (35)
vacuum phototube, Eq. (22), as fol-
lows: where F is the flux in lumens on
the photocathode and R is the sensi-
'AI tivity in amperes per lumen. (F and
~ =p, [2ei.M] 'AI (32) R can also be expressed in terms of
watts instead of lumens.) The fol-
where p, is the amplification factor lowing simplified expression may be
of the multiplier phototube and the written for the ratio of the dc signal
other symbols are as defined pre- current to the rms noise current in a
viously. As in the case of vacuum bandwidth Af:
phototubes, it is possible to calculate
the minimum value of coupling re- FR
sistance R which may be used. If it 'AI (36)
is assumed that the tube-generated PA:f ,
noise is just equal to the coupling
Johnson noise, as in Eq. (24), the In the detection of low light
minimum value of R is given by levels, it is often advantageous to
modulate the light by means of a
R= 2kT "chopper" and to couple the multi-
(33) plier phototube to an amplifier hav-
p,' e i.
ing a narrow bandpass at the
For example, if the equivalent cath- chopping frequency. In this way the
ode dark current i. is 10-'" ampere dc component of the dark current is
and the gain of the tube is 10", the eliminated, and the inherent signal-
value of R for which the two noise to-noise ratio of the multiplier
sources are equivalent is 50 ohms. phototube is more readily realized.
Thus, the multiplier phototube is far For example, when the modula-
superior to the vacuum phototube tion of the light is sinusoidal, a
for the amplification of very small modulation factor M can be defined
light signals. The possibility of very as the peak-to-peak cathode photo-
low values of coupling resistance current amplitude divided by the
permits the observation of high- average cathode photocurrent. The
speed phenomena not possible with rms output-signal current can be
vacuum phototubes having large expressed as
coupling resistances. ikMp,
The above discussion does not
consider the increase in noise result- 2y12
ing from the secondary-emission where i k is the average photocathode
amplification mechanism. If this current. If the average cathode cur-
source is included, a more refined rent is small compared with the
expression may be written:18 equivalent cathode dark emission i.,
the following expression may be
'AI = 1A[2ei.(1 +m~l) Af] 'AI written for the signal-to-noise ratio
I'M SIN:
(34) rms modulated signal current
SIN = rms noise current
where m is the secondary-emission
ratio per stage (usually of the order Mh
of 4) and B is a statistical factor =-----------
B
(found by measurement on a 5819 to
be 1.540'9). 1 +m-l ) Af ]'AI

An important consideration in (37)


Multiplier Phototubes 57

It is frequently advantageous to not clearly understood. In the case of


rate a multiplier phototube by its tubes such as the 931A and 6655A,
equivalent noise input or EN!. This which have CsSb dynodes, thermi-
figure is the amount of light in onic emission may originate from the
lumens (or other radiation units) dynodes as well as from the cathode.
which produces an rms signal cur- This explanation could well account
rent just equal to the noise current for the many small pulses. On the
in a bandwidth of one cycle. For ex- other hand, it has been speculated
ample, if a square-wave modulation that the distribution of secondary
is assumed for which the peak-to- emission itself may be exponential.
peak amplitude is just equal to the This point of view is proposed by
unmodulated current with on time J. A. Baicker 2l who also suggests
equal to off time, a modulation fac- that the two-slope characteristic
tor M of 8/7r can be assumed in Eq. shown in Fig. 50 is the result of
(37). If F is the unmodulated flux, single and multiple emission of elec-
the average cathode current i., is trons from the cathode. The multiple
then given by emission may be the result of impact.
it = FR/2 (38) by positive ions. However, the evi-
dence for this assumption is not as
For the case where SIN is equal to yet clearly established. The statis-
unity, EN! is equal to the unmodu- tics of secondary emission are dis-
lated light flux F. The value of ENI cussed further below.
is then determined as follows:
Io5r-------------------------,

(ENI)R
=

or

7r [ e id (1 +~) ] ~
ENI=
R
(40)
Note that this equation may be used
to determine the equivalent photo- IOL-~2~O--~40~-6~O~~8~O~7.IO~O~7.12~O~~
cathode dark current. For example, BIAS VOLTS
when B equals 1.54 and m equals 4, Fig. 50. Pulse-height distribution of dark-
the value of id is given by current pulses in two 7264 multiplier
phototubes. The data were obtained by
id ~ 0.4 X 1018 R2 (ENI)' (41) integral~bias counting.

When the dark current is ob-


served on a wide-bandpass oscillo- Noise in the Signal. When the
scope, it consists of unidirectional photo current is well in excess of the
pulses of variable amplitude. It is thermionic emission, measurement
presumed that these pulses represent precision is limited by the random-
thermionic electrons from the cath- ness of photoemission and secondary
ode amplified by secondary emission. emission. This type of limitation is
The distribution of the heights of most prevalent in applications such
these pulses is quite closely expo- as the detection of a star against the
nential'" with a trend to a double- background of the sky, where the
slope characteristic.2l modulated signal is produced by
The cause of this distribution is scanning back and forth across the

..
-~.~-~-~---~---------=::--.----.-------.,.'------.'"~----~~
58 RCA Phototube Manual

star and in the detection of small


marks on scanned paper. The expres-
sion for the rms noise current output
SIN. =~ [ e
i..
(1 +_B_) Ai
]%
is identical to Eq. (32) or to Eq.
(34) (when secondary-emission sta- m -1 (44)
tistics are included), except that the
This equation may be used to pro-
average cathode photocurrent i. is
vide an approximate measure of the
substituted for i d • When the modu-
collection efficiency, or at least a
lation of the light is sinusoidal and
relative comparison between tubes.'"
the magnitude of the modulation is
The noise in the signal is simi-
small compared with the background,
the expression for the rms noise cur- lar to the dark noise in that it also
rent in the signal, N., may be deter- consists of random pulses of variable
mined by a development parallel to amplitude. The random spacing of
that of Eq. (37), as follows: the pulses corresponds to the basic
randomness of the emission of
photoelectrons. In this case pulses
SIN. = rms modulated signal current originating from the dynodes are
rms noise current in signal negligible. The distribution of anode

r
pulse heights has been measured at
the Lawrence Radiation Labora-

~~ [e (1~' m~' ) tory'" for single-photoelectron in-


puts; data obtained are shown in
AI Fig. 51. The curve passes through a
maximum for small pulses instead of
(t:f) increasing indefinitely near zero
pulse height, as the dark-current
In an application of this type, which distribution apparently does. The
requires maximum sensitivity in the distribution is approximately that
presence of a light background, the calculated from Poisson statistics.
multiplier phototube used should
have high cathode sensitivity. Gain
is unimportant except at the first
stage, where high dynode-No. 1-to- ---90% CONFIDENCE INTERVALS
cathode voltage is required to mini-
mize noise from the statistical vari-
ation of secondary emission (through
the factor m).
In most practical multiplier
phototubes, some of the photoelec-
trons fail to enter the secondary-
emission section of the tube as a
result of imperfect design or mis-
alignment of tube components. The
collection efficiency for the photo-
electrons is usually near unity, but o 5 10 15 20 25 30
RELATIVE PULSE AMPLITUDE
in some tubes may be of the order of
0.5 or less. If this consideration is
Fig. 51. Measured amplitude distribution of
included in Eq. (42), the cathode anode pulses due to single photo-electron
current must be the collected current inputs for a 2-inch diameter, 14-stage
rather than the emitted current. The multiplier pbototube having C s3 Sb dy-
collected current may be defined as nodes. Gain per stage is approximately 3..
follows:
i., (collected) =h (emitted) X • (43)
where e is the collection efficiency. Scintillation Counting.-28 An-
Eq. (42) then becomes other type of application in which
Multiplier Phototubes 59
the statistics of operation of the The main peak of the curve at the
multiplier photo tube are important right is associated with mono-
is scintillation counting. In a typical energetic gamma rays which lose
application, nuclear disintegrations their entire energy by photoelectric
produce gamma rays which cause conversion in the crystal. Pulse-
scintillations in a crystal such as height resolution is measured as the
NaI(Tl). A multiplier phototube width of this distribution peak at its
coupled closely to the face of the half height divided by the pulse
crystal converts the scintillations to height at maximum.
electrical output pulses. Because the Pulse-height resolutions meas-
energy of a light flash is closely ured in this manner vary from 6
proportional to the gamma-ray en- to 20 per cent. Multiplier phototubes
ergy and because multiplier photo- vary considerably in their ability to
tubes are linear in operation, the resolve scintillation pulses of differ-
electrical pulse height can be used ent heights. Good optical coupling
as a direct measure of the gamma- is required to use all the light from
ray energy. However, the number of the scintillation effectively. This re-
photoelectrons per scintillation is quirement makes it necessary to
relatively small (of the order of sev- provide the tube with a semitrans-
eral hundred). The output pulses parent photocathode on the window-
vary in height because of the sta- faceplate and a scintillating crystal
tistics of the small numbers and coupled directly to the faceplate.
because the scintillations themselves High and uniform photocathode sen-
vary. An important requirement in sitivity is essential, especially in the
nuclear spectrometry is the ability spectral region corresponding to the
to discriminate between pulses of blue emission from the crystal. Fig.
various heights; hence, the im- 53 compares the distribution of light
importance of Pulse-Height Reso- from the NaI(Tl) source and the
lution. 8-11 spectral response commonly
Measurement of the pulse- used in the coupling multiplier. It
height resolution of a multiplier
phototube has not been standardized; 10 Io

'" \
however, a NaI(Tl) crystal and a /\
Cs l37 source of gamma rays are gen- '"T
!!l 8 /! 8
;;:
3
erally used as a reference combina- ~ II
tion. A typical pulse-height distri- > i \ ~
;:: 6 60;

.. \ '.."
0; !!!
i'f~
bution curve is shown in Fig. 52. z I
4 r-- 4 ~
OJ

2:

..'" h
!< 2
\ \ 2
!<
;;l
~,
..J

40
RESOLUTIONo~xIOO"l.
86.5
-12.1%
J o
3000 4000 5000 6000I"" 0
'"

o WAVELENGTH-ANGSTROMS
l530
:.lrn Fig. 53. Distribution of light from a scin-
"- tillating NaI(TI) crystal compared
:'!20 with the typical (8-11) spectral re-
z sponse of multiplier phototubes most
:::>
o
C)
commonly used in scintillation counting.
10
PEAK MIDPOINT
POSITION
oS6.5 UNITS--=--+i
is also important that electrons
o 20 40 60 SO
emitted from the cathode be effi-
PULSE HEIGHT
ciently used by the first dynode.
Pulse-height-resolution measure-
Fig. 52. Distribution of pulse heights ob- ments are a reliable guide to efficient
served in a scintillation counting ex-
periment using gamma rays from C8137
operation in scintillation counting.
to excite a NaI (TI) crystaL It should be noted, however, that
60 RCA Phototube Manual

pulse-height resolution is not solely photoelectric conversion.


determined by the characteristics of It is generally desirable to have
the multiplier phototube; the prop- a relatively flat plateau which ex-
erties of the scintillating crystal, its tends for several hundred volts. A
housing, and the coupling to the good plateau characteristic is par-
phototube and the location of the tially determined by such properties
gamma-ray source are also im- as low dark current and high photo-
portant. cathode sensitivity; it is also de-
Another characteristic used to termined by the particular amplifi-
describe the effectiveness of multi- cation-voltage characteristic. Thus,
plier phototubes for scintillation a rapid variation of gain with volt-
counting is the so-called Plateau age results in a short and steep pla-
Characteristic. Although the term teau; this effect is not inherently
is widely used, there is no ac- undesirable, but merely corresponds
cepted definition for plateau; adop- to a scale change. Plateau charac-
tion of this concept may be traced teristic should not be used for indis-
to the parallel use of scintillation criminate comparison of different
counters and Geiger counters. Pulse- types of multiplier phototubes. Pulse-
height resolution is a preferred height-resolution data are a more
measure of scintillation counting effi- fundamental guide to the choice of
ciency; however, because of the in- multiplier phototubes than plateau
terest in plateau characteristics for characteristics. Similarly, a pulse-
certain applications, a brief descrip- height distribution provides greater
tion of the general implication of insight to the source of the scintil-
the term is given below. lations than the integral-bias-type
The plateau characteristic is ob- plateau curve.
tained in the same manner as pulse- When a multiplier phototube is
height-resolution data, except that used to observe very short light
the pulses are recorded by integral- flashes, such as those which occur
bias rather than differential-bias. in scintillation counting, After-
The number of pulses larger than Pulses30 (i.e., minor secondary
a particular value is plotted as a pulses following the main anode-
function of the voltage applied to current pulse) are sometimes ob-
the multiplier phototube. The plateau served. Two general classes of after-
which develops (Fig. 54) corre- pulses are characterized by the time
sponds not to the valley to the left between the main pulse and the
of the photopeak in Fig. 52, as might after-pulse: (1) delays of the order
be expected, but to the region of of nanoseconds; (2) delays of the
the· curve at the extreme left in order of microseconds. The former
Fig. 52 just before the sharp up- have been shown to be the result of
turn." Operation on the plateau feedback of light to the photo-
.corresponds to the counting of scin- cathode. The fact that light is gen-
tillation pulses originating from erated in the output stages of the
Compton-scattering, as well as from tube has been verified by many ob-
servers, especially in tubes in which
the construction is open enough to
3 permit observation of the dynode
l-- t - V areas. The light output follows the

/-~y<
current level in the tube; at reason-
2 1-- PLATEAU +-- ably high levels of current, the dy-
(COUNT INCREASE
10% /100 VOLTS)
~ nodes at the end of the tube seem
:-
I / to be covered by a blue-green light.
Light generated by luminescent
effects associated with the high-
0 / density pulse current in the output
600 800 1000 1200
APPLIED VOLTS
1400 1600 stages of the tube is reflected and
Fige 54. Typical plateau characteristic. transmitted back to the photocathode.
Multiplier Phototubes 61

Delay time is a combination of the velops. Post'" was able in this man-
transit time of the secondary and ner to operate 931A tubes at volt-
primary electrons through the mul- ages of 4 to 5 kilovolts with very
tiplier phototube and the transit high gains, output-current peaks to
time of the light itself. This type 0.7 ampere, and pulse rise times of
of feedback has been minimized by the order of 0.8 X 10-9 second.
baffles designed into the structure
of the tube. After-pulses in the nano- Transit-Time Effects
second range are usually observed
only under conditions of very-high- One of the principal advantages
gain operation, of the order of 109 • of multiplier phototubes compared
The second type of after-pulse, with simple photo diodes is the high
of microsecond delay, has been ob- amplification achieved without ap-
served in many different types of preciable loss in frequency response.
tube. No consistent explanation of Calculated power spectrum of the
their cause has been proposed, al- noise for type 931 is shown in Fig.
though they are clearly some type 56.'"' (The 931 was an earlier form
of regenerative effect. Fig. 55 shows of the present 931A multiplier photo-
some exaggerated after-pulses from tube. The electrode structures are
an experimental tube. When the gain identical; the principal differences
and voltage are sufficiently high, are in the supporting members and
even "after-after" pulses may be test specifications, particularly for
observed. dark current and sensitivity.) The
figure shows the power spectrum of
the noise pulses arising from the am-
A = DECAY OF INITIAL PULSE plification of single electrons from
B = FIRST AFTER-PULSE
C = SECOND AFTER-PULSE the photocathode. The loss of fre-
II quency response above 100 mega-

~Iv "-
~
cycles results partly from the
B
shaping of the output-current pulse
by the passage of the amplified elec-
C
tron cloud from the next-to-the-last
I--
o dynode through the anode structure
o 2 4 6 8 10 to the last dynode. The electron
TIME AFTER PEAK OF
INITIAL PULSE-MICROSECONDS cloud is then further amplified at
the last dynode and passes again to
Fig. 55. Multiple after-pulses observed in an
experimental multiplier phototube fol- the anode, even oscillating in the
lowing a high current primary pulse. anode space before final collection.
The initial pulse is generated by the
light from a pulsed CRT; time con-
stant of the phosphor and circuit com-
bined is approximately 0.. 8 microsecond.

Studies of the microsecond after- -~


pulses under various conditions in-
\
dicate that they are of several dif-
ferent origins. In one class, the am- CURVE IS RELATIVE TO LOW-
plitude of the after-pulse increases FREQUENCY VALUE
2
at least as rapidly as the square of
the amplification factor; this rela- T
tionship suggests a regeneration ef- INTEF-1T~G~ VO~TAGE jlO?
fect dependent on feedback from the \
anode end of the tube.
Feedback effects which have I
4 6 8100 2 4 6 8 10 0 0
\ 2
time delays of the order of micro- FREQUENCY-MEGACYCLES
seconds can be circumvented in spe-
cial applications by pulsing the Fig. 56. Power spectrum of the noise from
the RCA 931 multiplier phototube op-
voltage so that high gain is achieved erated at 100 volts per stage, as cal-
before the regenerative pulse de- culated by R. D. Sard.
62 RCA Phototube Manual

The electron cloud is also spread out Because of the very short time
by variations in transit time through response of the multiplier phototubes,
the multiplier section. These transit- it has been difficult to find a test
time variations arise from the dif- light source which has a sufficiently
ferent energies and directions of short time of flash. A spark source,'"
secondary electrons. This calculated which produces a good delta-function
frequency response has been sup- light impluse having a main pulse
ported by pulse measurements which width less than 10-' second, is suit-
show that a type 931A multiplier able for the measurement of the time
phototube has a rise time (10 to 90 delay in multiplier phototubes. Fig.
per cent) less than 10-9 second.31 57 shows the transit-time delay for
The actual delay time between an 8053 as a function of supply volt-
the arrival of a photon and the re- ages; the curve closely approximates
cording of an electrical pulse in the
anode circuit of the multiplier photo-
tube may be much longer than the
pulse rise time. The pulse delay
time is the result of the accumulated
transit times for the several stages
of the tube. For a 931A, the transit- '"
c 75
z I"
/
o
delay time is approximately 16.7 X
10-0 second when the tube is oper-
ated at 100 volts per stage.
u
w

~ 50
z ~/
/
In tubes having large photo- I ~/~'
cathodes suitable for scintillation w
::!E ,-
counting, one of the principal transit- j:: Z5
,/#'
time effects occurs in the space be-
tween the cathode and the first ,-,-
100 10 3 2 1.3 0.95 0.70
dynode. The large photocathode o 20 5 2.5 1.6 1.1 O.SO
necessitates a fairly long path to SUPPLY KILOVOLTS BETWEEN
the first dynode to provide good ANODE AND CATHODE
photoelectron collection from the Fig. 57. Transit time as a function of the
entire photocathode. In addition, for square root of reciprocal applied volt-
some tubes, all areas on the photo- age for a type 8053 multiplier photo-
tube..
cathode are not equally distant in
transit time of the photoelectrons to the inverse half power of the applied
the first dynode. In tubes designed voltage. This effect is to be expected,
for short-time resolution, the photo- provided the effects of initial veloci-
cathode areas are curved and the ties and secondary-emission delay are
first few dynodes are oriented to negligible. The intercept of the line
minimize transit-time spread.12 on the time axis is at 5.2 X 10--
In a new type of multiplier second. This effect has been pre-
phototube presently under develop- viously observed;" it is probably due
ment, transit times are further re- to the delay induced by the circuit
duced by the use of accelerator grids within the tube. Fig. 58 shows the
between dynodes (See Fig. 35)" time delays for a number of multi-
Secondary electrons are thus sub- plier phototubes over a range of
jected to a higher accelerating field operating voltages.
near the emitting surface and to a In most applications, the delay
decelerating field near the collector. time of a multiplier phototube is not
The effect is almost an order-of- as important as the pulse rise time
magnitude improvement over tubes or the pulse width for a delta- func-
having comparable cathode areas. tion input. Fig. 59 shows the output
In some high-speed tubes, the last- pulse width at half maximum am-
dynode and anode leads are construc- plitude for an 8053 as a function of
ted to form a twin-lead transmission the reciprocal square root of the
line to the elements themselves. voltage. The light source used was
Multiplier Phototubes 63
rise time, which is closely related to
the pulse width, has been measured
8055 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ for a number of multiplier photo-
'"c~IOO tubes as the time required for the
I;l
II)
o
8
8053~ pulse to rise from 10 to 90 per cent
of the maximum value. These values
:i 6 7850~~~
7746 are plotted for a range of typical
i...
6199~
_____ ~8054

~
4
6810A
operating voltages in Fig. 60. No
;:: correction has been made for the
!: ~6342A 7326
II) finite rise time of the light pulse
~ 776~
itself, which is estimated to be in the
2
__________ ~ IP21 AND 931A
order of 0.6 X 10-9 second.

10i .• 1"~
500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
ANODE -TO-CATHODE APPLIED VOLTS

Fig. 58. Transit time as a function of sup..


ply voltage (log scale) for a number .,z 2
til

~
of multiplier phototubes.
til

the spark light source described ~IO


above. The pulse width observed is "I
Z B

spread by the width of the light


pulse itself, approximately 0.7 X 10-·
~67850~
~461~
second. The output pulse width also
follows the inverse half power of the
applied voltage, as does the transit-
time delay. This relationship in- ~~6
~2~~AND
dicates that the transit-time spread "0" ~931A
7746
is determined more by the tube
structure (e.g. unequal path lengths) 1000 1500 2000 25003000
than by initial velocities. These data ANODE-TO-CATHODEAPPLIED VOLTS
also suggest a finite intercept on the
time axis of 4 X 10-9 second. Fig. 60. Rise time (10 to 90 percent) as a
function of voltage for a number of
v-t multiplier phototubes.
40 0 IX 10-2 2X10- 2 3x10-2 4X10-2
TRANSIT TIME SPREAD F U L L 7
(f) OF OUTPUT PULSE AT HALF
o MAXIMUM. • If the inherently wide passband
Z
o of the multiplier phototube is to be
~ 30

V
(/)
o fully used, it is important not to
z limit the response in the anode out-
..:
z put circuit. In a 931A tube, for ex-
w
I 20 /A" ample, the capacitance of the anode
::0 to all other electrodes is 6.5 pico-
i= /'
10
, farads. If the capacitances of the
leads and the input of a first-stage
~", amplifier tube are included, the total
shunt capacitance can be 20 pico-
3 2.0 1.3 0.95 0.7C
o 10 2.5 1.6 1.1 0.80
farads. If it is desirable to maintain
KILOVOLTS a time constant of 10-8 second, the
Fig. 59. Transit time spread of an 8053 as
coupling resistor must be less than
measured by the full width of the out- 500 ohms. At the very shortest
put pulse at half maximum as a func- times, the tube elements become part
tion of the inverse half power of the
applied voltage. of a transmission line and "ringing"
(transient oscillation) occurs if the
Rise Time. For the same delta- tube and circuit are improperly de-
function input mentioned above, the signed and matched.
64 RCA Phototube Manual

Linearity Of sitivity of the tube and cause an


Output Current apparent non-linearity.
The output current of a multi- 10-1,..----,---,---,--,---.----:,,-----,
plier phototube has been shown to be
proportional to the light input over
TYPE 931A
VOLTS PER STAGE' 100
--}-
~
a wide range of values!· The limit to SATURATION
AT 45 MA
linearity occurs when space charge MAXIMUM
begins to form. The first limitation DEVIATION FROM
of space charge is not necessarily in
the space between the last dynode
and anode, but more frequently in
the space between the last two
dynodes. The voltage gradient be-
2"
tween anode and last dynode is
usually much higher than for other JOI3 ,,'
dynodes, and therefore results in the 10-14 10-12 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2
limitation at the previous stage, even LIGHT FLUX-LUMENS

though the current is less. The max- Fig. 61. Range of linearity, current as a
imum current, at the onset of space function of light flux, for a type 931A
multiplier phototube.
charge, is proportional to the 3/2
power of the voltage gradient in the
critical dynode region. By use of an Temperature Effects
unbalanced dynode voltage distribu-
tion and increasing the interstage The gain of a multiplier photo-
voltages near the end of the tube, it tube is fairly independent of temper-
is possible to increase the output ature over the normal operating
current in a given tube. In the case ranges. Careful measurement with
of the limiting currents, it is neces- low current (to avoid fatigue effects)
sary to restrict the operation to usually indicates a positive variation
pulsed light to avoid damage to the of gain with temperature. For a
tube. Fig. 61 shows the range of IP21 (having Cs.Sb dynodes) Eng-
linear current which can be obtained strom" has reported an increase in
from the 931A, and the region in gain of approximately 0.3 per cent
which the space charge limits the per degree centigrade rise in tem-
linearity. Table VIII shows the max- perature.
imum current which can be drawn Photocathodes usually show a
from various multiplier phototubes. slight increase in sensitivity with
It should be pointed out that a increasing temperature at the long-
linear behavior is not always ob- wavelength threshold of the spectral
tained from multiplier phototubes. response. Otherwise, however, they
For example, if the test light spot on are quite stable with temperature
a 931A is not directed close to the except for permanent changes, which
center of the active area of the probably result from redistribution
photocathode, disturbing effects may of cesium at higher temperatures.
arise from the proximity of the A most important characteristic
ceramic end plates. Near the end of multiplier phototubes is the rapid
plates, the fields are not uniform increase of dark current with tem-
and are affected by charge patterns perature, especially as a result of
on the insulator spacers, which thermionic emission, as discussed
change with the current level. An previously. Similarly, background
exterior negative shield placed noise increases rapidly with tempera-
around the bulb wall can also im- ture because it is dependent on the
prove tube linearity. Aging effects dark-current origins. Fig. 62 shows
resulting from the passage of exces- the noise background for a IP21 as
sive current may change the sen- a function of temperature.
Multiplier Phototubes 65

TABLE VIII
Maximum (Space-Charge-Limited) Output Current for
Various Multiplier Phototubes
Max. Saturated Ovt"r-all
Tube Type Current (Amperes) Voltage Voltage Distribution**
931A, IP21, 0.045 1000 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1
IP22, IP28,
'6328, 6472
2059 1. 75+ 2648 I, 1.46, 0.83, 1, 1.2, 3.3
5819, 6217, 0.045++ 1200 2, I, I, 1, I, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1
6342A, 6655A, 0.37 2500 2, I, I, I, 1, I, 1.9, 2.7, 4, 1.5
6903
6810A, 7264, 0.23+++ 2500 2, 1, I, I, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1.25, 1.71, ao
7265 1.2t 3800 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1.3, 1.5, 1.9, 2.3
2.8, 3.8, 4.4, 5, 6
7046 0.23tt 2750 4, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, I, 1, I, 1.25, 1.70, t.O
7850 0.30 2500 2, 1.4, 1, 1, I, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1.25, 1.5,
4459 1.75, 2.0
7746 0.30 2200 2, 1.4, I, I, I, 1, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2.0
8053 0.70 2500 2, 1, I, 1, I, I, I, 4, 3.5, 4, 4.8
0.23 1950 2, 1, 1, 1, I, 1, 1, I, 1, 1, I

*Note that types with identical geometry have been grouped together; it has been as-
sumed that all would have the same space-charge characteristic, although in most eaaee the
"satellite" types were not separately tested.
**The numbers represent the relative divider stage voltages: cathode-to-first dynode, first-
dynode-to-second-dYDOde, etc. In most cases the stage voltages have been increased toward
the output end of the tube to increase the space-charge-limited output current.
+Data from D. L. Lasher and D. L. Redhead, RSI, 34, 115 (1963); the 2059 is essentially a
five-stage 931A.
++Based on data for 931A which has identical geometry after the first stage.
+++Lawrence Radiation Laboratory Counting Handbook, UCRL-3307, December 2, 1958.
tWo Widmaier, R. W. Engstrom, R. G. Stoudenheimer, "IRE Transactions on. Nuclear Science,"
NS-3, November 1956.
ttBased on 681(}A data because of identical dynode and anode design.

100 VOLTS PER STAGE.


BANDWI DTH: I CPS
LIGHT SOURCE: TUNGSTEN, AT 2870· K INTERRUPTED AT 90 CPS TO
PRODUCE PULSES ALTERNATING BETWEEN ZERO AND FLUX
VALUE SHOWN FOR ANY GIVEN TUBE TEMPERATURE; "ON"
PERIOD OF PULSE EQUAL TO "OFF" PERIOD; RMS SIGNAL
CURRENT = RMS NOISE CURRENT
EXTERNAL SHIELD VOLTS RELATIVE TO ANODE VOLTS = -1000
JO-I~
6
I
f-
4
=> 2
a.
-z
w
10-1~ V
(f)(f) 6
-z 4
Ow
z::;: ,,-
f-::;)
z-'
2 ,,-
w 10- 1: ./
-'
« 6
:::=> 4
c
w 2
10- 15
150 -100 50 0 + 50
TUBE TEMPERATURE--DEGREES CENTIGRADE

Fig.. 62. Background noise variation in multiplier phototubes as a function temperature.


66 RCA Phototube Manual

Considerable advantage in low-


2
light-level operation may be achieved
by cooling of the tubes. However, not
w
"'10 9 t\ I
:3 il -<>~
all multiplier phototubes can be o 6
4 -5t.'%,
~c>~\
(/)
cooled without compensating for the
temperature variation of the resis- '"
W
11.
2-
----,...~'" ~~.z.- f-
tivity of the photocathode layer. For ~1088 -5t.~
tubes such as the IP21, in which the :r
o
6
4
~(.f:
"'(/
~~:=
... f-r=
~~ f-
photocathode is overlaid on a solid
CONductor, there is no problem. How-
I ~0;, ~-
~~"'-Y.
w 2
ever, in the semitransparent type of ~107 \
photocathode, since the photocathode f:! 8
6
0"
(/)
..(t;s.1--1-'-
is a semiconductor, the conductivity en 4
w ~-1---
at low temperatures may become so '" 2
0.1
I LIQUID NZ

"
poor that the emission of photo- DRY ICE
6
electrons from the center results in 10 -ZOO -160 -120 -80 -40 0 40
a positive charge pattern which ef- TEMPERATURE-DEGREES C
fectively blocks the normal operation Fig. 63. Resistance per square as a function
of the tube. No fixed lower-tempera- of temperature for the Cs-Sb and the
ture limit can be given for proper multialkali semitransparent photocath-
operation because the minimum tem- odes.. These data were obtained with
special tubes having connections to
perature depends upon the photo- parallel conducting lines on the photo-
current and the dark-emission cur- cathode.
rent, as well as on the particular
photocathode. Fig. 63 shows the re-
sistivity per square for semitrans- deflection of electrons from their
parent photocathodes as a function normal path between stages. Tubes
of temperature. for scintillation counting are gen~
erally quite sensitive to magnetic
Effect Of fields because of the relatively long
Magnetic Fields path from the cathode to the first
dynode.
To some degree, all multiplier If multiplier phototubes are to
phototubes are sensitive to the pres- be used in the presence of magnetic
ence of magnetic fields. Typical loss fields, as is often the case, it is
of sensitivity in the presence of a essential to provide magnetic shield-
magnetic field is shown in Fig. 64. ing around the tube. High-mu-ma-
The loss of gain results from the terial shields are generally available
!z it PARALLEL TO MAJOR AXIS OF TUBE (POSITIVE VALUES FOR UNES
w OF FORCE TOWARD TUBE BASE)
~IOO /' ~:- ........
~ / I. \ ",,8053

, I.
~
i:i
80
/
Ii:: . \'\
~ 60 // I :: .,
o
8z 40 ;"
,/'i ::
::
• I
931A
"
C ;" I •
~
~ 20
/: : • I. \
iil : \ 634ZA
c 0L-______- l________~________L-\~_____L______~
-30 -ZO -10 0... 10 20
MAGNETIC FIELD INTENSITY (H)-GAUSSES
Fig. 64. Variation of output currt::nt of selJt.:ral multipher phototubes as a function of mag-
netic field strength.
Multiplier Phototubes 67
commercially. In some experiments, heavy current, it frequently is re-
even the earth's magnetic field may covered when the tube is removed
be critical, especially if the tube is from operation. This recovery is ac-
moved about. celerated by an increase in tempera-
It is possible to take advantage ture within the permitted range.
of magnetic fields to modulate the (Too high a temperature may cau&e
output current of the multiplier permanent loss in sensitivity.) Re-
phototube. Under the application of covery is probably the result of
normal fields, no permanent damage cesium returning to the dynode sur-
results. However, it is possible to faces.
cause a slight magnetic polarization Because recovery occurs even
of some of the internal structure of during operation, sensitivity loss is
the tube. If this condition should not determined by the product of
occur, the performance of the tube current and time at very low cur-
may be somewhat degraded by loss rents. Fig. 65 shows the short-time
in collection efficiency; however, it is fatigue and recovery characteristic
a simple matter to "degauss" (de- of a typical 1P21 having an initial
magnetize) the tube by placing it in anode current of 100 microamperes;
an alternating magnetic field and the recovery is considerably slower
then gradually withdrawing it. A than the fatigue. At currents of 10
maximum field of 100 gausses at microamperes or less, this situation
the center of a coil operated on a may be reversed. For a tube with
60-cycle alternating current is usu- Cs-Sb dynodes, therefore, little im-
ally sufficient to degauss a tube. provement in stability is achieved by
use of an anode current smaller than
Fatigue And 10 microamperes.

---
Life Characteristics 100
It is difficult to predict the pre-
cise changes in sensitivity of a mul-
tiplier phototube which may occur
80
1\ ..-

'"
>-
during the course of operation. The
I-
:;
;:::
/
fatigue characteristic is a function en 60 LIGHT
of output current, previous history, z ON
TUBE
and type of dynode material. Because '"
If)
NO LIGHT ON TUBE ~
fatigue is quite variable from tube '"
> 40
;:::
to tube, only typical patterns can be «
-'
described. '"
II:
20
Generally, sensitivity changes
become more rapid as the output
current increases. In fact, for an in-
dividual tube, the sensitivity change o 100 200 300 400 500
TIME-MINUTES
is approximately a function of the
product of time and output current, Fig. 65. Short-time fatigue and recovery
characteristics of a typical 1P21 op-
especially for rather large currents. erating at 100 volts per stage and with
It may be that changes in dynode a light source adjusted to give 100
characteristics result from an altera- microampere initial anode current. At
tion of the surface caused by the im- the end of 100 minutes the light i.
turned off and the tube allowed to re-
pact of the primary electrons. One cover sensitivity. Tubes recover ap.-
possibility is that cesium is released proximately as shown, whether the
from the surface and then recom- voltage is on or off.
bines elsewhere in the tube. The re-
lease of cesium may be expected to Over a longer period, the rate of
be more or less proportional to total sensitivity change decreases, as
charge impact, as indicated above. shown in Fig. 66, but the change
When sensitivity of the tube is tends to become more permanent and
lost as a result of the passage of. a recovery is only partial.
68 RCA Phototube Manual
100 160

80
140
,..-
"'-"I'---. ...J
<t
~120 /
.........
lL
o
V
;---.
- !2100
w
u
III
~ 80

o 100 200 300 400 500 ~


TIME-HOURS
in 60
~
en
Fill'. S5. Typical sensitivity loss for a 1P21
operating at 100 volts per stage for a ~
!;( 40
period of 500 hours. Initial anode cur- ...J
rent is 100 microamperes and is ll!
readjusted to this operating value at 48,
20
16~ and 360 hours.

o 100 200 300 400 500


TIME-HOURS
Multiplier phototubes having Fig. 67. Typical sensitivity variati<>n on life
silver-magnesium or copper-beryl- for a 6342A multiplier phototube (silver
lium dynodes are much more stable magnesium dynodes) operating with
1250-volt anode supply voltage for a
at high operating currents than period of 500 hours. Initial anode eur-
those having cesium-antimony rent is 2 milliamperes and is readjusted
dynodes. There is no significant dif- to this operating value ...t 48, 168 and
ference in stability between silver- 360 hours.
magnesium or copper-beryllium
dynodes. A typical characteristic of This particular phenomenon, ob-
sensitivity change on life is shown served in a developmental type, was
in Fig. 67 for a type 6342A multi- probably the result of the charging
])lier phototube (silver-magnesium of the supporting insulator for the
dynodes). The sensitivity tends to dynodes. The effect was observed to
increase at first, then levels off and
decreases very slowly. The operating II)
current in this case is 2 milliamperes, w
Ir
as compared to the lOO-microampere ~600~~------------------'
current used for the Cs-Sb dynodes :;:
typified by the characteristic shown ~
in Fig. 66.
In addition to the life character- ~400 ,,'-----------~
istics, which are probably the result .!.
of changes in the dynode layer itself, ffi LJ~~T LIGHT ON
other changes of a temporary nature
&i 200
:J
U
also occur. Not all these changes are
well understood; some are charging !; 0
~ -2~--~O~--~2----~4~--~6
of insulators in the tube.
Fig. 68 illustrates one of the 5 TIME-SECONDS
peculiar instabilities which are some-
times observed in multiplier photo- Fig. 68. Sudden shift in anode eurrent prob-
tubes. When the light is first turned ably as the result of insulator spaeer
charging. Observation was made using
on, the current apparently overshoots an experimental multiplier phototube
and. then decays to a steady value. in whieh the effect was unusually large.
Multiplier Phototubes 69

occur more rapidly at higher cur- pulsed cathode-ray tube was used as
rents, presumably because of the a light source. Two pulse rates were
greater charging current. Observa- studied: 100 and 10,000 pulses per sec-
tion of the phenomenon at different ond. Pulse duration was one micro-
stages in the tube showed that it second; decay time to 0.1 maximum
originated between the first and sec- was 0.1 microsecond. The experiment
ond stages. Electrons striking the was devised to study the rate at which
insulator probably resulted in sec- the multiplier-phototube output re-
ondary emission and a resultant posi- sponse changed when the pulse rate
tive charge. The change is potential was suddenly switched between the
affected the electron optics in the two rates. Tubes such as the 6342A,
space between dynodes. The effect and especially the 8053 and 8054,
was observed as an increase in some showed practically no effect (of the
tubes and as a decrease in others. order of one per cent or less). Fig. 70
This particular development tube shows the pulses during the switch-
type was modified to minimize the ing procedure for a competitor's mul-
effect by use of a metal shield to tiplier phototube. The adjustment
cover part of the spacer at each end
of the first dynode space.
A related phenomenon is the
variation of pulse height with pulse-
count rate in scintillation-counting
applications. Thus, when a radio-
I
active source is brought closer to
a scintillating crystal a greater rate ~ /'
of scintillations should be produced, I
I I
all having the same magnitude. In I 100pps I 10000 pps I 100 pps
I
a particular multiplier phototube a I
1
1
I
few per cent change in amplitude I 1

may result and cause problems in -10 o 10 20 30 40


TIME-SECONDS
measurement. Fig. 69 shows the
typically minor variation of pulse
Fig. 70. Variation of output pulse height
height with pulse-count rate for a as the rate of pulsing is changed in a
type 6342A multiplier phototube!5 poorly designed experimental tube. Light
pulses were provided from a cathode-
ray tube. At the left of the graph,
which shows the pulse-amplitude en-
velope with time for the output of the
multiplier phototube, the pulses are at

; ~I UiUJII
100 per second.. The pulse rate is in-
creased suddenly to 10.000 per second
and again reduced as indicated. Changes
in amplitude are probably the result
of insulator charging.

o 0.2.106 0.4 0.6 O.B 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6


COUNTING RATE PER MINUTE

Fig. 69. Typicalvariation of pulse height decay curves are approximately ex-
with pulse-count rate for a 6342A. ponential. The phenomena were com-
(Cs= source with a NaI (Tl) source). pletely reversible and were observed
on many different tube types (to a
lesser extent). The time-decay period
of several seconds suggests the
In order to investigate the phe- changing of an insulator spacer to a
nomena of pulse-height variation with new potential as the result of the
pulse-count rate, a purp::lsely exag- increased charge flow and the sub-
gerated experiment was devised. In- sequent modification of interdynode
stead of a scintillating crystal, a potential fields.
70 RCA Phototube Manual

References
1. MeKay, K. G., "Secondary Electron Emis- of Multiplier Phototubes", Nucleonles, 10.
sion", Advances in Electronics, 1, (1948). No.4, Apr. (1952).
2. Bruning, N., Physics and Application of 19. Morton, G. A. and Mitchell, J. A., "Per-
Secondary Electron Emission, McGraw- formance of a 931-A Type Multiplier as
Hill Book Co., New York (1954). a Scintillation Counter", Nucleonics, .(,
3. Kollath, R., Hanbuch der Physik, 21. No. I, (1949).
232 (1956). 20. Engstrom, R. W., "Multiplier Phototube
4. Massey, H .S. W. and Burhop, E. H. s., Characteristics; Application to Low Light
Electronic and Ionic Impact Phenomena, Levels," J. Opt. Soc. Am .. 37, (1947).
Oxford Univ. Press, New York (1952). 21. Baicker, J. A., "Dark Current Photo-
6. Zworykin, V. K., Ruedy, J. E. and Pike, multiplier" IRE Transactions on Nucle'sr
E. W 0' "Silver Magnesium Alloy as a Science", NS-7, (1960).
Secondary Electron Emitting Material". 22. Trusting, R. F., Kerns, W. A. and Knud-
.T. Appl. Phys., 12 (1941). sen, H. K., "Photomultiplier Single-Elec-
6. Rappaport, P., "Methods of Processing tron Statistics", IRE Transactions on Nu...
Silver-Magnesium Secondary Emitters for clear Science, NS-9, (1962).
Electron Tubes", J. Appl. Phys., 25 (1954). 23. Birks, J. B.., Scintillation Counters, Mc-
'1. Wargo, P., Haxby, B. V., and Sheperd, Graw-Hill Book Co., New York (1953).
W. G., "Preparation and Properties of 24. Morton, G. A., "Photomultipliers for
Thin-Film MgO Secondary Emitters", J. Scintillation Counting,H RCA Review, 10,
Appl. Phys., 27 (1956). (1949).
8. Allen, J. S., "An Improved Electron Multi- 25. Crauthamel, C. E., Applied Gamma-Ray
J)lier Particle Counter", Rev. Sci. Instr., Spectrometry, Pergamon Press, New York
18 (1947). (1960).
9. Rajchman, J. and Snyder, R. L., "An 26. Bell, P. R.. "Beta- and Gamma-Ray
Ele,etrostatically Focused Multiplier". Spectrometry", Interscience, New Yerk
Electronics, 13, Dec. (1940). (1955).
10. Rajchrnan, J., "Les Curants Residuels 27" Wall, N. S., and Alburger, D. E., Nuclear
dans Les Muitiplicateurs d'Electrons Elec- Spectroscopy (Fay Ajzenberg-Solove, Ed.)
trostatiques", (Thesis), Kundig, Geneva Academic Press, New York (1960).
(1938). 28. Proc. Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth
11. Morton, G. A., Matheson, R. W. and Scintillation Counter Symposia; IRE
Greenblatt, M. H., "Design of Photo- Transa.ctions on Nuclear Science; NS ... 3,
multipliers for the Sub-Millisecond Re- No.4 (1956); NS-5, No.3 (1958); NS-7,
gion",. IRE Transactions on Nuclear Nos. 2, 3 (1960); and NS-9, No.3 (1962).
Science, NS-5 Dec. (1958). 29. Engstrom, R. W. and Weaver, J. L., "Are
12. Engstrom, R. W. and Matheson, R. W., Plateaus Significant in Scintillation
HMultiplier Phototube Development Pro.. Counting?", Nucloonics, 10 (1959).
gram at RCA Lancaster", IRE Transac.. SO. Mueller, D. W., Best, G., Jackson, J. and
tions on Nuclear Science, NS-7, June.. Singletary, J., "After-Pulsing In Photo-
Sept. (1960). multipliers", Nucleonics, 10, No.6 (1952)
13. Sommer, A. H., "Use of Lithium in Photo- SI. Post, R. F., "Performance of Pulsed
emissive Cathodes H , Rev. Sci. Instr. 26 Photomultipliers", Nucloo·nics, 10, No.5
(1955), 28 (1957). (1952)
14. Lontie-Bailliez. M. and Messen, A., L'fn...
8uence de la Temperature sur les Photo .. 82. Sard, R. D., "Calculated Frequency Spec-
multiplicateurs, Centre de Physique Nu- trum of the Shot Noise from a Photo-
cleaire, U niversite de Louvain. multiplier Tube", J. Appl. Phys, 17,
15. Wiggins, S. C. and Earley, K., "Photo- (1946).
multiplier Refrigerator", Rev. Sci. Instr. 83. Kerns, Q .. A., "Improved Time Response
23, No. 10, Oct. (1962). in Scintillation Counting", IRE Transac-
16. Pagano, R., Damerell, C. J. S., Cherry, tions on Nuclear Science, NS-3, (1956).
R. D., "Effect of Photocathode-to-First- 34. Smith, R. V., "Photomultiplier Transit-
Dynode Voltage on Photomultiplier Noise Time Measurements". IRE Transactions
Pulses", Rev Sci. Jnstr. 33, No.9, Sept. on Nuclear Science, NS-3, (1956).
(1962) . 35. Covell, D. F. and Euler, B. A., "Gain
17. Wright, D. A., Semi-Conductors, Methuen Shift Versus Counting Rate in Certain
and Co., New York (1955). Multiplier Phototubes", USNRDL-TR-521,
18. Engstrom, R. W., Stoudenheimer, R. G., U.S. Naval Radiological Defense Labora-
and Glover, A. M .. , "Production Testing tory, San Francisco (1961).
Photocells

PHOTOSENSITIVE devices in In a circuit, a cadmium sulfide


which electron flow occurs in a solid cell having ohmic contacts acts as an
photoconductive material are called ohmic impedance. One of the im-
photocells. In a photoconductive portant parameters of such a cell is
material, electrical conductivity is a its conductance as a function of
function of the intensity of incident illumination. Fig. 72 shows a char-
electromagnetic radiation. Although acteristic of this type in which the
many materials are photoconductive -2
to some degree, this section is limited 10
to the three types which are most V
useful commercially: cadium sulfide,
4
/v
germanium, and silicon. 10
/
Cadmium-Sulfide 6 /
II) 10
Photoconductive Cells o
I
/
The basic elements of a cadmium-
::;;
8
I
~ 10
sulfide photoconductive cell include
a ceramic substrate, a layer of photo-
U
Z
/
«
conducting cadmium sulfide, metallic f- -I 0
~
electrodes, and a protective en-
closure. The photoconductive layer is
o
z
10
/
prepared from cadmium sulfide
o
U _I 2 II
10
which has been treated with various
activating materials (such as a /
chloride and copper). The electrodes -14 1/
are formed by evaporation through 10
a mask of a metal such as tin, in- -- DARK CONDUCTANCE

dium, or gold. The finished cell is &


protected from moisture by a glass - -4
10 10
-2
or glass-metal envelope of the type ILLUMINATION - FOOTCANDLES
shown in Fig. 71.
Fig. 72. Conductance as a function of illumi-
nation for a cadmium-sulfide photocelL

slope of the curve is nearly constant


around a given operating point. The
conductance G may be expressed as
follows:
G = Gl L1' (45)
SUBSTRATE where ~ is the conductance for unit
Fig. 71. Typical RCA cadmium-sulfide photo- illumination, L is the illumination
cell. and l' is the slope of the character~
71

~~-~~-----------~~-----
72 RCA Phototube Manual

istic. The performance of the cell at more quickly at high light levels and
a given operating point is described the rise time is usually longer than
by specifying Gl (expressed in terms the decay time. Typical photocurrent
of the current drawn through the cell rise curves are shown in Figs. 73
at a given applied voltage) and 'Y. and 74.
For a typical cell, the 7163, Gl and 'Y
are 53 micro-ohms and 1, respec-
~EMPERATURE =250 C
tively; the photocurrent measured at I VOL TAGE =22.5 VDC
1 foot-candle and 50 volts (ac) is
approximately 2 milliamperes. V PREVIOUS DARK STORAGE
AT LEAST Ib HOURS
The capacitance of these cells
does not respond instantaneously to 10-2
changes in incident illumination be-
cause of the presence of electron I
traps within the forbidden gap of I
the cadmium sulfide. Although the
build-up and decay of conductance 10 4
on the application or removal of illu-
mination is only approximately ex- :/1 r--
ponential and depends on the magni-
tude of the illumination, the term 0 ~1
cJR
time constant is frequently used to
describe the time required for the
/1
conductance to rise to 63.2 per cent -I 2r--- - ,
~,
of the maximum value or to fall
~-
10
from the peak to 36.8 per cent of ~j
the maximum value. For example, if
a cell has been in the dark for a -14
r---
-"" /'

~DARK CURR~NT
long time and is then illuminated 10 10-2 10-1 I 10 10 2 103 104
with 10 footcandles, the time con- TIME AfTER EXCITATION IS APPLIED - MINUTES
stant is approximately 70 millisec- Fig. 73. Photoeurrent rise characteristics
onds. In general, the cell responds for a ceIl selected for low dark current.

CURVES ARE. INDEPENDENT Of VOLTAGE.


AMBIE.NT TEMPERATURE=2S o C
CURVE ILLUMINATION fOOTCANDLES *
A 10
B I
C 0.1
D 0.01
__ S~ ~~l:g~DT§¥b~~tlUI~f D~BJ~o P~IOR TO EXCITA TION.
~-- S- MINUTE STORAGE IN DARK PRIOR TO EXCITATION.
wlOO
:3 8
<C 6 ""
>
4A/ , ,
1>-
1-0
Z<C 2V A '1.1
,
WW
0:1-
O:CIl ~ B
l/c ,D
C
D,
::::> 10
u"- 8
00 6
131-
IZ 4
a. W U
0: 2
W
0- I
2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8 2 4 • 8
0.01 0.1 I 10 100
TIME AfTER EXCITATION IS APPLIED-SECONDS

Fig. 74. Typical rise characteristics of a cadmium-sulfide cell.


Photocells 73
In addition to the short-term tions is described in terms of dark
time effects just described, other phe- current and decay current. Dark cur-
nomena resulting from previous light rent, the current passed under speci-
exposure proceed more slowly. In fied conditions of voltage and tem-
general, long exposure to high levels perature when the cell has been in
of light makes the cell slightly less the dark a long time, is usually ex-
sensitive and somewhat faster in re- tremely low. Because of time effects
sponse. These changes are reversible; it is more convenient to specify the
the cell reverts to its former condi- decay current, which is observed at
tion during storage in the dark. Be- a given interval after removal of the
cause of the long-term time effects, light used for a sensitivity deter-
cells should be preconditioned to mination. For a typical photocell
light before measurement of sensi- such as type 7163, the decay current
tivity. A commonly used production- is below 40 microamperes at a volt-
testing preconditioning schedule pro- age of 50 volts, 10 seconds after re-
vides for exposure of the cells to a moval of 1-footcandle illumination.
500-footcandle fluorescent light for Typical photocurrent decay curves
16 to 24 hours. Voltage is not applied are shown in Figs. 75 and 76.
to the cell during the preconditioning In the typical curve of photo-
schedule. current as a function of applied
Certain time effects are also re- voltage at various levels of illumina-
lated to the application of voltage, tion shown in Fig. 77, linearity ex-
and as a result cells are often tends over six orders of magnitude
slightly less sensitive under ac than of Voltage. Peak-to-valley response
under dc operating conditions.
as a function of frequency of square-
For most applications, the con-
ductance of the photocell must be wave light input is shown in Fig. 78.
substantially lower in the dark than The curve shows that the frequency
when the cell is illuminated. Cell per- response improves as the level of
formance under unilluminated condi- illumination increases.

CURVES ARE INDEPENDE.NT OF VOLTAGE.


AMBIENT TEMPERATURE=25° C
CURVE ILLUMINATION- FOOTCANDLES II
A 10
B I
C 0.1
D 0.01
II COLOR TEMPERATURE 2870° K.

1- 5100
zf= 6
lj~ 4
"
o:U
wX
"-W .......
~l?
z~
2
A ~
" C ~
wO: 10
O:J
0: 0 •
J w
UJ "
4
g;;!
~> 2
"-,,-
0 I
2 4 0; 8
2- 4 2 4 2- 4
0.001 0.01 " 8 0.1 " 8 I " 8 10
TIME AFTER EXCITATION IS RE.MOVED-SECONDS

Fig. 75. Typical decay characteristics of a cadmium-sulfide cell.


74 RCA Phototl.lbe Manual
o
10

2
r-. ~ TEMPERATURE-25 C
VOL TAGE=22.5 VDC
10 f--
B' CURVE (~6g!tg1'iJ6e~s)
'-- f-
10 2
4 r\ A
B 10
0
f--
[3

,
C C 10 2 0:
f--
6 1\ D
E
1<)4

10 6 f--
W
a.
::.
<
,...J
8 1\ z
W
0:

~\
D IX:
::J
U

10 '~
\
-I 2
10
r\
E ,~

-I 4
r---.~
10 -4 -2 0 2 4 6
10 10 10 10 10 10
TIME AFTER EXCITATION IS REMOVED-MINUTES

Fig. 76. Photocurrent decay characteristics Fig. 77. Curve showing photocurrent as a
for a cell selected for low dark currents. function of applied voltage at various
levels of illumination.

CURVES ARE INDEPENDENT OF VOLTAGE.


AMBIE.NT TEMPERATURE =250 C
CURVE ILLUMINATION
FOOTCANDLES *
A 0.01
B 0.1
C I
D 10
E 100
It COLOR TEMPERATURE 2870° K

,...
,.,
Z
I
II
0:)-
CC,., 6 E
::>.J ~
U.J
0< 0
t;> 2
Xo
D.,... r--. C
108
.... .: A B
6
-,.,
><
!;cD.
~

...J 2
I&J
CC J
2 4 b 8 2 4 68 2 4 68 2 4 68 2 4 6 S
0.01 0.1 I 10 100 1000
LIGHT PULSES PER SECOND-·ON"TIME EQUALS "OFF" TIME
Fig. 78. Peak-to-valley response as a function of frequency of square-wave light input.
Photocells 75
The sensitivity of a cadmium- fide photocells varies as a function of
sulfide cell tends to decrease as the the wavelength of incident illumina-
ambient temperature rises. The tion, as shown in Fig. 80. The re-
typical curves shown in Fig. 79 in- sponse curve is centered within the
dicate that the effect is marked at visible range, and has a peak of sen-
the lower level of illumination, but sitivity near 5800 angstroms. Be-
becomes negligible at 10 footcandles cause the spectral response of cad-
and higher. mium sulfide closely matches that of
The sensitivity of cadmium-sul- the human eye, cadmium-sulfide cells
CURVES ARE INDEPENDENT
OF VOLTAGE.

CURVE ILLUMINATION-
FOOTCANDLES*
A 10
B I
2 C 0.1
D 0.01
"COLOR TEMPERATURE
_ 2870° K.
0
1000
........ r-...I I I
8
\.
6
\
4

3
-- ....
C
.......
\

)-
!:: 2
'i'. r\
>
- ' ... \
- -'- '- .
i= B
iii
z t',
...~. '" ... ~ 1t
w ... 25° C
Ul '-","
w 10 0
~
!;;:
8 I'.
'"
.
....
...J
W
a: 6 \
\ ,
4

3 1\
\
2

i\
\
0
8

-80 -60 -40 -2.0 0 20 40 60 80


AMBIENT TEMPERATURE-oC
FiIr. 79. Serusitivity as a function of temperature for a cadmium...ulfide celL
76 RCA Phototube Manual

usually used as either a photoconduc-


f!!100
tive or photovoltaic device. In photo-
FOR EQUAL VALUES OF conductive applications, the cell is
~
~ eo
( RAOIANT FLUX AT
\ ALL WAVELENGTHS. biased in the reverse direction, and
the output voltage is developed across
!!=
iii
0:
1 60 I \ a series load resistor. In photo-
voltaic applications, the cell is used
to convert radiant power directly
~
>
E 40 \ into electrical power.
A photojunction device operated
~'" J \ in the photoconductive mode has a

."
characteristic similar to that of Fig.
~ 20 81, but rotated 180 degrees, as shown
j
... 0
~ in Fig. 82. The circuit analyzed by
Fig. 82 is shown in Fig. 83; as the
0: 3000 5000 7000 9000 illumination on the cell is increased,
WAVELENGTH---ANGSTROMS
a change in voltage is developed
across t.he resistor.
Fill'. 80. Spectral response of a cadmium-
sullide cell as a function of the wave-
length of incident illumination.

/LOAD LINE
can be used for control applications
in which human vision is a factor,
such as street-light control and auto-
t
J: " ILLUMINATlON>O
matic iris control for cameras.

Junction Photocells
In some applications, photocon- v-
ductive materials such as germanium Fill'. 82. Analysis of a photojunction device
and silicon are used in junction de- in the photoeonductive mode of ope"....
vices; a p-n junction formed of such tion.
material has a nonohmic character-
istic, as shown in Fig. 81. The solid
curve applies when the device is in ~a------------------,
the dark; when light is applied to
the cell, the curve shifts downward R(..
as shown. The junction photocell is

Fig. 83. PhotojuDction device connected in


the photoeonductive mode.

Germanium P-N Junction


v Photocells
A germanium photocell, such as
the 4420, which has a quantum
efficiency of approximately 0.45; is
-----_ .....
PHOTOCONDUCTIVE PHOTOVOLTAIC intermediate in sensitivity between
QUADRANT QUADRANT a phototube and a typical cadium-
sulfide photoconductive cell. The 4420
Fig. 81. Current-voltage characteristic for a has a dark current of less than 35
photojunction device. microamperes, and the current
Photocells 77

through the cell increases by about


0.7 microampere for each increase in
illumination of 1 footcandle. The
increase in photocurrent is linear
with the increase of illumination.
The response of germanium junc-
t
J:
POWER DELIVERED
TO THE LOAD
tion photocells to sudden changes in ~/ LOAD LINE
illumination is fairly rapid. The 4420,
for example, has a time constant
(photocurrent-decay characteristic)
of approximately 7 microseconds. Be-
cause of this relatively fast response,
the germanium cell is useful for
optical excitation frequencies well Fig. 84. Current-voltage eharaeteristic of a
above the audio range. photojunction device connected in the
The germanium junction devices photovoltaic mode.
contribute relatively little noise to a
circuit. The noise is l/f in character;
a typical value of the equivalent
noise input at 1000 cycles per second the load line consistent with the load
(l-cycle-per-second bandwidth) is 60 resistor used in series with the cell.
microfootcandles. The power delivered to the lead is
determined by the area of the rect-
angle constructed as shown in Fig.
Silicon Photovoltaic 84. The value of the load resistor
Cells may be adjusted to provide maxi-
Silicon solar cells, such as the mum power from the cell for a
SL2205 and the SL2206 are junction specific condition of input radiation.
devices used to convert the radiant The performance of a silicon solar
power of the sun to electrical power cell is frequently described in terms
for space applications. The cell con- of conversion efficiency, which is de-
sists of a thin slice of single-crystal fined as the ratio of the electrical
p-type silicon up to two centimeters output power to the incident radiant
square into which a layer (about 0.5 power, when the load resistance is
micron) of n-type material is dif- adjusted to provide an output volt-
fused. The bottom contact of the cell age of 0.46 volt, which is near the
is usually a continuous layer of maximum-transfer point. The spec-
solder, and the top contact consists tral content and the intensity of the
of a series of grid lines (electrodes). illumination used must also be speci-
A non-reflective coating of silicon fied. Several typical illumination-
monoxide is usually applied to the source specifications are listed below.
top surface to minimize reflection of Tungsten efficiency radiation
usable radiant energy from the sili- from a bank of tungsten-filament
con surface. lamps operated at a color tempera-
N -on-p type cells are formed by ture of 2800 degrees Kelvin is passed
diffusing phosphorous into a p-type through a filter of 3 centimeters of
base. The advantage of the n-on-p water, which absorbs unwanted in-
cell over the p-on-n cell is that it is frared radiation. The intensity is ad-
far more resistant to degradation justed to provide a calibrated photo-
from the high-energy particles (pro- voltaic cell with a short-circuit cur-
tons and electrons) encountered in rent equal to the current measured
space applications. when the calibrated cell is illumi-
When the electrical performance nated by the sun at air-mass one at
of a silicon solar cell is analyzed, the an intensity of 100 milliwatts per
characteristic curve of Fig. 81 is in- square centimeter (extrapolated).
verted and appears as shown in Fig. The load resistor is adjusted to pro-
84. The analysis consists of drawing vide 0.46 volt.
78 RCA Phototube Manual

Table Mountain. The source is are processed so that the peak of


the natural sunlight on a clear day response is shifted toward the
on Table Mountain in California. shorter wavelengths. The shift is ob-
(Table Mountain is the former site tained by making the n-Iayer (n-on-p
of the Smithsonian Astrophysical cells) thinner and taking advantage
Observatory.) of effects resulting from the absorp-
Air Mass Zero. The source is tion of light in silicon. A typical re-
natural sunlight at a distance suffi- sponse curve for an n-on-p cell is
ciently above the surface of the earth shown in Fig. 86.
to eliminate atmospheric effects.
Air Mass One. The source is nat- ...
ural sunlight on a clear day at the
surface of the earth (sea level) when
the sun is directly overhead.
~IOO
n:
n:
::>
o
!3o 80 J
v ~
Solar simulators. The source is
a combination of xenon and tungsten
lamps adjusted to approximate the
sunlight above the earth's atmos-
n:
(3
I
Ii: 60 / \
phere.
As a result of the spectral re-
~
'"I
~40
V \
sponse of the silicon cell and the

/ \\
;;
spectral distribution of the light
sources, it is usually found that the ~
z
air-mass-zero efficiency is less than lJ! 20
the tungsten efficiency. The Table ~
Mountain efficiency, on the other
hand, is higher than the air-mass-
~
..J 0
Il:! 3000 5000 7000 9000
WAVELENGTH--ANGSTROMS
'--
11000
zero efficiency.
" I I I I I
The spectral response of a silicon
solar cell has its peak in the near-
infrared region. The radiation from
sunlight, however, shows a peak of Fig. 86. Spectral response characteristic for
intensity near 4750 angstroms, as a silicon solar cell.
shown in Fig 85. For maximum con-
Other materials now in the de-
velopmental stage also show promise
2 in the field of solar-energy power
I.; 1"'-1'- conversion. Gallium arsenide, for ex-
3
8 ample, has a narrower band-gap
6 than silicon. Consequently, because
4 its peak spectral response is farther
in the blue region of the spectrum,
2 the potential conversion efficiency of
2 the material exceeds that of silicon.
8
6
4
Data-Processing
Cells
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 I 1.2
WAVELENGTH-MICRONS Data-processing (read-out) cells
are multiple-unit silicon photovoltaic
Fig.85. Radiation from the Bun (outside the
earth's atmosphere); Johnson solar devices used for sensing light in such
spectral irradiance curve-Journal of applications as reading punched
Meteorology, 11, 431 (1954).
cards, and in axial position indi-
version efficiency, the solar cell cators. A typical cell consists of a
should respond to more blue radia- thin piece of silicon on which several
tion than is characteristic of the n-on-p photovoltaic elements have
band-gap of silicon. Therefore, cells been formed. Although these types
Photocells 79
have been designed for specific ap- tends to about 9 microns. Because
plications in data processing, the the active gold level is relatively
technique for preparing such devices near the filled band, the cell must be
is very flexible and permits wide cooled to suppress noise resulting
variations in the location, size, and from thermal excitation and recom-
number of the sensing elements. bination. Furthermore, because the
Individual mechanical packages, of radiation results in a relatively small
several cells per package, can be change in the resistance of the
placed in various spatial arrays to germanium element, the input signal
form sensing strips over large areas. should be chopped, and the output
amplified by a low-noise amplifier. A
Germanium And typical cell consists of the germa-
Germanium/Silicon nium element within an integrating
Infrared Detectors chamber, a Dewar envelope contain-
ing liquid nitrogen for cooling, and
The atmosphere is not uniformly a germanium window treated with
transparent to electromagnetic radi- an antireflection coating. The elec-
ation. It contains various "atmos- trical circuit consists of the cell, a
pheric windows" through which load resistor, a voltage source, and a
radiation of specific wavelengths can low-noise amplifier.
readily pass. As shown in Fig. 87, Germanium-silicon alloy cells
the p-type gold-doped germanium are similar to the p-type gold-doped
cell and the zinc- or gold-doped germanium device. The alloy, how-
germanium-silicon-alloy cells have ever, makes it possible to use an
response ranges which take advan- activator level which is closer to the
tage of such windows. valence band. The spectral sensitiv-
The sensitive material of the p- ity of the alloy cell extends to 14
type gold-doped germanium cell is microns. As a result of this extended
germanium activated with gold and response, the device must be cooled
compensated with arsenic or anti- to a lower temperature. Pumped
mony. Incident radiation excites elec- liquid nitrogen at a reduced pressure
trons from the filled band to a low- (50 degrees Kelvin) is used as a
lying impurity level contributed by coolant; liquid neon and liquid
the gold. The spectral response ex- hydrogen are also sometimes useful.
p-TVPE GOLD-DOPED GERMANIUM
- - - p-TVPE GOLD-DOPED GERMANIUM-SILICON ALLOY
----- p-TYPE ZINC-DOPED GERMANIUM-SILICON ALLOY
... 10
,/' -',\
z
UJ
<.>
\ I "'\ I

a: / \ / '\ \
~ B0
I
UJ
I
I\ ~ I / \ \
'"Z~ 60
!
I
I \\ V i / \
\
\
\
'"a:
UJ
I
I \. \ \
UJ
>4 0 I \ I \
~...J
I
f\
v
r" ~.
1\ \
UJ
a:
20
I
\ \ \

.""
1'- \. \

.. I ""'-..
o 2 4 6 B 10
WAVELENGTH-MICRONS
Fig. 87. Spectral response of infrared-sensitive detectors.
12
'" 14
~
16 18


General Application
Considerations

range of each class of photosensitive


MANY criteria must be considered device. Multiplier phototubes are in-
before choosing a photosensitive de- dicated for the lowest levels of radia-
vice for a particular application. Some tion because of their inherent ad-
application requirements can be filled vantage of secondary-emission gain.
by only one type of device; however, Higher levels of radiation should be
for many applications, anyone of avoided in the case of multiplier
several possible devices may be suit- phototubes because of fatigue, sat-
able. This section provides a general uration, and life problems. However,
guide to the selection of photosensi- the range can be increased upward
tive devices for most typical applica- for a multiplier phototude by de-
tions. creasing the applied voltage.
Because the gain of a gas-filled
Level of Light or Radiation phototube is much less than that of
a multiplier phototube, it cannot be
All the devices described in this used at as Iowa level of light; how-
manual can be used over wide ranges ever, such tubes can operate satis-
of light or radiational level. Of course factorily at higher ranges. Vacuum
optical, environmental, or circuit ad- phototubes can be used at higher
justment may be necessary to ac- levels of radiation than either gas-
comodate the particular device. Fig. filled phototubes or multiplier photo-
88 shows the approximate useful tubes. Cadmium sulfide photocells
are usually most useful in the higher
ranges of light intensity. At the
MULTIPLIER lower ranges, they are somewhat
PHOTO TUBES
GAS-FILLED
limited by response-time problems.
PHOTOTUBES Solar cells (photovoltaic cells, en-
VACUUM ergy-conversion typed) are of use
PHOTOTUBES
only at the upper range of radiation
CdS PHOTOCELLS
levels. At low levels, the power de-
PHOTOJUNCTION veloped is too small to be of value
CELLS
PHOTOVOLTAIC for most applications.
CELLS* *ENERGY CONVERSION TYPE The far-infrared detectors are
10-1~16'016810610-410-2 10° generally useful only for the very low
WATTS (2870· K) TUNGSTEN levels of radiation. If a large amount
, I I I I I I
10'210-'°10-810-610-410-2 10° of infrared radiation is available, the
LUMENS (2870· K) complication of special cooling can
be avoided by other simpler devices
Fig. 88. The range of power or luminous
flux for which the various detector types such as the bolometer or thermo-
are useful. The indicated ranges are couple.
only for guidance, and may at times
be exceeded.. The overlapping scales of
luminous and power fluxes are scaled
in reference to a tungsten lamp op-
Spectral Energy Distribution
erating at 2870 degrees Kelvin color Although many of the different
temperature. For a different reference
Bource, the luminous equivalent of the detectors of radiation have a broad
power flux would be different. spectral sensitivity range, there are
80

"
General Application Considerations 81

times when the spectral energy dis- of the eye. In this case, the spectraJ
tribution of the source is of special response may be modified by means
importance in selecting the proper of special color filters to proTide a
device. For the far-infrared region, combination detector and filter which
only the solid-state photoconductors does match the eye response. The
are suitable. Similarly, in the ultra- filter characteristic required may be
violet region, only photoemissive de- obtained by dividing the spectral sen-
vices are practical; however, in the sitivity characteristic of the eye by
visible range, many devices can be the spectral response of the device to
used. The spectral response char- be corrected. Fig. 89 shows the close
acteristics of the various types of approximations which can be ob-
devices are included in the pertinent tained by using commercial color
sections of this manual. filters.
Some applications require a de- Fig. 90 shows the transmission
vice having a specific spectral sensi- characteristics of a number of other
tivity to match a particular response. useful filters and radiation trans-
However, for many applications, no mitting substances. Color filters are
such detector exists. For example, frequently used to isolate various
measurement of light levels requires regions of the spectrum to improve
that the receiver have the same spec- detection or matching characteristics
tral sensitivity as the eye. Although of photodetectors. The transmission
the devices described in this manual of various glasses and the atmos-
have spectral response covering the phere are also provided because
range of visible radiation, none of these factors have an important in-
the responses exactly matches that fluence on practical optical systems.

1.0
~/ ~~
___ STANDARD-EYE

O.B
- S-4 WITH WRATTEN FILTER
No.IOG
- - S-II WITH WRATTEN FILTER
//~. "
~'" \
w
No.IOG
WI \\ \\
'"z
~0.6
l / \\
'"
ILl
a: I \~
\~\
ILl
>
~0.4
111/
...J
ILl
a: I ~I \\
Vi \\
0.2
/- V ,~
o :::::-:::= ~v '~ ~1000
4000 5000 GOOO
WAVELENGTH--ANGSTROMS

Fig. 89. Speetral responses S-4 and S-l1 modified by the Wratten filter 106 closely nu.teh
spectral sensitivity characteristic of the eye..
82 RCA Phototube Manual

(a)

10

:ge
,.,- --:.=F-- ---'"
7
--- --- --- --- --- ---:.k.b
~/
z
,lpJREX (b-53) I // II ~4d8 (~-60)
~
~6
o \ ~
0::
w JII3 (5J58) ~2408 (2-60) / 1\
<::4 0
,~ I 2+0 (7~56)'
!;;:
...J
ll!2 0 ' ; "/ \. h
0 j \ 11 -,/ 1\
3000 5000 7000 9000 11000 13000 15000
WAVELENGTH--ANGSTROMS

(b)
100
TRANSMISSION OF 2000 YARDS
OF ATMOSPHERE (17 MM
PRECIPITABLE WATER>'
~8 0
w
o I
n:
~ 60 f\
v
z
o
I
gj 40
V \
:;;
(I) ~
z
~ 20
.....

o j
II
2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8
1000 10000 100000
WAVELENGTH--ANGSTROMS
Fig. 90. Transmission characteristics of various useful color filters, glasses, and the
atmosphere. ( (A) 2540, 5113, 2408, Pyrex (B) 2000 yds of air.)

Frequency Response
The approximate useful range
of frequency response for the various MULTIPLIER
PHOTOTUBES
types of photosensitive devices is GAS-FILLED
shown in Fig. 91. All the detectors PHOTOTUBES
VACUUM
are useful from dc operation to a PHOTOTUBES
specific cutoff frequency, However, CdS PHOTOCELLS
for photocells of the germanium PHOTOJUNCTION
type, in which the dark current is CELLS
quite substantial, the detection of PHOTOVOLTAlC
unmodulated signals is not practical. CELLS*

A modulated signal can be auto-


matically discriminated from the
dark-current component, A compari-
son of ranges in Fig. 91 shows that Fig, 91. Range of frequency response of
the multiplier phototube is especially various photodetectors~ Recommendation
of operation for dc (unmodulated light)
useful in detecting very-high-fre- sources is indicated by the symbol dc
quency modulations. at the left end of the frequency range..
General Application Considerations 83

In some cases the light to be is moved across a slit, a sine wave


detected is modulated by the nature modulation can be achieved (see Fig.
of the application, or is in the form 92a). A circle passing over a square
of light pulses. For cases in which at 45 degrees (Fig. 92b) and having
the light is unmodulated, it is often a diameter equal to the diagonal
desirable to provide discrimination produces an approximate sine wave
between signal current and dark cur- with about 10-per-cent first-har-
rent by one of several means, such monic distortion (Uniform illumina-
as a light-chopper wheel. tion of the apertures is assumed.)
The light chopper wheel is usu-
ally about 8 inches in diameter and Typical Applications
made of a material such as 0.030-
inch Duralumin. Holes or alternate As discussed in the previous
segments are so placed that when sections, photosensitive devices are
the wheel is rotated in the beam of extremely versatile devices which
light, a modulated beam falls on the are being used in an ever-increasing
light detector. If a 1800 rpm syn- variety of applications. Shown be-
chronous motor is used to drive the low is a brief listing of several typi-
disk, and three equally spaced 60- cal applications for each category
degree cutouts are made in the disk, of photosensitive devices. Choice of
the resultant modulation (as the a particular type for a specific ap-
cutont~ pass over a radial slit) ap- plication should be based on the

,/ ........
-~/
/
~ \

A
/
1\
V~ \
~
/ %
% \
r/
o
/
40 80
%
%
:;;;
120 160
I

DEGREES
200 240 280
"~
320 360

Fig_ ~~dJf!~f!~~tion of a slit passing over a sine-wave type aperture to produce sine-wave

proximates a 90-cycle square wave, ratings and characteristics shown in


which is a convenient frequency be- the Technical Data Section.
cause it is not a multiple or sub-
multiple of the 60-cycle current. Vacuum Phototubes
Almost any type of modulation can Photometry
be accomplished with properly Spectrophotometry
shaped apertures. For example, if Industrial controls
the moving aperture is shaped like Facsimile
the area under a sine curve and it Colorimetry
84 RCA Phototube Manua,.

a 80 120 160 200 240 280 360


rF.:GRf.ES

Fig. 92b. Production of sine-wave approximatWn by use of circular holes and a square aper-
ture of 45 degrees.

Typical Applications (con't)


Gas Phototubes Photoconductive Cells
Industrial controls Industrial controls
Sound reproduction Camera iris control
Street light control
Multiplier Phototubes
Scintillation counting Photojunction Cells
Photometry Sound reproduction
Spectrophotometry Data processing
Flying-spot generator
Star tracking Photovoltaic Cells
Cerenkov radiation measurement Solar power conversions
Laser detection Industrial controls
Industrial controls Photometry
Colorimetry
Timing measurement
Interpretation
of Data

T HE data given in the TECH- ment, load variations and environ-


mental conditions.
NICAL DATA SECTION include
ratings, characteristics, minimum For the most part, electrode
circuit values, and characteristic voltage and current ratings for
curves for RCA vacuum and gas phototubes are self-explanatory and
photodiodes and multiplier photo- require little discussion. However, it
tubes. Data for photoconductive cells should be noted that the maximum
and photojunction cells are also in- average cathode current (for gas and
cluded. This section discusses the vacuum phototubes) and the maxi-
parameters given in the data and in- mum average anode current (for
dicates briefly the method of meas- multiplier phototubes) are averaged
urement used for the more important over an interval no longer than 30
parameters. seconds.

Maximum Ratings Characteristics


Ratings are established on The characteristics given in the
phototube and photocell types to TECHNICAL DATA SECTION are
help equipment designers utilize the typical values which indicate the
performance and service capability performance of the device under cer-
of each device to best advantage. tain operating conditions. Charac-
These ratings are based on careful teristic curves represent the char-
study and extensive testing by the acteristics of an average tube;
tube manufacturer, and indicate however, individual tubes (like any
limits within which the operating manufactured product) may have
conditions must be maintained to en- characteristics that range above or
sure satisfactory performance. The below the values given in the char-
maximum ratings given for the acteristic curves. The more im-
photosensitive devices included in portant of these characteristics for
this manual are based on the Abso- phototubes are discussed below.
lute Maximum System. This system The spectral-sensitivity charac-
has been defined by the Joint Elec- teristic represents a response curve
tron Device Engineering Council which is typical of the spectral re-
(JEDEC) and standardized by the sponse obtained with a given photo-
National Electrical Manufacturers tube. Such a curve also indicates the
Association (NEMA) and the Elec- range of maximum response. The
tronic Industries Association (EIA). short-wavelength cutoff of the spec-
Absolute-maximum ratings are tral response is fairly well fixed by
limiting values of operating and en- the ultraviolet absorption properties
vironmental conditions which should of the tube envelope. The long-wave-
not be exceeded by any device of a length cutoff is determined by such
specified type under any condition of factors as the thickness of the photo-
operation. Effective use of these cathode layer and the particular ac-
ratings requires close control of sup- tivation of the photo surface.
ply-voltage variations, ... component In some critical applications, an
variations, equipment-control adjust- exact knowledge of the spectral re-
85
86 RCA Phototube Manual

sponse of a phototube may be re-


quired. A simplified system for the
measurement of spectral response
as a function of wavelength is shown
in Fig. 93. For this measurement,
one or more monochromators are
used to select narrow ba.nds of radia- I MEG
tion from a given source of radiant
energy. The output radiant flux in
the narrow bands is then directed to Fig. 94. Typical circuit for measuring
sensitivity of photodiodes.
a calibrated radiation thermocouple
and measured in watts. This same
output flux is also directed to the cal circuit for the measurement of
photocathode and measured in am- luminous sensitivity of photodiodes;
peres by a current-reading device. Fig. 95 shows a similar circuit used
for multiplier phototubes. For these
measurements, the phototube is
placed in a light-tight shielded en-
closure to prevent extraneous radia-
tion from affecting test results. The
light source normally used is an
aged 50-candlepower tungsten-fila-
ment lamp operated at a color tem-
perature of 2870 K and having a
0

lime-glass envelope. The lamp is


calibrated for color temperature and
candlepower against a secondary
Fig. 93. Typical system for determining standard lamp supplied by the U.S.
spectral-sensitivity characteristics of National Bureau of Standards.
phototube.s.
For the measurement of lumi-
nous sensitivity of vacuum photo-
Luminous sensitivity is defined tubes, a voltage in the order of 250
as the output current divided by the volts is generally applied; for gas
incident luminous flux at constant photodiodes, 90 volts is used. As
electrode voltages. This parameter is shown in Fig. 94, a microammeter
expressed in terms of amperes per is inserted in series with the photo-
lumen (a/lm). Fig. 94 shows a typi- diode. A one-megohm resistor is also

APERTURE
A
~----------~·Vr-----------~

A.}-----------~~~

Fig. 115. Typical clreuit for measuring sensitivity of multiplier phototubes.


Interpretation of Data 87

used in series with the phototube at constant electrode voltages. Cath-


because it represents a typical load ode radiant sensitivity is the amount
and, in addition, provides a measure of current leaving the photocathode
of safety for the meter in case of a divided by the incident radiant power
short circuit. With multiplier photo- of a given wavelength. These pa-
tubes, the tube is connected across a rameters are generally expressed in
voltage divider, as shown in Fig. 95, terms of amperes per watt (a/w).
which provides voltages as specified Although these characteristics can
for the individual type. The current be measured by use of the circuits
passing through the divider should described above with the addition
have a value at least ten times that of a calibrated radiation thermo-
of the maximum anode current to be couple, they can be more readily
measured. A luminous flux in the computed from the measured cath-
range of 10-8 to 10-5 lumen (0.01 to ode and anode luminous sensitivity
10 microlumens) is directed to the values. This calculation' · 2 uses the
photocathode. conversion factors shown in Table
(As shown in the data for some IX, and is dependent on established
multiplier phototubes, the luminous typical spectral-response character-
sensitivity can also be given with the istics. For this reason, the result
last dynode stage used as the out- may differ somewhat from the value
put electrode. With this arrange- directly measured.
ment, an output current of opposite A suitable light source for use in
polarity to that obtained at the anode this type of measurement is a spark
is provided. Under this condition, the discharge in a mercury switch cap-
load is connected in the last dynode sule'. Although this source does not
circuit and the anode serves only as provide an ideal delta-function pulse,
the collector.) the resulting rise time of approxi-
Cathode luminous sensitivity is mately 0.4 nanosecond is useful for
the photo current emitted per lumen many purposes.
of incident light flux at constant Current amplification for multi-
electrode voltage and is expressed plier phototubes is the ratio of the
in terms of microamperes (,<La or anode luminous sensitivity to the
10-6 ampere) per lumen. For photo- photocathode luminous sensitivity at
diodes, this characteristic is meas- constant electrode voltages, and is
ured by means of the circuit shown a computed parameter. (This char-
in Fig. 94 with a light flux of ap- acteristic can also be given as a ratio
proximately 0.1 lumen applied. From of radiant sensitivity.) Because of
a practical standpoint, there is no its magnitude, the amplification fac-
distinction made between the meas- tor for multiplier phototubes is gen-
urement of anode and cathode lumi- erally expressed in terms of millions,
nous sensitivity for photodiodes. In and is plotted logarithmically.
the case of multiplier phototubes, a For a gas photodiode, the am-
measuring circuit similar to that plification factor is a ratio of photo-
shown in Fig. 95 is used with a dc currents at two different anode volt-
voltage of 100 to 250 volts (specific ages: the operating voltage (usually
value given in data for individual 90 volts) and 25 volts.
type) applied between the cathode Equivalent anode-dark-current
and all other electrodes connected as input is the anode dark current of a
anode. Light-limiting apertures are phototube divided by the radiant or
used and a light flux in the order luminous sensitivity. This parameter
of 0.01 lumen is generally applied. serves as a useful figure of merit for
The measured photocurrent (minus the comparison of dark current in
the dark current) is then divided by multiplier phototubes, and can be
the specified light level to determine expressed in picowatts (pw or 10-"
cathode luminous sensitivity. watt) or nanolumens (nlm or 10--
Radiant sensitivity is the out- lumen). The measurement method
put current divided by the incident for this characteristic is similar to
radiant power of a given wavelength that for luminous sensitivity except
88 RCA Phototube Manual

TABLE IX
Spectral Responses for Devices with Related Photocathode
Characteristic Values
Typical Typical
Luminous Max i)'T)ical Photocathode
Sensitivity Luminous Radiant Typical Dark Emission2
Conversion (Stvn) Sensitivityl Sensitivity Quantum at 25 0 C
Device Factor (k) (2780 0 K) (/La/lumen) AmltX (<Ttvn) Efficiency2 {amperes/em2
S-Number (Im/w) ()La/lumen) Smax (angstroms) (ma/w) (ver cent) x 10-16

8-1 93.9 25 60 8000 2.35 0.36 900


8-3 286 6.5 20 4200 1.86 0.55
8-4 977 40 110 4000 39.1 12 0.2
8-5t 1252 40 80 3400 50.1t 18t 0.3
8-8 755 3 20 3650 2.26 <1.77 0.13
8-9 683 30 110 4800 20.5 6.3
8-10 508 40 100 4500 20.3 6.6 70
8-11 804 60 110 4400 48.2 14 3
8-13 795 60 80 4400 47.7 13 .(
8-17 664 125 160 4900 83 21 1.2
8-19
8-20
--*
428
40 70 --* 22"
64.2
11· 0,.3
150 250 4200 18 0.3
8-21 779 30 60 4400 23.4 6.6

1 Care must be used in converting smax: to a (Tmax figure. Photocathodes having maximum

lumen sensitivity frequently have more red sensitivity than normal, and the formula cannot be
applied without re-evaluation of the spectral response for the particular maximum sensitivity
device.
:2 100 per cent quantum efficiency implies one photoelectron _per incident quantum, or
e/hv = X/12,395, where X is expressed in angstrom units~ Quantum efficiency at Amax is
computed by comparing the radiant sensitivity at Amax with the 100 per cent quantum effi-
ciency expression above.
S Most of these data are obtained from multiplier phototube characteristics. For tubes
capable of operating at very high gain factors, the dark emission at the photocathode is taken
as the output dark current divided by the gain (or the equivalent minimum anode dark cur-
rent input multiplied by cathode sensitivity). On tubes where other de dark-current sources
are predominant, the dark noise' figure may be used. In this case, if all the noise originates
from the photocathode emission, it may be shown that the photocathode dark emission in
amperes is approximately 0.4 X 1018 X (equivalent noise input in lumens times cathode sensi..
tivity in amperes per lumen)2. The data shown are all given per unit area of the photocathode..
* No value for k or Amax is given because the spectral response data are in question. The
values quoted for cr and typical quantum efficiency are only typical of measurements made at
the specific wavelength 2537 angstroms and not at the wavelength of peak sensitivity as for
the other data.
t The 8-5 spectral response is suspected to be in error. The data tabulated conform to
the published. curve, which is maximum at 3400 angstroms~ Present indications are that the
peak value should agree with that of the 8-4 curve (4000 angstroms). Typical radiant sensi-
tivity and quantum efficiency would then agree with those for 8-4 response.

that the applied voltage is adjusted teristic can be expressed in terms


until a specified anode luminous sen- of picolumens (plm or 10-12 lumens).
sitivity is obtained. The light flux is The test conditions for this measure-
then removed and the anode dark ment are similar to those used for
current is measured. If the meas- luminous sensitivity measurements
urement is made in terms of radiant except that the incident radiation is
flux, the wavelength of radiant en- modulated by a mechanical "light-
ergy is also specified and the applied chopper" which produces a square-
voltage is adjusted to a specified wave signal at the phototube anode.
anode current. Transit time of multiplier photo-
Equivalent noise input is that tubes is defined as the time interval
value of incident luminous flux which, between the arrival of a delta-func-
when modulated in a stated man- tion light pulse (a pulse having finite
ner, produces an rms output current integrated light flux and infinitesi-
equal to the rms noise current within mal width) at the entrance window
a specified bandwidth. This charac- of the tube and the time at which
Interpretation of Data 89

the output pulse at the anode termi- measure rise time. For this measure-
nal reaches peak amplitude. Fig. 96 ment, the incident light usually il-
shows a typical circuit for the meas- luminates the entire photocathode.
urement of transit time. As shown, The rise times of the light source
a small pulsed light spot of specified and the oscilloscope (or other dis-
diameter is directed on a central area play devices used), however, must
of the photocathode. Because transit be considered.
time is dependent upon the magni- Transit-time spread is the time
tude of the applied voltage, the interval between the half-amplitude
voltages are specified for each type. points of the output pulse at the
For this measurement, the anode terminal, which results from 8.
length of the delay cable is adjusted delta function of light incident on the
until the time difference (To) be- entrance window of the tube. This
tween the phototube output pulses parameter is seldom measured di-
and the marker pulses from the light rectly because it is difficult to dif-
source can be observed on a sampling ferentiate between the decay of the
oscilloscope. Transit time (T,) is light source and the decay of the
then equal to phototube. Transit-time variations
T, = To + Td - T. - To between anode pulses as a function
where T d is the electrical transit time of light-spot position on the photo-
of the delay cable; T a is equal to cathode serve as a satisfactory indi-
the time it takes the light pulse to cation of transit-time spread. As
travel the distance between the mer- given in the data section, this para-
cury-switch light-pulse generator meter is expressed as greatest delay
and the photocathode; To is equal to between anode pulses. For measure-
the electrical transit time of cable ment of this parameter, a small-
"A". diameter light spot is initially cen-
Anode-pulse rise time indicates tered on the photocathode; the tran-
the time required for the instan- sit time of the phototube is then
taneous amplitude of the output determined and used as a reference
pulse at the anode terminal to go point. The same light spot is then
from 10 per cent to 90 per cent of directed to another specified point
the peak value. This parameter is on the cathode and this transit time
normally expressed in nanoseconds is determined. The differenee be-
(nsec or 10-9 second). The circuit tween these transit times indicates
shown in Fig. 96 can also be used to the transit-time spread.

OUTPUT
APERTURE PULSE

TRIGGER CABLE
Fig. 96. Typical circuit for determining time response of phototubes.

References
1. Engstrom, R. W .. "Calculation of Radiant Devices, RCA Review, 21, No. !, Jun",
Photoelectric Sensitivity from Luminous 1960.
Sensitivity", RCA Review, 16, No. 1, 3. Kerns, Q. A., Kirsten, F. A., and Cox,
March 1955. G. C., "Generator of Nanosecond Light
2. Engstrom, R. W., "Absolute Spectral Pulse for Phototube Testing", ReT. Sci.
Response Characteristics of Photosensitive Instr., 30, pp. 31-36, Jan. 1959.
QUICK SELECTION GUIDE
FOR RCA MULTIPLIER PHOTOTUBES

Wavelength
LuminDus Anode Maximum Maximum of Maximum
Spectral Number RCA Sensitivity Supply Diameter Length Response
Response of Stages type (a/1m) (volts) (in.) (in.) (angstroms)

S-l 10 7102 4.5 1250 1.56 4.57 8000


S-4 9 IP21 80 1000 1.31 3.69 4000
S-4 9 93lA 24 1000 1.31 3.69 4000
S-4 9 6472 35 1000 1.19 2.75 4000
S-4 9 6328 35 1000 1.31 3.12 4000

S-4 9 7117 35 1000 1.31 3.12 4000


S-5 9 IP28 50 1000 1.31 3.69 3400
S-8 9 1P22 1.0 1000 1.31 3.69 3650
S-10 10 6217 24 1000 2.31 5.81 4500
S-11 10 2020 6 1250 2.31 5.81 4400

S-11 10 2067 15 1000 1.56 2.80 4400


8-11 10 4438 27 1000 1.56 3.91 4400
S-l1 10 4439 27 1000 1.56 3.91 4400
S-l1 10 4440 27 1000 1.56 4.12 4400
S-l1 10 4441 27 1000 1.56 3.18 4400

S-l1 10 5819 25 1000 2.31 5.81 4400


S-l1 10 6199 27 1000 1.56 4.57 4400
S-l1 10 6342A 18 1250 2.31 5.81 4400
S-l1 10 6655A 50 1000 2.31 5.81 4400
S-l1 14 6810A 3050 2000 2.38 7.5 4400

S-l1* 14 7046 180 2800 5.25 11.12 4200


S-l1 14 7264 875 2000 2.38 7.5 4400
8-11 10 7746 1200 2000 2.31 6.12 4400
8-11 6 7764 0.3 1200 0.78 2.75 4400
S-l1 10 7767 16 1250 0.78 4 4400

S-l1 12 7850 6000 2300 2.06 6.31 4400


S-l1 10 8053 19 1500 2.31 5.81 4400
S-l1 10 8054 19 1500 3.65 6.31 4400
S-l1 10 8055 19 1500 5.31 7.69 4400
S-13 10 6903 24 1000 2.31 6.56 4400

S-17 10 7029 40 1000 1.56 3.75 4900


S-19 9 7200 40 1000 1.31 5.69 3300
S-20 14 7265 3000 2400 2.38 7.5 4200
S-20 10 7326 22.5 1800 2.38 6.78 4200

*Extended 8-11 response; response from approximately 2600 to 6500 angstroms.

90
Technical
Data

T HIS section contains maximum ratings, characteristics, and curves for


RCA gas, vacuum, and multiplier phototubes. Also included is a chart de-
scribing RCA's line of photocells. All ratings given in this section are based
on the Absolute Maximum System.
Tube types are listed according to the numerical-alphabetical-numerical
sequence of their type designations. For socket and shield data for all photo-
tubes, see page 182. For Key to Terminal-Connection Diagrams, see inside
back cover.

A number of abbreviations have been used to


simplify the tabulation of parameters. Some of
the less familiar are shown below.
allm - ampere per lumen
alw - ampere per watt
nlm - nanolumen or 10-9 lumen
nsec nanosecond or 10-9 second
pf - picofarad or 10-12 farad
plm - picolumen or 10-'2 lumen
pw - picowatt or 10-12 watt
",a - microampere or 10-6 ampere

NINE-STAGE, side-on type having S-4 response. Wave-


length of maximum spectral response is 4000 ± 500
angstroms. This type makes use of cesium-antimony 1 P21
dynodes and a cesium-antimony, opaque photocathode. MULTIPLIER
Window material is Corning No. 0080 lime glass or
equivalent. Tube weighs approximately 1.6 ounces PHOTOTUBE
and has a non-hygroscopic base.

DIRECT INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCES (Approx.):


Anode to Dynode No.9 .......................................... .. 4A pf
Anode to All Other Electrodes ...................................... . 6 pf

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC):
Between anode and cathode* .........................•.••.•.•..... 1250 max ..olts
Between anode and dynode No. 9 ............................. . 250 max volts
Between consecutive dynodes ................................... . 250 max volts
Between dynode No.1 and cathode .......................... .. 250 max ..olts
Average Anode Current ........................................... . 0.1 max ma
Ambient Temperature .............................................. .. 76 max ·C
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
DC Supply Voltage·. . ................................. . 1000 750 ..olts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4000 angstroms) ............... . 78<HJ0 12000 a/w
Cathode Radiant Sensitivity (at 40<HJ angstroms) ....... . 0.04 0.04 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity+ ..........•.......................• 80 12 al1m
91
92 RCA Phototube Manual

Cathode Luminous Sensitivity++ ........................ . 40 40 /La/1m


Current Amplification (in millions) ................•.•• 2 0.3
Equivalent Anode-Dark-Current Input at 25°C
at a luminous sensitivity of 20 a/1m ................. . 0.5 max nlm
Equivalent Noise Inputt ............................... . 0.5 plm
.Operation with a supply voltage of less than 500 volts dc is not recommended; if used,
illumination must be limited so that cathode photocurrent does not exceed approximately 0.01
microampere.
"DC supply voltage (E) is connected across a voltage divider which provides 1/10 of E be-
tween cathode and dynode No.1, 1/10 of E for each succeeding dynode stage, and 1/10 of E
between dynode No. 9 and anode.
+With light input of 10 microlumens from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color
temperature of 2870' K. Range of luminous sensitivity is 40 to 800 a/1m at 1000 volts; 5.4
to 100 a/1m at 750 volts.
++With light input of 0.01 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color tempera-
ture of 2870' K; 100 volts applied between photocathode and all other electrodes connected as
anode.
tAt tube temperature of 25'C and with external shield connected to cathode; bandwidth is
equal to 1 cycle per second. A tungsten-filament light source at a color temperature of
2870 0 K is interrupted at a low audio frequency to produce incident radiation pulses alter-
nating between zero and the value stated. The Hon" period of the pulse is equal to the "off"
period.

SENSITIVITY AND CURRENT


AMPLIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS
TYPE IP21
!z
VOLTS /STAGE = IIIOE
Il1I
II:
ANODE-TO-DYNODE No.9 VOLTS = IIIOE
a
4 4 !!j
0
Z
2 2 <l 108

104 '"> 6

." 8108
~
4
~ 8
6 6 .J
2
~
CD
4 4
'"
II:
I
N
0:
2 ,,- 2 -60 -40 -20 0 20
MAGNETIC FIELD INTENSITY-GAUSSES
::E10 3 ~~!;z J07 92CS-7664T2

~.
'"
l- 8
S 6 Z
II: 4 4 Q
g !:i
0 G.J~ ~,O 2 u
B 2
,;:,~ ,c.'!'/ u:
i:i102e ~~ ~~~ V JOSii!

V,~
~ 6 S ~
.J
.... 4 4
~~G.J'<,~G.J,,&
I-
en
'" 2
II:
V 2
z
'"::>
)r~~
II:
'"~ 10 V
IL
q'V G.J~
II:

>-
I
8
S ".... ,;:,~
./~~/
J05u
S
.... 4 4

~ 2
//
2
0;
z VV 10 4
'"cn Ie
6
8
6
4 / 4

2 2
0.1 103
7 8 9 I 2
500 S 1000 1250
ANODE-TO-CATHODE SUPPLY VOLTS (E)
92CM-6454T4
Technical Data 93

TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS


TYPE IP21
VOLTS/STAGE =100

25
2

C/)
w
Vr 20
a:
~ 1. 5
::;
/ f--:'"
IL
-
ct
::::; LIGHT FLUX MICROLUMENS=15
..J
:E
w
o
I 6 Lf---
o
z '/ IC
ct
V
O.5 / 5
'/
_f-"""
I

o 50 100 150 200 250


ANODE-TO-DYNODE-N~9 VOLTS 92CM-6456T4

NINE-STAGE, side-on type having S-8 response. Wave-


length of maximum response is 3650 ± 500 ang-
stroms. This type makes use of cesium-antimony
dynodes and a cesium-bismuth, opaque photocathode.
1 P22
Window material is Corning No. 0080 lime glass or MULTIPLIER
equivalent. Tube weighs approximately 1.6 ounces PHOTOTUBE
and has a non-hygroscopic base. For outline and
terminal-connection diagram, refer to type IP21.

DIRECT INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCES (Approx.):


Anode to Dynode No. 9 ........................................... . 4.4 pf
Anode to All Other Electrodes ...................................... . 6 pf
MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):
Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC):
Between anode and cathode ........•..........•...••......•.••• 1250 max volts
Between anode and dynode No. 9 ............................. .. 250 max volts
Between consecutive dynodes .............•....••................ 250 max volts
Between dynode No. 1 and cathode ........................... . 250 max volts
Average Anode Current ............................................ . 1 max rna
Ambient Temperature ....•.•.••..•••.•••••.••.•••......•••.••.•.••• 50 max °C
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
DC Supply V oltage* .................................. .. 1000 750 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 3650 angstroms) .............•••.. 750 110 a/w
Cathode Radiant Sensitivity (at 3650 angstroms) ....... . 0.0023 0..0023 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity** ................................. . 1.0 0.145 a/1m
Cathode Luminous Sensitivity+ ......................... . 3 3 /La/1m
Current Amplification _..........................•••.•.. 330,000 48000
Equivalent Anode-Dark-Current Input at 25°0
at a luminous sensitivity of 0.4 a/1m ..........••.•.•.. 0.375 max nlm
Equivalent Noise Input++ .............................. . 7.5 plm
-DC supply voltage (E) is connected across a voltage divider which provides 1/10 of E
between cathode and dynode No. I, 1/10 of E for each succeeding dynode stage, and 1/10 of E
between dynode No. 9 and anode.
··With light input of 10 microlumens from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at color
temperature of 2870 o K. Range of luminous sensitivity is 0.115 to 16 a/1m at 1000 volts;
0.016 at 1.85 a/1m at 750 volts.
+With light input of 0.01 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color temperature
of 2870 o K; 100 volts applied between photocathode and all other electrodes connected as anode.
++At tube temperature of 25°0 and with external shield connected to cathode'; bandwidth is
equal to 1 cycle per second~ A tungsten-filament light source at a color temperature of 28-0 o K
is interrupted at a low audio frequency to produce incident radiation pulses alternating be-
tween zero and the value stated. The Hon U period Qf the pulse is equal to the "off" period.
94 RCA Phototube Manual

TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS


2.5
TYPE IP22
VOLTS/STAGE =100
~OOO
2
".- -
II 1500

I /.",....
V
1/

0.5
'j k....-
V I----
-- LIGHT FLUX-MICROLUMENS=IOOO

500

r/
o 50 100 150 200 250
ANODE-TO-DYNODE-No.9 VOLTS 82CM-6585n

SENSITIVITY AND CURRENT


AMPLIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS
TYPE 1P22
~a~~~bA.?JYN~b~ !No.9 VOLTS =1/10 E
4 4

2 2

107

.
100 TYPICAL ANODE-DARK-CURRENT
8 8
;z 6 6 CHARACTERISTIC
4 4
g TYPE IP22
II)
2 TUBE TEMPERATURE =25 0 C
N 2 6
..: -I. / 106
4
:::Ii 10
No~
!OJ 8 2 UNSTABLE ,

~
I- 6 6 Z 7
g 4 Q
luei
8
0
2 ~~ Cj ~~,/ 2 !"-
~
z
!OJ I
8I
~~~
!t~·
~,(,~( 10"::;
8
iL
0..
2 "- V
:::Ii
:3.... 6 ,.~ ;<..-1. 6 :1i ~
4 ~ No' 4
~ ~c,~
l- 4

~ ~~
f!! z!OJ
~ 2
2 II:
II: .~
Kf
:::Ii 0.1
c( 8 ;-:. q,r;;
~ ,/ lO"a
8 0.01
2 468
0.1
2 468
I
2 468
10
2
100
468
I 6 I /' ....oJ;. ~-I. 6
LUMINOUS SENSITIVITY-
~ 4 '/ ~~' 4 AMPERES/LUMEN 92CS-lI68OT
~ V' / ~c,'7
Iii 2
c,'<; 2

i50.0r8 / ~~~7 103


III
6 [ ~~ 8
6
4 '/
2 / 2
D.OOI V 7 8 9 I 2
102
1100 6 1000 1250
ANODE-TO-CATHODE SUPPLY VOLTS (E)
821»-9674"1r
Technical Data 95

NINE-STAGE, side-on type having S-5 response. Wave-


length of maximum response is 3400 ± 500 ang-
stroms. This type makes use of cesium-antimony
dynodes and a cesium-bismuth, opaque photocathode. 1 P28
Window material is Corning No. 9741 ultraviolet- MULTIPLIER
transmitting glass or equivalent. Tube weighs ap-
proximately 1.6 ounces and has a non-hygroscopic PHOTOTUBE
base. For outline and terminal-connection diagram,
refer to type 1P21.

DIRECT INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCES (Approx.):


Anode to Dynode No.9 ..... 4.4 pf
Anode to All Other Electrodes 6 pi

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC):
Between anode and cathode _.................................. . 1250 max volts
Between anode and dynode No.9 .............................. . 250 max volts
Between consecutive dynodes ................................... . 250 max volts
Between dynode No. 1 and cathode ........................... . 250 max volts
Average Anode Current ............................................ . 0.5 max rna
Ambient Temperature ............................................. . 75 max °C

TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS


5
./'
v ~ 100
90
TYPE IP28
VOLTSLSTAGE=IOO
I--
4
/ / 'V 80

(/ V V 70
ffi
a:
w VV 10-
60
~3
<{

:3
'I V I--
50

'1/ ..--
--
:E LIGHT FlUX-MICROLUMENS=40
l':J2
oz
<{ V 30
vy :..-- 20
I
y- 10
;..--

o 50 100 150 200 250


ANODE-TO-DYNODE-No.9 VOLTS 92CM-6632T3

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
DC Supply V oltage* .................................... 1000 750 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 3400 angstroms) ................ 61800 7900 a/w
Cathode Radiant Sensitivity (at 3400 angstroms) ....... 0.05 0.05 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity
At 0 cps" ........................................ 50 6.4 a/1m
With dynode No. 9 as output electrode .............. 30 a/1m
Cathode Luminous Sensitivity+ .......................... 40 40 /La/1m
Current Amplification (in millions) ...................... 1.25 0.16
Equivalent Anode-Dark-Current Input at 25'C
at a luminous sensitivity of 20 a/1m:
With anode as output electrode .................... 1.25 max nlm
With dynode No.9 as output electrode ............. 2 max nlm
Equivalent Noise Input:
Luminous++ ......................................... 0.75 plm
Ultraviolett ........................................ 0.00085 pw
'DC supply voltage (E) is connected across a voltage divider which provides 1/10 of E be-
tween cathode and dynode No. I, 1/10 of E for each succeeding dynode stage, and 1/10 of E
between dynode No. 9 and anode.
96 RCA Phototube Manual

••With light Input of 10 microlumens from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at color


temperature of 2870 0 K. Range of luminous sensitivity is 17.5 to 300 a/1m at 1000 volts.
+With light input of 0.01 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color tem-
perature of 2870oK; 100 volts applied between photocathode and all other electrodes connected
as anode.
++At tube temperature of 26°C and with external shield connected to cathode; bandwidth is
equal to 1 cycle per sec<>nd. A tungsten-filament light source at a color temperature of 2870°><
is interrupted at a low audio frequency to produce incident radiation pulses alternating be-
tween zero and the value stated. The "on" period of the pulse is equal to the Hoff" period..
tUnder the same conditions "" (++) except that a mon<>chromatic .<>urce radiating at 2537
angstroms is used.

EQUIVALENT-NOISE-INPUT SENSITIVITY AND CURRENT


CHARACTERISTICS AMPLIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS
TYPE IP28 TYPE IP28
VOLrs/STAGE =100 VOLTS ISTAGE = 1/10 E
ANODE-TO..,DYNODE-No.9 VOLTS-I/IO E
~~~~IrI~ :~H~fED-TO-ANODE VOLTS=-IOOO 4

V I
/ 8
6
/ 4

/ 2

/
/ I
8
6
/ 4

/ 2

/
/
I
8
6

2
2~--~---+---+--4--4~+4~:2
0.01 102
·120 -BO -40 0 40 6 7 8 9 2
500 1000 1250
TUBE TEMPERATURE-"C ANODE-TO-CATHODE SUPPLY VOLTS (E)
S2CM-7503TI 92CM-6547T4

SIDE-ON type having S-3 response. Wavelength of


lP29 maximum spectral response is 4200 ± 1000 ang-
stroms. This type makes use of a semicylindrical
GAS photocathode, and has a direct interelectrode capaci-
PHOTODIODE tance of 3 picofarads. It weighs approximately 1.1
ounces.

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Ratinlr 1 Rating 2
Anode-Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC) .............. 80 max 100 max volts
Average Cathode-Current Density ............... ........ 50 max 25 max /Io&/.q in
Average Cathode Current .............................. 10 max 5 max /La
Ambient Temperature ................................ . . 100 max 100 max ·C
Technical Data 97

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Anode-Supply Voltage ............................................. . 90 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4200 angstroms) ........................... . 0.011 s/w
Luminous Sensitivity* .......... , .................................. . 40 JUt/1m
Gas Amplification Factor** ....................................... . 9 max
Anode Dark Current (at 25"C) ................................... . 0.10 max

MINIMUM CIRCUIT VALUES:


Anode-Supply Voltage ...................•.............. 80 or less 100 min TOltS
DC Load Resistance:
For average currents above 5 ).La 0.1 min megohms
For average currents below 5 /La o min megohms
For average currents above 3 /La 2.5 min megohms
For average currents below 3 /La 0.1 min megohms
·With light input of 0.1 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color temperature
of 2870"K. Range of luminous sensitivity is 20 to 70 /La/1m.
""Ratio of luminous sensitivities at 90 and 25 volts.

TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS


e
TYPE IP29
!ff
"
6
l
~
jJ
(...0/ ...
V~ i
./
/' V
./
/' / o~

it. -
~

-
",
V

o 20
~

- 40
..- .........-
60
~

ANODE VOLTS
80 100
92CM-6412T2

PHOTO-
CATHODE

'~~
~C~K
~
T 8 BULB 2 YeN
32
% 3/
4 1'8·
MAX.

~
WCIOENT RADIATION

OWARF-SHELL
SMALL 4-PIN
BASE
.JEDEC N.2A4-2&

~JY"~
MAX.
98 RCA Phototube Manual

SIDE-ON type having S-4 response. Wavelength of


lP37 maximum spectral response is 4000 ± 500 angstroms.
This type makes use of a semicylindrical photo-
GAS cathode, and has a direct interelectrode capacitance
PHOTODIODE of 3 picofarads. It weighs approximately 1.1 ounces.
For curves of typical anode characteristics, refer to
type 5581. For outline and terminal connection
diagram, refer to type 1P29.

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Ratinw 1 Rating Z
Anode-Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC) .............. 80 max 100 max volta
Average Cathode-Current Density ...................... 50 max 25 max p.a/sq in
Average Cathode Current .............................. 10 max 5 max p.a
Ambient Temperature .................................. 75 max 75 max ·C
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Anode-Supply Voltage .........................•.................... 90 volt.
Radiant bensitivity (at 4000 angstroms) ........................... . 0.13 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity· ..... . ................................. . 135 p.a/lm
Gas Amplification Factor" ....................................... . 5.5 max
Anode Dark Current (at 25"C) ...................................• ()'06 max p.a

MINIMUM CIRCUIT VALUES:


Anode-Supply Voltage ................................ .. 80 or leso 100 yolta
DC Load Resistance:
For average currents above 5 JL& •••••••••••••••••••• 0.1 min megohms
For average currents below 6 p,8 •••••••••••••••••••• o min megohms
For average currents above 3 p,8 •••••••••••••••••••• 2.5 min megohms
For average currents below 3 /ita ................... . 0.1 min megohma
• With light input of 0.1 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color temperature
of 2870"K. Range of luminous sensitivity is 75 to 205 p.a/lm.
**Ratio of luminous sensitivities at 90 and 25 volts.

SIDE-ON type having S-4 response. This type is


1 P39 similiar to type 929, but has a maximum anode
dark current at 25°C of 0.005 microampere at 250
VACUUM volts, and makes use of a non-hygroscopic base for
PHOTODIODE increased resistance between anode and photocath-
ode pins under adverse conditions of high humidity.

I~;MAJ(.

Tq BULB ~~"-1
I ~I~'::"I_
{jJ
INCI~:NT(ADIATION

l
PHOTOCATHOO

r- ---~-n
JH~~I
,Ne:

INTERME:::~r-_t_-_·~ ~.~ ~
1 1 1

___.J_i... i ' NC 2

---.lJ I
1 8
SHELL OCTAL 32 MAX.
5-PIN BASE
~EDECN. --1 NC 1\

&5-10 L~MAx.j
SIDE-ON type having S-l response. This type is
lP40 similar to type 930, but has a maximum anode dark
current at 25°C of 0.005 microampere at 90 volts,
GAS and makes use of a non-hygroscopic base for in-
PHOTODIODE creased resistance between anode and photocathode
pins under adverse conditions of high humidity.
Technical Data 99

.If;;INC~:NTi"ADlATION
.Ne:

2 •
NC
I a
1\

HEAD-ON type having 8-1 response. Wavelength of


maximum spectral response is 8000 ± 1000 ang- 1 P41
stroms. This type makes use of a flat circular photo- GAS
cathode, and has a direct interelectrode capacitance
of 1.8 picofarads. It weighs approximately 0.3 ounces. PHOTODIODE
MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):
Ra.ting 1 Rating 2
Anode-Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC) ................ 70 max 90 max 'Yolta
Average Cathode-Current Density ...................... 40 max 20 max pa/sq in
Average Cathode Current ..............................
Ambient Temperature ..................................
3 max 1.5 max
100 max 100 max e:C
a

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Anode-Supply Voltage ........................•..................... 90 'Yolta
f~:!:r:;usSe~~~i;~t;:t .~~~~. ~~gs:~~~).. ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
0.0084 a/w
90 pa/Im
Gas Amplification Factor ......................................... . 8.5 max
Anode Dark Current (at 25°C) .................................. .. 0.1 max pa

MINIMUM CIRCUIT VALUES:


Anode-Supply Voltage ................................ .. 70 or less 90 'Yolta
DC Load Resistance:
For average currents above 1.5 po. .................• 0.1 min megohms
For average currents below 1.5 IL8 ................. .. o min megohms
For average currents above 1 P.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 2.5 min megohms
For average currenta below 1 po. .................• 0.1 min megohms
• With light input of 0.06 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color temperature
of 2870° K. Range of luminous sensitivity is 50 to 145 pa/lm.
TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS

14
TYPE IP41
If!
!P
l. ~
0'1

t/~
12
13
~IO
:::s
'"
lEa .$ I /if
o
~
W6
/ V 1<1';
~ /'~~
/ ~cS'
"'4 Q.

~ ~V ~ ~ ~
V
2

o
...-::
20
---40
-- 60
~ I---

ANODE VOLTS
:::-~
eo 100
92CM-5217T3
100 RCA Phototube Manual
NOTa: Incident radiation is into end of
bulb.

SMALL head-on type having S-9 response. Wave-


1 P42 length of maximum spectral response is 4800 ± 500
angstroms. This type makes use of a flat circular
VACUUM photocathode, and has a direct interelectrode capaci-
PHOTODIODE tance of 0.9 picofarad. It weighs approximately 0.1
ounce.

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Anode-Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC) ................•••.••.•••..••• 180 max volts
Average Cathode-Current Density .................................... . 25 max p.a/sq in
Average Cathode Current .................•.......................... 0.4 p.a
Ambient Tem.perature ................................................ . 75 max ·C
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Anode-Supply Voltage .................••.•...•...•..............•.• 180 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4800 angstroms) .......•...••..•...•.•.•.•...•• 0.025 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity* .............................................. . 37 p.a/1m
Anode Dark Current (at 2S0C) ....................................... . 0.005 max p.a
·With light input of 0.015 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color temperature of
2870oK. Range of luminous sensitivity is 20 to 70 p.a/1m.

tYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS


I I
TYPE IP42
o.O~ l -
0.7
I-- J:=
~
I--I -
o.6
~ ( ~
~ O. 5
::;; I---
~
l3 o.4 1/J.--- LUMENS=O.OIO
~ LIGHT FLUX

~ O.
o 317
:i
o.2 0.005

0.I
V-

o 40 80 120 160 200


ANODE VOLTS S"CM-I0757T
Technical Data 101

SIDE-ON type having S-l response. Wavelength of


maximum spectral response is 8000 ± 1000 ang-
stroms. This type makes use of :. semic'ylindrical
868
photocathode, and has a direct interelectrode capaci- GAS
tance of 3 picofarads. It weighs approximately 1.1 PHOTODIODE
ounces. For curves of typical anode characteristics,
refer to type 1P41. For outline and terminal-con-
nection diagram, refer to type 1P29.

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Rating 1 Rating 2
Anode-Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC) ................ 80 max 100 max volta
Average Cathode-Current Density ...................... 50 max 25 max p.a/sq in
Average Cathode Current .............................. 10 max 5 max /La
Ambient Temperature .................................. 100 max 100 max °C

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:

~!,J'i~';;"~u§';~~it~ft~a~~t . 8000 . ;';'gst~~;';';i . : : :: :: ::::::::::: : : : : :: :: :: :


90 volta
0.0084 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity* . 90 /La/1m
Gas Amplification Factor** .................•...................... 8 max
Anode Dark Current (at 25°C) ....................•............... 0.1 max

MINIMUM CIRCUIT VALUES:


Anode-Supply Voltage .................................• 80 or less 100 volts
DC Load Resistance:
For average currents above 5 P.R ••••••••.•.••••••••• 0.1 min megohms
For average currents below 5 /La ................... . o min megohms
For average currents above 3 p,a ...•••••..•..•••.••. 2.5 min megohms
For average currents below 3 /La ................... . 0.1 min megohms
*With light input of 0.1 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color temperature
of 2870 0 K. Range of luminous sensitivity is 50 to 145 p.a/lm.
**Ratio of luminous sensitivities at 90 and 25 volts.

LOW-LEAKAGE, side-on type having S-l response.


Wavelength of maximum spectral response is 8000
± 1000 angstroms. This type makes use of a semi- 917
cylindrical photocathode, and has a direct inter- VACUUM
electrode capacitance of 2.2 picofarads. It weighs PHOTODIODE
approximately 1.1 ounces.

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Anode-Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC) ........................... . 500 max volts
Average Cathode-Current Density ........................ . 30 max /La/sq in
Average Cathode Current ........................... . 10 max /La
Ambient rremperature ............................................. . 100 max °C
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Anode-Supply Voltage .. ... ..... . ..... ... .. .. .. .. .... ..... .. .. ... . 250 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 8000 angstroms) ............................ 0.0019 a/w
102 RCA Phototube Manual

Luminons Sensitivity- ...........••••••••••••.••...•.•••.•••....•.•• 20


Anode Dark Current (at 25·C) ..•.•....•.........•.......••...•••• 0.005 max
.With light input of 0.1 lumen from a tungsten-filam.,nt lamp ol)<!rated at a color telJlP<!l"ature
of 2870·K. Range of luminous sensitivity is 12 to 40 /La/1m.

TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS


I
TYPE 917
14

10.5
J....-
I 0.4

1/
V""
~.3
V 0.2
1/
LIGHT FLUX LUMENS =0.1
2
1/

o 40 80 120 160 200 240 280


ANODE VOLTS 92CM- 43601"2

~~NC

~~K
t INCIDENT RADIATION

SIDE-ON type having S-1 response. Wavelength of


maximum spectral response is 8000 ± 1000 ang-
918 stroms. This type makes use of a semicylindrical
photocathode, and has a direct interelectrode capaci-
GAS tance of 3 picofarads. It weighs approximately 1.1
PHOTODIODE ounces. For outline and terminal-connection diagram,
refer to type IP29.

MAXiMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Rating 1 Rating 2
Anode-Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC) ................ 70 max 90 max volts
Average Cathode~Current Density ...................... 50 max 25 max /La/sq in
Average Cathode Current .............................. 10 max 5 max /La
Ambient Temperature .................................. 100 max 100 max ·0
Technical Data 103

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Anode-Supply Voltage ........................................ . 90 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 8000 angstroms) ........................... . 0.014 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity* . 150 !La/1m
Gas Amplification Factor.. . ...................................... . 10.5 max
Anode Dark Current (at 25°C) ..................................... . 0.1 max
MINIMUM CIRCUIT VALUES:
Anode-Supply Voltage 70 or less 90 volts
DC Load Resistance:
For average currents above 5 P.R 0.1 min megohm51
For average currents below 5 p,a o min megobm51
For average currents above 3 p,a 2.5 min megohms
For average currents below a p.a 0.1 min megohmli

*With light input of 0.1 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color temperature
of 2870°K. Range of luminous sensitivity is 120 to 220 !La/1m.
**Ratio of luminous sensitivities at 90 and 21) volta.

TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS


40
TYPE 918

0 I
13
'"a.w 0 1
:::E
oCt
~20
i
o
:IE
~f-j
w I // OC
o
o "
<,."
,c.~> /
:i
0

- --~ ~ V-~V P
V
-
" ~
0-

o 20 40 60 eo 100
ANODE VOLTS 92CM-4351U

LOW-LEAKAGE, side-on type having S-1 response.


This type is similar to type 917, but has the photo-
919
cathode rather than the anode connected to the top VACUUM
cap.
PHOTODIODE

pm NC

He
~
t NC
INCIDENT RADIATION
Te BULB

OWARF-SHELL
SMALL 4-PIN
BASE
JED£C N2A4-2
104 RCA Phototube Manual

SIDE-ON, TWIN-UNIT type having S-l response. Wave-


920 length of maximum spectral response is 8000 ± 1000
angstroms. This type makes use of a quarter-
GAS cylindrical photocathode. It weighs approximately
PHOTODIODE 1.1 ounces.

DIRECT INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCES (Approx.):


Cathode to Cathode .........................................•.•.••• 1.8 pf
Cathode to Anode (each unit) ..................................... . 1.6 pf
Anode to Anode 0.4 pf
MAXIMUM RATINGS (Each Unit, Absolute-Maximum Values):
Rating 1 Rating 2
Anode-Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC) ................ 70 max 90 max volts
Average Cathode-Current Density ...................... 30 max 15 max /La/.q in
Average Cathode Current .......................... 4 max 2 max
Ambient Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 max 100 max ~C
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS (Each Unit):
Anode-Supply Voltage ....................•.....••.•.......•........ 90 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 8000 angstroms) ........................... . 0.0094 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity* ............................................. . 100 /La/1m
Ratio of Luminous Sensitivities (Unit No.1 to Unit No.2) ......... . 2 max
Gas Amplification Factor**. . ................................•. 9 max
Anode Dark Current (at 25°C) .................................. . 0.1 max

MINIMUM CIRCUIT VALUES (Each Unit):


Anode-Supply Voltage 70 or less 90 volts
DC Load Resistance:
For average currents above 2 J.La 0.1 min megohms
For average currents below 2 /la o min megohms
For average currents above 1 J.La 2.5 min megohms
For average currents below 1 /La 0.1 min megohms
.With light input of 0.04 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color temperature
of 2870oK. Ratio of luminous sensitivity is 50 to 175 ,ua/lm.
**Ratio of luminous sensitivities at 90 and 25 volts.

TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS


EACH UNIT
5
TYPE 920
~o/
ifp
jI o'
4
/l/,
'"
W
0:
~3
'7
,f:
S'/Y 0
::;;
«
o .:J'/ / /
'"o
:E // /
/
/ ifr
o'
w2 / /
g
:i ~ /' /
i--- --::-~
/ 'V
./'

o
~
--
lit::;::- -- ~V
20 40
-
../

60
V
~
V

80
~
~
O.O~

100
ANODE VOLTS 92CM-4618T4 •
Technical Data lOS.

pumpUI 2 • 3

t(U2 I 4 KUI

JNCIDENT'RADIATION

CARTRIDGE type having 8-1 response. Wavelength of


maximum spectral response is 8000 ± 1000 ang- 921
stroms. This type makes use of a semicylindrical
photocathode, and has a direct interelectrode capaci- GAS
tance of 1 picofarad. It weighs approximately 0.4 PHOTODIOOf:
ounce. For curves of typical anode characteristics,
refer to type 930.

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-MalOimum Values):


Anode-Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC) ........................•... 90 max yolts
Average Cathode-Current Density ................................. . 30 max p.a/sq in
Average Cathode Current ......................................... . 3 max ~a
Ambient Temperature ............................................. . 100 max C

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
yolta
~dfa,,;;~u§~~~iti~rI;a~~t . 8000' ;";'gst~;';';~i . : :::: ::::: ::: : : : : : : :: : :: ::::
90
0.013 e.!w
Luminous Sensitivity* ... . .................................. . 135 p.a!lm
Gas Amplification Factor ......................................... . 10 max
Anode Dark Current (at 25°C) ................................... . 0.01 max

cD 'IIOTMIOINO

A-Jr/.=PLANE PERPENDICULAR
TO ""'S OF TUB~
106 RCA Phototube Manual

MINIMUM CIRCUIT VALUES:


Anode-SupplY Voltage .........................•...•.... 70 or leaa 90 yolta.
DC Load Resistance:
For average currehts above 8 /La 0.1 min megohma
For average currents below g /L" o min megohms
For average currents above! p,a 2.5 min megohms
For average currents below 2 /La 0.1 min megohms
*With light input of O~l lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a. color temperature
of 2870°K, Range of luminous sensitivity i. 71i to 205 /La/1m.

CARTRIDGE type having 8-1 response. Wavelength


of maximum spectral response is 8000 ± 1000 ang-
922 stroms. This type makes use of semicylindrical
photocathode, and has a direct interelectrode capaci-
VACUUM tance of 1 picofarad. It weighs approximately 0.4
PHOTODIODE ounce. For curves of typical anode characteristics,
refer to type 917.

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Anode-Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC) ...................•••..••.• 500 max volta.
Average Cathode-Current Density ................................. . 30 max /La/sq in
Average Cathode Current ......................................... . 5 max /La
Ambient Temperature ............................................. . 100 max ·C
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Anode-Snpply Voltage ............................................. . 250 volta.
Radiant Sensitivity (at 8000 angstroms) ........................... . 0.0019 s/w
Luminous Sensitivity· .......... . ............................. . 20 /La/IIll
Anode Dark Current (at 25°C) ................................ . 0.005 max p.a

'With light input of 0.1 Inmen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color temperature
of 2870°K, Range of luminous sensitivity ia 12 to 40 /La/1m.

"- , /'~I .031'"''1.01$'"


.• 90" ......
~-,:,=PLANE PERPENDICUl...AR
• TO AXIS OF TUBE
Technical Data 107

SIDE-ON type having S-1 response. This type is


electrically similar to type 930, but has a direct
923
interelectrode capacitance of 2 picofarads. This type GAS
is used principally for renewal purposes. PHOTODIODE

'~~
NC~K INCIDENT. RADIATION

SIDE-ON, short-bulb type having S-1 response. Wave-


length of maximum spectral response is 8000 ± 1000
angstroms. This type makes use of a semicylindrical 925
photocathode, and ;las a direct interelectrode capaci- VACUUM
tance of 1.6 picofarads. It weighs approximately 0.8 PHOTODIODE
ounce.

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Valves):


Anode-Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC) ........................... . 250 max volts
Average Cathode-Current Density .....................•............ 30 max p.a/sq in
Average Cathode Current ......................................... . 5 max }La
Ambient Temperature .............................................. . 100 max 'C
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Anode-Supply Voltage ............................................. . 250 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 8000 angstroms) ........................... . 0.0019 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity· ................... ~ ......................... . 20 p.a/lm
Anode Dark Current (at 25' C) ..................................... . 0.0125 max p.a
.With light input of 0.1 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color temperature
of 2870'K. Range of luminous sensitivity is 12 to "'0 }La/1m.

"/S)
. ::NT.j"AOIATION

.Ne

fN"TERMEDOA T£-
NC 2 SH~LL OCTAL
~PIN BASE
o • JEOEC Nt
He K BS-fO
108 RCA Phototube Manual

TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS


TYPE 925

'"a:
hi
LIGHT FLUX LUMENS-O.5

---
~IO

~
~8
u
/
:E
hi 6
I
~4
0.1
2
r
o 40 80 120 160 200 240 280
ANODE VOLTS 92CM-620STl

CARTRIDGE type having S-3 response. Wavelength of


926 maximum spectral response is 4200 ± 1000 ang-
stroms. This type makes use of a semicylindrical
VACUUM photocathode, and has a direct interelectrode capaci-
PHOTODIODE tance of 1 picofarad. It weighs approximately 0.4
ounce.

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Anode-Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC) ........................... . 600 max volts
Average Cathode-Current Density ................................. . 30 max JLa/sq in
Average Cathode Current ...........•......•.•...•....••..........• 5 max /La
Ambient Temperature ............................................. . 100 max ·C

TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS


TYPE 926

( - LIGHT FLUX-LUMENS - 0.5

I
0.1

o 100 200 300 400 000


ANODE VOLTS 92CM-6209T1
Technical Data 109

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Anode-Supply Voltage ........................•..•......•••......•.. 250 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4200 angstroms) ........................... . 0.0019 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity* .... . ....................................... . 6.5 /La/1m
Anode Dark Current (at 25°C) ..................................... . 0.005 max /La
*With light input of 0.1 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color temperature of
28700K. Range of luminous sensitivity is 4 to 15 /La/1m..

SIDE-ON type having S-l response. Wave1engtli of


maximum spectral response is 8000 ± 1000 ang-
stroms. This type makes use of a semicylindrical
927
photocathode, and has a direct interelectrode capaci- GAS
tance of 2 picofarads. It weighs approximately 0.3 PHOTODIODE
ounce.

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Rating 1 Rating :II
Anode-Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC) .•.•.•...••.•••• 70 max 90 max volta
Average Cathode-Current Density .........• • . . • • . . • • . . • 60 max 30 max /La/sq in
Average Cathode Current ..............•..•••••••.•.... 4 max 2 max /La
Ambient Temperature .......• . • • • • • . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 100 max 100 max ·C
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Anode-Supply Voltage ...................••.•..•.••••••••.•••..•..•• 90
Radiant Sensitivity (at 8000 angstroms) .•.•...••..•.•.............• 0.012
Luminous Sensitivity· ............................................. . 125
Gas Amplification Factor** .....•...•••.••..••••••.•............••• 10 max
Anode Dark Current (at 25·C) ...••••••..•••••.•••.•••••.••••••••• 0.1 max
MINIMUM CIRCUIT VALUES:
Anode-Supply Voltage .....•.•.•..••••••••••• •••••••• ••• 70 or less 90 volts
DC Load Resistance:
For average currents above 2 /La .................... 0.1 min megohms
For average currents below 2 p.a .................... 0 min megohms
For average currents above 1 p,a .................... 2.5 min megohms
For average currents below 1 /La .................... 0.1 min megohms
·With light input of 0.1 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color temperature
of 28700K. Range of luminous sensitivity is 75 to 185 pa/Im..
.·Ratio of luminous sensitivities at 90 and 25 volts.
110 RCA Phototube Manual

TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS


TYPE 927

~ * 11
.#l-oc?-
2
.fS~
v&'/ o·
I
/ V/ ~

o
/'
..-
20
:..--
40
~
60
--
~ ::". ::/ ~ / ' or:Jf:.
- -- 80
ANODE VOLTS
100

NON-DIRECTIONAL type having 8-1 response. Wave-


928 length of maximum spectral response is 8000 ± 1000
angstroms. This type makes use of a cylindrical-
GAS mesh photocathode, and has a direct interelectrode
PHOTODIODE capacitance of 3 picofarads. It weighs approximately
1 ounce.

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Ratine 1 Ratine 2
Anode-Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC) ................ 70 max 90 max TOIts
Average Cathode-Current Density ...................... 60 max SO max ,../sq in
Average Cathode Current ..............................
Ambient Temperature ..................................
6 max 3 max
100 maJ[ 100 maJ[ e:Ca
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Anode-Supply Voltage ............................................ .. 90 Tolts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 8000 angstroms) ........................... . 0.0061 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity· ...........................................•.. 65 ",,/Im
Gas Amplification Factor·· ....................................... . 10 max
Anode Dark Current (at 25°C) ................................... . 0.1 max p.a

MINIMUM CIRCUIT VALUES:


Anode-Supply Voltage.................................. 70 or less 98 Tolts
Technical Data 111
DC Load Resistance:
For average currents above 3 p,a 0.1 min mego-bms
For average currents below 3 j.J.8 o min megohms
For average currents above 2 /.La 2.5 min megohma
For average currents below 2 /La 0.1 min megohms
*With light input of 0.1 lumen from a tungsten~filament lamp operated at a color temperature
of 2870oK. Range of luminous sensitivity is 40 to 100 tts/lm.
**Ratio of luminous sensitivities at 90 and 25 volts.

TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS

TYPEI 928

!3
0::
~ 10

~8
u
cf/
:IE
~ 6 IA
f~
o
:i
4
$l
\<:,-?-

2
~ ~ ~-+-:...~
......-::: ~t::::'r~~
o 20 40 60 80 100
ANODE VOLTS 92CM-6117T1

p~~

NC~K
NOTE: Incident radiation is: perpendicular
to axlil Of photocathode.

SIDE-ON type having S-4 response. Wavelength of


maximum spectral response is 4000 ± 500 angstroms.
This type makes use of a semicylindrical photo-
cathode, and has a direct interelectrode capacitance
929
of 2.6 picofarads. It weighs approximately 0.9 VACUUM
ounce. For outline and terminal-connection diagram, PHOTODIODE
refer to type lP39.

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Anode-Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC) ........................... . 250 max volta
Average Cathode-Current Density ................................. . 25 ma", /l&/.q in
Average Cathode Current ......................................... . 5 max /La
Ambient Temperature ............................................. . 76 max ·C
112 RCA Phototube Manual

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Anode-Supply Voltage ..... . 250 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4000 ;';{is"t~o;';~i·::::::::::::::::::::::::::·.: 0.044 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity* ........ . .......................... . 45 pa/lm
Anode Dark Current (at 25 C) Q ........................ . 0.0125 max pa
*With light input of 0.1 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color temperature
of 2870oK. Range of luminous sensitivity is 25 to 70 p,a/lm.

TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS


5
UGH+ FLU~-JMENLo.1
TYPE 929

4 V -
U)

I!!w
Q.
:0
<l
~
3
(
/ - 0.08

0.06

U
~
W
o
2 V 0.04
o
~
I 0.02

o 50 100 150 200 250 300


ANODE VOLTS 92CM-6151TJ

SIDE-ON type having S-l response. Wavelength of


maximum spectral response is 8000 ± 1000 ang-
930 stroms. This type makes use of a semicylindrical
photocathode, and has a direct interelectrode capaci-
GAS tance of 2.4 picofarads. It weighs approximately 0.9
PHOTODIODE ounce. For outline and terminal-connection diagram,
refer to type 1P40.

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Moximum Values):


Rating 1 Rating 2
Anode-Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC) .............. 70 max 90 max volta
Average Cathode-Current Density ...................... 60 max 30 max pa/sq in
Average Cathode Current .............................. 6 max 3 max pa
Ambient Temperature .................................. 100 max 100 max QC
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Anode-Supply Voltage ............................................ .. 90 volta
Radiant Sensitivity (at 8000 angstroms) ........................... . 0.013 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity* ............................................. . 135 /La/1m
Gas Amplification Factor·" ....................................... . 10 max
Anode Dark Current (at 25 C) .................................. ..
Q 0.1 max pa

MINIMUM CIRCUIT VALUES:


Anode-Supply Voltage ................................. . 70 or less 90 volts
DC Load Resistance:
For average currents above 3 p,a ................... . 0.1 min megohms
For average currents below 3 p,a ................... . o min megohms
For average currents above 2 p,a ................... . 2.5 min megohms
For average currents below 2 p,a ................... . 0.1 min megohms
·With light input of 0.1 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color temperature
of 2870 K. Range of luminous sensitivity is 90 to 205 pa/Im.
Q

··Ratio of luminous sensitivities at 90 and 25 volts.


Technical Data 113

TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS


6
TYPE 930 0
~
14
so f/&'
12 l'
tI)
w
a:: dl / o·{tJ
I;:'
~IO
::;
~ f
v
~ V V
!
a:: 8

//V
<.)

:ii
~ 6

~/
o
z
<t
4
V V .>- 0'1-

:::::: ~ V ../
,./ ,/"
2

o
/"

If.:
20
-40
e-
-- ----
60 80
ANODE VOLTS
/

100
92CM-4806TZ

NINE-STAGE, side-on type having S-4 response. Wave-


length of maximum response is 4000 ± 500 ang-
stroms. This type makes use of cesium-antimony
dynodes and a cesium-antimony, opaque photocathode.
931 A
Window material is Corning No. 0080 lime glass or MULTIPLIER
equivalent. Tube weighs approximately 1.6 ounces PHOTOTUBE
and has a non-hygroscopic base. For outline and
terminal-connection diagram, refer to type lP21.

DIRECT INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCES (Approx.):


Anode to Dynode No.9 ....................................•.•..... 4.4 pf
Anode to All Other Electrodes ............................••...•..... 6 pf

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC):
Between anode and cathode ...........................•.•...... 1250 max volts
Between anode and dynode No. 9 .............................. . 250 max volts
Between consecutive dynodes ................................... . 250 max ..olts
Between dynode No. 1 and cathode ........................... . 250 max 1'OIts
Average Anode Current ............................................ . 1 max rna
Ambient Temperature ..........•................................... 75 max °C

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
DC Supply Voltage' .................................•.. 1000 750 yoUS
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4000 angstroms) .................. 24000 3300 a/w
Cathode Radiant Sensitivity (at 4000 angstroms) ........ 0.03 0.03 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity** .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3.3 a/1m
Cathode Luminous Sensitivity+ .......................... 30 30 /Lf1/lm
Current Amplification .................................. 800,000 110,000
Equivalent Anode-Dark-Current Input at 25°C
at a luminous sensitivity of 20 a/1m ................. . 2.5 max nlm
Equivalent Noise Input++ .............................. . 0.95 plm
*DC supply voltage (E) is connected across a voltage divider which provides 1/10 of E
between cathode and dynode No.1, 1/10 of E for each succeeding dynode stage, and 1/10 of E
between dynode No. 9 and anode.
"With light input of 10 microlumens from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color
temperature of 2870oK. Range of luminous sensitivity is 4.5 to 300 a/1m at 1000 volt...
+With light input of 0.01 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color tem-
perature of 2870 oK; 100 volts applied between photocathode and all other electrodes connected
as anode.
++At tube temperature of 25°C and with external shield connected to cathode; bandwidth is
equal to 1 cycle per second. A tungsten-filament light source at a color temperature of 2870 0 K
is interrupted at a low audio frequency to produce incident radiation pulses alte'rnating
between zero and the value sta1;Pd. The "on" period of the pulse is equal to the "off" period.
114 RCA Phototube Manual

TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS


2.5
tt'/ TYPE 931A
"I 100
VOLTS/STAGE =100

2
II ~

/
13 75
It:
....
a. 5
1/ ...-
~
:3 'I /
:IE {J LIGHT FLUX-MICROLUMENS=50
....
o I
o
z
«
/'
o.5 'L ~
25

rL 10
V
o 50 100 150 200 250
ANODE - TO- DYNODE -No.9 VOLTS 52CM-6268T5

SENSITIVITY AND CURRENT


AMPLIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS EQUIVALENT - NOISE -INPUT
CHARACTERISTIC
TYPE 931A
VOLTS I STAGE = 1110 E
ANODE-TO-DYNODE-No.9 VOLTS =1110 E J6tfs7~+~GE=100 BANDWIDTH: 1CPS
EXTERNAL SHI£LD-TO-ANOOE VOLTS=-IOOO

• •
2 2

103 107
B a
l2
.
6 6
(, • •

~/
CD
2 2
'"
~ 102 f'3- I- 106
....
f- 6
c,<V~ ,o~ B
6
~ tk:.' z
~-f>~-S 1f,j"<:...1
It: 4 Q
30 / ~
8 2r----,...- ~ '?-~ 0/ 2 !,l
....
~'
zw 10 105 :::i
:IE q{> ""'' r-..~ B "-

•=tr-
~

~
::> 6 TYPICAL EFFECT OF MAGNETIC
~
.... • f- FIELD ON ANODE CURRENT
'"
w .' eo"'' ~V zW
-..1,.'1"< r-..'~ ~N?3dft.7·
It: 2
w 2 a:
"- ~ It: CIA. LIGHT SPOT NORMAL TO AND
NTERED ON PHOTOCATHOQf GRILL.
:Ii! 1/ ~~ 10' [l W,ORM ~1C FIELD ~T.\l MAJOR AX~
«
"'~
L . L ~~""./
6 '" B
6
rnn
2 ~
FOR L
lYE VALUES OF IC FLUX AR
OF FORCE 11>WARD TUBE BASE.


zV ~
l::
2:
f-
0;
2
~ :#}, ~ ~ SUPPLY VOLTAGE:
BETWEEN ANOOE
~
zw 0.1 103 ANO CATHOIDE =500 V '>;
...,
<Il 8 8 ~

:~
6
10.

4
2 2
0.01 102 2
6 7 8 9 I 2 I
500 1000 1250
ANODE-TO-CATHODE SUPPLY VOLTS eE) - 60 -40 -20 0 20
92CM- 6459T4 MAGNETIC FIELD INTENSITY-GAUSSES
92CS- 7664TZ
Technical Data 115

VARIATION IN SENSITIVITY OF
PHOTOCATHODE ACROSS ITS PROJECTED
WIDTH IN PLANE OF GRILL

~I
....
BOIi---t---ir--+--'
a
0:

~ 60'i---t-~4--+-~--4--~--4
~
<t
.... 4011---t--f+-+--41t--4--~--4
~
!;;:
ii:l 201i---+-I--f---+--++-If--+----4
0::

o 2 4 6 B 10 12
DISTANCE ALONG PLANE OF GRILL
FROM LEFT TO RIGHT-MILLIMETERS
,- 92CS-7667T2

SIDE-ON type having S-4 response. Wavelength of


maximum spectral response is 4000 ± 500 angstroms. 934
This type makes use of a semicylindrical photo- VACUUM
cathode, and has a direct interelectrode capacitance
of 1.5 picofarads. It weighs approximately 0.4 ounce. PHOTODIODE

MAXIMUM RATINGS {Absolute-Maximum Values},


Anode-SupplY Voltage (DC or Peak AC) .......................... .. 250 max
Average Cathode-Current Density ... , ............................. . 80 max
Average Cathode Current ........................................ .. " max
Ambient Temperature ............................................ .. 76 max

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Anode-Supply Voltage ............................................ .. 250 volta
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4000 angstroms) ........................... . 0.029
Luminous Sensitivity· ............................................. . 30 J'&a;;:,.
Anode Dark Cnrrent (at 25'C) ..................................... . 0.005 max p.a
.Wlth light Input of 0.1 lumen from a tungsten-filament !amp operated at a color temperature
of 2870'K.. Range of luminous sensitivity is 19 to 75 p.a/lm.

TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS


TYPE 93,4.

IGHT FLUX LUMENS-0.2


6
I--"
'"....
0:
W
/'
Q.
:I: I 0,15
<t
~4
~
:I:
w
/ 0.1
o
o
li2 fl"" 0.05
1/ I

o 40 80 120 160 200 240 280


ANODE VOLTS 92CM-6479TI
116 RCA Phototube Manual

i
INCIDENT RADIATION

r1\
~
He K

SIDE-ON type having S-5 response. Wavelength of


935 maximum spectral response is 3400 ± 500 angstroms.
This type features a very low anode dark current.
VACUUM It makes use of a semicylindrical photocathode, and
PHOTODIODE has a direct interelectrode capacitance of 0.6 pico-
farad. It weighs approximately 1 ounce.

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Anode-Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC) ........................... . 250 max volts
Average Cathode-Current Density ................................. . 30 max /La/sq in
Average Cathode Current ........................................ ..
Ambient Temperature ............................................ .. ig ~~ go
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Anode-Supply Voltage ............................................ .. 250 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 3400 angstroms) ........................... . 0.043 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity* ............................................. . 35 /La/1m
Anode Dark Current (at 25·C) ..................................... . 0.0005 max p.a
·With light input of 0.1 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color temperature
of 2870'K, Range of luminous sensitivity is 18 to 70 p.a/lm.

IlJ)NC~CE:T
IRADIAT:N
• HC

Ne 2

I •
Ne II.
Technical Data 117

TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS


4
TYPE 935
L1G~T FJX JMENS!o.l

,..,- ,..... I
-
3 0.06
U!
W
0:
W
Q.
/ 1
I
52 V
:E
c(
o 0.06
~
3E
~
o
1/ 0104- I--
z
c(
1/ l
J02

o 40 60 120 160 200


I
240 260
ANODE VOLTS 92CM-647sn

TEN-STAGE, head-on, flat-faceplate type having S-11


response. Wavelength of maximum response is 4400
± 500 angstroms. This type makes use of copper-
beryllium dynodes and a cesium-antimony, semi-
2020
transparent photocathode having a high-conductivity MULTIPLIER
grating. Window material is Corning No. 0080 lime PHOTOTUBE
glass or equivalent. Tube weighs approximately 5.2
ounces and has a non-hygroscopic base.

DIRECT INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCES {Approx.}:


Anode to Dynode No. 10 ............................•.•.••••••...•• 4.4 pf
Anode to AU Other Electrodes ......................•.•...•....••..• 7 pf

MAXIMUM RATINGS {Absolute-Maximum Values}:


Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC):
Between anode and cathode ..........•.•...••.....••..........• 1500 max volts
Between anode and dynode No. 10 ........................... . 250 max volts
Between dynode No. 1 and cathode ........................... . 400 max volts
Between focusing electrode and cathode ....................... . 400 max volts
Average Anode Current ............................................• 2 max ma.
Cathode Irradiationt ............................................. . 0.1 max 1m
Ambient Temperature .....................•...................•.... 75 max °C

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
DC Supply Voltage" .............................................. . 1250 volta
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4400 angstroms) .......................... . 4800 a/vr
Cathode Radiant Sensitivity (at 4400 angstroms) ......••........... 0.04 a/vr
Luminous Sensitivity:
At 0 cps·· ......................................•........... 6.0 a/1m
With dynode No. 10 as output electrode ...................... . 3.6 a/1m
Cathode Luminous Sensitivity:
With tungsten light source+ .......................•........... 50 /La/1m
With blue light sourceH . . . • . . . • . . . . • . . • • . . . . . • . • • • • • . • . • • • . . . . 0.03 min /La
Current Amplification ...............................•.•........... 120.000
Equivalent Anode-Dark-Current Input at 25°C
at a luminous sensitivity of 20 a/1m ............................ . 2.25 max nlm
Equivalent Noise Inputtt ......................................... . 7 plm
t Above this value of cathode irradiation, serious loss in linearity between light input and
anode current will be caused by the resistivity of the cathode.
"DC supply voltage (E) is connected across a voltage divider which provides 1/6 of E between
cathode and dynode No.1, 1/12 of E for each succeeding dynode stage, and 1/12 of E between
dynode No. 10 and anode. Focusing-electrode voltage is adjusted to that value between 10 and
60 per cent of dynode No. 1 potential (referred to cathode) which provides maximum anode
eurrent.
**With light input of 10 microlumens from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color
temperature of 2870oK. Range of luminous sensitivity is 2.5 to 75 a/1m at 1250 volts.
+With light input of 0.01 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color temperature
of 2870 o K; 200 volts applied between photocathode and all other electrodes connected as anode.
118 RCA Phototube Manual
++Same conditions as (+1. but a blue filter ;s used (Corning C.S. No.5-58. glass code No. 5113,
polished to 'h .toek thIckness).
ttAt tube temperature of 25°0 and with external shield connected to cathode; bandwidth i.
equal to 1 cycle per second. A tungsten·filament light source at a color temperature of
2870 0 K is Interrupted at a low audio frequency to produce incident radiation pulses alter-
nating between zero and the value stated. The "on" period of the pulse is equal to the Hoff"
period.
TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS
TYPE 2020
DYNODE -No.l-TO-CATHODE VOLTS =200
VOLTS PER SUCCEEDING STAGE' 100
FOCUSING ELECTRODE IS ADJUSTED FOR
MAXIMUM ANODE CURRENT.
2
300

V
/ 250
5
V/ V
I
-Z 17 V /
200

LIGHT FLUX MICROLUMENS=150


r& --I---
o.5 y -
Y I--
100

50

;:::-- 10
25

o 50 100 150 200 250


ANODE-TO-DYNODE-No.IO VOLTS 82CM-864IT
SENSITIVITY AND CURRENT
AMPLIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS
TYPE 2020
DYNODE-No.I-TO-CATHODE VOLTS =1/6 E
VOLTS PER SUCCEEDING STAGE = 1/12 E
ANODE-TO-DYNODE No.IO VOLTS =1/12 E
FOCUSING-ELECTRODE VOLTAGE ADJUSTED FOR
MAXIMUM ANODE CURRENT.
2 2
)
10 2
8 J07
6
~
b
"2 7 "
t- 2
CD
"'10 JOG
n: 8
...
::f 6 6
l-
" I) /1/
4
z
3'" 2
Q
2
0 II rl Jfi 1;;:
~ 18 .... 8105~

1fT
...
Z 6 '- 6 ..J

~
Q.
::f
:::J
..J
"-
"2 . . fi 4 ::f
«
...'" ~J-J, i:: '1,) '- f-- I-

i~~
"'i:t f-=~
...
2
$~ J
Z
&j
'"~O.le 8104~
::f
«
I
>-
!::
6

"2 r<J
~
~
~ -.J
~ '1'-+-1-
Q:'~"
.).:"' CJ
~
!l:'t-I- 6
4

2
i3

2:
~0.01
/ '-#
'- 103
z e 8
w 6
7 6
'" 4
7 17.
4

2 2
0.001 / / / 10 2
NOTE: IEcident
of bulb.
radiation ie in'bo .ad,

45678924
200 1000 1500
ANODE-TO-CATHODE SUPPLY VOLTS eEl
92CM-8637T1
Technical Data 119

EFFECT OF MAGNETIC TYPICAL ANODE-DARK-CURRENT


FIELD ON ANODE CURRENT CHARACTERISTIC
TYPE 2020 TYPE 2020
MAGNETIC AELD IS PARALLEL 10 OYNODE-CAGE AXIS. DYNODE-No.I-TO-CATHODE VOLTS·1I6 E
POSITIVE VAWES ARE FOR LINES OF FORCE FROM VOLTS PER SUCCEEDING
LEFT TO RIGHT WITH BASE DOWN AND BASE KEY
TOWARD OBSERVER. STAGE = 1112 E
DYNODE-No.I-TO-CATHODE VOLTS "150 ANODE-TO-DYNODE-No.9 VOLTS =1112 E
EACH SUCCEEDING-STAGE VOLTS. 100 FOCUSING ELECTRODE ADJUSTED TO
!z FOCUSING ELECTRODE IS ADJUSTED FOR MAXIMUM
ANODE CURRENT. 8 TU~~O¥IP~p~~l+rn~~ N~~D~ CURRENT.
~ 100 8
V
"r\
6
G 4
~ 75 \. III
o
~ 50
/ 9
B
2
UNSTABLE

'\
~

--
2 4

5 V ........... 2
r--
w 16'0
II:: 0 I - 0 I
MAGNETIC FIELD INTENSITY-GAUSSES
2
0.1
2 468
I
2 468 2 468 2 468 2 468
10 10 2 103 104
92CS-8'36T2 LUMINOUS SENSITIVITY -
AMPERES/LUMEN 92CS-8640T

TEN-STAGE, ruggedized, head-on type having S-11 re-


sponse. Wavelength of maximum response is 4400
± 500 angstroms. This type makes use of cesium-
antimony dynodes and a cesium-antimony, semitrans-
2067
parent photocathode having a circular hemispherical MULTIPLIER
shape. Window material is Corning No. 0080 lime PHOTOTUBE
glass or equivalent. Tube weighs approximately 1.8
ounces without base.

DIRECT INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCES (Approx.):


Anode to Dynode No. 10 ......................................... .. 4 pf.
Anode to All Other Electrodes ..................................... . 7 pf
MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):
DC Supply Voltage:
Between anode and cathode .................................. . 1250 max volts
Between anode and dynode No. 10 ........................... . 250 max v(}lts
Between eonsecutive dynodes ................................. . 200 max volts
Between dynode No. 1 and cathode ........................... . 300 max volts·
Average Anode Current ..........................................•. 0.75 max ma
Ambient Temperature ............................................ .. 75 max· ·C
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
DC Supply Voltage* ............................................... . 1000 v(}lts
Radiant Sensitivity (at «00 angstroms) ........................... . 12000 a/ ....
Cathode Radiant Sensitivity (at "00 a~stroms) ...............•..•. 0.036 a/....
Luminous Sensitivity·· ...................................... ; ...... . 15 al1m'
Cathode Luminous Sensitivity:
With tungsten light source" .................................. ..
With blue light source>· ....................................... . '5
0.03 min
Ita/1m
Ita/1m
Current Amplification ............................................. . 830,000
Equivalent Anode-Dark-Current Input at 25°C
at a luminous sensitivity of 20 a/lm .............................. 3 max nlm
Equivalent Noise Inputt ............................................ 6.6 plm
·DC supply voltage (E) Is connected acrOOl8 a voltage divider which provides 1/6 of E be-
tween cathode and dynode No. 1, 1/12 of E for each sueeeedins dynode stage, and 1/12 of E
between dynode No. 10 and anode.
··With light input of 1 mierolumen from a tu_ten-filament lamp operated at a color tem-
perature of 28700K. Range of luminous sensitivity is S.3 to 100 a/1m at 1000 volts.
+With light input of 0.01 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color tempera-
ture of 2870 0K; 200 volts applied between cathode and all other electrodes connected &8 anode.
··Same conditions &8 (+), but a blue filter is used (Corning C.s. No.5-58, sl&8s code No. 5113,
polished to ¥.. stock thickness). .
tAt tube temperature of 25°C and with external shield connected to cathode: bandwidth Is
equal to 1 cycle per second. A tungsten-filament light source at a color temperature of 2870 0 K
i. interrupted at a low audio frequency to produce incident radiation pulses alternating be-
tween zero and the value stated. The "on" period of the pulse Is equal to the "off" period.
120 RCA Phototube Manual

TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS


TYPE 2067
DYNODE-No.I-TO-CATHODE VOLTS =167
VOLTS PER SUCCEEDING STAGE. 83

2
fI)
IIJ

-
0:
IIJ 100
a..
:;; 1.5
,,-
3 80
:i V ....-
IIJ
C
0
Z
Cl

0.5
1 / /~

1/
Ij/ - LIGHT FLUX MICROLUMENS=60

4(

2C
I........
o 50 100 150 200 250
ANODE-TO-DYNODE-No.IO VOLTS 92CM-1I815T

SENSITIVITY AND CURRENT


AMPLIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS
TYPE 2067
DYNODE-No.l-TO-CATHODE VOLTS -116 E
VOLTS PER SUCCEEDING STAGE=1/12 E
ANODE-TO-DYNODE No.IO VOLTS=1/12 E

4 4

2 2

~
8
107
8
1
2.80-
;z 6 6 MAli.
~
....
4 4
0)
N 2 2

iJV
~
IIJ
...
0:
102
6
4
B
'" 106
8
6
4
Z
Q
9 ~~ / V !;;:
~ 2 ~ ~
2
...
!,!
($' "-~ /
~ ~ <a ~.".
iP512
!!l 6 ,;:,~ -*"-1. 6 ~
~
.... 4 f--- ~:~ ~<t'. ~~ Z 4 l-
t/)
w ~.". ~q / zW
~~"'~t
0: 2 2 0:

~p
i
c( 8
1
~ ~
104
B
0:
a
I 6 "-~ ~t;,:/ 6
~
~
4 4
:>
i= 2 ,;:,~ 2

+~~~
0;
~ 0.1 103
t/) 8 8
6 6
4

2
/ 2
0.01 102
7 8 9 1 2 NOTE: Incident radiation is Into eDd. or
eoo 6 1000 1250 bulb.
ANODE-TO-CATHODE SUPPLY VOLTS IE)
92CM-IIBI6T
Technical Data 121

SIDE-ON type having unobstructed photocathode area


and S-4 response. Wavelength of maximum spectral
response is 4000 ± 500 angstroms. This type makes 4409
use of a semicylindrical photocathode, and has a GAS
direct inter electrode capacitance of 2.4 picofarads.
It weighs approximately 0.9 ounce. For outline and PHOTODIOOE
terminal-connection diagram, refer to type lP40.

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Rating 1 Rating 2
Anode-Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC) ................ 80 max 100 max "olu.
Average Cathode~Current Density ..................... 60 max 30 max "./roq in
Average Cathode Current ... .......................... 6 max 3 max f,a
Ambient Temperature .................................. 75 max 75 max C.
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Anode-Supply Voltage ...............................•........•..... 90 "olts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4000 angstroms) ........................... . 0.13 ../w
Luminous Sensitivity* ..... . ..................................... . 135 ,,",/Im
Gas Amplification Factor ......................................... . 5.5 max
Anode Dark Current (at 25°C) .........................•.......... 0.050 max
MINIMUM CIRCUIT VALUES:
Anode-Supply Voltage ..............................•..• 80 or less 90 "olts
DC Load Resistance:
For average currents above 3 p,a ................... . 0.1 min megohms
For average currents below 3 p,a ................... . o min megohms
For average currents above 1 Ita .................•.• 2.5 min megohms
For average currents below 1 p,a ......•........•.•.• 0.1 min megohms
·With light input of 0.1 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color temperature
of 2870°C. Range of luminous sensitivity is 75 to 205 "a/1m.

TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS


TYPE 4409

20
~r;'
{,;
/Y
'"a:w
~I 5 d'
~/~

::E
~o
«.~
,eo+-
«f
:i!
wi 0
'7 offi
z
o
o
V ./
V
'" ./
V
....V ~

-
5
/ V V l--V
~ = 0.01

o 20 40 60 80 100
ANODE VOLTS 92CM-1II45T

TEN-STAGE, ruggedized, fiat-faceplate type having


S-11 response. Wavelength of maximum response is
4400 ± 500 angstroms. This type makes use of 4438
cesium-antimony dynodes and a fiat-circular, cesium-
antimony, semitransparent photocathode. Window
MULTIPLIER
material is Corning No. 0080 lime glass or equiva- PHOTOTUBE
lent. Tube weighs approximately 2 ounces.
122 RCA Phototube Manual

DIRECT INTERElECTRODE CAPACITANCES (Approx.):


pf
Anode to Dynode No. 10 ..........................................•
Anode to All Other Electrodes ..................................... . "
7 pf

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


DC Supply Voltage:
Between anode and cathode .................................. . 1250 max volts
Between anode and dynode No. 10 ........................... . 250 max volts
Between consecutive dynodes .................................. . 200 max volts
Between dynode No. 1 and cathode ........................... . 300 max volts
Average Anode Current ........................................ . 0.75 max ma
Ambient Temperature ............................................ . 75 max 'C
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
DC Supply V oltage* ........ . ....................... . 1000 750 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4400 angstroms) ... . .......... . 22000 2200 a/vr
Cathode Radiant Sensitivity (at 4400 angstroms) ....... . 0.036 6.036 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity:
At 0 cps" ............ . ........... . 27 2.7 a/1m
With dynode No. 10 as output electrode ........... . 16 1.6 a/1m
Cathodo Luminous Sensitivity:
With tungsten light source+ ....................... . 45 45 /La/1m
With blue light source++ ......................... . 0.028 min 0.028 min /La
Current Amplification . . ......... . 600.000 60000
Equivalent Anode-Dark-Current Input at 25°C
at a luminous sensitivity of 20 a/1m ................. . 2.5 max nlm
Equivalent Noise Inputt .... . 4 plm
Dark Current to Any Electrode except Anode at 25°C B.75 max /LA
"DC supply voltage (E) is connected acrO<!s a voltage divider which provides 1/6 of E be-
tween cathode and dynode No. I, 1/12 of E for e&ch succeeding dynode stage, and 1/12 of E
between dynode No. 10 and anode.
**With light input of 10 microlumens from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a eolor tem-
perature of 2870oK. Range of luminous sensitivity is 10 to 300 a/1m at 1000 volts..
+With light input of 0.01 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color tempera-
tUre of 2870'K; 200 volts applied between cathode and all other electrodes connected as anode.
++Same conditions as (+), but a blue filter i. used (Corning C.s. No.5-58, glass code No. 5113,
polished to 'h stock thickness).
tAt tube temperature of 25'C and with external shield connected to cathode; bandwidth i.
equal to 1 cycle per second. A tungsten-filament light source at a. color temperature of 2870 0 K
is interrupted at a. low audio frequency to produce incident radiation pulses alternating be-
tween zero and the value stated. The "on" period of the pulse i. equal to the "off" period.

TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS


TYPE 4438
DYNODE-No.I-TO-CATHODE VOLTS' 167
VOLTS PER SUCCEEDING STAGE' 83
2

'"a:w 60
w
~ 1.5 ...---- ~ 5~
<t
::;
...J
1/ ,,- 4J
i
w I
/V
o
o
Z
<t
It VV LIGHT FLUX-MICROLUMENS=30

0.5
'1/ 20

Y r- 101

V
o 50 100 150 200 250
ANODE-TO-DYNODE-No.lO VOLTS 92CM-7255T5
Technical Data 123
TYPICAL ANOOE-DARK-CURRENT
CHARACTERISTIC

SENSITIVITY AND CURRENT


AMPLIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS
TYPE 4438
DYNODE-No.I-TO-CATHODE VOLTS-IIG E
VOLTS PER SUCCEEDING STAGE -1/12 E
ANODE-TO-DYNODE-No.IO VOLTS -1/12 E
6
4r----+---f---+--~-1-++1114

0.01
6 7 8 S 1 2
500 1000 1250
ANODE-TO-CATHODE SUPPLY VOLTS lEI
S2CM-1I43ST

NOTE: Incident radiation is Into end 01


bulb.

TEN-STAGE, ruggedized, flat-faceplate type having


8-11 response. Wavelength of maximum response is
4400 ± 500 angstroms. This type makes use of
cesium-antimony dynodes and a cesium-antimony,
semitransparent photocathode. Window material is
4439
Corning No. 0080 lime glass or equivalent. This type MULTIPLIER
is identical to type 4438, but has a small-shell duo- PHOTOTUBE
decal base attached to flexible leads. This base is for
testing purposes and should be removed prior to in-
stallation.
124 RCA Phototube Manual

TEN-STAGE, ruggedized, flat-faceplate type having


S-ll response. Wavelength of maximum response is
4400 ± 500 angstroms. This type makes use of
4440 cesium-antimony dynodes and a flat-circular, cesium-
antimony, semitransparent photocathode. Window
MULTIPLIER material is Corning No. 0080 lime glass or equiva-
PHOTOTUBE lent. Tube weighs approximately 2.2 ounces and has
a non-hygroscopic base. This tube is electrically iden-
tical to type 4438, but has a different outline and
terminal connections.

i l.50 "t.06"
OIA.
r
FACEPLA~
1.24" MIN.
DIA. n--
""",~_7-- Tl
TI2 ~L8 1. I
I

ULTRASHORT
SMALL-SHELL
DUODECAL
12-PIN BASE
~EDEC No. 812-186
---r---&J ±.'Z" ~l~

NOTE: Incident radiation is iRto end of


bulb.

TEN-STAGE, ruggedized, flat-faceplate type having


S-ll response. Wavelength of maximum response is
4400 ± 500 angstroms. This type makes use of
cesium-antimony dynodes and a flat-circular, cesium-
4441 antimony, semitransparent photocathode. Window
material is Corning No. 0080 lime glass or equiva-
MULTIPLIER lent. Tube weighs approximately 3 ounces. This type
PHOTOTUBE has a special photocathode connection which assures
continuous cathode contact under severe operating
conditions. It is identical to type 4438 except for the
following capacitances and dimensional outline:

DIRECT INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCES (Approx.):


Anode to Dynode No. 10 ............................ 0 0.0. 0 0 0.0.00 •• 0 So! pf
Anode to All Other Electrodes .... 0 •• 0 0 0 ••••• 0 .. 0 0 .. 0 0 • 0 0 0 .... 0 0 ... 0 i pf
Technical Data 125

NOTE: Incident radiation is into end. of


bulb.

SIDE-ON type having S-4 response. Wavelength of


maximum spectral response is 4000 ± 500 angstroms.
This type makes use of a semicylindrical photo- 5581
cathode, and has a direct interelectrode capacitance
of 2.6 picofarads. It weighs approximately 0.9 GAS
ounce. For outline and terminal-connection diagram, PHOTODIODE
refer to type IP40.

MAXIMUM RAnNGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Rating 1 Rating 2
Anode-Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC) .••.•••••.•••••• 80 max 100 max volts
Average Cathode-Current Density ...........•.•.•...•.• 60 max 30 max p.a/sq in
Average Cathode Current ........•............•....•..•
Ambient Temperature ....•. • . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. • •• • .. .. ..
6 max
75 max
3 max
75 max e
a
C
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Anode-Supply Voltage ............................................. . 90 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4000 angstroms) ........................... . 0.13 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity. . ............................................ . 135 I'a/Im

TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS


TYPE 5581
14

~$ ~~
/ J
~ //
vf'/ /V / jP
V /V/V /~ ~
.......... ~~ ~~ ~
2

o
C. r:::::: ~
i;::;;,
20
-t:::
40
-- - ....--
-I--~

60 80
0.01

100
ANODE VOL.TS 92CM-6822.TI
126 RCA Phototube Manual

Gas Amplification Factor"" ....................................... . 0.5 max


Anode Dark Current (at 25°C) ................................... . 0.05 max
MINIMUM CIRCUIT VALUES:
8c°~3P~is1:~~~~e ............•.••......•.•......... 80 or lee. 100 'V<>lts
For average currents above 3 p,a .................. .. 0.1 min megohms
For average currents below 3 p,a ...................• o min megohm.
For average currents above 1 p,a ................... .. 2.5 min megohms
For average currents below 1 p,a ................... . 0.1 min megohms
"With light input of 0.1 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color temperature
of 28700K. Range of luminous sensitivity is 75 to 205 p,a/lm.
"·Ratio of luminous sensitivities at 90 and 25 volts.

CARTRIDGE type having 8-4 response. Wavelength of


5582 maximum spectral response is 4000 ± 500 angstroms.
This type makes use of a semicylindrical photo-
GAS cathode, and has a direct interelectrode capacitance
PHOTODIODE of 2.3 picofarads. It weighs approximately 0.4
ounce.

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Rating 1 Rating 2
Anode-Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC) ............•... 80 max 100 max volts
Average Cathode-Current Density ...................... 40 max 20 max p,a/sq in
Average Cathode Current .............................. 4 max 2 max
Ambient Temperature .................. .. . .. • . . . . . .. • • • 75 max 75 max l1:Ca
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Anode-Supply Voltage ............................................ .. 90 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4000 angstroms) .......................... .. 0.12
Luminous Sensitivity. . ............................................ . 120 p,a"h:
Gas Amplification Factor·· ...................................... .. 5.5 max
Anode Dark Current (at 25°C) .................................. .. 0.05 max
MINIMUM CIRCUIT VALUES:
Anode-SupplY Voltage ................................. . 80 or less 100 volts
DC .Load Resistance:
For average currents above 8 p.a ................... . 0.1 min megohms
For average currents below 3 p.a ................... . o min megohms
For average currents above 1 p,a ...............•.... 2.5 min megohms
For average currents below 1 p,a ................... . 0.1 min megohms
"With light input of 0.1 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color temperature
of 2870°1{, Range of luminous sensitivity is 80 to 175 /LB/lm.
""Ratio of luminous sensitivities at 90 and 25 volts.
TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS
TYPE 5582
4

~ '1 o~
2
($;"> o·
0 ~
8 ~# / V
6
~V/ V O~
V '/~
V
4
. / . /V /""
ft-
- - - --
V
t::::: ~V
/'

2 ~-
k V -::::.V f.-- 0.0 \

o 20 40 60 80 100
ANODE VOLTS 92CM-6B23T
Technical Data 127

A-A'=PLANE PERPENDICULAR
TO AXIS OF TUBE

cD • ROTftUOIHG

SIDE-ON type having S-4 response. Wavelength of


maximum spectral response is 4000 ± 500 angstroms.
This type makes use of a semicylindrical photo-
cathode, and has a direct interelectrode capacitance
5583
of 2 picofarads. It weighs approximately 0.3 ounce. GAS
For curves of typical anode characteristics, refer to PHOTODIODE
type 5581. For outline and terminal-connection dia-
gram, refer to type 927.

MAXIMUM RAnNGS (Absolute-Maxlmvm Valves):


Ratina 1 Ratina II
Anode-Suppb' Voltaae (DC or Peak AC) ................ 80 max 100 max volts
Average Cathocie-Current Denslt7 ...................... '0 max 20 max pa/sq in
Average Cathode Current .............................. , ma" 2 max
Ambient Temperature .......... . . . . . • . • . • . . . . • . . . . . . . . . 76 max 75 max ~
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Anode-Suppb' Voltage . , ....................................•••.•.•• 90 volts
Radiant Sensitivit7 (at '000 anllStroms) ........................... . 6.13 a/w
Luminous Sensitivl~ ......................................•......• 135 pa/Im
Gas AmpJifieation Factor·· ....................................... . 5.5 max
Anode Dark Current (at 25°C) ................................... . 11.05 max
MINIMUM CIRCUIT VALUES,
tcodLo~~P~:;'lsy:!~~e ............•...•.•.•.•..........• 80 or less 100 volts
For average currents above 3 pa ................... . 0.1 min megohms
For avera&,e currents below 8 p.& •••••••••••••••••••• o min megohms
For averaa-e currents above 1 pa ................... . 2.5 min megohms
For averaa-e currents below 1 pa ................... . 0.1 min megohms
• With light Input of 0.1 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at.a .color temperature
of 28700K. Ran." of luminous sensitivity is 75 tI> 205 J'atlm..
··Ratio of luminous sensitivities at 90 and 25 volts.
128 RCA Phototube Manual

SIDE-ON, TWIN-UNIT type having 8-4 response. Wave-


length of maximum spectral response is 4000 ± 500
5584 angstroms. This type makes use of a quarter-
cylindrical photocathode, and weighs approximately
GAS 1.1 ounces. For curves of typical anode characteris-
PHOTODIODE tics, refer to type 5582. For outline and terminal-
connection diagram, refer to type 920.

DIRECT INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCES (App.ox.):


Cathode to Cathode ............................................... . 1.8 pf
Cathode to Anode (each unit) .................................... .. 1.6 pf
Anode to Anode ................................................... . 0.4 pf

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Each Unit, Absolute-Maximum Values):


Ratinc 1 Rating 2
Anode-Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC) ...•..........80 max 100 max volts
Average Cathode-Current Density ........•..•.........•
20 max 10 max p.a/sq in
Average Cathode Current ..............................
4 max 2 max
Ambient Temperature ...................... • .. • .. .. . .. •
76 max 76 max ~
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS (Each Unit):
Anode-Supply Voltage ........................•.....•.....•......... 90 volts
RLadi!'nt sensitiyi~y. (:t 4000 angstroms) .......................... .. 0.12 jiw
umlDOUS SensltlVlty .......................................•.•.••• 120 p.alm
Ratio of Luminous Sensitivities (Unit No. 1 to Unit No.2) ......... . 2 max
Gas Amplification Factor·· ..................................•..... 6.6 max
Anode Dark Current (at 26°C) ..................................... . 0.060 max p.a

MINIMUM CIRCUIT VALUES (Each Unit):


Anode-Supply Voltage .................................. 80 or less 100 YOIts
DC Load Resistance:
For average currents above 3 /La .................... 0.1 min megohms
For average currents below 3 p.a .................... 0 min megohms
For average currents above 1 /La ................... . 2.5 min megohms
For average currents below 1 JL& •••••••••••••••••••• 0.1 min megohms
.With a light Input of 0.04 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color tempera-
ture of 2870°K. Ratio of luminous sensitivities is 80 to 175 p.a/Im.
··Ratio of luminous sensitivities at 90 and 25 volts.

COMPOSITE anode-photocathode, side-on type having


8-4 response. Wavelength of maximum spectral re-
sponse is 4000 ± 500 angstroms: This type has
5652 two flat photoemissive electrodes positioned at
right angles to each other, either of which can be
VACUUM used as a photocathode or as an anode. In addition,
PHOTODIODE a balancing capacitance (C2) is provided within the
tube. This type weighs approximately 1 ounce, and
has a non-hygroscopic base.

DIRECT INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCES (Approx.):


Between base pins 4 and 8 (C1) ..............................•....• 1 pf
Between base pins 8 and 4 (C.) ................................... . 1 pf
Difference between C1 and C..................................... .. 0.3 max pf

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Anode-Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC) ........................... . 250 max volts
Average Cathode-Current Density ................................. . 30 max /La/sq in
4 max
~
Average Cathode Current ....................•.....................
Ambient Temperature ............................................. . 75 max

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Anode-Supply Voltage ............................................. . 250 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4400 angstroms) ........................... . 0.044 jiw
Luminous Sensitivity- ............................................. . 45 p.aJm
Anode Dark Current (at 25°C) ................................... . 0.01 max p.a
-With light input of 0.02 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color temperature
of 28700K.· Rallj(e of luminous aensitivity is 19 to 70 }La/1m.
Technical Data 129

~
4r:NTIRADIAT"N

.Ne:

~Z
I a P
He: 'It'

SIDE-ON type having S-4 response. Wavelength of


maximum spectral response is 4000 ± 500 angstroms.
This type makes use of a semicylindrical photo-
cathode, and has a direct interelectrode capacitance
5653
of 2.6 picofarads. It weighs approximately 0.9 ounce. VACUUM
For curves of typical anode characteristics, refer to PHOTODIODE
type 929. For outline and terminal-connection dia-
gram, refer to type IP39.

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Anode-Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC) ........................... . 250 max volts
Average Cathode-Current Density ................................. . 25 max ,.a/sq in
Average Cathode Current ......................................... . Ii max ,.a
Ambient Temperature ............................................. . 75 max 'C

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Anode-Supply Voltage ............................................. . 250 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4000 angstroms) .......................... .. 0.044 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity* ..................................•.•......... 45 ,.a/1m
Anode Dark Current (at 25°C) ................................... . 0.25 max ,.a
.With light input of 0.1 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color temperature
of 2870°K. Range of luminous sensitivity is 20 to 100 ,.a/Im.

TEN-STAGE, head-on, curved-faceplate type having


S-11 response. Wavelength of maximum response is
4400 ± 500 angstroms. This type makes use of
cesium-antimony dynodes and a curved-circular, 5819
cesium-antimony, semitransparent photocathode. MULTIPLIER
Window material is Corning No. 0080 lime glass or PHOTOTUBE
equivalent. Tube weighs approximately 5.2 ounces
and has a non-hygroscopic base.

DIRECT INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCES (Approx.):


Anode to Dynode No. 10 ........................................... . 4.2 pi
Anode to All Other Electrodes ............................ '.••.•..•.. 6.6 :pf

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC):
Between anode and cathode .... , ............................. .. 1250 max volts
Between anode and dynode No. 10 ............................. . 250 max volts
Between dynode No. 1 and cathode .......................' ..... .. 800 max volts
Average Anode Current .......................................... .. 0.75 max ma
Ambient Temperature ............................................. . 76 max °C
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
DC Supply Voltage· .................................... . 1000 750 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4400 angstroms) ............... . 20000 2000 a/w
Cathode Radiant Sensitivity (at 4400 angstroms) ..... . 0.04 0.04 a/w

-,------- ..._ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
130 RCA Phototube Manual
Luminous Sensitivity:
At 0 cps" ........•................••..••••.•••.• 25 2.5 a/1m
With dynode No. 10 as output electrode ......••...••• 15 1.5 a/1m
Cathode Luminous Sensitivity:
With tungsten light source+ ............•.......•... 50 50 /La/1m
With hlue light source++ ........................... . 0.04 min 0.04 min /La
Current Amplification ........................•..•.••... 500,000 50000
Equivalent Anode-Dark-Current Input at 25°C
at a luminous sensitivity of 20 a/1m ..............•..• 2 max nlm
Equivalent Noise Inputt .............................. .. 7 plm
Dark Current at any Electrode Except Anode
at 25°C ............................................. . 0.75 max /La
°DC supply voltage (E) is connected across a voltage divider which provides 1/6 of E be-
tween cathode and dynode No.1, 1/12 of E for each succeeding dynode stage, and 1/12 of E
between dynode No. 10 and anode.
··With light input of 10 microlumens from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color
temperature of 2870°K, Range of luminous sensitivity is 10 to 300 a/1m at 1000 volts.
+With light input of 0.01 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color tempera-
ture of 2870 0 K; 167 volts applied between cathode and alI other electrodes connected as anode.
++Same conditions as (+), but a blue filter is used (Corning C.S. No.5-58, glass code No. 5113,
polished to 'h stock thickness).
tAt tube temperature of 25°C and with external shield connected to cathode; handwidth is
equal to 1 cycle per second. A tungsten-filament light source at a color temperature of 2870 0 K
is interrupted at a low audio frequency to produce incident radiation pulses alternating be--
tween zero and the value stated. The "on" period of the pulse is equal to the "off" period..

TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS


2.5
TYPE 5819
DYNODE -No.l- TO-CATHODE VOLTS =167
VOLTS PER SUCCEEDING STAGE = 83
I
2

60
5
V 50
/
V
I
1[/ 40

II , / V
LIGHT FLUX-MICROLUMENS=30

O. 5

o
Y
~
r..-
-
/""

50 100 150 200 250


20

10

300
ANODE-TO-DYNODE-No.IO VOLTS 92CM-8823T

TYPICAL ANODE-DARK-CURRENT
CHARACTERISTIC
6~~5D~~;'1 -TO-CATHODE VOLTS =1/6 E
VOLTS PER SUCCEEDING STAGE=1/12 E
ANOOE-TO-DYNODE-No.IO VOLTS=1/12 E
7 TUBE TEMPERATURE=25° C
B
6
4
UNSTABLE.....
2
B
I
B
6
4

2 t"- ;'

9
B
6
2 468 2 468 2 468 2 468
0.1 I 10 100 1000
LUMINOUS SENSITIVITY-
AMPERES/LUMEN 92CS~7920Ta
Technical Data 131
SENSITIVITY AND CURRENT
AMPLIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS
TYPE 5819
DYNODE-No.1 -TO-CATHODE VOLTS =1/6 E
VOLTS PER SUCCEEDING STAGE = 1112 E
ANODE-To-DYNODE-No.IO VOLTS =1112 E

4 4

2 2

1000 108
8 8
;;: 6 6
0
0 4 4
I"-
<0
N 2 2
A,:"V
~IOO ,,~' 107
....
I-
8
~
8
6 (y~ 6 Z
<a
'"9 4
,)~ I
4 Q
!;t
0
2 -S>~ ~ 2 u
8
zw ~'I-,/ ,,"'V ~'
iL
lOG ::;


101--

~.~
~ 8 8 n.
~
:>
..J
.....
en
w
6

4/
~~ ,,"'~ ",4; ~, ./ 4
6
I-
z
'" 2 2 w
w
9.~ <a(y~ "':~ '"a:
n.
~
«
t 47 v~~
IL
B
",oJ:.
,)~ f<~
~
'. 10Si3
B

I-
2 2
6 ~
'1'
0#-
,:j
4
6

I- ~ 2
iii
z /9.~
w 0.1 1/ / ......>:. 104
en
:1/ /
B 8
6
4
21/ 2
0.01 103
NOTE: Incident radiation is into end o-f 7 B 9 I 2
bulb. 500 6 1000 1250
ANODE-TO-CATHODE SUPPLY VOLTS (E)
92CM-72SBT4

TEN-STAGE, head-on, fiat-faceplate type having 8-11


response. Wavelength of maximum response is 4400
± 500 angstroms. This type makes use of a fiat-
circular, cesium-antimony, semitransparent photo-
cathode. Window material is Corning No. 0080 lime
glass or equivalent. Tube weighs approximately 2.2 6199
ounces and has a non-hygroscopic base. An output
of opposite polarity may be obtained by use of dynode MULTIPLIER
No. 10 as the output electrode; with this arrange- PHOTOTUBE
ment, the anode serves only as a collector. For curves
of typical anode characteristics, anode-dark-current
characteristics, and sensitivity and current amplifi-
cation characteristics, refer to type 4438.

DIRECT INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCES (Approx.):


Anode to Dynode No. 10 .............................••..•.........• 4 pf
Anode to All Other Electrodes ..........................•.•....••... 7 pf
MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):
Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC) :
Between anode and cathode ................................... . 1250 max volts
Between anode and dynode No. 10 ............................. . 250 max volts
Between consecutive dynodes .................................• 200 max volts
Between dynode No. 1 and cathode ........................... . 800 max volts
Average Anode Current ........................................... . 0.75 max rna
Ambient Temperature ........••.•....•...........................•. 75 max °C
132 RCA Phototube Manual

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
DC Supply Voltage' ................................... . 1000 750 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4400 angstroms) ............... . 22000 2200 a/w
CathorJe R"diant Sensitivity (at 4400 angstroms) ....... . 0.036 0.036 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity:
At 0 cps" ......................................•. 27 2.7 a/1m
With dynode No. 10 as output electrode .............• 16 1.6 a/1m
Cathode Luminous Sensitivity:
With tungsten light source+ ....................... . 45 45 jLa/lm
With blue light source++ ........................... . 0.028 min 0.028 min p,a
Current Amplification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........... . 600,000 60000
Equivalent Anode--Dark-Current Input at 25°0
at a luminous sensitivity of 20 a/1m ............... . 2.5 max nlm
Equivalent Noise Inputt ............................... . 4 plm
Dark Current at any Electrode Except
Anode at 25°C ..................................... . 0.75 max /La
*DC supply voltage (E) is connected across a voltage divider which provides 1/6 of E be-
tween cathode and dynode No.1, 1/12 of E for each succeeding dynode stage, and 1/12 of E
between dynode No. 10 and anode.
**With light input of 10 microlumens from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color
temperature of 28700K. Range of luminous sensitivity is 10 to 300 a/1m at 1000 volts.
+With light input of 0.01 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color tempera,..
ture of 2870 o K; 167 volts applied between cathode and all other electrodes connected as anode.
++Same conditions as (+), but a blue filter is used (Corning e.s. No.5-58, glass code No.
5113, polished to % stock thickness).
tAt tube temperature of 25°C and with external shield connected to cathode; bandwidth is
equal to 1 cycle per second. A tungsten-filament light source at a color temperature of 2870 K 0

is interrupted at a low audio frequency to produce incident radiation pulses alternating be-
tween zero and the value stated. The "on" period of the pulse is equal to the "off" period.

PHOTOCATHODE
DIAMpER -tI I+-
..,).5S" MAX.-./FACEPLATE
OIA.

:~~:.' 'JI
SMALL-SHELL
DUODECAL
12-PIN BASE
JEOEC No. 812-43

&J NOTE: Incident radiation is into end of


bulb.

TEN-STAGE, head-on, curved-faceplate type having


S-10 response. Wavelength of maximum response
is 4500 ± 300 angstroms. This type makes use
of cesium-antimony dynodes and a curved-circu-
lar, silver-bismuth-oxygen-cesium, semitransparent
6217 photocathode. Window material is Corning No, 0080
lime glass or equivalent. Tube weighs approximately
MULTIPLIER 5.2 ounces, and has a non-hygroscopic base. For
PHOTOTUBE curves of typical anode characteristics, anode-dark-
current characteristics, and sensitivity and current
amplification characteristics, refer to type 4438. For
outline and terminal-connection diagram, refer to
type 5819.

DIRECT INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCES (Approx.):


Anode to Dynode No. 10 ......................................... . 4.2 pi
Anode to All Other Electrodes ..................................... . 6.5 pf
Technical Data 133

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC) :
Between anode and cathode .............................. . 1250 max: volts
Between anode and dynode No. 10 ................... . ...... . 250 max: volts
Between dynode No. 1 and cathode ............................. . 300 max: volts
Average Anode Current ........................................... . 0.75 max: rna
Ambient Temperature ............................................. . 75 max °C

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
DC Supply Voltage" ................................. . 1000 750 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4500 angstroms) ............... . 12000 1000 a/w
Cathode Radiant Sensitivity (at 4500 angstroms) ....... . 0.02 0.02 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity** ............................... . 24 2.4 a/1m
Cathode Luminous Sensitivity:
With tungsten light source+ ....................... . 40 40 ,ua/lm
With red-infrared light source++ ................... . 0..05 min 0..05 min ,ua
Current Amplification ................................. . 600,00.0 60000
Equivalent Anode-Dark-Current Input at 25°C at a
luminous sensitivity of 20 a/1m ....... . .......... . 25 max: nlm
Equivalent Noise Inputt ............................... . 40 plm
Dark Current to Any Electrode except
Anode at 25°C .......... . ........................ . 0.75 max: ,ua
*DC supply voltage (E) is connected across a voltage divider which provides 1/6 of E be-
tween cathode and dynode No.1, 1/12 of E for each succeeding dynode stage, and 1/12 of E
between dynode No. 10 and anode.
**With light input of 10 microlumens from a tungsten~filament lamp. operated at a color
temperature of 2870°K. Range of luminous sensitivity is 10 to 300 a/1m at 1000 volts.
+With light input of 0.01 lumen -from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color tempera-
tUre of 2870 o K; 200 volts applied between cathode and all other electrodes connected as anode.
++Same conditions as (+), but a red~infrared filter is used (combination of Corning C.S. Nos.
3-67 and 7-59, glass code Nos. 3482 and 5850, respectively).
tAt tube temperature of 25°C and with ex:ternal shield connected to cathode; bandwidth is
equal to 1 cycle per second. A tungsten~filament light source at a color temperature of 2870 0K
is interrupted at a low audio frequency to produce incident radiation pulses alternating be-
tween zero and the value statecL The Hon" period of the pulse is equal to the "off" period.

NINE-STAGE, side-on type having S-4 response. Wave-


length of maximum response is 4000 ± 500 ang-
stroms. This type makes use of cesium-antimony 6328
dynodes and a cesium-antimony, opaque photocathode. MULTIPLIER
Window material is Corning No. 0080 lime glass or PHOTOTUBE
equivalent. Tube weighs approximately 1.6 ounces.

DIRECT INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCES (Approx.):


Anode to Dynode No.9 ........................................... . 4.2 pi
Anode to All Other Electrodes ..................................... . 5.5 pf
MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):
Supply Voltage (Peak AC):
Between anode and cathode ..................................... . 1400 max: volts
Between anode and dynode No.9 ............................... . 250 max: volts
Between consecutive dynodes ................................. . 250 max: volts
Between dynode No. 1 and cathode ............................. . 250 max volts
Average Anode Current ......................................... . 0.1 max: rna
Ambient Temperature ............................................. . 75 max: °C
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
With DC Supply Voltage" = 1000 Volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4000 angstroms) ............................ . 34000 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity at 0 cps** ................................... . 35 a/1m
Dark Current to Any Electrode at 25°C ........................... . 0.75 max ,ua
With Supply Voltage' =Adjustable 60-cps AC Voltage
Anode-to-Cathode Voltage (rms values)+ ........................... . 750 volts
Anode Dark Current at 25°C++ ..................................... . 0.1 max: ,ua
'Supply voltage (E) is connected across a voltage divider which provides 1/10 of E between
cathode and dynode No.1, 1/10 of E for each succeeding dynode stage, and 1/10 of E between
dynode No. 9 and anode.
**With light input of 10 microlumens from a tungsten~filament lamp operated at a color
ten'lperature of 28700K.
+With light input of 10 microlumens from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color tempera-
ture of 2870oK. Supply voltage is adjusted to give an anode current of 8 microamperes.
++Under same conditions as (+), but no radiant flux on photocathode.
134 RCA Phototube Manual

TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS


TYPE 7:328
VOLTS STAGE =100

1.2
(f)
W 30
It:
W I
Il.
::;: ".- 25
....-

-
<t
30.8
/'
r 20

I ,/ /
:!§
w f-"
g 0.6 LIGHT FLUX M!CROLUMENS=15

~ ,-
z
<t ~
0.4 10- -

0.2 ~ ~
5
~ 2

o 40 80 120 160 200 240 280


ANOOE-TO-OYNOOE-No.9 VOLTS 92CM-8029T2

RANGE OF LUMINOUS SENSITIVITY


TYPE 6328
VOLTS/STAGE -1I10E
ANOOE-TO-OYNOOE No.9 VOLTS. IIIOE
6

-103
'"
~
n:
/
/
~ 1028
I-
n:
90
~
4

~e;,'~
~
" /
z
!ll10
• .l~ /

3 :P~
.....
(f)
~z ~v
w
n:
w /I ~e;,-7 /
~~~/
a.
::;: /
~ ~~'
<t Ie
J
I- 41" '\
~
~
I- 2
/ ~~7
en
z / !~
~O.l

\" L
2 /
001 / 6 7 8 9 I 2 3
500 1000 1400
J>EAK AC SUPPLY VOLTS IE)
92CM-957IT
Technical Data 135

TEN-STAGE, head-on, flat-faceplate type having S-11


response. Wavelength of maximum response is 4400
± 500 angstroms. This type makes use of copper-
beryllium dynodes and a curved-circular, cesium-
6342A
antimony, semitransparent photocathode. Window MULTIPLIER
material is Corning No. 0080 lime glass or equiva- PHOTOTUBE
lent. Tube weighs approximately 5.2 ounces and has
a non-hygroscopic base.

DIRECT INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCES (Approx.):


Anode to Dynode No. 10 ..........................................•. 4.4 pf
Anode to All Other Electrodes ..................................... . 7 pf
MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):
Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC):
Between anode and cathode ................................... . 1500 max volts
Between anode and dynode No. 10 ............................. . 250 max volts
Between dynode No.1 and cathode ............................. . 400 max volts
Between focusing electrode and cathode ....................... . 400 max volts
Average Anode Current ........................................... . 2 max ma
Ambient Temperature ............................................. . 75 max ·C

TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS


TYPE 6342A
DYNODE-No.I-TO-CATHODE VOLTS = 208
VOLTS PER SUCCEEDING STAGE = 104.

-
",1200
w 60
0::
W

-
Do
::I[
50
...:
/
l /" ---
o
l'i 800 40
:i
w
Q --' I--
LIGHT FLUX MICROLUMENS=30

~V
o
Z
...: I--
400 20

~~ 10
I--
o 50 100 150 200 250
ANODE-TO-DYNODE-No.lO VOL.TS 92CM-8125T5

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
DC Supply Voltage' .........................•••.•.•....•.•..•...•.• 1250 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4400 angstroms) ...........••.•...•......•.. 14000 a/w
Cathode Radiant Sensitivity (at 4400 angstroms) •......•....•.•....•.. 0.064 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity:
At 0 cps" .....................................•.............• 18 a/1m
With dynode No. 10 as output electrode ...................... .. 10 a/1m
Cathode Luminous Sensitivity:
With tungsten light source+ ..................................•. 80 /La/1m
With blue light source++ .................................•...•.. ~05 min /La
Current Amplification .............................................. 225,000
Equivalent Anode Current Input:
At a luminous sensitivity of 2() a/1m .............•........••.. 2 max nlm
At 4400 angstroms ............................•............... 2.5 max pw
Equivalent Noise Input:
Luminoust ....................................•.•.... 0 7
••••••••• plm
Radianttt ..................................................... . ~0087 pw
Anode-Pulse Rise Time ..............................•...•......•.. 3 nsec
Greatest. Delay Between Anode Pulses:
With radiation spot (centered on tube face)
having a diameter of
1-1/8 inch ................................................• 1.3 nsec
1-9/16 inch ...............................•................ 4 nsec
136 RCA Phototube Manual

°DC supply voltage (E) is connected across a voltage divider which provides 1/6 of E be-
tween cathode and dynode No.1, 1/12 of E for each succeeding dynode stage, and 1/12 of E
between dynode No. 10 and anode. Focusing-electrode voltage is adjusted to that value be-
tween 10 and 60 per cent of dynode-No. 1 potential (referred to cathode) which Provides
maximum anode current.
**With light input of 10 microlumens from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color
temperature of 2870oK. Range of luminous sensitivity is 7 to 120 a/1m at 1250 volts.
+With light input of 0.01 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color tempera-
ture of 2870 o K; 200 volts applied between cathode and all other electrodes connected as anode.
++Same conditions as (+), but a blue filter is used (Corning C.S. No.5-58, glass code No.. 5113,
polished to '12 stock thickness).
tAt tuhe temperature of 25°C and with external shield connected to cathode; bandwidth is
equal to 1 cycle per second. A tungsten-filament light source at a color temperature of 2870 0 K
is interrupted at a low audiO' frequency to' produce incident radiation pulses alternating be-
tween zero and the value stated. The "on" period of the pulse is equal to' the "off" period.
ttUnder same conditions as (t), but a mO'nochromatic source radiating at 4400 angstroms is used.

TYPICAL ANODE-DARK-CURRENT
CHARACTERISTIC
Q-CATHODE VOLTS =1/6 E
CEEDING DYNODE STAGE=1/12 E
ODE-No.IO VOLTS=1/12 E
TRODE VOLTAGE ADJUSTED FOR
DE CURRENT.
~ENSITIVITY AND CURRENT TURE =25° C
AMPLIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS
TYPE 6342A
DYNODE-No.I-TO-CATHODE VOLTS=1/6 E
VOLTS PER SUCCEEDING STAGE=1/12 E
ANODE-TO-DYNODE No.IO VOLTS=1/12 E
FOCUSING ELECTRODE VOLTAGE ADJUSTED FOR
MAXIMUM ANODE CURRENT.

100 107
8 8 2~~~~~-+++~~+++b-+-+~
-;;: 6 6
IO'°I--;\-f-j,J;j.--:l-JI-+!+-!;--;!--!d+--+-+!J.1
4 4 2 4 68 2 4 68 2 4 68 2 4 68
~ V 0.1 I 10 100 1000
Ie 2 2 LUMINOUS SENSITIVITY-

a 108
I)
8
106
AMPERES/LUMEN 92CS-8124T1
PHOTO-
CATHODE
I-

9'"
6
4
)
r7
V
6
4
Z
0
>=
«.
r;: 2":t: 1-1 II OIAMETER
OIA.b~ ... IIYa~·MIN.
0 2 2 u
~
zw
f.' VII iL
I ~ J05~

~'
:; 8
:> 6 6 ~
(;;)$ ~~~.>.~
..J TI6 aULB
"- 4 4 I-
(J)
w "0: z
Ill: 2 ~ ~ ~/~ 2
w
a:
w
Q.
:; 0.1
i ~ fJJl§ 104i3
0:

« 8 "<r="
~I-cr
$//i,
1
8
I 6 &j!i:' 6
>-
l-
'>
4
~#
I /. . II;;,
4

>=
0;
iii 0.01
2
II/r/l 2

103
rn 8 8
6 6
4 7 7 -; 4

2
r7 rn r7 2
0.001 )11 102
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I 2 34
250 1000 1500
ANODE-lO-CATHODE SUPPLY VOLTS E)
92CM-8123TI

NOTE: Incident radiation is into end. of


bulb.
Technical Data 137

LOW-MICROPHONIC side-on type having S-l response.


Wavelength of maximum spectral response is 8000
± 1000 angstroms. This type makes use of a semi-
6405/1640
cylindrical photocathode, and has a direct inter- GAS
electrode capacitance of 2.6 picofarads. It weighs PHOTODIODE
approximately 1.3 ounces.

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Rating 1 Rating 2
Anode-Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC) ...•...••..••••. 70 max 90 max volts
Average Cathode-Current Density ...................... 50 max 25 max p.ajsq in
Average Cathode Current .............................. 10 max 5 max Ita
Ambient Temperature ...... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. • .. .. .. .. • 100 max 100 max C

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Anode-Supply Voltage ............................................. . 50 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 8000 angstroms) .•...••....................• 0.0088 ajw
Luminous Sensitivity· .........................................••..• 35 p.ajlm
Luminous Sensitivity Difference
Along Cathode Length ...................................... .. 1.1 max p.ajlm
Gas Amplification Factor*" ....................................... . 2.5 max
Anode Dark Current (at 25°C) ................................... . 0.1 max p.a

MINIMUM CIRCUIT VALUES:


Anode-SupplY Voltage .................................. 70 or less 90 volts
DC Load Resistance:
For average currents above 5 p.a .................... 0.1 min megohms
For average currents below 5 p.a .................... 0 min megohms
For average currents above 3 p.a .................... 2.5 min megohms
For average currents below 3 p.a ....••.............• 0.1 min megohms
.With light input of 0.1 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color temperature
of 28700K. Range of luminous sensitivity is 17.5 to 70 p.a/lm.
••Ratio of luminous sensitivities at 90 and 25 volts •

.~~

NC~K
tINCIO£NT RADIATION
138 RCA Phototube Manual
TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS
20
TYPE 6405/1640
.
a
5 JI
J7
,11 ~
0
$:) OJ
If /~
/ V7
II

o 20
- -- -::::V :::,V...... ~
::.-- ~
40 60 80
ANODE VOLTS
ft
100
92CM-8227TI

NINE-STAGE, side-on type having S-4 response. Wave-


6472 length of maximum response is 4000 ± 500 ang-
stroms. This type makes use of cesium-antimony
MULTIPLIER dynodes and a cesium-antimony, opaque photocathode.
PHOTOTUBE Window material is Corning No. 0080 lime glass or
equivalent. Tube weighs approximately 2 ounces.

DIRECT INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCES (Approx.):


Anode to Dynode No.9 ........................................... . 3.8 pf
Anode to All Other Electrodes .................................... .. 4.8 pf

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC):
Between anode and cathode .............................••...•.•. 1250 max volta
Between anode and dynode No. 9 .•.••••••••.•.•.••••.•••.••••••• 250 max volta
Between consecutive dynodes ................................... . 250 max volta
Between dynode No. 1 and cathode ..........................••.. 250 max volta
Average Anode Current ..... ; ..................................... . 0.1 max ma
Ambient Temperature ..........................................••.. 75 max ·0
TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS
TYPE 6472
VOLTS/STAGE-IOO

1.2
30

-
I

/'
V- 25

I' 20
I /"
IY .--- ---
-
6
LIG FLIX' -1:1
/'
10- -
0. 2~ --- 5
....- 2

o 40 80 120 160 200 240 280.


ANODE-TO-DYNOOE-No.9 VOLTS 92CM-8029T&
Technical Data 139

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
With DC Supply Voltage' =
1000 Volts
a/w
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4000 angstroms) ........................... . 34000
Luminous Sensitivity at 0 cps** ................................... . 35 allm
Dark Current to Any Electrode at 25°C ............................. . 0.75 max p,a

With Supply Voltage' =


Adjustable 60-cps AC Voltage
775 volts
Anode-to-Cathode Voltage (rms values)+ ........................... .
Anode Dark Current at 25° C++ ..................................... . 0.25 max p,a

'Supply voltage (E) is connected across a voltage divider which provides 1/10 of E be-
tween cathode and dynode No. 1, 1/10 of E for each succeeding dynode stage, and 1/10 of E
between dynode No.9 and anode.
**With light input of 10 microlumens from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color
temperature of 28700K. Range of luminous sensitivity is 5 to 250 allm at 1000 volts.
+With light input of 1 microlumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color tempera..
ture of 2870oK. Supply voltage is adjusted to give an anode. current of 7.5 microamperes.
++Under the same conditions as (+), but with no radiant flux on photocathode.

RANGE OF LUMINOUS SENSITIVITY


TYPE 6472
---DC
---PEAK AC
6
4~~~r-+-4-~~~4-+-~~+-~

.200"R.J

II FLEXIBLE. ,j-EAOS
.020H::~~~HOIA.

I
f
INCIDENT RADIATION

50 6 7 e 9 100 I 2 125
DC OR PEAK SINE-WAVE AC VOLTS PER STAGE
92CM-8027T2

SIDE-ON type having S-1 response. Wavelength of


maximum spectral response is 8000 ± 1000 ang-
stroms. This type makes use of a semicylindrical 6570
photocathode, and has a direct interelectrode capaci- VACUUM
tance of 3 picofarads. It weighs approximately 1.3 PHOTODIODE
ounces and has a non-hygroscopic base.

--~-----------,,-----~-,,-, ---~-""'-,-" --,


140 RCA Phototube Manual

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Anode-Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC) ........................... . 500 max volts
Average Cathode-Current Density ................................. . 25 max Ita/sq in
Average Cathode Current .............•............................ 5 max Ita
Ambient Temperature ............................................. . 100 max ·C

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Anode-Supply Voltage ......................•.....••...•••......•••• 250 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 8000 angstroms) ......................... . 0.0028 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity· ............................................. . 30 Ita/1m
Maximum Luminous .. Sensitivity Difference
Along Cathode Length"" ...............•...................... 4.5 Ita/1m
Anode Dark Current (at 25·C) ................................... . 0.013 max Ita
*With light input of 0.1 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color temperature
of 2870oK. Range of luminous sensitivity is 20 to 40 Ita/1m.
*.With light input of 0.1 lumen (same conditions as above) and a light spot 1/2 inch in
diameter.
TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS
TYPE 6570

LIGHT FLUX LUMENS'O.!O

I,..
/ J.oe- '-

V /'
0.06

f 0.04
I
1/ dOl
0.5
'/
o 40 60 120 160 200 240 280
ANODE VOLTS 92CM-8491T

P~NC

NC~K
INCIDENT RADIATION
Technical Data 141

TEN-STAGE, head-on, flat-faceplate type naving S-l1


response. Wavelength of maximum response is 4400
± 500 angstroms. This type makes use of cesium-
antimony dynodes and a curved-circular, cesium- 66SSA
antimony, semitransparent photocathode. Window
material is Corning No. 0080 lime glass or equiva- MULTIPLIER
lent. Tube weighs approximately 5.2 ounces and has PHOTOTUBE
a non-hygroscopic base. For outline and terminal-
connection diagram, refer to type 6342A.

DIRECT INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCES (Approx):


Anode to Dynode No. 10 ..............................•••....•••••.• 4.4 pf
Anode to All Other Electrodes .........................••...••••.••• 7 pf
MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolut ....Maximum Values):
Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC):
Between anode and cathode ................................... . 1250 max volts
Between anode and dynode No. 10 ..............•....•..•••..••. 250 max volts
Between dynode No. 1 and cathode ........................... . 300 max volts
Between focusing electrode and cathode .•.....................• 300 max volts
Average Anode Current ........................................... . 0.75 max rna
Ambient Temperature ............................................. . 75 max ·C

TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS


1.6
6~~60~~~~~-TO-CATHOOE VOLTSJ 167
30
VOLTS PER~CCEEDING STAGE; 83 =
25

I. 2 . / -+---

i V/ V 20

t V. / V ....-
I
:::E
..:
:3 o.8 V
15
:iE'
w I/; ........ ~
,-

-
~ 6
~.
O. LIGHT FLUX MICROLUMENS=IO

04
....-
0 ..2 V 5

-
........ 2.:>

o 40 80 120 160 200 240 280


ANODE-TO-DYNODE-No.IO VOLTS 92CM-8603TI

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
DC Supply Voltage' ............................................... . 1000 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4400 angstroms) ........................... . 400'00 a/w
Cathode Radiant Sensitivity (at 4400 angstroms) ............•....... 0.044 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity:
At 0 cps'* ................................................... . 50 a/1m
With dynode No. 10 as output electrode ......................... . 36 a/1m
Cathode Luminous Sensitivity:
With tungsten light source+ ............................•....•.• 55 pa/lm
With blue light source++ ....................................... . 0.04 min pa
Current Amplification ............................................. . 900,000
Equivalent Anode-Dark-Current Input at 25'C
at a luminous sensitivity of 20 a/1m ........................... . 2 max nlm
Equivalent Noise Inputt ............................................ . 7 plm
Anode-Pulse Rise Time ........................................... . 3 nsee
Greatest Delay Between Anode Pulses:
With radiation spot (centered on tube face)
having a diameter of
1-1/8 inch ................•............ '" .. , ............ . 1.5 nsee
1-9/16 inch .............................................. .. 4.5 nsec
142 RCA Phototube Manual

0DC supply voltage (E) is connected across a voltage divider which provides 1/6 of E be-
tween cathode and dynode No.1, 1/12 of E for each succeeding dynode stage, and 1/12 of E
between dynode No. 10 and anode. FocusingMelectrode voltage is adjusted to that value between
10 and 60 per cent of dynode No.1 potential (referred to cathode) which provides maximum
anode current.
**With light input of 10 microlumens from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color
temperature of 28700K. Range of luminous sensitivity is 10 to 300 a/1m at 1000 volts.
+With light input of 0.01 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color tempera..
ture of 2870 0K; 200 volts applied between cathode and all other electrodes connected as anode.
++Same light conditions as (+). but a blue filter is used (Corning C.S. No. 5-58, glass code
No. 5113, polished to 1/2 stock thickness).
tAt tube temperature of 25°C and with external shield connected to cathode; bandwidth is
equal to 1 cycle per second. A tungsten-filament light source at a color temperature of 2870 0 K
is interrupted at a low audio frequency to produce incident radiation pulses altern'ating be-
tween zero and the value stated. The "on" period is equal to the Hofr' period.

SENSITIVITY AND CURRENT


AMPLIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS
TYPE 6655A
DYNODE-No.I-TO-CATHODE VOLTS -1/6 E
VOLTS PER SUCCEEDING STAGE-1/12 E
ANODE-TO-DYNODE-No.IO VOLTS -1/12 E
FOCUSING.ELECTRODE IS ADJUSTED FOR
MAXIMUM ANODE CURRENT.

2 2

10 3 1/ 108 TYPICAL ANODE-DARK-CURRENT


8 8
;< 6 6 CHARACTERISTIC

"'"
4 4
r- TYPE 6655A
(0 j DYNODE-No.I-TO-CATHODE VOLTS = liS E
2 2 VOLTS PER SUCCEEDING
~ 10 2 ,,'" /
,,""
1/ 107
STAGE =1112 E
ANODE -TO-DYNODE No.lO = 1112 E
...w 8
6
~-~
8
6
TUBE TEMPERATURE = 25° C

~/
Z 8
0:: 4 4 Q
0 8
...J
i' ~ 6 UNSTABLE ~
0
8 2
~
,;;~
~
,,'" If
2 u
G: '-. /
z
w
;!; I~I ~
V
1--_';<: ". .
~
106 :;
8 a.
2
9 r-...
:1i

/~/
:> 6 6 8
...J
"-
(I)
4 4 ...z 6
4
W j
0::
w 2 q,-<:> ,,~o"" 2
w
0:: 2
a.
;!;
« I / ,,'" ""~ ,,""
o,f<J -<:>'?" 105
0::
a 10-10
468 2 468 2 .6 B 2 .68
8 ~ 8

...:;l
0.1 I 10 100 1000
6
,;;~ !l" 6
LUMINOUS SENSITIVITY-
4 ~ '?"~ 4
AMPERES/ LUMEN
;:: 2 / ~~ ~
92CS-8636TI

iii
zw O . I L ",q, &,f;J 2

'" • /
V
.6

2
" 10·
8
6
4

2
0.01 103
2
500 1000 1250
ANODE-TO-CATHODE SUPPLY VOLTS eEl
92CM-8638T1

FOURTEEN-STAGE, head-on, fiat-faceplate type having


8-11 response. Wavelength of maximum spectral re-
6810A sponse is 4400 ± 500 angstroms. This type makes
use of copper-beryllium dynodes and a curved-cir-
MULTIPLIER cular, semitransparent, cesium-antimony photo-
cathode. Window material is Corning No. 0080 lime
PHOTOTUBE glass or equivalent. Tube weighs approximately 8
ounces and has a non-hygroscopic base.

DIRECT INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCES (Approx):


Anode to Dynode No. 14 ........................................ . 2_8 pf
Anode to All Other Electrodes .....................................• 6 pf
Dynode No. 14 to All Other Electrodes ............... "' .......... . 7.5 pf
Technical Data 143

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Very-Low-Light High-Output
Level Servicet Pulse Servicett
Supply Voltage (DC):
Between anode and cathode ....................... . 2400 max 2800 max volts
Between anode and dynode No. 14 ................. . 400 max 400 max volts
Between accelerating eleetrode
and dynode No. 13 ............................. . ±500 max ±500 max volts
Between consecutive dynodes ....................... . 500 max 500 max volts
Between focusing electrode and cathode ............. . 400 max 400 max volts
Between dynode No. 1 and cathode ................. . 400 max 400 max volts
Average Anode Current ............................... . 2 max 2 max rna
Ambient Temperature .....................•............ 75 max 75 max °C

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
DC Supply Voltage" ................................... . 2000 2400 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4400 angstroms) ............... . 2,400,000 2,400,000 a/w
Cathode Radiant Sensitivity (at 4400 angstroms) ....... . 0.056 0.056 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity
At 0 cps·~ ....................................... . 3050 3050 a/1m
With dynode No. 14 as output electrode ........ , .... . 2100 2100 a/1m
Cathode Luminous Sensitivity:
With tungsten light source+ ....................... . 70 70 pa/lm
With blue light source++ ...........................• 0.05 min 0.05 min p,a
Current Amplification (in millions) ................... . 43 43
Equivalent Anode-Dark-Current Input at 25°C
at a luminous sensitivity of 2000 a/1m ..............•• 1.5 max 1.1 nlm
Equivalent Noise Inputt ............................... . 3.3 4.6 plm
Greatest Delay Between Anode Pulses:
With radiation spot (centered on tube face)
having a diameter of
1-1/8 inch ..................................... . 1 nsec
1-9/16 inch ................................... . 3 nsee
tWith supply voltage (E) connected across voltage divider which provides electrode voltages
as shown in Column A of the accompanying table.
HWith supply voltage (E) connected across voltage divider which provides electrode voltages
as shown in Column B of the accompanying table.
.With focusing-electrode and accelerating-electrode voltages adjusted to provide maximum
anode current.
**With light input of 0.1 microlumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color
temperature of 28700K. Range of luminous sensitivity is 210 to 7880 a/1m at 2000 volts.
+With light input of 0.01 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color tempera-
ture of 2870 0K; 200 volts applied between cathode and all other electrodes connected as anode.
++Same conditions as above, but a blue filter is used (Corning C.S. No. 5-58, glass code No.
5113, polished to 1/2 stock thickness).
tAt tube temperature of 25°C and with external shield connected to catbode, bandwidth is
equal to 1 cycle per second. A tungsten-filament light source at a color temperature of 2870 0 K
is interrupted at a low audio frequency to produce incident radiation pulses alternating be-
tween zero and the value stated. The Hun" period is equal to the "off" period.

TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS


O. 5
- - - - -
VERY LOW LIGHT LEVEL LOW NOISE HIGH GAIN SERVICE

TYPE 6alOA CATHODE-TO-GRID-No.l VOLTS=IOB


,,,. CATHODE-TO-DYNODE-No.1 VOLTS=216
GRID-No.I-TO-DYNODE-No.l IDYL) VOLTS

0.4
/'" ADJUSTED FOR MAXIMUM GAlN.

130:
I 0.4
DYI-TO- DY2 }
DY2-TO- DY 3 VOLTS-lOS
ETC.TO
W
~O.
1/ / ' DYIO-TO-DYII
DYII-TO-DYI2 VOLTS=135
<t
3,/
b.3 DYI2-TO-DYI3 VOLTS=160
:1 DYI3-TO-DYI4 VOLTS=189
~
~O.
o
2L
I 0.2
GRID-No.2 VOLTS ADJUSTED FOR
MAXIMUM ANODE CURRENT.
z /
<0:

o.1
/ LIGHT FLUX MICROLUMENslo.l

/
o 100 200 300 400 500
ANODE-TO-DYNODE-No.14 VOLTS 92CM-9684T
144 RCA PhototubeManual
SENSITIVITY AND CURRENT SENSITIVITY AND CURRENT
AMPLIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS AMPLIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS
- -
HIGH OUTPUT PULSE SERVICE - -
LOW UGHT LOW NOISE HIGH GAIN SERVICE -
TYPE 6810A
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (El ACR.OSS VOLTAGE ~~~~L~~gtTAGE (El ACROSS VOLTAGE DIVIDER
DIVIDER WHICH PROVIDES VOLTAGES AS WHICH PROVIDES VOLTAGES AS SHOWN IN
SHOWN IN 'COLUMN B OF THE ACCOM- COLUMN A OF THE ACCOMPANYING TABLE.
PANYING TABLE. GRID-No.2 VOLTS ADJUSTED FOR MAXIMUM
GRID~No.2 VOLTS ADJUSTED FOR ANODE CURRENT.
MAXIMUM ANODE CURRENT.
2 2 2
/ 2

104 108 _10:


/ 11'108
8
8 8
;;; 6 6 ':' 6 6
4 0 4 4
~
4
0)
2 2
r-
0)
N
2
9'
S
~'1.
h 2

$" ~ ~
N
V. 0:
L 107
0: 103 107 i:l103
i:l 8 8 I- 8 /,f 0 8
t- 6 6 6 6
0:
0: 4 4 Z 0 4 4
0 0 ..J Z
..J 0 0
0
!:! 2 2 fiu !:! 2 ',$' ~ ~ 2
fi
z 102 ;::~rJ 106 !!; ~102 t' 't S 106~
W 8 8 ..J :::;; 8 '" ~
~
8 !!:
~ J fle :::> 6 V"'f 6 ..J
a.
..J
6
4
~."y
6
4 « ..J
4 / ~
~"" Iff
c;
4 :::;;
«
';;; ';;;

~
I-
J" ~t:
W
W
o: '2 ~ ~ ... 2 Z
W 0: 2 2 t-
z
W W
V ~Q.-';; ~ W
a.
:::;; 10 " .s:
J~ 105 ~ a.
:::;; 10 A..~ 0- 105 0:
!5
~ i3 C;Iff
:
8 8
« 8

I
6 ~i
... !<i i>- / f.
6 U
4
~~
4 4
>-
t-
;;;
i,z"C; !=
> II ~ 2
>=
enZ
2

I
8
Ii{'yl
t:
2
104
8
>=
enZ
W
2

8
I h j§ 104
8
W 6 6 U) 6 6
U)
4 4 4 4

2 /1 2 2
V 2

0.1 I 103 0.1 / 103


I 3 456789
2 1234567 I 2 I 2
3 4 5 6 7 II 9
1000 2000 2800 1000 2000 2300
ANODE-TO-CATHODE SUPPLY VOLTS (El ANODE-TO-CATHODE SUPPLY VOLTS (El
92CM-9665T 92CM-9687T

VOLTAGE TO BE PROVIDED BY DIVIDER


COLUMN A COLUMN B
Between 5.4% of Supply 2.75% of Supply
Volts (E) Volts (E)
multiplied by multiplied by
Cathode and
Focusing Electrode
Cathode and Dynode No. 1

2

2
Focusing Electrode and
Dynode No. 1 1 1
Dynode No.1 and Dynode No.2 1 1
Dynode No.2 and Dynode No.3 1 1
Dynode No.3 and Dynode No.4 1 1
Dynode No. 4 and Dynode No. 5 1 1
Dynode No. 5 to Dynode No.6 1 1
Dynode No. 6 and Dynode No. 7 1 1.2
Dynode No.7 and Dynode No. 8 1 1.5
Dynode No. 8 and Dynode No.9 1 1.9
Dynode No.9 and Dynode No. 10 1 2.4
Dynode No. 10 and Dynode No. 11 1 3.0
Dynode No. 11 and Dynode No. 12 1.25 3.8
Dynode No. 12 and Dynode No. 13 1.5 4.8
Dynode No. 13 and Dynode No. 14 1.75 6.0
Dynode No. 14 and Anode 2- 4.8
Anode and Cathode 18.5 36.4

"Adjusted for maximum anode current.


Technical Data 145

TYPICAL ANODE-DARK-CURRENT
CHARACTERISTIC
VERY-LOW-LIGHT-LEVEL LOW-NOISE -HIGH-GAIN SERVICE
TYPE 6elOA
LUMINOUS SENSITIVITY IS VARIED BY AD-
JUSTMENT OF THE SUPPLY VOLTAGE eEl
4 ACROSS VOLTAGE DIVIDER WHICH PRO-
VIDES VOLTAGES AS SHOWN IN COLUMN A
2 OF THE ACCOMPANYING TABLE.
0-: GRl~ONo"Ei~~~1~*.DJUSTED FOR MAXIMUM
6 TUBE TEMPERATURE'25° C
4
2 IIIL
-9 UNSTABLE ,
~
4

10~
2 468 2 468 2 468 2 468 2 468
10 10 2 10 3 10~ 105
LUMINOUS SENSITIVITY-
AMPERES/LUMEN 92CS-8848T

TYPICAL ANODE -DARK-CURRENT


CHARACTERISTIC
HIGH-OUTPUT-PULSE SERVICE
TYPE 6elOA
LUMINOUS SENSITIVITY IS VARIED BY AD- OIA.
fill JUSTMENT OF THE SUPPLY VOLTAGE eEl
~l5 4 ACROSS VOLTAGE DIVIDER WHICH PRO-
!i~ vDEs VOLTAGES AS SHOWN IN COLUMN B
~3 2 OF THE ACCOMPANYING TABLE. ,-
~ II0e8 GR~AX~~-JMV~~~t~D~~~Jf~l~~::;
~~ 6 TUBE TEMPERATURE = 25° C
«~ 4
I-Z
Z- 2
......
IV \
WI- ". UNSTABLE
~~1(5~
>0: 6
8~ 4
w<'> 2
fcY°
I 2 4 6810 2 4 68 8
1022 46 103 2 46f0 4 2 4 6 1'1>5
NOTE: Incident radiation is into end of
LUMINOUS SENSITIVITY- bulb.
AMPERES/LUMEN 92CS-9356T

TEN-STAGE, head-on, flat-faceplate type having S-l3


response. Wavelength of maximum response is 4400
± 500 angstroms. This type makes use of cesium- 6903
antimony dynodes and flat-circular, cesium-antimony,
semitransparent photocathode. Window material is MULTIPLIER
fused silica. Tube weighs approximately 5.8 ounces PHOTOTUBE
and has a non-hygroscopic base.

DIRECT INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCES (Approx):


Anode to Dynode No. 10 " .................... , ...........•.•...... 4.4 pf
Anode to All Other Electrodes ..................................... . 7 pf

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC):
Between anode and cathode ., ................................ .. 1250 max volts
Between anode and dynode No. 10 ............................. . 250 max volts
Between dynode No.1 and cathode ............................ . 300 max volts
Between focusing electrode and cathode ....................... . 300 max volts
Average Anode Current ........................................... . 0.75 max rna
Ambient Temperature ............................................. . 75 max ·e
146 RCA Phototube Manual

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
DC Supply Voltage' ..............................•..... 1000 750 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4400 angstr<>ms) ............... . 19000 1650 a/w
Cathooe Radiant Sensitivity (at 4400 angstroms) ....... . 0.047 0.047 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity:
At 0 cps" ......................................... . 24 2.1 a/lm
With dynooe No. 10 as output electrode ............• 14 1 a/lm
Cathode Luminous Sensitivity:
With tungsten light source+ ....................... . 60 60 /La/1m
With blue light source++ ............•............. 0.04 0.04 /La
Current Amplification ................................ . . 400,000 35000
Equivalent Anode-Dark-Current Input:
At a luminous sensitivity of 20 a/1m ............... . 6 max nlm
At 4400 angstroms ................................• 7.6 max pw
Equivalent Noise Input:
Luminoust ........................................ . 6.. 7 plm
Radianttt ......................................... . 0.0084 pw
Dark Current at any Electrode except Anode at 25°C ... . 0.75 /La
'DC supply voltage (E) is connected across a voltage divider which provides 1/6 of E be-
tween dynode No.1, 1/12 of E for each succeeding dynode stage, and 1/12 of E between
dynode No. 10 and anode. Focusing~electrode voltage is adjusted to that value between 10
and 60 per cent of dynode No. 1 potential which provides maximum anode current.
**With light input of 10 microlumens from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color
temperature of 28700K. Range of luminous sensitivity is 8 to 240 a/lm at 1000 volts.
+With light input of 0.01 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color tempera-
tUre of 2870 0K; 200 volts applied between cathode and all other electrooes connected as anode.
++Same conditions as (+), but a blue filter is used (Corning C.s. No. 5-58, glass cooe No.
5113).
tAt tube temperature of 25°C and with external shield connected to cathode; bandwidth is
equal to 1 cycle per second. A tungsten-filament light source at a color temperature of 2870 0 K
is interrupted at a low audio frequency to produce incident radiation pulses alternating be--
tween zero and the value stated. The Hon" period of the pulse is equal to the Hoff" period..
ttUnder same conditions as (t), but a monochromatic source radiating at 2537 angstroms
is used.
SENSITIVITY AND CURRENT
AMPLIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS TYPICAL ANODE·DARK-CURRENT
CHARACTERISTIC
--
TYPE 6903
CATHODE -TO-DYNODE No.1 VOLTS =1/6 E
VOLTS PER SUCCEEDING STAGE =1/12 E
ANODE-TO-DYNODE No.IO VOLTS =1112 E
FO~~SII~~I.,ELf~;r;~2D~, WR~~~~STED FOR
TYPE 6903
DYNODE-No. 1-
VOLTS PER S
ANODE-TO-
FOCUSING E
HOD~ VOLTS'" 116 E
ING TAGE=1/12 E
No.lO
E IS
S=1/12 E
STED F

MAXIMUM N D C
6 TUBE TEMPERATURE= 5° C
2 2

1000 107 2
8 8

"....0
ro
6
4

2
1/
6
4

2
8
8
6

'"a: I~ 106 2
::E 100
'" 8 ~, 8 9 1'--. UNSTABLE
I-
M~"- ·-~I
-
6 6 Z
a: 4 ~~~,p 4 0 8
6
tf ~~/1I
0
..J
0 ~ al 2 • 68 1
2 .68
10
2 468
100
2 468
1000
8 2
Ih,.)~r~{< 2 u
iL LUMINOUS SENSITIVITY-
z 10
'!i>~ $" ... ~05 ;;:; AMPERES/LUMEN 92CS-9032T
~~ 'l' ~
'":::>::E 8 EFFECT OF MAGNETIC

~
6 6 ~ FIELD ON ANODE CURRENT
..J 7
~-5- "'<v~ ~...
4 4
"
(J)
./
f-
z TYPE 6903
'"a. 14q~'l' w MAGNETIC FIELD IS PARALLEL TO DYNODE-CAGE AXIS.

~,;:-~
a: 2 a: POSITIVE VALUES ARE FOR LINES OF FORCE FROM
v
'"::E
.. 27
I
8
/
.<..... ",'"
a:
10·G
a
LEFT TO RIGHT WITH BASE DOWN AND BASE KEY
TOWARD OBSERVER.
DYNODE-No.I-TO-CATHODE VOLTS'" 150

L
I- 4
6
-/ I/,.)~
/.~~
6
4
f-
zw
EACH SUCCEEDING - STAGE VOLTS '" 100
FOCUSING ELECTRODE IS ADJUSTED FOR MAXIMUM
ANODE CURRENT.
:;: /./ ~ g§ 100
7
2V7
'"
;:: 2 :::>
en
z [7 103
u
w 75
'"
(J)
0.1
8
6
a
6
Cl
o
~ 50
7 i\
.V"/ 4
til
-I
/ '\
2 2 > 25
~ [7 "-.
0.01
2
102 ..J
W
:--..
eoo. 1000 1250 0: 0 -I 0 . I 2
ANODE-TO-CATHODE SUPPLY VOLTS eEl MAGNETIC FIELD INTENSITY- GAUSSES
, 92CS- 8136T2
92CM-9033T1
Technical Data 147
TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS
TYPE 6903
DYNODE-No.l-TO-CATHODE VOLTS =167
VOLTS PER SUCCEEDING STAGE = 83

2000

60
'"w
0..
:ll
«
1500
V .- 50
:J /'
oJ +-
i V/ j...-- 40
w 1000
~V
0
0
j...--
z 30
«
500 fI
V f-"" LIGHT FLUX-MICROLUMENS=20

~~ 10
...-:::: 5

o 50 100 150 200 250


ANODE-TO-DYNODE-No.IO VOLTS 92CM-9039T

rr 2" ~'OIA~ PHOTOCATHODE:

t-4]."""
32 . __ OI~~ETER

TI6
8ULa ~I·
:iii 9 11P
6j&
t.CAX.

MEDIUM-
NOTE: Incident radiation is into end of
bulb.
SHELL
OIHEPTAL
14-PIN BASE
~EOEC NO
814-36 ~
I
2 f&"M~X. OIAJ
SIDE-ON type having unobstructed photocathode area
and response. Wavelength of maximum spectral
response is 8000 ± 1000 angstroms. This type makes 6953
use of a semicylindrical photocathode, and has a GAS
direct interelectrode capacitance of 3 picofarads.
It weighs approximately 0.9 ounce.
PHOTODIODE

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Rating 1 Rating 2
Anode-Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC) ................ 70 max 90 max volts
Average Cathode-Current Density ...................... 60 max 30 max p.a/sq in
Average Cathode Current .............................. 6 max 3 max p.a
Ambient Temperature ..............•........•.......... 100 max 100 max 'C
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Anode-Supply Voltage .......................•..........•..........• 90 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 8000 angstroms) ........................... . 0.019 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity* .......................................... . 200 p.a/lm
Gas Amplification Factor** ....................................... . 10 max
Anode Dark Current (at 25'C) ................................... . 0.1 max p.a
148 RCA Phototube Manual

MINIMUM CIRCUIT VALUES:


Anode-Supply Voltage .................................. 70 or less 90 volts
DC Load Resistance:
For average currents above 3 p,a ...............•.... 0.1 min megohms
For average currents below 3 Ita .................... 0 min megohms
For average currents above 2 JIa .................... 2.5 min megohms
For average currents below 2 p,a ....•............... 0.1 min megohms
.With light input of 0.1 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color temperature
of 2870oK. Range of luminous sensitivity is 140 to 350 /La/1m.
••Ratio of luminous sensitivities at 90 and 25 volts.

TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS


16
TYpe! 695~ rll
14
Iii
~
12 . S ~
~t
Ii::'
1(
i! /~~
/ V/ /
/' ~ ./ & 17

--
./

2
l--:::::: ~ V V
V
./
~
J.....-'_ l-- I--"
IF-:
o 20 40 60 60 100
ANODE VOLTS 92CM-9226T

lJJ
INC~:NT!"AOIAnoN

6 NCO

NC 2 •

I· •
NC K

TEN-STAGE, dormer-window type having S-17 re-


sponse. Wavelength of maximum response is 4900 ±
500 angstroms. This type makes use of cesium-
7029 antimony dynodes and a cesium-antimony, semi-
transparent photocathode on a reflective substrate.
MULTIPLIER The shape of the photocathode is rectangular on a
PHOTOTUBE concave spherical surface. Window material is
Corning No. 0080 lime glass or equivalent. Tube
weighs approximately 3 ounces and has a non-
hygroscopic base.
Technical Data 149

DIRECT INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCES (Approx.):


Anode to Dynode No. 10 ..................................•........ 4 pf
Anode to All Other Electrodes ..................................... . 7 pf

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Moximum Values):


Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC):
Between anode and cathode ................................... . 1250 max volts
Between anode and dynode No. 10 ............................. . 250 max volts
Between dynode No. 1 and cathode ............................ . 300 max volts
Average Anode Current ........................................... . 20 max /La
Ambient-Temperature Range ......................................• -50 to 75 °C
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
DC Supply Voltage· ............................•..................... 1000 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4900 angstroms) ........................... . 27000 a/w
Cathode Radiant Sensitivity (at 4900 angstroms) ..................... . 0.085 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity·· ..............................••••............. 40 a/1m
Cathode Luminous Sensitivity:
With tungsten light source+ ........•............................. 125 /La/1m
With blue light source++ .. ' .....•.•............... ". . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 min na
Current Amplification ................................................ 320,000
Equivalent Anode-Dark-Current Input at 25°C
at a luminous sensitivity of 20 a/1m ............................. . 5 max nlm
Equivalent Noise Inputt ............................................. . 11 plm
"DC supply voltage (E) is connected across a voltage divider which provides 1/11 of E per
stage.
•• With light input of 1 microlumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color tempera.-
ture of 2870°1{. Range of luminous sensitivity is 10 to 300 a/1m at 1000 volts.
+With light input of 0.001 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color tempera.-
ture of 2870 0 K; 100 volts applied between cathode and all other electrodes connected as anode.
++Same conditions as (+), but a blue filter is used (Corning C.S. No.5-58, glass code No. 5113,
polished to 1/2 stock thickness).
tAt tube temperature of 25°C and with external shield connected to cathode; bandwidth is
equal tp 1 cycle per second. A tungsten-filament light source at a color temperature of 2870 0 K
is interrupted at a low audio frequency to produce incident radiation pulses alternating be-
tween zero and the value stated. The "on" period of the pulse is equal to" the "off" period.
SENSITIVITY AND CURRENT
AMPLIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS
TYPE 7029
VOLTS/STAGE.IIII E
ANODE-TO-DYNODE No.IO VOLTS ellll E

4 4

2 2
_ (038 7
TYPICAL ANODE-DARK-CURRENT a10
CHARACTERISTIC 6
"
0
S
TYPE 7029
VOLTS I STAGE· 1/11 E ...
0
CD
4 4

TUBE TEMPERATURE. 250 C N 2 2


4 n:
::::E 10 2
V
.... a ~.J.. al06
2
t:-~
I- 6 5 :z
lOS I'. 0:: 4 4 0

~fY
8 0
4
..J
0 L II !:iu
8 2 177 2
u:
" f-~~I~.J../.
U~S TABLE
2 :z 1.1
I'. ~ 108f - ~ ,,' a1051t
109 j 6 f-~~ f...' ~ 5 ~
2 0 1/ ~
4
"7 .....
~
4
A fff ~/ 4 I-
:z

~~
ffi 2 2
....
~
0:
~" ~.J..
a. 0:
9.,C;
10 2 468 2 468 2468 468 ~ 18 ~.>;. 'I' ,,' J04~
0.01 0.1 I 10 2 1022 4 61'03 'Y
I 6 ~, s
LUMINOUS SENSITIVITY-
AMPERES/LUMEN 92CS-9478T ~
:>
4 ~9.~
".>;. 0,'#
"
4
;::: 2 2

~O.l8 ~~~
en
~ al03
6 5
4 4

2
V 2
0.01 I,nz "
6 2
500 1000 1250
ANODE-TO-CATHODE SUPPLY VOLTS (E)
92CM-9480T
150 RCA Phototube Manual
TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS
50 0
TYPE 7029
VOLTS/STAGE =91

10
400 ..-
(I)
W
/V'
0::
W
/ 8
I--
~ 30
~
0::
o I /' LIGHT FLUX MICROLUMENS = 6
o
;E
w 200
1/ / ' v
:5
z
ct
V/ V 4

100
'/
2
f--
----
o 50 100 150 200 250
ANOOE-TO-DYNOOE-No.IO VOLTS 92CM-9476T

TI2 BULB
WITH SPECIAL
END CONTOUR

ULTRASHORT SMALL:SHELL
OUODECAL 12-PIN BASE
.JEDEC N2 B12-180

NON-DIRECTIONAL type having S-4 response. Wave-


length of maximum spectral response is 4000 ± 500
7043 angstroms. This type makes use of a cylindrical
VACUUM photocathode, and has a direct interelectrode capaci-
tance of 6 picofarads. It weighs approximately 1.4
PHOrODIODE ounces.

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Anode-Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC) ...........................• 250 max volts
Average Cathode-Current Density ...............................•.. 25 max p.a/sq in
Average Cathode' Current ......................................... .
Ambient Temperature .............................................• 7g:~ ~
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Anode-SUIpply Voltage ............ , .........•••••.••..•....••......• 250 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4000 angstroms) ........................... . 0.044 a/w
Technical Data 151
Luminous Sensitivity:*
At 250 volts ............•..............................•.•...•• 45 lIa/Im
At 90 volts .........................................•..•...••• 41 lIa/Im
Ratio of Luminous Sensitivities at 250 and 90 volts ..............•• 1.25 max
Luminous Sensitivity Uniformity.. . .....................•........• 1.55 max
Anode Dark Current (at 25°C) .................................... . 0.0125 max
*With light input of 0.1 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color temperature
of 2870 0 K. Range of luminous sensitivity at 250 volts is 20 to 65 lIa/lm.
**Ratio of highest sensitivity to lowest when tube is rotated about its axis through 360 degrees,
with incident light perpendicular to major axis of photocathode, and with light spot 1/2 inch
in diameter.

TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS


TYPE 7043
7

LIGHT FlUX-lUMENS·O.1

J08
3
0.06

2 d.04- r--
I d.02

o 40 80 120 160 20 0 240 Z80


ANODE VOLTS 92CM-9387T

NOTE: Incident radiation is perpend1cu1ar


to axis of photocathode.

FouRTEEN-STAGE, head-on, fiat-faceplate type having


extended 8-11 response. Wavelength of maximum
response is 4200 ± 500 angstroms. This type has a
five-inch diameter and makes use of silver-magnesium
dynodes and a curved-circular, cesium-antimony 7046
semitransparent photocathode. (This type may also MULTIPLIER
be ordered with copper-beryllium dynodes.) Window
material is ultraviolet transmitting glass ( Corning PHOTOTUBE
No. 9741) or equivalent. Tube weighs approximately
30 ounces.
152 RCA Phototube Manual

DIRECT INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCES (Approx.):


Anode to Dynode No. 14 ........................................ .. 2.6 pf
Anode to All Other Electrodes ...................•...•....•.••••.•.• 0.3 pf
MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):
DC Supply Voltage:
Between anode and cathode .................................. .. 3400 max volts
Between anode and dynode No. 14 .......•.............•..•.... 400 max volts
Between consecutive dynodes ...........................•......•.• 400 max volts
Between grid No.3 and dynode No. 13 ......................... . 500 max volts
Between grid No. 2 and anode ...............•.............•.. 2300 max volta
Between dynode No. 1 and grid No.2 ....................... .. 400 max volts
DC Supply Voltage to Grid No.1 ................................. . 1200 max volts
DC Supply Voltage to Grid No. 2 ................................. .. 1500 max volts
Average Anode Current ...............•...................•.....••• 2 max ma
Ambient-Temperature Range ................•...............•..•.•• -80to7li °C
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
DC Supply V oltage* .................................... 2800 3400 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4200 angstroms) ........•....... 140,000 910,000 a/w
Cathode Radiant Sensitivity (at 4200 angstroms) .......... 0.046 0.046 a/w
LuminO'lls Sensitivity:
At 0 cps** ...............................•........ 180 1200 a/1m
With dynode No. 14 as output electrode ............. . 108 800 a/1m
Cathode Luminous Sensitivity:
With tungsten light source+ ....................... . 60 60 pa/lm
With hlue light source++ .....................•.... 0.04 min 0.04 min pa
Current Amplification (in millions) ..................•. 3 20
Equivalent Anode-Dark Cnrrent Input:
At luminous sensitivity of 500 a/1m ..............•• 12 max nlm
At 4200 angstroms .........................•...... 15 max pw
Equivalent Noise Input:
Luminoust ............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . • . . . . 10 phn
Radiant (at 4200 angstroms) ...................... 0.012 pw
Greatest Delay Between Anode Pulses:
With radiation spot (on tube face)
having a diameter of
3 inches ...........................•••..•.••..•• 0.5 nsee
4 inches ....................................... . 4 TISec
·DC supply voltage is connected across a voltage divider which provides voltages as shown by
the accompanying tahle. Grid-No. 3, grid-No. I, and dynode-No. 1 voltages are adjusted to
those values which provide maximum anode current.
**With a light input of 0.1 microlumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color
temperature of 2870=K. Range of luminous sensitivity is 80 to 3000 a/1m at 2800 volts.
+With a light input of 0.01 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color tempera-
ture of 2870=K: 200 volts applied het,veen cathode and all other electrodes connected as anode.
++Same conditions as ahove, hut a hlue filter is used (Corning C.S. No.5-58, glass code No.
5113, polished to 1/2 stock thickness).
tAt tube temperature of 25=C and with external shield connected to cathode; bandwidth is
equal to 1 cycle per second. A tungsten-filament light source at a color temperature of 2870=K
is interrupted at a low audio frequency to produce incident radiation pulses alternating be--
tween zero and the value stated. The "on" period is equal to the "off" period.
TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS
0.4
TYPE 7046 CATHODE -TO-GRID- No.2
2.0 VOLTS=1215
GRID-No.2-TO-DYNODE
( No.2 (DY2)VOLTS=212
DYI-TO- DY2 }
0.3
If) DY2-TO-DY3 VOLTS =lOG
w ETC.THRU
a:
w DY I3 -TO-DYI4
n.
:;; GRID-No.1 VOLTAGE, GRID No.3
< VOLTAGE, AND DYI VOLTAGE
j 0.2
1.0 ADJUSTED FOR MAXIMUM
5i [/ ANODE CURRENT.
w
o
o
z
<
O. I 0.5

If LIGHT FLUX-MICROLUMENS=0.2

o 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400


ANODE-TO-DYNODE No.14 VOLTS 92CM-9377T
Technical Data 153

VOLTAGE TO BE PROVIDED BY DIVIDER

3.8% of Supply
Between Volts (E)
Multiplied By

Cathode and Grid No. 1 2 approx~.


Cathode and Grid No. 2 11.5
Grid No.2 and Dynode No. 1 1 approx4*
Grid No.2 and Dynode No. 2 2
Dynode No.2 and Dynode No. 3 1
Dynode No.3 and Dynode No. 4 1
Dynode No.4 and Dynode No. 5 1
Dynode No. 5 and Dynode No. 6 1
Dynode No. 6 and Dynode No. 7 1
Dynode No.7 and Dynode No. B 1
Dynode No. S and Dynode No. 9 1
Dynode No. 9 and Dynode No. 10 1
Dynode No. 10 and Dynode No. II 1
Dynode No. 11 and Dynode No. 12 1
Dynode No. 12 and Dynode No. 13 1
Dynode No. 13 and Dynode No. 14 1
Dynode No. 14 and Anode 1
Anode and Cathode 26.5
"Adjusted for maximum anode current.
~

SENSITIVITY AND CURRENT SPECTRAL SENSITIVITY CHARACTERISTIC


AMPLIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS FOR EQUAL VALUES OF RADIANT FLUX AT ALL WAVELENGTHS

TYPE 7046 TYPE 7046


SUPPLY VOLTAGE (E) ACROSS VOLTAGE DIVIDER
WHICH PROVIDES VOLTAGES AS SHOWN IN
THE ACCOMPANYING TABLE.

2 2 RANGE OF
10
10 5 109 il~ MAXIMUM VALUE
8 8
>< 6 6

~
4
• B
/
-f'~ I
to
N

gj 10'
2

rff~
2

10· ~
1\
w
I-
8
6 ,::,~
C; 8
6 Z
:;
Es \
0:
9
4 ~~ • ~
0 <I)
zUJ
\
0
3 2 ~i' r-cO 2 u <I)

ii: UJ
\

Il
i1'i 103 107 :J >
::E
::> •
6 ~.:j 1:- •6 :in.
~4 0
..J
....en ~
..J
4
,..,
J:-"
rff
4 I-
W
a::
w
a:: 2 V v~ C; 2
z
w
a::
w
V ~" ,.., a:: 20
D.
::E J(;f !-.-';:S>~ ",'" lOG a \
«
• i"....~ ~' 8
~
I-
:;
6
4 1/1/
V
:I
0,"1
6
4
0 ~7000
/
E 2 ,::,~ 2 1000 3000 5000 9000
en
Z
w
/V ~~ 10 5
WAVELENGTH--ANGSTROMS
1'1. .s> II I I I I I
en
:L 8
6
4

2 2
1.0 / 10' 92CM-9372T1
1500 6 7 l!Ooo 3000 3500
ANODE-TO-CATHODE SUPPLY VOLTS (E)
92CM-9378T
154 RCA Phototube Manual

EQUIVAlENT-NOISE-INPUT
CHARACTERISTIC
TYPE 7046
CATHODE-TD-GRID-No.2 VOLTS·1215
GR~L~;~22ir'-DYNODE-No.2 ( DY2)

DYI-lll- DY2 } "YPICAL ANODE-DARK-CURRENT


DY2'"1ll-DY3 VOLTS-lOS CHARACTERISTIC
ETC.THRU
DYI4-111-ANODE TYPE 7046.
GRID-No.1 VOLTAGE, GRID-No.! VOLtAGE AN LUMINOUS SENSITIVITY IS VARIED BY AD-
DYj VOLTAGE ADJUSTED FOR MAXIMUM JUSTMENT OF THE SUPPLY VOLTAGE
ANODE CURRENT. (El ACROSS VOLTAGE DIVIDER WHICH
BANDWIDTH (CPS)·\
UGHT SOURCE: TUNGSTEN AT 2870' K IN-
~~~y,c~~iN'?-?a~A¥f~L'1~ SHOWN IN THE
TERRUPTED AT 90 CPS CE TUBE TEMPERATURE-25° C
PULSES ALTERNATING ZERO
AND FLUX VALUE N B
TUBE TEMPERATU 6

:~G~L EJL~Em.'RMS NOI~~~lNT.


4
r-. ~
f!l 2

10-10~ 9
8 I 2
/
: ~
'i!:
4
2
2 ~ 1010
/ I
8°-11 i I
2 468
10
2 468
102
2 468
103
2 4
6f04 2 461'05
LUMINOUS SENSITIVITY-
6 !z AMPERES/LUMEN 92CS-9374T
4 ~
..... 2
~
5
I 0-12 /3
-60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60
TUBE TEMPERATURE--oC
92CS-9376l'

radiation is into end. of


Technical Data 155

TEN-STAGE, head-on, flat-faceplate type having S-l


response. Wavelength of maximum response is 8000
± 1000 angstroms. This type makes use of silver-
magnesium dynodes and a flat-circular, silver-oxy-
gen-cesium, semitransparent photocathode. (This 7102
type may also be ordered with copper-beryllium MULTIPLIER
dynodes.) Window material is Corning No. 0080
lime glass or equivalent. Tube weighs approximately PHOTOTUBE
2 ounces and has a non-hygroscopic base. For out-
line and terminal-connection diagram, refer to type
6199.

DIRECT INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCES (Approx.):


Anode to Dynode No. 10 .......................................... . 4 pf
Anode to All Other Electrodes 7 pf

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC):
Between anode and cathode ...........................•.•...•.. 1500 max volts
Between anode and dynode No. 10 ............... ~ ............. . 250 max volts
Between consecutive dynodes ................................... . 200 max volts
Between dynode No. 1 and cathode ............................ . 400 max volts
Average Anode Current .................................. . 10 max p.a
Ambient Temperature 75 max 'c
TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS
TYPE 7102
DYNODE-No.I-TO-CATHODE VOLTS=20B
VOLTS PER SUCCEEDING STAGE = 104

-----
CIl l20 25- '---
UJ
II:
w

..
~IOO

lEu 80
/
/' 20

1/ /
-
~ 15

~ 60
o
:i
40
Y LIGHT FLUX-MICROLUMENS=IO

20

o
-
/

40 80 120 160
ANOOE-TO-DYNODE No. 10 VOLTS
200 240
5

92CM-9460TI
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
DC Supply V oltage* ....... . ................................ . 1250 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 8000 angstroms) ......................... . 420 a/w
Cathode Radiant Sensitivity (at 8000 angstroms) ................. . 0.0027 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity:
At 0 cps" . . ............................................... . 4.5 a/1m
With dynode No. 10 as output electrode ..................... .. 2.7 a/1m
Cathode Luminous Sensitivity:
With tungsten light source+ .................................. . 30 pa;lm
With infrared source++ ..................................... . 0.036 p.a
Current Amplification ............................................ . 150,000
Equivalent Anode-Dark-Current Input:
At a luminous sensitivity of 4 a/1m ................•......... 5 max p.lm
At 8000 angstroms ........................................... . 55 max pw
Equivalent Noise Input:
Luminoust .................................................. . 0.15 nlm
Infraredtt .................................................. . 1.7 pw
*DC supply voltage (E) is connected across a voltage divider which provides 1/6 of E be-
tween cathode and dynode No. I, 1/12 of E for each succeeding dynode stage, and 1/12 of E
between dynode No. 10 and anode.
**With light input of 10 microlumens from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color
temperature of 2870'K. Range of luminous sensitivity is 1 to 30 a/1m at 1250 volts.

_. __ ._-_.._ - - - - - _ . - - - - - - - - - - - _ . - - - -
156 RCA Phototube Manual

+With light input of 0.01 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color tempera-
ture of 2870 o K; 250 volts applied between cathode and all other electrodes connected as anode.
++Same conditions as (+), but an infrared filter is used (Corning C.s. No. 7-56, glass code
No. 2540).
tAt tube temperature of 25°C and with external shield connected to cathode; bandwidth is
equal to 1 cycle per second. A tungsten-filament light source at a color temperature of 2870 0 K
is interrupted at a low audio frequency to produce incident radiation pulses alternating be-
tween zero and the value stated. The "on" period of the pulse is equal to the "off" period.
ttUnder same conditions as (t), but a monochromatic source radiating at 8000 angstroms
is used.
SENSITIVITY AND CURRENT EFFECT OF MAGNETIC FIELD
AMPLIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS ON ANODE CURRENT
TYPE 7102 TYPE 7102
DYNODE-No.I-TO-CATHODE VOLTS = 116 E MAGNETIC FIELD IS PARALLEL TO
VOLTS PER SUCCEEDING STAGE = 1112 E DYNODE-CAGE AXIS.
ANODE-TO-DYNODE No.IO VOLTS = 1/12 E POSITIVE VALUES ARE FOR LINES OF FORCE
FROM LEFT TO RIGHT WITH BASE DOWN
4 4 AND BASE KEY TOWARD OBSERVER.
VOLTS/STAGE 0100
2 2 I~'

....
~
102
8
6
106
8
6 7
/~
'r-...
\
0
co
N
a:
::;; 10
4

2
/ 1/
11/
V
4

2
105
- ./
V
J
I'"['...
W 8 8
I<-
0:
6
4
",-y 6
4
Z
Q -
0
- I

~~j
9 ~ MAGNETIC FIELD INTENSITY-GAUSSES
0
2 I 2 0 92CS-78I3V
~
z I
rffJ ~ J04~
iL

~~~'<
W
::;; 8
TYPICAL ANODE-DARK-CURRENT
~ CHARACTERISTIC

I.J.~~
::> 6
oJ ~ ",'" I
6
..... 4 4 ~ TYPE 7102
DYNODE-No.l-TO-CATHODE VOLTS ° 116 E
'"
W
0: 2 I~.f- J 'Z
'W
2 !o: VOLTS PER SUCCEEDING STAGE=1I12 E

/~
W ANODE-TO-DYNODE No.IO VOLTSoll12 E
Q. '0:
TUBE TEMPERATURE=2So C
~O.I ... ~ IJa
I g /q.$;' /.;i:;"
~ "- 8
6
>- .'
;;. KG}
!: 4 4
>
~
/ ,F

~ODl //
/ /l~)
2 2

102 ......
'" 86 ~ 8
6
4 / / 4
2 / / 2
0001 J 10
4 68 2 4 68 2 4 68 2 468 2 4 68
6 7 8 9 I 2 3 4
500 1000 1500 0.001 0.01 . 0.1 I 10
ANODE-TO-CATHODE SUPPLY VOLTS (E) LUMINOUS SENSITiVITY -
92CM-9455T AMPERES/ LUMEN 92CS-9459T

EQUIVALENT-NOISE -INPUT
CHARACTERISTICS
TYPE 7102
DYNODE-No.I-TO-CATHODE
VOLTS =208
VOLTS PER SUCCEEDING STAGE=104
8 8
6 6
4
B/
2 2
"-A I
8
.... I
2
4 2
II ....:~
I
3 ~
4
2 2
2 I
20 40 o
TUBE TEMPERATURE-OC 92CS-9462T
Technical Data 157

NINE-STAGE, side-on type having S-4 response. Wave-


length of maximum response is 4000 ± 500 ang-
stroms. This type makes use of cesium-antimony
dynodes and a cesium-antimony, opaque photo-
7117
cathode. Window material is Corning No. 0080 lime MULTIPLIER
glass or equivalent. Tube weighs approximately 1.6 PHOTOTUBE
ounces. For outline and terminal-connection diagram,
refer to type 6328.

DIRECT INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCES (Approx.):


Anode to Dynode No. 9 .................................•.•...•.••.• 4.2 pi
Anode to All Other Electrodes ..........................•...••..•... 5.5 pf

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


DC Supply Voltage:
Between anode and cathode ......................•••.•••••••••• 1250 max volta
Between anode and dynode No. 9 ............................. .. 250 max volta
Between consecutive dynodes ........••.•....•.....•............ 250 max volts
Between dynode No.1 and cathode " " ' " ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 250 max volts
Average Anode Current .........................................•.. 0.1 max ma
Ambient Temperature .......... . 75 max ·C
RANGE OF LUMINOUS SENSITIVITY
TYPE 7117
VOLTS I STAGE = 1/10 E
ANODE-TO-DYNODE No.9 VOLTS'I/IO E

....
_10'
'"
0
a
6
4
CD
V
'"0: 2
~102
V
I- a
a: 6
0 4
...J
0
8 2
'", V /
:z
w 10 ~fJ /
::0 a
~"" /,
:::> 6
...J

"'"w 4
/
a:
w
..I
0.
::0
6
2
I
a lJ'"t;
~
~
~ .f
~ I
>-
l-
'>
>=
~
4

2
0.1 I
I ff-f!'.fIf;
P..~
~
!ij '"

w a tY
'" 6
4 ~
2 / I ~I
~
0.01 / 3
/
4 5 6
7
7 a 9 I 2
200 1000 1250
ANODE-TO-CATHODE SUPPLY VOLTS eEl
92CM-9574T
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
With DC Supply Voltage· = 1000 Volts
~:!!f:;n..ss~~~l~f;rty~'!t .4000. an~.s.t~~~).. :: :::::::::: :::: :::::::::::
34000 a/w
35 a/1m
Electrode Dark Current at 25°C:
At anode ....................•................................. 0.1 max p.a
At any other electrode ........................................ , 0.75 max p.a
158 RCA Phototube Manual

With Supply Voltage· =


Adjustable DC Voltage
Anode-to-Cathode Voltage (dc value)+ ................................ .. 900 volts
.Supply voltage (E) is connected across a voltage divider which provides 1/10 of E hetween
cathode and dynode No.1, 1/10 of E for each succeeding dynode stage, and 1/10 of E between
dynode No. 9. and anode.
.-With light input of 10 microlumens from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a eolor
temperature of 2870 0 K.
+Same conditions as ("0), but· a filter is used (Corning No. 8-67, glass eode No. 3482). Supply
voltage is adjusted to provide an anode current of 50 microamperes.

NINE-STAGE, side-on type having 8-19 response. Wave-


length of maximum response is 3300 ± 500 ang-
7200 stroms. This type makes use of cesium-antimony
dynodes and a cesium-antimony, opaque photo-
MULTIPLIER cathode. The window material is fused silica. Tube
PHOTOTUBE weighs approximately 1.8 ounces and has a non-
hygroscopic base.

DIRECT INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCES (Approx.):


Anode to Dynode No. 9 ... , ....•................•.••••••••••••••••• U pI
Anode to All Other Eleetrodes ..................................... . 6 pi

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC):
Between anode and cathode ................................... .. 1250 max volts
Between anode and dynode No. 9 ............................. .. 250 max volts
Between consecutiveclynodeS ........ . . . .. . . . . . . . . • . .. . • . . • • • 250 max volts
Between dynode No. 1 and cathode ........................... .. 250 max volts
Average Anode Current ........................................... . 0.5 max ma
Ambient-Temperature Range ....................................... . -80 to 75 ·C
TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS
5 100
TYPE720~ ~ VOLTS/STAGE-IOO
90
1,..00-
4
I /' 80

r; V I-- 70
I--"
'I V 60

rt V f-
LIGHT FLUX-MICROLUMENS-50

'1/ ....- 40
.--
Y
I
y""'-
",.... - 30

20

10
...-
o 50 100 150 200 250
ANODE-TO-DYNODE No.9 VOLTS 92CM-9571T

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
DC Supply Voltage" ................................................. . 1000 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 3300 angstroms) ............................. . 65000 a/w
Cathode Radiant Sensitivity (at 3300 angstroms) ..................... . 0.065 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity*· .............................................. . 40 a/1m
Cathode Luminous Sensitivity+ ......................................•. 40 I'a/lm
Current Amplification (in millions) ................................. . 1
Equivalent Anode-Dark-Current Input at 25°C
at a luminous sensitivity of 20 a/1m ........................•...••.• 2 max nlm
Equivalent Noise Input:
Luminous++ plm
At 25°C .................................................... . 0.75
At -78°C ...........•............•............................ 0.04 plm
Ultraviolett pw
At 25°C ...................••...•........•.................... 0.00066
At -78°C ................................................... . 0.00004 pw
Technical Data 159

-DC supply voltage (E) Is connected across a voltage divider which provides 1/10 of E be-
tween cathode and dynode No.1, 1/10 of E for each succeeding dynode stage, and 1/10 of E
between dynode No. 9 and anode.
··With light input of 10 microlumens from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color
temperature of 2870 0 K. Range of luminous sensitivity is 15 to 300 a/1m at 1000 volts.
+With light input of 0.01 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color tempera-
ture of 2870 0 K; 100 volts applied between photocathode and 'all other electrodes connected
as anode.
++At tube temperature of 25°C and with external shield connected to cathode; bandwith is
equal to 1 cycle per second. A tungsten-filament light source at a color temperature of 2870 0 K
is interrupted at a low audio frequency to produce incident radiation pulses alternating be-
tween zero and the value stated. The "on" period of the pulse is equal to the "off" period.
tSame conditions as (++), but a monochromatic source radiating at 2537 angstroms is used.

TYPICAL ANODE-
DARK-CURRENT CHARACTERISTIC
TYPE 7200
'",
~z
VOLTS/STAGE'1I10 E
TUBE TEMPERATURE=25° C
c(W 6
o::IE 4
I:>
W..J 2 SENSITIVITY AND CURRENT
g I 10-88
zl-
AMPLIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS

c(~ 6 TYPE 7200


I-Z 4
VOLTS/STAGE' 1110 E
z- ANODE -TO-DYNODE No.9 VOLTS =1110 E
WI- 2
-I Z -9 ~ UNSTABLE--V 4 4
~~ 10 8
5~ : 2 2

--
V
~u

2 468
I
2 468
10
2 468
100
2 468 r- 4
1000 ex>
.
-10 3
'" 68
0
108
8
6
4
N
LUMINOUS SENSITIVITY- 2 2
AMPERES I LUMEN 0:
92CS-9586T ~'02 107
I- 8 8
6 6
~ Z
'"
0 4 4 0
0
..J
0/ / '/
i::; ~
(;f~/ II
B 2 2 u
z u:
W 10 106 :::;
::IE 8 8 Do
=> 6 ~ ~ 6 ::IE
..J
......
t/)
4 i
-'i'
$;"/"
i::; 4
c(

I-
Z

If'
W
W
'"a.
W 2 2
'"'"
::IE I "'i::; ~ IDS=>
c(
8 "- ~ o~- 8 u
~ ~ ,::
I
>- 4
6
rf (;f J
6
4
l-
:;; I '*-~ ~
,::s ""
7l~
~
2 2
iii
z 0.1
W 8
7 if v.
~...., 104
8
t/)
6 1I11§ 6
4 J!: 4
I I ~~I
2 2
0.01 I Ih
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I 2
10 3
200 10001250
ANODE-TO-CATHODE SUPPLY VOLTS (E)
," 92CM-9583T

• I ~.
160 RCA Phototube Manual

FOUR'l'EEN-STAGE, head-on, spherical-faceplatetype


having 'S~l1 response. Wavelength of maximum spec-
tral response is 4400 ± 500 angstroms. This type
7264 makes' use of silver-magnesium dynodes and a
spherical-circular, cesium-antimony, semitranspar-
MULTIPLIER ent photocathode. (This type may also be ordered
PHOTOTUBE with copper-beryllium dynodes.) Window material is
Corning No. 0080 lime glass or equivalent. Tube
weighs approximately 8 ounces and has a non-
hygroscopic base.

DIRECT INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCES (Approx.):


Anode to Dynode No. 14 ....................................... .. 2.4 pf
Anode to All Other Electrodes ..................................... . 6.5 pf
Dynode No. 14 to All Other Electrodes ............................ .. 7.5 pf
MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum
Values): Very-Low-Light- High-Output-
Level Servicet Pulse Service*:l:
Supply Voltage (DC):
Between anode and cathode ...................... .. 2400 max 2800 max volts
Between anode and dynode No. 14 ................ . 400 max 400 max volts
Between accelerating electrode and dynode No. 13 .• ±600 max ±500 max volts
Between consecutive dynodes ...................... . 600 max 500 max volts
Between focusing electrode and cathode ........... . 400 max 400 max volts
Between dynode No. 1 and cathode ......•......•.•. 400 max 400 max volts
Average Anode Current ............................... . 2 max 2 max ma
Ambient Temperature ..•............................... 75 max 75 max °C

TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS


VERY-LOW-LIGHT-LEVEL, LOW-NOISE, HIGH-GAIN SERVICE
0.5
~.5-
TYPE 7264 CATHODE-TO-GRID-No.1 VOLTS= 108
GRID- No.l-TO-DYNODE- No.1 (DY,I
VOLTS' 108
0.4
,/" I DYI-TO-DYZ}
( 6.4 DYz-TO-DY3
ETC. TO
VOLTS-loa
fa
It:

!Ii'" 0.3
..:'/
'/ ".
I
0.3
DYlo-TO-DYII
DYII-TO-DYIZ VOLTS =135
DYIZ-TO-DYI3 VOLTS-ISO
DYI3-TO-DYI4 VOLTS-189
3 GRID-.No.2 VOLTS ADJUSTED FOR
:e
",0.2
8
~
'/
/'
L MAXIMUM ANODE CURRENT.

o.I
f LIGHT FLUX-MICROLUMENSlo.1
r I
o 100 200 300 400
I 500
ANODE-TO-DyNODE-No.14 VOLTS I12CM-1I684T

TYPICAL C!,!ARACTERISTICS:
DC Supply Voltage· .................................. .. 2000 2400 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4400 angstroms) .........••.•... 700,000 700,000 a/w
Cathode Radiant Sensitivity (at 4400 angstroms) ....•... 0.056 0.056 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity:
At 0 cps·· ....................................... .. 876 875 a/1m
With dynode No. 14 as the output eleetrode ...•.••••• 612 612 a/1m
Cathode Luminous Sensitivity:
With tungsten light source+ ....................... . 70 70 pa/lm
With blue light source++ ......................... . 0.05 min 0.05 min }loa
Current Amplification (in millions) ..................•• 12.5 12.5
Equivalent Anode-Dark-Current Input at 26°C at a
luminous sensitivity of 2000 a/1m ............••...••• 2 max 1.1 nlm
Equivalent Noise Inpnt:t
At 25·C ........................................... . 8.3 4.6 plm
At -50·C ......................................... . 0.9 1.2 plm
Anode-Pulse Rise Time ............................... . S Dsee
Technical Data 161
Greatest Delay Between Anode Pulses:
With radiation spot (centered on tube face)
having a diameter of
1-1/8 inch ..................................... . O~5 nsee
1-1/2 inch ..................................... . 1 nsee
tWith supply voltage (E) connected across voltage divider which provides electrode voltages
as shown in Column A of the accompanying table.
:j::j:With supply voltage (E) connected across voltage divider which provides electrode voltages
as shown in Column B of the accompanying table.
*With focusing~electrode and accelerating-electrode voltages adjusted to provide maximum
anode current.
**With light input of 0.1 microlumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color
temperature of 2870°K. Range of luminous sensitivity is 280 to 10500 a/1m at 2000 volts.
+With light input of 0,.01 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color tempera-
ture of 2870oK; 200 volts applied between cathode and all other electrodes connected as anode.
++Same conditions as (+), but a blue filter is used (Corning C.s. No.5-58, glass code No.
5113. polished to 1/2 stock thickness).
tAt tube temperature of 25°C and with external shield connected to cathode; bandwith is
equal to 1 cycle per second. A tungsten-filament light source at a color temperature of 2870 0 K
is interrupted at a low audio frequency to produce incident radiation pulses alternating be-
tween zero and the value stated. The "on" period is equal to the Hoff" period.

TYPICAL ANODE-DARK-CURRENT
CHARACTERISTIC
VERY-LOW-LlGHT-LEVEL, LOW-NOISE,
HIGH-GAIN SERVICE
TYPE 7254
LUMINOUS SENSITIVITY IS VARIED BY AD-
JUSTMENT OF THE SUPPLY VOLTAGE (E)
ACROSS VOLTAGE DIVIDER WHICH PRO
VIDES VOLTAGES AS SHOWN IN COLUMN A
OF THE ACCOMPANYING TABLE.
8 GRID-No.2 VOLTS ADJUSTED FOR MAXIMUM
ANODE CURRENT.
g TUBE TEMPERATURE-25° C

2 J~~T1BLJ
9
~

2
0
-
10' 2 468 2 468 2 468 2 468 2 468
I 10 102 103 104 105
LUMINOUS SENSITIVITY -
AMPERES/LUMEN 92CS-8848T

TYPICAL ANODE -DARK -CURRENT


CHARACTERISTIC
HIGH-OUTPUT-PULSE SERVICE

TYPE 7254
LUMINOUS SENSITIVITY IS VARIED BY AD-
JUSTMENT OF THE SUPPLY VOLTAGE (El
ACROSS VOLTAGE DIVIDER WHICH PRO-
VIDES VOLTAGES AS SHOWN IN COLUMNB
OF THE ACCOMPANYING TABLE.
s GRID-No.2 VOLTS ADJUSTED FOR MAX-
IMUM ANODE CURRENT.
~ TUBE TEMPERATURE = 25° C

UNSTABLE
,
2
9 r-- l.;
~

-,
10
2
0
2 468 2 468 2 468 2 468 2 468
I 10 102 103 104 105
NOTE: Incident radiation is into end of
bulb. LUMINOUS SENSITIVITY-
AMPERES/LUMEN 92CS-9356T

~~-~- ._--------
162 RCA Phototube Manual
SENSITIVITY AND CURRENT SENSITIVITY AND CURRENT
AMPLIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS AMPLIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS
-
HIGH-OUTPUT PULSE SERVICE -
VERY-LOW- LIGHT-LEVEL LOW- NOISE HIGH GAIN SERVICE'
TYPE 7264 TYPE 7264
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (E) ACROSS VOLTAGE DIVIDER WHICH SUPPLY VOLTAGE (E) ACROSS VOLTAGE DIVIDER WHICH
PROVIDES VOLTAGES AS SHOWN IN COLUMN B OF PROVIDES VOLTAGES AS SHOWN IN COLUMN A OF
THE ACCOMPANYING TABLE. THE ACCOMPANYING TABLE.
GRID-No.2 VOLTS ADJUSTED FOR MAXIMUM ANODE GRID-No.2 VOLTS ADJUSTED FOR MAXIMUM ANODE
CURRENT. CURRENT.

I
10 108 10' 108
sz 8
6
8
6 -'" 8
6
8
6

~
4 4
~
4 4
ex> ex> I.
'" 2 2
'" 2 f?, 2
Q; ~ II. II
:; 103 107 ~ 103 t:: lor
...
I-
8
6
B
6 Z
... B
I- 6 ~ 6
0: 4 4 0 0: 4
4' Z
0
9
0 ,:v ~ 9
0 ~ &.//
II ~
B 2 2 0
;;: B 2 ~ f-- :<:' 2 !,!

W
ZlD 2
~ B
Ii. 106 :;
B "-
i':i
:;
102
B
106 :J"-
::E
6 ~

«
:::>. 6 :::> 6

tf
6
.ft~
c(
..J ..J
4 ~ 4 I- "- 4 4 I-
"- "t~
...'" ~~
Z
'"0: '"...0:
w / v ~ t:- z
'"
..."-
0: 2
;:J~ 2 0: 2
~v~
2 0:
0:
:; 10 ~ ~ "-
:;10 10Si3
c( 8
v.
"tIS'
OJ
8
10Si3
c( 8 R~ 4' 8
I 6 6 I 6
II~ ~
6

~''J
>- 4 J ~
/J y./
l- s 4 4
~ 4/
5 s > ~
i=
E
'/ /~
2 2 2
Ii "- r;;
'"
zw
18 d04
Z
w I
8
104
8
'" 6 6 '" 6
I /
6
4 4 4 4

2 'I 2 2
IJ / 2
0.1 1// 103 0.1 'I I 103

1000
I 2 3
1500 •
6 7 8 9
2000
I 2 3
2400 1000
I 2 3 4
1500
6 7 8 9
2000
I 2 3
2400
ANDDE-TO-CATHODE SUPPLY VOLTS (E) ANODE-TO-CATHODE SUPPLY VOLTS (E)
92CM-968ST 92CM-96B7T

VOLTAGE TO BE PROVIDED BY DIVIDER


COLUMN A COLUMN B
Between 5.4% of Supply 2.75% of Supply
Volts (E) Volts (E)
mUltiplied by multiplied by

Cathode and Focusing


Electrode
Cathode and Dynode No.1
*2 2

Dynode No.1 and Dynode No. 2 1 1
Dynode No.2 and Dynode No.3 1 1
Dynode No. 3 and Dynode No.4 1 1
Dynode No. 4 and Dynode No.5 1 1
Dynode No.5 and Dynode No.6 1 1
Dynode No.6 and Dynode No. 7 1 1.2
Dynode No.7 and Dynode No.8 1 1.5
Dynode No. 8 and Dynode No. 9 1 1.9
Dynode No. 9 and Dynode No. 10 1 2.4
Dynode No. 10 and Dynode No. 11 1 3.0
"Dynode No. 11 and Dynode No. 12 1.25 3.8
Dynode No. 12 and Dynode No. 13 1.6 4.8
Dynode No. 13 and Dynode No. 14 1.75 6.0
Dynode No. 14 and Anode 2 4.8
Anode and Cathode 18.5 36.4

.Focusing electrode is connected to arm of potentiometer between cathode and dynode


No.1. Focusing-electrode voltage is adjusted to give maximum anode current.
Technical Data 163

FOURTEEN-STAGE, head-on, flat-faceplate type having


8-20 response. Wavelength of maximum spectral re-
sponse is 4200 ± 500 angstroms. This type makes
use of copper-beryllium dynodes, and a curved-cir- 7265
cular, semitransparent, antimony-potassium-sodium- MULTIPLIER
cesium photocathJde. Window material is Corning
No. 0080 lime glass or equivalent. Tube weighs ap- PHOTOTUBE
proximately 8 ounces and has a non-hygroscopic
base.

DIRECT INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCES (Approx.l,


Anode to Dynode No. 14 ...............................•..........• 2.8 pf
Anode to All Other Electrodes ..................................... . 6 pf
Dynode No. 14 to All Other Electrodes .............................. . 7.5 pf

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Supply Voltage (DC):
Betwe;!ll anode and cathode ................................... . 3000 max volts
Between anode and dynode No. 14 .......... , .................. . 500 max volts
Betwe2U accelerating electrodes and dynode No. 13 ............. . ±600 max volts
Between consecutive dynodes ................................. . 600 max volts
Between focusing electrode and cathode ....................... . 500 max volts
Between dynode No. 1 and cathode ............................ . 500 max volts
Average Anode Current ..... . ................................ . 1 max rna
Ambient Temperature 85 max °C
TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS
2
TYPE 7265
CATHODE-TO-FOCUSING-
ELECTRODE VOLTS'" 209
DYNODE NO.I-TO-CATHODE
I VOLTS = 260.
0.5 Dy,-TO-DY2 }
DY2-TO-DY3 VOLTS=130
1.5 ETC. TO
( I0.4-
OYIO-TO-DYII
DYII-TO-OYIZ VOLTS .. [61
OYIZ-TO-DYI3 VOLTS·193
DYI3-TO-DYI4 VOLTS=226
V" GRID-No.2 VOLTS ADJUSTED
FOR MAXIMUM ANODE
I .1
LIGHT FLUX-MICROLUMENS 0 .3 -
CURRENT.

/'
1/ 0.2
./

0.1

o 100 200 300 400 500


ANODE-TO-DYNODE-No.14 VOLTS 92CM-97BOTI
TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
DC Supply Voltage' ............................................... . 2400 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4200 angstroms) ............................. . 1.3 /La/w
Cathode Radiant Sensitivity (at 4200 angstroms) ....................... . 0.064 a/w
Luminous SE.nsitivity:
At 0 cps** ...................... ,., ............................. . 3000 a/1m
With dynode No. 14 as the output electrode ........................ . 980 a/1m
Cathode Luminous Sensitivity:
With tungsten light source+ .... , ................................ . 150 /La/1m
With blu'~ light source++ ....................................... . 0.05 min /La
With red light sourcet ........................................ " .. . 0.3 min /La
Current Amplification (in millions) ................................. . 20
Equivalent Anode-Dark-Curr-2nt Input at 25°C at a
luminous sensitivity of 1000 a/1m .. , ................... ............. . 0.8 max nlm
Equivalent Noise Input:tt
At 25°C . _ ...................................................... . 0.75 plm
At -SO°C ...................................................... . 0.1 plm
Anode-Pulse Rise Time ..... . .. _.................................... . 3 nsec
Greatest Delay Between Anode Pulses:
With radiation spot (centered on tube face)
having a diameter of
1-1/8 inch ......................................•........... 1 nsee
1-9/16 inch ...................................•.............. 3 nsec
164 RCA Phototube Manual

'DC supply voltage (E) is connected across a voltage divider which provides electrode voltages
as shown in the accompanying table. The focusing-electrode and accelerating-electrode voltages
are adjusted to provide maximum anode current.
"With light input of 0.1 microlumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color
temperature of 2870 0 K. Range of luminous sensitivity is 360 to 15000 a/1m at 2400 volts.
+With light input of 0.01 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color tempera-
ture of 2870 0 K; 200 volts applied between cathode and all other electrodes connected as anode.
++Same conditions as (+), but a blue filter is used (Corning C.s. No.5-58, glass code No.
5113, polished to 'h stock thickness).
tSame conditions as (+), but a red filter is used (Corning C.s. No. 2-62, glass code No. 2418).
tt At tube temperature of 25°C and with external shield connected to cathode; bandwidth is
equal to 1 cycle per second. A tungsten-filament light source at a color temperature of 2870 K
Q

is interrupted at a low audio frequency to produce incident radiation pulses alternating be-
tween zero and the value stated. The Hon" period of the pulse is equal to the "off" period..

TYPICAL ANODE-DARK-CURRENT
CHARACTERISTIC
TYPE 7265
LUMINOUS SENSITIVITY IS VARIED BY
,ADJUSTMENT OF THE SUPPLY VOLT-
AGE (E) ACROSS VOLTAGE DIVIDER
WHICH PROVIDES VOLTAGES AS SHOWN
IN ACCOMPANYING TABLE.
GRID-No.2 VOLTS ADJUSTED FOR
MAXIMUM ANODE CURRENT.
TUBE TEMPERATURE =20 0 C

2
91'-.
~
4
2
r--.
1610
2 468 2 468 2 468 2 468 468
10 10 2 10 3 104 1062 lOG
LUMINOUS SENSITIVITY-
AMPERES/LUMEN 92C5-9763T

VOLTAGE TO BE PROVIDED BY DIVIDER


5.4% of Supply
Between Voltage (E)
multiplied by

Cathode and Focusing Electrode* 1.6


Cathode and Dynode No. 1 2
Dynode No.1 and Dynode No.2 1
Dynode No.2 and Dynode No.3 1
Dynode No.3 and Dynode No.4 1
Dynode No.4 and Dynode No~ 5 1
Dynode No.5 and Dynode No.6 1
Dynode No.6 and Dynode No. 7 1
Dynode No.7 and Dynode No.8 1
Dynode No.8 and Dynode No.9 1
Dynode No.9 and Dynode No. 10 1
Dynode No. 10 and Dynode No. 11 1
Dynode No. 11 and Dynode No. 12 1.25
Dynode No. 12 and Dynode No. 13 1.5
Dynode No. 13 and Dynode No. 14 1.75
Dynode No. 14 and Anode 2
Anode and Cathode 18.5

*The metal collar (See Dimensional Outline) is connected internally


to the focusing electrode. Extreme care should be taken in the de-
sign of apparatus to preve·nt operating personnel from coming in
contact with the collar when the circuit application is such that the
collar is at high potential.
Technical Data 165
SENSITIVITY AND CURRENT
AMPLIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS
TYPE 7265
FACEPLATE- SUPPLY VOLTAGE (El ACROSS VOLTAGE
DIVIDER WHICH PROVIDES VOLTAGES AS
SHOWN IN THE ACCOMPANYING TABLE
GRID-No.2 VOLTS ADJUSTED FOR
PHOTOCATHODE MAXIMUM AND DE CURRENT.
2 2

106 1010
e 6
6 6
;;: 4 4
0....
CO
2 2
7.'j"
MAX. '"::;;a: 1058 / 109
8
W 6 6
I-
4
V 4 :z
0::
g 2
V / 2
0
f=
«
SMALL-SHELL 0 u
BIDECAL U
20-PIN BASE
JEDEC N' B20-102 ~IO: ,,:J.. 8106~
::;; 6 a..

i
::;;

.s-,,:J../&V
:3 4 f3- 4 «
"-
en If ~
c:l~·...j.-<'I :z
I-
'u 2 C; .:::- 2 u,
DIA.
0::
it ;::,~ ~§I"~
,f ~":f:~ 107~
* MUST BE ADEQUATELY INSULATED.
103
::;; 8 ~~ CO e
«
I
6
4
~i ""~-o,4;
R~ ~."i4-",,~
6
4
:::l
U

>-
l-
:;: 2
V ~ ;...-~
~I#
f=
en 102
:z 8
v./ V 106
~ 6
4 / / /
/ / /
2
/
10 lOS
G 7 8 9 I 23456789
1500 2000 3000
ANODE-TO-CATHODE SUPPLY VOLTS (El
92CM-97651
NOTE: Incident radiation is into end ot
bulb.

TEN-STAGE, head-on, flat-faceplate type having 8-20


response. Wavelength of maximum response is 4200
± 500 angstroms. This type makes use of silver-mag-
nesium dynodes and a curved-circular, potassium-bis- 7326
muth-sodium-cesium, semitransparent photocathode. MULTIPLIER
(This type may also be ordered with copper-beryl-
lium dynodes. ) Window material is Corning No. 0080 PHOTOTUBE
lime glass or equivalent. Tube weighs approximately
6 ounces and has a non-hygroscopic base.

DIRECT INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCES (Approx.):


Anode to Dynode No. 10 ........................................... . 4.4 pf
Anode to All Other Electrodes ..................................... . 7 pf

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


DC Supply Voltage:
Between anode and cathode , .................................. . 2400 max volts
Between anode and dynode No. 10 ............................. . 500 max volts
Between consecutive dynodes ................................... . 600 max volts
Between dynode No. 1 and cathode ............................ . 500 max volts
Between focusing electrode and cathode ....................... . 501} max volts
Average Anode Current ........................................... ' 1 max rna
Ambient Temperature ............................................ . 85 max 'c
166 RCA Phototube Manual

TYPICAL CHARACTERlmcs:
DC Supply Voltage· ............................................. . 1800 volts
Radiant Sens!tivity (a~ 4200 angstroms) ............................. . 9600 a/w
~~~f~~u~aS':~~Ai~i~;~~ivity. (at. ~~~~. ~~.~s.t~~~~~ . : : : : : : : : •........... 0.064 a/w
Cathode Luminous Sensitivity: ........... . 22.5 a/1m
With tungst.n light source+ ...............•....•...•........... 150 I'a/lm
WIth blue light source++ ..........................•.......... 0.05 min p,a
With red light sourcet ........................................ 0 3 min I'R
Current Amplification .. . ......................................... : 150,000
Equivalent Anode-Dark-Current Input at 25°C:
At a Luminous S('nsitivity of 20 a/1m ...........•...•.......•... 1.4 max nlm
At 4200 angstroms ........................•.......•...••.•.....• 3.3 pw
Equivalent Noise Inputtt:
At 25°C ...................................................... . 1.9 plm
0.004 pw
At -80°C .............•..••.....•••..•........••••.....•...... 0.3 plm
0.0007 pw
Anode-Pulse Rise Time .........................•.••••••••..•.••.••• 2.5 nsec
Greatest Delay Between Anode Pulses:
With radiation spot (centered on tube face)
having a diameter of
1-1/8 inch .............................•..••••...........•• 1 nsec
1-9/16 inch ................................................• 3 Dsee

.DC supply voltage (E) i. connected across a voltage divider which provides 1/6 of E be-
tween cathode and dynode No. I, 1/12 of E for each succeeding dynode stage, and 1/12 of E
between dynode No. 10 and anode. Focusing-electrode voltage is adjusted to that value which
provides maximum anode current.
··With light input of 0.1 microlumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color
temperature of 28700K. Range of luminous sensitivity is 5 to 150 a/1m at 1800 volts.
+With light input of 0.01 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color tempera-
ture of 2870 0K; 200 volts applied between cathode and all other electrodes connected as anode.
++Same conditions as (+), but a blue filter is used (Corning C.S. No. 5-58, glass code No. 5113.
polished to 'AI stock thickness).
tSame conditions as (+), but" rNl filter is used (Corning C.S. No. 2-62. glass code No. 2418).
tt At tube temperature of 25°C and with external shield connected to cathode; bandwidth is
equal to 1 cycle per second. A tungsten-filament light source at a color temperature of 2870 0 K
is interrupted at a low audio frequency to produce incident radiation pulses alternating be-
tween zero and the value stated. The "on" period of the pulse i. equal to the "ofl''' period.

:\'.
NOTE: Incident radiation Is into end of
bulb. .',
Technical Data 167

TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS


TYPE 7326 I I I I I
DYNODE-No.I-TO-CATHODE VOLTS ~ 300
14 VOLTS PER SUCCEEDING STAGE ~ 150 I
FOCUSING- ELECTRODE- TO- CATHODE VOLTS ~240

0.5

LIGHT FLUX-MICROLUMENS~0.3

I
0.1

oL---~---IOLO--~----2l0-0---L---3~0-0---L---4~0-0---L---5~0-O---L--~----l---J
ANODE - TO- DYNODE - No.IO VOLTS 92CM-9840T

SENSITJVITY AND CURRENT


AMPLIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS
TYPE 7326 .
DYNODE-No.I-TO-CATHODE VOLTS ~ 116 E
VOLTS PER SUCCEEDING STAGE~I/12 E
ANODE-TO-DYNODE No.IO VOLTS~1I12 E
FOCUSING-ELECTRODE VOLTAGE. ADJUSTED FOR
MAXIMUM ANODE CURRENT.

TYPICAL ANODE-
DARK-CURRENT CHARACTERISTIC
TYPE 7326
DYNODE-No. [-TO-CATHODE VOLTS= 1/6 E
VOLTS PER SUCCEEDING STAGE=1/12 E
ANODE-TO-DYNODE No. 10 VOLTS=1/12 E
FOCUSING-ELECTRODE VOLTAGE ADJUSTED FOR
MAXIMUM ANODE CURRENT.

3
Z

9
8
6
" UNSTABLE-.......'
4

2
'r---... I V'
0 I
Z 4 6 8 Z 4 6 B 2 4 6 B
10 100 1000
LUMINOUS SENSITIVITY-
AMPERES / LUMEN
92CS-9841T

6 8 2 4 6 8 24
400 1000 2000
ANODE-TO-CATHODE SUPPLY VOLTS (El
92CM-9839T

---._._----.---- - ... ----.~--.---~-


168 RCA Phototube Manual

TEN-STAGE, head-on, spherical-faceplate type having


S-l1 response. Wavelength of maximum response is
7746 4400 ± 500 angstroms. This type makes use of
copper-beryllium dynodes and a spherical-circular,
MULTIPLIER cesium-antimony, semitransparent photocathode.
PHOTOTUBE Window material is Corning No. 0080 lime glass or
equivalent. Tube weighs approximately 6 ounces and
has a non-hygroscopic base.

DIRECT INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCES (Approx.):


Anode to Dynode No. 10 ..... . ................................. . 3.8 pf
Anode to All Other Electrodes ..................................... . 5.0 pf
Dynode No. 10 to All Other Electrodes ........................ . 6.5 pf

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Between anode and cathode ...... . ................ . 2500 max volts
Between anode and dynode No.1 0 ............................ . 400 max volts
Between consecutive dynodes ..... , ............................. . 300 max volts
Between dynode No. 1 and cathode ............................ . 600 max volts
Between focusing electrode and cathode ....................... . 600 max volts
Average Anode Current ...................... . 2 max rna
Ambient Temperature .. ................ . 75 max °C
TYPICAL ANODE CHARACTERISTICS
40
TYPE 7746 DYNODE-No.I-TO-CATHODE
6
VOLTS = 160
V DYNODE - No.l- TO- DYNODE-No.2

(J) 30
./' VOLTS = 110
VOLTS PER SUCCEEDING
w STAGE = 80
Il::
W LIGHT FLUX MICROLUMENS=4 FOCUSING-ELECTRODE VOLTAGE
n.
::;; ADJUSTED FOR MAXIMUM
« V ANODE CURRENT.
~ 20 ./
':e
::;;
w
Cl

--
o 2.
z
« 10
I

o 100 200 300 400


ANODE-TO-DYNODE - No.IO VOLTS 92CM-I0596T1

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
DC Supply Voltage" ....................... . 2000 1500 1000 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4400 angstroms) ... . 960,000 150,000 4800 a/w
Cathode Radiant Sensitivity (at 4400
angstroms). . ..................... . 0.056 0.056 0.056 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity** ..................... . 1200 130 6 a/1m
Cathode Luminous Sensitivity:
With tungsten light source+ ........... . 70 70 70 /La/1m
With blue light source++ .......... . 0.05 min /La/1m
Current Amplification (in millions) .. . 17 1.8 0.086
Equivalent Anooe-Dark-Current Input at
25°C at luminous sensitivity of:
230 a/1m .............................. . 3.5 max nlm
20 a/1m .............................. . 2.5 max nlm
6 a/1m .............................. . 0.5 nlm
Equivalent Noise Inputt ................... . 6 4 5 plm
Anode-Pulse Rise Time ..................... . 2 nsee
Pulse Height Resolutiontt ................. . 8.5 per cent
Greatest Delay Between Anode Pulses:
With radiation spot (centered on tlibe
face) having a diameter of
1-5/32 inch ....................... . 0.3 nsee
1-19/32 inch ....................... . 0.5 nsee
*DC supply voltage (E) is connected across a voltage divider which provides voltages as
shown by the accompanying table. The focusing-electrode voltage is adjusted to that value
which provides maximum anode current.
Technical Data 169

··With light input of 0.1 microlumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color
temperature of 2870oK. The range of luminous sensitivity is 200 to 6000 a/1m at 2000 volts;.
23 to 680 a/1m at 1500 volts; and 1 to 30 a/1m at 1000 volts.
+With light input of 0.01 lumen from a tungsten-filament lamp operated at a color tempera-
ture of 2870 0 K; 200 volts applied between photocathode and all other electrodes connected as
anode.
++Same conditions as (+), but a blue filter is used (Corning 5-58, glass code No. 5113, polished
to y" stock thickness).
tAt tube temperature of 25°C and with external shield connected to cathode; bandwidth is
equal to 1 cycle per second. A tungsten-filament light source at a color temperature of 2870 0 K
is interrupted at a low audio frequency to produce incident radiation pulses alternating be-
tween zero and the value pta ted. The Hon" period is equal to the "off" period.
ttMeasured with supply voltage equal to 1200 to 1300 volts; radiation source is an isotope of
cesium having an atomic mass of 137 (CS137); scintillation counter crystal is a cylindrical
2- by 2-inch thallium-activated sodium-iodide type.

VOLTAGE TO BE PROVIDED BY DIVIDER


8.06% of Supply
Between Volts (E)
multiplied by

Cathode and Dynode No.1 2


Dynode No.1 and Dynode No. 2 1.4
Dynode No.2 and Dynode No.3 1
Dynode No.3 and Dynode No.4 1
Dynode No. 4 and Dynode No.5 1
Dynode No.5 and Dynode No.6 1
Dynode No. 6 and Dynode No.7 1
Dynode No. 7 and Dynode No.8 1
Dynode No.8 and Dynode No.9 1
Dynode No.9 and Dynode No. 10 1
Dynode No. 10 and Anode 1
Anode and Cathode 12.4

Focusing electrode is connected to arm of potentiometer


between cathode and dynode No. 1. The focusing-electrode
voltage is varied to give maximum anode current.

MEDIUM-SHELL
DIHEPTAL
NOTE: Incident radiation is into end of 14-PIN BASE
bulb. .,JEDEC GROUP 5,
No. B14-38
170 RCA Phototube Manual

TYPICAL ANODE -CURRENT SENSITIVITY AND CURRENT


CHARACTERISTIC AMPLIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS
TYPE 7746 TYPE 7746
....2 DYNODE-No.I-TO-CATHODE VOLTS =200
DYNODE-No.I-TO-DYNODE-No.2 VOLTS =140
THE SUPPLY VOLTAGE (El ACROSS VOLTAGE
DIVIDER WHICH PROVIDES VOLTAGES AS
W VOLTS PER SUCCEEDING DYNODE STAGE SHOWN IN THE ACCOMPANYING TABLE.
II:
II: EXCEPT FOR DYNODE-No.5 STAGE = 100
::> FOCUSING-ELECTRODE VOLTAGE ADJUSTED 107 lOll
(,)
FOR MAXIMUM ANODE CURRENT. 6 6
w ANODE IS AT GROUND POTENTIAL. 4 4
gloo8 2 2
2 6
<t 4 106 1010
/ "\ - 6 6
~ 2 '" 4
0
4

!i 108 g 2 2
-' 6 "'105 109
w
II:
4
V '\. ~ 6 6
2 ::e 4 4
./ r---.. ~ 2 2
-700 -650 -600 -550 -500 104 108 2
DYNODE-No.5 VOLTS
(REFERRED TO ANODE) 92CS-10598T
38 ~
2
6
4
2
Q
!:i
!d
;103 107~
W 6 S "-
TYPICAL ANODE-DARK-CURRENT ~ 4 4 ::e
CHARACTERISTIC <t
~ 2 2
TYPE 7746 [3102 ~ ",{J 106li;
LUMINOUS SENSITIVITY IS VARIED BY AD- II: 6 fy-iF' 0~ 6 W
JUSTMENT OF THE SUPPLY VOLTAGE ~ 4 OJ {('< 4 IE
(E) ACROSS VOLTAGE DIVIDER WHICH
::e 2 ,::,~ RV ",oJ. 2
::>
(,)
PROVIDES VOLTAGES AS SHOWN IN
THE ACCOMPANYING TABLE. <t 10 :f>~ ~~ ",~'J 105
I
~.
TUBE TEMPERATURE = 25° C 6 -

"
I-- 6
~ 4 4
8
8 ~ 2-
v,'l'<
....oJ.
OJ
~
<:- 2
6
!::I '7 ~ ~ 104
~ 6 ,,0 ~'" s
....oJ.'l ",4;
2 ~ 4 .~ ~ 4
9 f'. /' 2 ,;;~ 2
8
6 10"1 1>~ 103
6
4 rr I---> -$ 6
4
2 1/
2
10-2 / ~02
10'0 7 8 9 6 2 4 6 8 24
2 468 2 468 2 468 2 468 2 468
0.1 I 10 10 2 103 10 4 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
LUMINOUS SENSITIVITY - ANODE-TO-CATHODE SUPPLY VOLTS ~)
92CM-I0597TI
AMPERES/LUMEN 92CS-10593T1

TYPICAL FOCUSING-ELECTRODE-
VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTIC
....z
W TYPE 7746
(,)
FOCUSING-ELECTRODE VOLTAGE IS VARIED
II: BY ADJUSTMENT OF POTENTIOMETER
W
"- CONNECTED BETWEEN DYNODE No.1
I AND CATHODE.
!zw 100 /' -.......
II:
II:
fl 60
/
W
o
~ 60 I
<t
W
;::: 40
!:i
I
-' 20
W
II: 0 20 40 60 60 100
FOCUSING-ELECTRODE VOLTAGE-PER CENT
OF DYNODE No.I-TO-CATHODE VOLTS
92CS-I0590T
Technical Data 171

SIX-STAGE, head-on, flat-faceplate type having S-l1


response. Wavelength of maximum response is 4400
± 500 angstroms. This type makes use of copper- 7764
beryllium dynodes and a curved-circular cesium- MULTIPLIER
antimony, semitransparent photocathode. Window
material is Corning No. 0080 lime glass or equivalent. PHOTOTUBE
Tube weighs approximately 0.6 ounce.

DIRECT INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCES (Approx.):


Anode to Dynode No.6 ................................•..•.•..•••• 1.8 pf
Anode to All Other Electrodes ..................................... . 2.8 pf
Dynode No. 6 to all Other Electrodes ............................. . 3.7 pf

MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute-Maximum Values):


Supply Voltage (DC or Peak AC):
Between anode and cathode _ .................................. . 1500 max volts
Between anode and dynode No.6 ............................. . 250 max volts
Between consecutive dynodes .................................. . 200 max volts
Between dynode No. 1 and cathode ............................ . 400 max volts
Average Anode Current ........................................... . 0.5 max ma
Ambient Temperature ............................................. . 75 max °C

TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
DC Supply Voltage' .............................................. .. 1200 volts
Radiant Sensitivity (at 4400 angstroms) .......... '.... . .......... . 240 a/w
Cathode Radiant Sensitivity (at 4400 angstroms) ................... . 0.048 a/w
Luminous Sensitivity** ............................................ . 0.3 a/1m
Cathode Luminous Sensitivity:
With tungsten light source-> ................................... . 60 /La/1m
With blue light source++ ..................................... . 0.06 /La
Current Amplification ........... , ..... , ........................... . 6000
Equivalent Anode-Dark-Current Input at 25°C at
luminous 'sensitivity of 0.3 a/1m ................................ . 30 max