1 | Ì s l a m i c L a w N o t e s _ c o m p i l e d b y C h a M e n d o z a

ÌSLAMÌC LAW Class notes
*complled from lce 8aaullaL's and mv noLes

!7elimina7ies:
lSLAMlC LAW ls Lermed 5botl´ob ln ArablcŦ 1he Lerm llLerallv means ºÞaLh
Lo Lhe waLerlna place"ţ and ls Lhe LoLallLv of CCu's laws aovernlna manŦ As
suchţ 5botl´ob ls sald Lo applv Lo a Musllm from blrLh Lo deaLhţ from hls
personal Lo hls communal llfeţ ln Lhls world and ln Lhe hereafLerŦ
1he purpose of Sharlah ls Lo flll human
llfe wlLh vlrLues (Mo´tofob)
and cleanse lL of vlces (Mookotob)Ŧ
Lega| p|ura||sm ls Lhe exlsLence of mulLlple leaal svsLems wlLhln one
aeoaraphlc areaŦ Þlural leaal svsLems are parLlcularlv prevalenL ln former
colonlesţ where Lhe law of a former colonlal auLhorlLv mav exlsL alonaslde
more LradlLlonal leaal svsLemsŦ When Lhese svsLems developedţ Lhe ldea
was LhaL cerLaln lssues (eŦaŦ Commerclal Law 1ransacLlons) would be
covered bv colonlal lawţ whlle oLher lssues (eŦaŦ lamllv and Marrlaae)
would be covered bv LradlLlonal lawŦ Cver Llmeţ Lhese dlsLlncLlons Lended
Lo break down and lndlvlduals would choose Lo brlna Lhelr leaal clalms
under Lhe svsLem LhaL Lhev LhouahL would offer Lhem Lhe besL advanLaaeŦ

lurisprudenceť
urlsprudence LranslaLes as lob ln Arablcţ and refers Lo Lhe process of
derlvlna Sharl'ah norms or udamenLs (nokm 5botl´ob) from Sharl'ah
Lvldence or Sources (AJlllob 5botl´ob)Ŧ

lob allows Sharl'ah Lo be dvnamlc and responslve Lo Lhe leaal needs of
Lhe chanalna Musllm socleLvŦ

ifference of 5hori´oh ond lioh
Sharl'ah orlalnaLes from dlvlne knowledae (llm)Ť lob lssues from Lhe
[udlclal lnference of leaal experLsŤ
Sharl'ah covers all human acLlonsŤ lob deals onlv wlLh whaL ls commonlv
known as leaal acLsŤ
Sharl'ah lnvolves sancLlons on earLh and Lhe hereafLerŤ lob ls llmlLed Lo
Lemporal remedles and punlshmenLs

l´tlooJob Ŵ uocLrlnes of lalLh
lboJob Ŵ AcLs of worshlp
AJob Ŵ LLhlcsţ Moral Ǝ Soclal norms Ǝ 8ehavlor
Moommolob Ŷ Clvll Ǝ Commerclal 1ransacLlons
uoobob Ŷ Cffenses and ÞunlshmenLs

ln Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ Lhe Code of Musllm Þersonal Laws onlv affecLs
Muammalah onlvŦ

5ources of ls/omic Low?
Ŧ 1he PCL? Cu8'An
2Ŧ 1he 5uNNAn of Lhe ÞropheL Muhammad
ƽ Oowl ť uLLerances (also called noJltb)
ƽ l´ll ť AcLlon
ƽ 1ootlt ť Sllenceţ lnacLlon
3Ŧ ulfferenL lorms of lI1lnAu
ƽ ljmo ť Croup ljtlboJ of Lhe fooobo/olomo
ƽ Olvos ť Analoalcal ljtlboJ
ƽ lstlbsoo ť urlsLlc preferenceţ equlLv
ƽ lstlslob ť Þubllc welfare or aood
ƽ lstlsbob ť ÞresumpLlon of conLlnulLv

ukť CusLom or ln local parlanceţ oJobţ oJot or oJJot
AlŴA5nA8 wo lŴNA2A´lkť Leaal Maxlms
5nAk MAN OA8lANAť Þrlor 8evelaLlons

lll£k£Nc£5 8£1w££N l5L4Mlc L4w 4N clvlL L4w
1he basls of lslamlc Law ls dlvlne revelaLlonŤ Lhe basls of Clvll Law ls Lhe
ConsLlLuLlonŦ
lslamlc Law ls expounded bv wav of lnLerpreLaLlons bv urlsLs of Lhe baslc
sourcesţ Lhe Polv Cur'an and Lhe SunnahŤ Clvll Law ls expounded bv
lealslaLlonŦ
lslamlc Law Lranscends Lhe Lemporal lnLo Lhe splrlLualŤ Clvll Law remalns ln
Lhe realm of Lhe LemporalŦ

4PPLlc48lLl1Y PkOvl5lON5 lN PŦŦ 108l
ArLŦ 3 (3) 1he provlslons of Lhls Code shall be appllcable onlv Lo Musllms
and noLhlna hereln shall be consLrued Lo operaLe Lo Lhe pre[udlce of a
nonŴMusllmŦ
ArLŦ 3 () 1he provlslons of Lhls 1lLle shall applv Lo marrlaae and dlvorce
whereln boLh parLles are Musllmsţ or whereln onlv Lhe male parLv ls a
Musllm and Lhe marrlaae ls solemnlzed ln accordance wlLh Musllm law or
Lhls Code ln anv parL of Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŦ
*noLeť
ConfllcL beLween CMÞL and Clvll Code ƹ CMÞL Þrevalls
ConfllcL beLween CMÞL and speclal laws ƹ Speclal laws llberallv consLrued
Lo carrv ouL CMÞLŦ
CMÞL has llmlLed appllcablllLv ƹ Cnlv applles Lo Musllms

*Conslders Lhe ffŦ sourcesť
Ŧ Þrlmarv Sources of Musllm Law
2Ŧ SLandard Works and 1reaLlses on Musllm law and [urlsprudence

cMPL
ŴenacLed
Ŵ3 ConsLlLuLlon appllcable Lhen
Ŵlook aL purposes of Lhe codeť Lhe 3 ConsLl clLed
Ŵlf relaLe Lo consLlLuLlonţ relaLe Lo arLlcle 2 secLlon 22 (?)ţ ArL
secLlon (perLlnenL consLl provlslons relaLlna Lo enacLmenL or
codlflcaLlon of CMÞL)
ŴArLŦ 2ť secLlon now replacedŦŦŦso updaLe vour coples
ao Lo leLLer ať for purposes of slLuaLlna Musllm personal law w/n
Þhlllpplne Law
(so Musllm law now parL of Þhlllpplne lawť absoluLe or quallfled?)
Soť does Lhe Þhlllpplne does absoluLe dlvorceť 1 or l? Sl slr 1ť
because we have absoluLe dlvorce under CMÞL whlch ls now parL
of Lhe law of Lhe land (so quallfv vour answer)
Ŵso absoluLe or quallfled? Cuallfledť Cnlv ÞL8SCnAL LAWS (see leLLer b
and c)
ŴrecoanlLlon of Lhe leaal svsLem of Musllms ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes has Lo be
qualllfed Lo Þersonal LawŦ Whv menLlon leaal svsLem of Musllmsť when
vou lnLerpreL Lhe Þersonal laws of Musllmsţ refer Lo Musllm lawsŦ Þlus
refer Lo leaal svsLem of MuSLlMS ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes (whlch ls focused on
Lhelr own ÞL8SCnAL LAW)
ŦŦŦlf vou look aL 8A ť C8CAnlC LAW Cl A8MM
1rv Lo look for lL and sLudv SecLlon ţ ArLlcle ť Lhe wav Lhe
secLlons are subdlvldedţ lL ls slmllar Lo Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
CusLomsţ 1radlLlonsŦŦŦ1he SharlƌahC shall have [urlsdlcLlon over
cases lnvolvlna ÞL8SCnALţ lAMlL? and Þ8CÞL81? 8elaLlons and
Commerclal LransacLlons ln addlLlonal Lo [urlsdlcLlon over
C8lMlnAL Cases lnvolvlna Musllms (so more exLenslve Lhan Lhe
CMÞL)
ŦŦŦreconclle Lhls wlLh provlslons of CMÞLť
O A8MM Craanlc AcL onlv applv Lo Musllms ln
A8MM
1PL8Lƌs also an ArLlcle on Lhe uulClA8?ť ArL ť odd because lL
savs Lhere LhaL ln Lhe evenL of confllcL beLween provlslons of
Musllm law and 1rlbal lawţ Lhe laLLer shall prevall (18l8AL LAW
Þ8LvAlLS)Ŧ 1hls ls odd because Lhe parLlcular usuallv prevalls over
Lhe aeneralŦ SoŦŦŦhuh?
ŦŦŦŦlf vou look aL C8CAnlC LAW Cl A8MM vŦ CMÞLť CMÞL can be
classlfled as a naLlonal law and C8CAnlC AC1 Cl A8MM can be
consldered a law of local appllcaLlonť how Lo reconclleť
O lnLerpreL lL so LhaL CMÞL would applv
O no law veL on commerclal LransacLlonsţ as well as
crlmlnal llablllLv lnvolvlna Musllms Ŵ even ln
A8MM Ŵso dlfflculL Lo applv Lhe A8MM C8CAnlC
AC1 and no confllcL as of now

Const7:ction and inte7p7etation of M:slim Laws
ŴCMÞLť Þrlmarv sources of Musllm Law
ŴA8MM Lawť SecLlon 23ť Speclfledť Curanţ Sunnahţ Plvasţ ŦŦŦŦ(anoLher
oneŦŦŦ)

LEVELS of legal capacity
1he embrvo / feLusŤ
ChlldhoodŤ
ulscernmenLŤ
ÞuberLvŤ and
MaLurlLv Ŷ aae of (f) and (m) żPanlfasŽ C8 (m/f) żShafl'lesŽ

Legal pe7sonality
urldlcal and
CapaclLv Lo acL

urldlcalť defecLlve and perfecLed
2 | Ì s l a m i c L a w N o t e s _ c o m p i l e d b y C h a M e n d o z a
uefecLlveť durlna concepLlon
ÞerfecLedť uurlna blrLh

Limitations to capacity to act:
Ŧ aae
2Ŧ lnsanlLv
3Ŧ lmbeclllLv
Ŧ sLaLe of belna deafŴmuLe
Ŧ condlLlon of deaLhŴlllness (maradŴulŴmauL)
6Ŧ penalLv
Ŧ prodlaallLv
Ŧ absence
Ŧ famllv relaLlons
Ŧ allenaae
Ŧ lnsolvencv
2Ŧ LrusLeeshlp

8ŦAŦ 6 places ma[orlLv aae aL Ŧ
Cenerallv speaklnaţ Lhe aae of Aooll 8ollooe ln lslam ls vearsŦ
Womanť when she mensLruaLesŤ as earlv as vears old
Manť when he reaches lbtllomŤ as earlv as 2 vears oldŦ

CondlLlon of deaLhŴlllness (maradŴulŴmauL) ls unlque Lo CMÞLŦ
ueaLh lllness ls deflned as lllness from whlch deaLh ls ordlnarllv
apprehended ln mosL casesţ provlded ln Lhe parLlcular case ln quesLlonţ lL
has acLuallv ended ln deaLhŦ 8uL lf Lhe dlsease be of lona sLandlna and
does noL lncrease from dav Lo dav LhaL deaLh mav be apprehended from lL
or does noL ulLlmaLelv end ln deaLhţ lL wlll noL be reaarded as deaLhŴlllnessŦ
*WhaL ls deaLhŴlllness (SecLlon 2ţ lndlan Law) ls an lllness whlch ends
faLallv provlded LhaL Ŷ
Ŵ1here ls ptoxlmote Joooet of deaLhŤ
Ŵ1here ls sobjectlve opptebeosloo ln Lhe mlnd of Lhe paLlenLŤ
Ŵ1here are extetool loJlclo (eŦaŦ ablllLv Lo sav pravers or do ordlnarv work)

Cont7aception
ArL CMÞLť no dlsLlncLlon for chlldren wlLh lnLrauLerlne llfe of less Lhan
monLhs
8uL nCC provldes dlsLlncLlon
lf born allve
Þlus allve 2 hours afLer

Þremlseť lL ls Lhe rlahL of a man Lo have an offsprlna
Panaflť ºlL ls forbldden for a woman Lo cloa her uLerus wlLhouL Lhe consenL
of Lhe husbandţ [usL as lL ls forbldden for a man Lo pracLlce colLus
lnLerrupLus wlLhouL her consenL"
Panballť okav Lo Lake medlcaLlons Lo lnduce mensLruaLlon (buL wlLh
consenL of husband)
ÞermanenL conLracepLlon ls forblddenţ even lf husband consenLsţ because
lL conLravenes one of Lhe flve ends of Lhe Sharl'ah for Lhe peopleť Lo
proLecL Lhelr llneaae (oosl)Ŧ

ConLracepLlonť counLeracLs concepLlon
vsŦ AborLlon (whlch ls prohlblLed)

lslams allow conLracepLlonť leaallzed laLer ln lslamlc law
8uL 2 condlLlonsť
Ŧ When a man does lLţ he should do so w/ wlfeƌs permlsslon
(muLual) Ŵ whvť vour parLner mav wanL a chlld Ŵ vlse versa
2Ŧ lL should noL resulL Lo permanenL sLerlllLvť vou sLlll
capable of bearlna Lhe chlld

Abo7tion
MosL [urlsLs aaree on Lhe sancLlLv of llfe and of Lhe feLus
ulsaareemenLť lack of preclse deflnlLlon of when llfe bealns
lnLenLlonal aborLlon noL ln Cur'an
Lack of sclenLlflc lnformaLlon alsoŤ Lhusţ Lhese varlous LesLsť
WCn Lhe feLus has a human shape alreadv when lL ls expelled
WCn Lhe expelled Llssue dlssolves ln waLer
WCn ţ ţ or 2 davs have alreadv lapsed (ensoulmenL)
lrom Lhe verv polnL of concepLlon
Panaflť aborLlon allowed lf lL ls Lo save moLher's llfeţ even lf lL ls durlna Lhe
lasL davs of Lhe preanancv
8u1 some rullnas have allowed aborLlon for reasons of poverLv

lslamlc law does noL allow aborLlonŦ
A chlld upon concepLlon alreadv has a defecLlve [urldlcal capaclLvŦ So had lL
been born laLerţ enLlLled Lo cerLaln rlahLs upon perfecLlon of [urldlcal
capaclLvŦ So upon concepLlonţ consldered as havlna capaclLvŦ
So under lslamlc Lawţ ls AborLlon allowed and are Lhere excepLlonsť
lslam allows lLť lf Lhereƌs danaer ln Lhe moLherƌs llfeŦ 8LAL Anu
LMMlnLn1 uAnCL8 CL81lllLu 8? A ÞP?SlClAn! ÞLuS ÞL8lCu
8u1 ulllL8Sť
MoLherť perfecLed [urldlcal capaclLv
leLusť uefecLlve [urldlcal capaclLv

SPAllť MCn1P Cl Þ8LCnAnC?
ŦŦŦť 8lCP1 Al1L8 CCnCLÞ1lCn
PAnAllS (MCS1 Ll8L8AL)ť AS LCnC AS 1PL lL1uS PAS nC1 8LACPLu
MCn1PS

A8C81lCn ALLCWLu 1C SAvL 1PL LllL Cl 1PL MC1PL8Ŧ So ln Lhe 2nd
caseţ [usLlfled as lona as done before Lh monLhŦ As Lo Lhe flrsL caseţ noL
emlnenL danaer due Lo chlld blrLh so cannoL aborL + laapas monLhsŦ
Cholce ls alven Lo Lhe couple Lo proceed Lo Lhe ChemoLheraphv Ŵ buL noL
Lhe cholce Lo aborL!
lslam puLs emphasls on Lhe preservaLlon of llfeŦ

ArL ţ paraaraph 2ť sLandard LreaLlses and works of musllm law

Þlease Lake noLe LhaL afLer [urldlcal capaclLvŦŦŦ
CapaclLv Lo acLť
Ŧ 8esLrlcLedť embrvo
2Ŧ lullť upon blrLh

Concept of Necessity
necesslLv (1ototob)ť one LhaL would allow a lesser evll over a areaLer evllŦ
Ŵhow applledť ln lnsLances where Lhe Musllms are lefL wlLh verv few
cholces (socleLv whlch ls noL lslam frlendlv)
eŦaŦ
aŦ When Musllms pravţ we ao ln a sLaLe of purlflcaLlonŦ lf
afLer vou prav and vou have Lo ao prav afLerwardsţ vou
donƌL need Lo ao aaaln ln Lhe sLaLe of purlflcaLlon lf lL was
noL voldedŦ 8uL lf vou have been LalnLed (purlflcaLlon
volded) buL vou donƌL have means Lo aaaln purlfv
vourselfţ 1arurah would allow vou Lo sLlll pravŦ
bŦ ln marrlaaes where Musllm woman + nonmusllm Manţ
noL converLed + lslamlc Marrlaaeť allowed under 1ototob
ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes
cŦ Allowed Lo eaL pork lf no oLher food Lo eaL and he would
dle
dŦ AborLlon ln lslamť Allowed ln lnsLances when Lhere would
be danaer ln Lhe llfe of Lhe moLher
ConLracepLlonť prevenLlon of preanancv
O no llfe lnvolved veLŦ Llfe onlv exlsLs upon
preanancv
AborLlonť exLracLlon of Lhe feLus from Lhe moLher
O lnvolves llfe alreadv
*lslam allows conLracepLlonť Musllm Medlcal
pracLlLloners were alreadv Lalklna abouL conLracepLlve
meLhods whlch Lhe women could use Lo prevenL
preanancv (luu)Ŧ lL ls allowed because lf vou look ln Lhe
marrlaae ln lslamţ Cod dld noL make lL obllaaLorv for
marrled musllm couples Lo have chlldrenŦ Pavlna Chlldren
(number of chlldren) ls Lhe dlscreLlon of Lhe coupleŦ 8uL
once vou have chlldrenţ vou cannoL Lake Lhelr llvesŦ
*WPA1 A8L 1PL8LlC8L 1PL LlMl1S Cl CCn18ACLÞ1lCnť
sLarLed wlLh Lhe wlLhdrawal concepL (Azol)Ŧ 1he loalc
Lhereforeţ lf vou allow wlLhdrawalţ Lhen oLher meLhods
for prevenLlna preanancv should be alllowedŦ 8uL even lf
vou are allowed Lo pracLlce conLracepLlve meLhodsţ lf lL
would resulL Lo permanent ster|||tyţ lL ls noL allowedŦ
8ecause Lhls kllls vour chances of havlna chlldrenŦ
(vasecLomvţ Lubal llaaLlon) Ŵ unless medlcal reasons LhaL
would allow lL
* MLulCAL 8LASCnS whlch would allow aborLlonť lf Lhe
preanancv would resulL Lo Lhe deaLh of Lhe
moLherŦŦŦ(alreadv dlscussed lasL meeLlna) Ŵ MoLher
alreadv has full personallLv vsŦ leLus (defecLlve)
* 8ecenLlv howeverţ lncluded Lhe followlna exempLlons
from prohlblLlon on aborLlonť
O Chlld ls a chlld of rapeţ especlallv ln Llmes of war
(eŦaŦ ln 8osnla)
3 | Ì s l a m i c L a w N o t e s _ c o m p i l e d b y C h a M e n d o z a
O lf Lhere ls a danaer LhaL Lhe chlld would be
deformed
*Jen can vou allow aborLlonť 3 vlews ln lslam
Ŧ Mallklť once ferLlllzaLlon seLs lnţ Lhen can no
lonaer aborL lL (mlnorlLv vlew)
2Ŧ Panballť 8ealns when chlld reaches davs ln Lhe
womb of Lhe moLher
3Ŧ More llberal vlewť 8ealns afLer 2 davs (
monLhs)
Ŵreasonť refer Lo Lhe Curan and Lhe hadls
(pronouncemenL of Lhe propheL)
C32 vŴ
nsou|mentť breaLhed lnLo hlm someLhlna of Pls
splrlL
So san nakalaaav una ƍensoulmenLƍť ln Paddl
O 1he feLus sLarLs as a ferLlllzed
ovum ln Lhe uLerus of Lhe
moLher and sLavs Lhere for
davsţ Lhen lL arows lnLo a cloL for
davsţ Lhen lL Lurns lnLo a
morsel of flesh for davs (now
2)ţ Lhen an anael ls senL Lo
LhaL feLus Lo blow Lhe splrlL lnLo
lL
O 8uL noLe LhaL Lhe aborLlon ls onlv allowed for
valld reasons (1AkukAn) + w/n Lhe speclflc
perlod (8LlC8L 2 uA?S)
O WPL8L LnSCuLMLn1 CAML l8CMť Lhose [urlsL
depended on Lhe Curan and Lhe words of Lhe
[urlsLsŤ noL sclenLlflc basls veL Lhen buL recenLlvţ
Lhere are recenL sclenLlflc flndlnasť
Cn Week of Lhe developmenL of Lhe
feLusţ Llnv alr sacs called Aveoll forms on
Lhe feLusŦ 1he babv ls approxŦ 6 ƍŦ ChesL
moves up and down Lo mlmlc breaLhlnaŦ
ƹ proof of ensoulmenL because whaL
marks Lhe deaLh of Lhe person? When
vou sLop breaLhlnaŦ

May a fet:s inhe7it?
?LSţ provldedť
1haL lL ls cerLaln LhaL Lhe feLus ls ln Lhe womb of hls moLher aL Lhe Llme of
Lhe deaLh of Lhe decedenLŤ and
1haL lL be born allveţ however brleflvţ aL Lhe Llme lL ls compleLelv dellvered
from Lhe moLher's womb (ArLŦ ţ CMÞL)

leLus has a personallLv so lona as lL ls born allveţ howeverţ brleflvţ aL Lhe
Llme lL ls compleLelv dellvered from Lhe moLherƌs wombŦ

*ueaLh exLlnaulshes clvll personallLvŦ
vrs Lo be declared presumpLlvelv dead

Aae of puberLvť deLermlnes full en[ovmenL of capaclLv Lo acL
So does Lhls mean LhaL Lhe mlnor would be llable crlmlnallv?
S1lLL nC?
8ÞCť under ţ mlnor so noL crlmlnallv llable
(noLe LhaL CnL? ÞL8SCnAL LAW Cl MuSLlMS 8LCCCnlZLu)

Slrť upon reachlna Lhe aae of puberLvţ a chlld can be sancLloned under
Musllm Laws (noLe noL 8ÞC)
Ŵupon reachlna aae of puberLvţ reach aae of reason (can dlsLlnaulsh rlahL
or wrona)
Ŵllable lf done someLhlna wronaţ rewarded lf done someLhlna rlahL
Can luLL CAÞACl1? 1C AC1 be resLrlcLed aaaln afLer reachlna aae of
Ma[orlLv? ?LSŦŦŦ
ŴLhere are acLuallv manv Llmes ln our llvesţ even lf we reach aae of
maLurlLvţ when our leaal capaclLv ls resLrlcLedť
O Awarldť resLrlcLlons
lŦ 8v naLureť mlnorlLvţ lnsanlLvţ ldlocvţ maLurlLv of Lhe
mlndţ foraeLfullnessţ slumberţ falnLlnaţ dlsease
affecLlna Lhe mlndţ deaLh lllnessţ mensLruaLlonţ
drunkenness (?)
MensLruaLlonť Lhe blood ls uncleanţ noL Lhe
woman
ŴresLrlcLlon acLuallv ls noL as Lo clvll acLsţ buL
splrlLual acLs (fasLţ noL allowed Lo prav Ŵ should
make up for Lhe mlssed splrlLual acLs)
CuPAL? 1akes a baLh afLer mensLruaLlon
ŴwhaL clvll capaclLv resLrlcLed bv mensLruaLlonť
Jlvotce bv toloo
llŦ 8v man hlmselfť lnLoxlcaLlonţ lanoranceţ [esLţ
coerclonţ Lravelllna (pecullar Lo Musllm law Ŵ
need noL fasL lf Lravelllna so resLrlcLlon on
capablllLv Lo fasL) Ŵ buL noL compulsorv
Ŵ
O Arldhť plural

MARRÌAGE
Suppose boLh couples are nonmusllmŦ Marrled under Clvll law ln Ŧ
SubsequenLlvţ boLh are converLed Lo lslamŦ WhaL law aovern Lhelr
marrlaaeť
4 Aţ CMÞLť
rtŦ 178Ŧ €€ect o€ convers|on to Is|am on marr|ageŦ Ÿ
1e convers|on o€ nonŴMus||m spouses to Is|am sa||
ave te |ega| e€€ect o€ rat|€y|ng te|r marr|age as |€ te
same ad been per€ormed |n accordance w|t te
prov|s|ons o€ t|s Code or Mus||m |awţ prov|ded tat
tere |s no |ega| |mped|ment to te marr|age under
Mus||m |awŦ
4 1hev aoL marrled when CMÞL alreadv ln LffecLŦ So Lhe
CMÞL would now applv Lo Lhem as lf Lhev aoL marrled
under Musllm law?
lf Lhev aoL marrled before effecLlvlLv of CMÞL + Clvll marrlaaeť SLlll nCC
4 WhaL operaLes ls WPLn 1PL? CCnvL81Luť lf Lhev aoL
marrled earllerţ and Lhen converLed laLer when Lhe law
was noL veL appllcableţ CMÞL SLlll would noL applv!
4 WhaL lf Lhev wanL a Musllm marrlaaeţ do Lhev sLlll have Lo
do someLhlna else? 2 vlews (no flrm answer Lo Lhls Ŵ buL
dependlna on how Lo araue)
O Allow law Lo reLroacLť so as lf marrled under Musllm
marrlaae (slr prefers Lhls vlew)
O Law applles prospecLlvelvŤ problem ls lL mav be
posslble LhaL some oLher persons would be
[eopardlzed (eŦaŦ Successlonal rlahLs)ť so aeL
marrled under Musllm marrlaae lf Lhev wanL Lo
aeL marrled under Musllm laws (buL slr sald LhaL
Lhls vlew mav be deemed more valld bv SC)
O 1M- Cť
laLher of Abdel 1amano marrled Lwlce (Lo Lwo Musllms)ţ alleaedlv
under Clvll rlahLsŦ llrsL wlfe alleaed LhaL Lhe Lwo marrlaaes were
celebraLed under clvll rlahLsţ flled complalnL for nulllflcaLlon of Lhe
2nd marrlaae before Lhe 81C for belna blaamousŦ M1u flled bv
2nd wlfeţ savlna Musllm marrlaae was celebraLedţ so 81C does noL
have [urlsdlcLlon Ŵ all of Lhem were MusllmsŦ CourL held LhaL 81C
has [urlsdlcLlon over marrlaae dlspuLesţ and Lhe alleaaLlon ln Lhe
M1u does noL dlvesL Lhe courL of [urlsdlcLlonŦ 8esldesţ lL was onlv
belaLedlv LhaL Lhe ÞeLlLloner ralsed Lhe facL LhaL Lhere was a
Musllm Marrlaae Lo dlvesL Lhe 81C of [urlsdlcLlon vsŦ Sharlƌa CourLsŦ
ŦŦŦAs Lo ArLŦ 3ţ Þu 3ť does noL provlde for a slLuaLlon where
Lhe parLles were marrled boLh ln clvll and Musllm rlLesŦ
ConsequenLlvţ Lhe sbotlƌo courLs are noL vesLed wlLh orlalnal and
excloslve [urlsdlcLlon when lL comes Lo marrlaaes celebraLed
under botb clvll and Musllm lawsŦ ConsequenLlvţ Lhe 8ealonal 1rlal
CourLs are noL dlvesLed of Lhelr aeneral orlalnal [urlsdlcLlon under
SecŦ ţ parŦ (6) of 8Þ 8laŦ 2Ŧ

*CenŦ 8uleť Maleƹ vrsŦ or olderŤ lemaleƹ aae of puberLvţ presumed Lo
aLLaln puberLv bv aae of Ŧ
LxcepLlonť Sharl'ah upon proper peLlLlon of wallţ so lona as more Lhan 2
and noL less Lhan Ŧ
8eLroLhal Marrlaae Lhrouah a wall bv a mlnor below Lhe prescrlbed aaes ƹ
annullable upon Lhe peLlLlon of elLher parLv wlLhln four vears afLer
aLLalnlna Lhe aae of puberLvţ provlded no volunLarv cohablLaLlon has Laken
place and Lhe wall who conLracLed Lhe marrlaae was oLher Lhan Lhe faLher
or paLernal arandfaLherŦ

Wallť auardlan of a female seeklna marrlaae
ŴnoL requlred lf alrl ls arown up and dlvorced (buL wall merelv acLs as an
aaenL ln ÞroperLv relaLlons)
Ŵhls consenL ls usuallv consldered as an essenLlal elemenL of Musllm
marrlaae
Ŵln all casesţ Lhe consenL of Lhe woman ls requlred

4 | Ì s l a m i c L a w N o t e s _ c o m p i l e d b y C h a M e n d o z a
A81 ť AuLhorlLv Lo solemnlze marrlaae
Compareť ArL vsŦ ArL
Ŵlncludes Lhe Wall (auardlan) of Lhe woman Lo be wedded who ls acLuallv
Lhe faLher or even Lhe arand faLherţ when sLlll allve and lf he knows how Lo
do lLŦ ln case he doesnƌLţ he can auLhorlze anoLher who ls compeLenL Lo
perform Lhe marrlaaeŦ lf noneţ Lhe Sharlƌa uC [udae allowed
Ŵlmmam/rellalous Leachersť Lralned Lo solemnlze marrlaae
Ŵusuallv lnvlLed over bv Lhe Wall
vsŦ lCť mas maramlna requlslLes (do CMÞL more llberal ln allowlna more
personsţ wlLhouL puLLlna Loo much resLrlcLlonsţ Lo solemnlze marrlaae)

P/oce of so/emnitotionť
ulfferencesť
Ŧ needs requesL ln clvll law lf Lhe marrlaae be conducLed ouLslde Lhe
place of solemnlzaLlonŦ under Lhe code of musllm personal lawţ Lhe
marrlaae mav be solemnlzed anvwhere Ŵ no requlslLe for LhaLŦ
2Ŧ 1he clvll realsLrar ln Lhe CMÞL ls Lhe clerk of courL of Lhe Sharlƌah CourL

Ow£k
Ŵalven Lo Lhe wlfeţ noL Lo Lhe wlfeƌs famllv
Ŵalven as a slan or respecL

Rest7ictions on ma77iage
ŴcounLlna of dearees dlfferenL ln relaLlves bv afflnlLv and relaLlves bv
consanaulnlLv
Ŵl alreadv reporLed Lhls before

Prohibition due to fosterooe
Ŵlssue on fosLeraaeť ln Curanlc verseţ onlv menLlons perlod when Lhe
lnfanL ls breasLfed Ŵ flrsL 2 vears of hls llfeŦ AfLer LhaLţ lL would noL work
anvmoreŦ 1he dlspuLe ls ln how manv Llmes Lhe lnfanL ls breasLfedŦ ln
CMÞLţ we speclfled LlmesŦ (shows lnLenLlon Lo LreaL Lhe chlld as oneƌs
chlldţ dl vuna naauLom lanaŦ ÞaLLern of reaularlLv would make vou Lhlnk
LhaL Lhe one who breasLfeds LreaLs Lhe chlld as her chlld)
Ŵalso applles Lo persons relaLed bv fosLeraae w/n same dearees prohlblLed
(eŦaŦ 8abv bov breasLfed bv a womanŦ 1he woman has a babv dauahLerŦ
1he Lwo cannoL be marrled)
8adaƌa ƹ MlLk
Ŵslmllar prohlblLlons as lC
ŴnoLe anoLher dlfferenceť Musllms are allowed Lo marrv even lf w/n 3rd
clvll dearee (can marrv flrsL couslns) Ŵ slmllar Lo old clvll code (whlch was
derlved from Spalnţ whlch was a former colonv of Musllms)

CLher resLrlcLlons found ln Curan and CMÞL
ArL 3ť Consldered 8A1lL marrlaaes
ArL 2ť conLracLed durlna Lhe perlod of ldda
ldda purposesť
O 1here mlahL sLlll be conclllaLlon ln case of dlvorce
O Avold confuslon of lssues
O lor convenlenceţ comforL of womanŦŦŦ
Cwn verslon of ldda ln lCť arL ť ln case of presumpLlve deaLhţ lC alves
perlod w/n whlch Lhe presenL spouse has Lo walL Lo aeL subsequenLlv
marrled

&Po/yoomyť
W Ceneral 8uleť Cne wlfe
W LxcepLlonť xxx unless he can deal wlLh Lhem wlLh equal companlonshlp
and [usL LreaLmenL as en[olned bv lslamlc law and onlv ln excepLlonal
casesŦ

Limitotionsť
W Lqual Companlonshlp
W usL LreaLmenL as en[olned bv lslamlc Law
W LxcepLlonal Cases
W Cnlv up Lo aL a Llme
Wldow
W Ceneral 8uleť
no subsequenL marrlaae
W LxcepLlonť
xxx unless she has observed an ƌldda of four monLhs and Len davs
counLed from Lhe daLe of Lhe deaLh of her husbandŦ

l4
Ŵƌldda ls Lhe perlod of walLlna prescrlbed for a woman whose marrlaae has
been dlssolved bv deaLh or bv dlvorce Lhe compleLlon of whlch shall
enable her Lo conLracL a new marrlaaeŦ
Ŵ1he 'ldda of a dlvorced woman whose mensLrual cvcle ls lrreaular or who
no lonaer mensLruaLes (lŦeŦ menopause) shall be Lhree lunar monLhsŦ
Anv marrlaae conLracLed wlLh a woman observlna her prescrlbed 'ldda
shall be consldered lrreaularŦ
Ŵlf preananLť
ŴShe mav remarrv wlLhln a reasonable Llme afLer dellvervŦ
ŴShe shall produce Lhe correspondlna deaLh cerLlflcaLeŦ

Arabanlť 1here ls a problem here lnasmuch as lL ls cusLomarv amona
llllplno Musllms noL Lo realsLer evenL such as deaLhŦ
Þroposed SoluLlonť Sworn sLaLemenLs of Lwo male wlLnesses who have
personal knowledae of Lhe facL of deaLh should sufflceŦ

lf she dellvered before Lhe explraLlon of four monLhs and Len davs counLed
form Lhe daLe of her husbandţ Lhe 'ldda ls noL from dellvervŦ lL ls upon Lhe
explraLlon of Lhe perlod of four monLhs and Len davsŦ
8easonť noL onlv for prevenLlna slmulaLlon of blrLh buL also for alvlna
due respecL Lo Lhe deceased husband and hls famllvŦ

SUBSEQUENT MARRÌAGES
*Ceneral 8uleť no subsequenL marrlaae
LxcepLlonť
Ŵ xxx unless she has observed an ƌldda of Lhree monLhlv courses counLed
from Lhe daLe of dlvorceŦ
Ŵ lf preananL aL Lhe Llme of Lhe dlvorceť she mav remarrv onlv afLer
dellvervŦ
LxcepLlon Lo Lhe LxcepLlonť Where lL ls lndublLable LhaL Lhe marrlaae has
noL been consummaLed when Lhe dlvorce was effecLedţ no ƌldda shall be
requlredŦ (ArLŦ 2 ż3Žţ CMÞL)

*SlLuaLlonť A wlfe has been Lhrlce repudlaLed (toloo bolo lobto) on Lhree
dlfferenL occaslons bv her husband
Ceneral 8uleť Pusband cannoL remarrv wlfe
LxcepLlonť xxx unless she shall have marrled anoLher person who dlvorces
her afLer consummaLlon of Lhe lnLervenlna marrlaae and Lhe explraLlon of
Lhe ƌlddaŦ
8eason for Þrovlslonť lL serves as a punlshmenL for Lhe husband ln order Lo
Leach oLher husbands noL Lo rush on dlvorceŦ
Marrlaae afLer 3 dlvorces (ArL 3)
Ŵwlfe 3x repudlaLed ln 3 dlfferenL occasslonsţ husband cannoL remarrv Lhe
woman unless Lhe woman ls flrsL marrled Lo anoLher man
ŴLhe solemnlzlna offlcer cannoL perform Lhe subsequenL marrlaae
menLloned
1voes of marrlaae
SubsequenL marrlaae bv a
Ŧ ulvorcee
2Ŧ Wldow
3Ŧ Pusband
Ŧ AfLer 3 dlvorces
Ŵ1alaq ramlflcaLlons noLedŦŦŦ

When Lhe Lh marrlaae ls allowedť
Ŧ 1he wlfe shall marrv anoLher person
2Ŧ 1he 2nd husband dlvorces Lhe wlfe
3Ŧ 1he ldda explres
Ŧ 1he solemnlzlna offlcer ascerLalns LhaL Lhere ls no colluslon

WhaL ls Lhe lmpllcaLlon when Lhe parLles have alreadv dlvored 3 Llmes?
Þarana blro na lana ana marrlaaeŦ 1he lnsLlLuLlon of dlvorce ls allowed bv
Cod bv ls deLesLedţ supposedlv lasL recourseŦ

AfLer Lhe flrsL dlvorceţ no lonaer needs Lo aeL marrled aaalnŦ
AfLer second dlvorceţ speclal requlslLes paŦ
AfLer Lhlrd dlvorceţ follow ArLlcle 3Ŧ

Whv dlfferenL perlods for Lhe Lvpes of subsequenL marrlaae afLer
reconclllaLlon of dlvorce Ŵ on Lhe reporL of Lhe aroup on dlvorce
8equlslLes for a husband Lo conLracL a subsequenL marrlaaeť
W A wrlLLen noLlce wlLh Lhe Clerk of CourL of Lhe Sharlƌa ClrculL CourL of Lhe
place where hls famllv resldes
W ConsenL of Lhe wlfe or wlves
W Should anv of Lhem (wlves) ob[ecLţ an Aaama ArblLraLlon Councll shall be
consLlLuLedŦ
W lf Lhe Aaama ArblLraLlon Councll falls Lo obLaln Lhe wlfeƌs consenL Lo Lhe
proposed marrlaaeţ Lhe CourL shall declde wheLher or noL Lo susLaln her
ob[ecLlonŦ

5 | Ì s l a m i c L a w N o t e s _ c o m p i l e d b y C h a M e n d o z a
Pusband conLracLs SubsequenL Marrlaaeţ Lhe Wlfe has Lhe followlna
opLlonsť
Ŧ Co Lo Lhe Aaama ArblLraLlon Councll
2Ŧ ArLŦ
3Ŧ ulvorce (elLher bv Wlfe Lhrouah laksh or Male Lhrouah Lhe
oLher dlvorce)

5tote of lhromť 4rt l2{e)
Ŵlhramť sacred sLaLe whlch a Musllm musL enLer ln order Lo perform Lhe
ma[or pllarlmaaeţ wlLhln whlch he ls prohlblLed Lo enLer lnLo ma[or
LransacLlons

CondlLlon of Marad ulŴMauL (deaLh Ŵ lllnessŤ Marad (lllnessŤ MauLť ueaLh)
ArL 32Ŧ (d)
Ŵlrreaularţ needs Lo be consummaLed Ŵ Sl8ť Lhere should be a remarrlaae
when Lhe person ls no lonaer slck
ŴdoesnƌL have
Ŵwhereas ln lCť consldered valldţ even one of Lhe excepLlons where vou
donƌL need a marrlaae llcense

Morriooe to ldo/oter/ldo/otress
Ŵdoes noL mean musllms are prohlblLed from marrvlna persons from oLher
rellalons (PC provldes LhaL onlv Arab ldolaLers are exempLed so lL mav be
presumed LhaL lL was onlv wlLh Arab ldloaLress LhaL Lhe marrlaae ls
allowed)

Morriooe to lmpure persons {fornicotors)
ƹfornlcaLor onlv marrles or allowed Lo marrled fellow fornlcaLor
ŴbuL how would vou know LhaL a person ls a fornlcaLor??? 1hls was valld or
relevanL durlna Lhe Llme LhaL Lhe Curan was madeţ noL relevanL Lodav
Ŵmanv of Lhe provlslons of Lhe Curan were made durlna Lhe Llme when Lhe
Arab socleLv was fllled wlLh MorallLv problems
Ŵnowť marrlaae ls sLlll valld

ƍA marrlaae ls deemed Lo lasL lf Lhe couple sees each oLher eve Lo eveƍ

un/owfu/ conjunction
ArL 3(b)
ConLracLed ln conLravenLlon of Lhe prohlblLlon aaalnsL unlawful con[uncLln
unlawful con[uncLlonť conLemporaneouslv marrvlna 2 women rleaLed Lo
each oLher bv consanaulnlLvţ afflnlLv or fosLeraaeţ whlch Lhev could noL
have lawfullv lnLermarrled wlLh each oLher lf Lhev had been of dlfferenL
sexesŦ 1husţ a Musllm cannoL marrv Lwo slsLersţ or an aunL and her nleceŦ
under Lhe Shla Lawţ a Musllm mav marrv hls wlfeƌs aunLţ buL he cannoL
marrv hls wlfeƌs nlece wLhouL her persmlsslonŦ Marrlaae prohlblLed bv
reason of unlawful con[uncLlon ls vold under Shla LawŦ

Noncomp/ionce with reouisites

kinds of Morriooe os to /eoo/ effect
Ŧ valld
2Ŧ vold
3Ŧ lrrelevanL

vo/id morriooe
lC
CCMÞL
Pas essenLlal and formal requlslLes
Sahl Marrlaae

void morriooes
ArL 3Ŵţ lC
ArL 3ţ CMÞL

voidob/e morriooe
Ŵvalld unLll annulled
lC
nonŴaae w/o parenLal consenL
unsoundness of mlnd
lraud (ArL 36 deflnes whaL fraud ls)
lorceţ lnLlmldaLlon or undue lnfluence
lmpoLence or phvslcal lncapaclLv
S1u llke AluSţ svphlllsţ eLc

lkk£6uL4k M4kkl46£
ArL 32

8ioomy ond po/yoomy
Ŵallowed under Lhe Musllm laws because of Lhe soclal reasons behlnd lL
Ŵslmllar wlLh Clvll lawţ monoaomv ls sLlll Lhe ruleţ onlv allows polvaamv lf
Lhe law ls sLrlcLlv followed

S:bseq:ent ma77iages
Ŧ 8v Lhe husband A81 2
Ŵrequlres equal companlonshlp
Ŵ[usL LreaLmenLť husband musL be able Lo provlde Lhe necesslLles of llfe Lo
all hls wlves
ŴLxcepLlonal casesť SocloŴeconomlc reasons (war Ŵ lack of men/husbands)
ŴCnlv up Lo marrlaaes aL a Llme

Ŵon Lhe ob[ecLlon of wlfeť usLlce 8asul sald LhaL Lhe counsll should declde
based on Lhe arounds provlded bv lslamlc lawŦ lf Lhe Sharlƌa CourLs
wlLhouldsţ man cannoL remarrv
Sl8ť Lhls ls noL followedť Lhe recoanlLlon of polvaamv recoanlzes Lhe
weakness of a man Lo LempLaLlons
ŴMusllms do noL have problems wlLh LhlsŦ nonMusllms are Lhe ones who
have problems
Ŵprlor Lo 3ţ Musllms can marrv w/o Lhese requlslLesŦ lf vou look aL Lhe
Curan (Sunna Ŵ verse whlch allows subsequenL marrlaae)ť marrv woman
Lo supporL Lhem!
Ŵmahlrap Lalaaana maalna falr sa lbaŦŦŦ

klhbah?
Ŵsee each oLher before marrlaae Lo see lf Lhev are compaLlble wlLh each
oLher

2Ŧ 8v wldow
lf wldow ls preananL
Ŵlf she dellvered before Lhe explraLlon of four monLhs and Len davs
counLed from Lhe daLe of her husbandţ Lhe ldda ls noL from dellvervŦ lL ls
upon Lhe explraLlon fo Lhe perlod of monLhs and d

3Ŧ 8v dlvorcee
Cnlv afLer ldda
Ŵ3 monLhlv perlods (consldered 3 monLhs)
Ŵreason for Lhe ldda ls Lwofoldť
Ŧ 1o alve Lhe couple Llme Lo Lhlnk Lhlnas overţ reconclle lf posslble Ŵ lf
reconclle w/n ldda perlodţ no need for a subsequenL marrlaae
2Ŧ ln order for Lhe woman Lo deLermlne lf sheƌs preananL bv Lhe flrsL
husband
Ŵlf Lhe woman does noL mensLruaLe w/n 3 monLhsţ lL mav be a slan LhaL
sheƌs preananL

RÌGHTS AND OBLÌGATÌONS BETWEEN HUSBANDS AND WÌVES
Ŵhusbands spends for Lhe supporL of Lhe famllvţ alves dowrv Lo Lhe
womanŦ ln successlon he aeLs 2x
ŴLhe con[uaal home deLermlned bv Lhe Musllm husband
Ŵwlfe can onlv have [ob afLer consenL from Musllm husband obLalnedŦ lf
noneţ can ask from CourL

!7ope7ty 7egime
9roperty keg|me
under lslamlc Lawť ÞrenupLlal aareemenL? 8uL ln defaulLţ separaLlon of
properLvŦ lf oLher modes of properLv realmeţ lamllv Code would come ln
suppleLorllv
ln lamllv Codeť ÞrenupLlal aareemenLŦ SeparaLlon of properLv shall onlv
Lake place afLer [udlclal order of separaLlon of properLv
Cnlv llmlLaLlon Lo prenupLlal aareemenLť ArL 36ţ Clvll Code
lf slLuaLlon noL found ln lC or CMÞLţ cusLom applles

CMÞL lC
ArL 3Ŧ Pow aoverned
Ŧ ConLracL
2Ŧ CMÞL
3Ŧ CusLom
ArL
Ŧ Marrlaae seLLlemenL before
marrlaae
2Ŧ Code
3Ŧ Local cusLoms
ArL 3Ŧ defaulL properLv
realmeť compleLe separaLlon
of properL
ArL Ŧ AbsoluLe communlLv of
properLv
SLlpulaLlons ln marrlaae
seLLlemenLs
ArL Ŧ vold lf marrlaae does noL
Lake placeŦŦŦ (sorrv naauluhanţ
6 | Ì s l a m i c L a w N o t e s _ c o m p i l e d b y C h a M e n d o z a
ArL 3Ŧ vold lf depend ln
marrlaaeţ lf marrlaae noL push
Lhrouah
please see Lhe provlslon na lana)

ACÞ
ArL Ŵţ lC
ŴdefaulL realme ln lC
Ŵbeforeť CÞC

2 reasons for adopLlna ACÞ
Ŧ LsLabllshed cusLoms
2Ŧ unlLv of Lhe famllv

Ŵrealme noL walvable unless [udlclal separaLlon of properLv
WhaL consLlLuLes CommunlLv properLv
WhaL excluded
Charaes upon and obllaaLlons of ACÞ

ŴdlsposlLlon of ACÞť ln case of dlsaareemenLţ husbandƌs declslon prevalls

Causes for LermlnaLlna ACÞ
LffecLs of LermlnaLlon of ACÞ
Þrocess of llquldaLlon of ACÞ

CÞC
ŴdefaulL prlor Lo lCţ ArL Lo 33
Lxcluslve properLv

8oLLomllneť ln lCţ husbandƌs declslon over admlnlsLraLlon of properLv
aovernsţ buL wlfe can assall lL Lhrouah courL process w/n vears
ŴLffecLs of dlssoluLlon

ÞroperLv realme of unlons w/o Marrlaae
ArL ť unlons LhaL can be valldaLed
Ŵpresume coŴownershlp
ArL ť adulLerous unlons

CCMÞLL1L SLÞA8A1lCn Cl Þ8CÞL81?
nCCţ lC CMÞL
ArL 3Ŵ6
Ŵmav be parLlal or LoLalţ mav lnclude presenL
or fuLure properLv
ArL 3Ŵ
(uefaulL realme)
Whv? ť32 and
ť

AnLeŴnupLlal properLv
ArLţ CMÞL
Wlfe shall noL lose ownershlp
Can dlspose of Lhe same even w/o consenL of husband
Can sue and be sued lndependenLlv of husband wlLh reaards her own
properLv

ArL Ŧ LxCLuSlvL Þ8CÞL81? Cl LACP SÞCuSL
Pusbandť caplLal
Wlfeť paraphernal
Ŵwlfe cannoL accepL alfLs from ouLslde Lhe prohlblLed decrees of marrlaaeŤ
can accepL provlded lLƌs wlLh Lhe consenL of Lhe husband
noLeť lncludes (d) uower (mahr) of Lhe wlfe and nupLlal alfLs Lo each
spouse
O WllL owns Lhe mahr excluslvelv!

ArL 3Ŧ Pousehold properLv
ŴdeflnlLlon
ŴpresumpLlon of ownershlp Lo Lhe spouse who cusLomarllv uses Lhe
properLv

ArL Ŧ 8lahL Lo sue and be sued
noLeť number ť lf llLlaaLlon concerns Lhe excluslve properLv of husband
Ŵcan onlv concern Lhe properLv lf Lhe admlnlsLraLlon of Lhe properLv now
perLalns Lo Lhe wlfe
ŴproperLv of wlfe would noL beheld llable

So dlfference of separaLlon of properLv under lC and CMÞLť
4s to fomi/y expensesŦ
lCť borne proporLlonaLelv bv boLh spouses
CMÞLť Cnlv husband bears expenses
4s to /iobi/ity of creditors
lCť solldarllv llable
CMÞLť onlv husband llable
4s to rioht to be sued ond to sue
lCť should be sued [olnLlv
CMÞLť Can be sued separaLelv

verse clLedť
Ŵ8A1lCnALL for a realme of SeparaLlon of ÞroperLv
ŴlnsLlLuLlon of Sakah (?) (alvlna of donaLlons for charlLv) Ŵ one of Lhe means
for dlsLrlbuLlna properLv

Ŵland code of CLLoman Lmplre (ln 1urkev?) Ŵ based on Sharlƌa (as opposed
Lo oLher land laws of oLher Musllm counLrles whlch are clvll law based)
Whv laLe codlflcaLlon (around ) when Sharlƌa was alreadv
esLabllshed lona aao? 1lme of CLLomanţ lslamlc clvlllzaLlon was
alreadv ln Lhe decllneŦ 1he laLe codlflcaLlon of laws based on
Sharlƌať All properLles belona Lo Codţ men are onlv sLewards of
CodŦ
CLLomans are 1urksţ noL anvmore ArabsŦ
Ŵland laws of lslam are more soclallsL ln naLureŦŦŦ

lslamlc reformlsLť because of Lhe clvll law lnfluenceţ some Musllms wanL Lo
reLurn Lo Lhe fundamenLal lslamlc Leachlnas from Lhe daLe of Lhe
revelaLlon Lo MohammadŦŦŦwlLhln Lhe sphere of aLmosphere of
Mohammadƌs Llme

Jy no cod|€|cat|on o€ |and |awsť manat (trust) Ŵ te concept o€
property |n Is|am
Ŵall properLles are owned bv Cod and men onlv hold Lhese ln LrusL
1rusLorť Cod
1rusLeeť man
8eneflclarvť manklnd

Ma| (property)
2 meanlnas of molť
O All Lhlnas capacble of belna earned
O All Lhlnas capable of belna sub[ecL Lo leaal relaLlons or mol
motooowwlo
£xc/udedť alcoholţ plas oLher forbldden Lhlnas (can also be properLv buL
under flrsL classlflcaLlonţ noL under mal muLaqawwlnŦ CannoL be sub[ecLed
Lo leaal relaLlonsŦ lf Lhev are LransacLedţ Lhe LransacLlon ls vold)

1reaLmenL of properLvť 2ť
Ŵdo noL consume one anoLherƌs wealLh un[usLlv
ŦŦŦ

ť 2
Clve Lo orphans Lhelr properLlesŦŦŦ
(proLecLlon of orphanƌs properLles)

As Lo acqulslLlonť Lhe means of acqulslLlon of properLv should be LLCAL
Land ownershlpť all lands are owned bv Cod
ŴLhe heavens and Lhe earLhţ Cod has domlnlon over lL

Category o€ |and
M|| Ŵ owned bv Cod
M|r| Ŵ lands LhaL are Lo be dlsLrlbuLed and are now used bv Lhe people
(concepL of usufrucL appllcable)
Communa||y owned |ands Ŵ slmllar Lo ancesLral domaln (ln Lhe Code of
Musllm Þersonal laws Ŵ menLloned as Communal properLv Ŵ A3)
ke||g|ous property Ŵ land for rellalous purposes

s compared to oter |aws
kM- LJ
Ŵuse properLv for leaal purposes
Ŵ2 classlflcaLlon of properLv

CIVIL LJ
ŴÞroperLv ls aaareaaLe of rlahLs
ŴclasslflcaLlon of properLvť maraml!
Ŵslmllar Lo AmanaLţ SLaLe owns properLv and onlv Laken care of bv Lhe
people (recoanlLlon of a areaLer owner of properLv) Ŵ ln lslamlc sLaLesţ Lhe
Callph ls Lhe admlnlsLraLor of lands ln represenLaLlon of CodŦŦŦSLeward for
Cod
ŴLhere are also llmlLaLlons Lo Lhe properLv one can own
7 | Ì s l a m i c L a w N o t e s _ c o m p i l e d b y C h a M e n d o z a
Ŵ8eal and personal properLv
ŴPlahesL form of properLv rlahLť ownershlp
ŴdlfferenL modes of acqulrlna ownershlp
ŴproperLv realmes aovernlna marrlaae

lamllv Code
onat|ons by reason o€ Marr|age
Ŵallows donaLlon ptoptet ooptlos of fuLure properLv
xť donaLlons made ln Lhe marrlaae seLLlemenLs

O Jat about |n Is|am|c marr|agesţ wat |€ te marr|age
pus troug"
lf Lhe donaLlonţ under Lhe Musllm Codeţ ls alven Lo Lhe couple as a fuLure
husband and wlfeţ and Lhe marrlaae ls noL pushed Lhrouahţ Lhe donaLlon
can no lonaer be enforced
under Lhe lamllv Codeţ lL ls sLlll consldered valldţ and Lhev should ao Lo
Lhe courLs [usL Lo lnvalldaLe lL!

DÌVORCE
C8ť noL allowed ln Lhe Þhlllpplnes
xť MuSLlM dlvorces
lorelan dlvorces

ArLŦ ţ CMÞL (uefť Marrlaae)
Ŧ Soclal conLracL beLween husband and wlfe
2Ŧ Soclal lnsLlLuLlon Laken care of bv Lhe socleLvţ foundaLlon
of socleLv

ulvorceţ arL
Ŵlormal dlssoluLlon of Lhe marrlaae bond
ŴCranLed onlv afLer all means of reconclllaLlon ls resorLed Lo

ŴmosL haLeful Lo Allah
8LASCnSť
Ŵbv vlrLue of Lhlsţ Lhe famllv ls desLroved
ŴconLrarv Lo Lhe laws of naLure
Ŵalves morLal blow Lo Lhe famllv

8ut why o//owedť
8ecoanlzes Lhe reallLv LhaL cerLaln marrlaaes can no lonaer be reconclled
lf keep Lhem LoaeLherţ Lhev would onlv arow Lo haLe each oLher more
8ecome more uncomforLable wlLh each oLherť llke puLLlna LoaeLher
persons as lf Lhev had commlLLed a crlme
ƍMarrlaae ls meanlnaless lf Lhere ls no spark of love beLween Lhe husband
and Lhe wlfeƍ Ŵ alnal 8asul
Ŵonlv posslble when lL would be Lhe beLLer opLlonţ and afLer all Lhe
safeauards are resorLed Loť
Ŧ ldda
Þurposesť
Ŧ 8rlna abouL reconclllaLlon
2Ŧ 1o avold confuslon of lssues
Ŵldda chanaes dependenL on Lhe basls of dlvorce
2Ŧ LxhausLlon of all efforLs Lo reconclllaLeť helped bv
wellŴmeanlna relaLlves
Whv wellŴmeanlna relaLlvesť lnLeresL ln preservaLlon of
marrlaaeŤ spouses would sLlll feel LhaL Lhelr
lssues/dlspuLes are noL made publlc (sLlll confldenLlalţ
prlvaLe)

Ŵallow dlvorce onlv afLer flndlna of lrreparable breakdown of marrlaae and
Lhe relaLlves cannoL do anvLhlna abouL lL
Ŵslrť Lhere ls noLhlna Lo prevenL Lhe parLles from lnvlLlna marrlaae
counsellors
vsŦ ArL ţ lCť no leaal separaLlon unless CCu81 has Laken sLeps Lowards
reconclllaLlonŦŦŦ8econclllaLlon vla marrlaae counsellors!

kioht to divorce oenero//y oiven to men
Ŵob[ecLlve aroundť flnanclal burdenŦŦŦ
Ŵsub[ecLlveť men are Lhe ones who accepLs Lhe women ln marrlaaeţ so he
ls Lhe one who can break Lhe bonds + he ls Lhe one who pavs Lhe dowrv

1he dlvorcee ln a marrlaae noL consummaLed mav remarrv lmmedlaLelv
afLer Lhe dlvorce because she ls noL requlred Lo observe 'lddaţ conslderlna
LhaL Lhe marrlaae ls noL consummaLedŦ(Alauvaţ pŦ 3)

DÌVORCE
C|ass|€|cat|on o€ d|vorce
O 8v deaLh of husband or wlfe
ŴnoL reallv dlvorce! More of auLomaLlc dlssoluLlon of marrlaae
Ŵwhen wlfe dlesţ husband mav lmmedlaLelv marrv
ŴbuL when Lhe husband dlesţ lddaL should flrsL explre
O 8v acL of parLles
4 8v Lhe Pusband
Ŵ1alaq (repudlaLlon)
CondlLlons
O Made under normal condlLlons (noL drunkţ anarvţ
[oklna or coerced)
O Woman ls repudlaLed durlna tobt or cleanŴnonŴ
mensLrual perlod
WP?ť because lf lL ls done durlna a nonŴmensLrual
perlod whereln Lhe husband can have sex wlLh
wlfeţ lL means lL ls reallv serlousŦ Mlnsan afLer sexţ
baLl naŦ
O Pusbandţ afLer Lalaqţ wlll noL have carnal
knowledae of Lhe wlfe LhereafLer
C8CunuSť none menLloned
Þ8CCLuu8Lť
Ŧ Musllm male shall flle a wrlLLen noLlce of Lalaq
2Ŧ Aaama ArblLraLlon Councll shall be formed
LlMl1A1lCnSť
Cnlv on Lhe 3rd Llme wlll Lhe dlvorce be lrrevocableŦ 1he flrsL Lwo
lnsLancesţ can marrv aaaln w/n ldda (buL no need for anoLher marrlaae
ceremonv)Ŧ lf afLer Lhe lddaţ should remarrv (wlLh all Lhe requlslLes of
marrlaae) (mlnor Lalaq)Ŧ lf afLer Lhe Lhlrd repudlaLlon (C8LA1L8 Lalaq)ţ Lhe
husband should flrsL walL for anoLher man Lo marrv hls wlfe ln order Lo
marrv her aaaln! lL ls as lf Lhe lnsLlLuLlon of marrlaae ls reduced bv Lhe
couple as someLhlna Lrlvlal!
Ŵlla
ulvorce bv Zlhar (ArL )
ŴasslmllaLes wlfe Lo anv of relaLlves wlLhln Lhe prohlblLed dearees
ŴƍZlharƍ means ƍbackƍ
So slrť whaL lf Lhe husband compares Lhe back of hls wlfe Lo Lhe back of hls
moLherţ ls Lhls Zlhar?
ŦŦŦln Cld Arab davsţ Lhls ls ulvorce bv Zlhar!
ŴpuL awavť sLop consorLlna wlLh Lhelr wlves
Ŵnowť noL usual anvmore Lo compare wlfe Lo back of moLher

4 8v Lhe Wlfe
ulvorce bv ful (?)ť lnlLlaLed bv wlfeť reLurns Lhe lwad (a
conslderaLlon)
Ŵwlfe alves someLhlna back Lo Lhe husband
Ŵdlvorce bv redempLlon

ulvorce bv mubaraakť muLuallv aareed dlvorce
Ŵwlfe can lnlLlaLe lLŦ lf husband consenLsţ no lonaer need
conslderaLlon
Ŵwhv noL lncluded ln CMÞLť Arabanl sald lL ls lncluded alreadv ln
Lhe dlvorce bv fulŦ 8uL slr savs Lhls mav be covered bv dlvorce bv
Lalaq slnce Lhe husband ls sLlll Lhe one who declares Lhe dlvorce

ulvorce bv Lalaqť lnlLlaLed bv husband

ueleaaLed ulvorce ť 1alak ŴeŴLafwld
Ŵwlfe ls deleaaLed bv husband Lo effecLuaLe 1alaq
Ŵsame effecLs as lf husband made Lhe Lalaq

Llƌan (muLual lmprecaLlon) (ArL )
Ŵhusband accuses Lhe wlfe of adulLerv buL proof ls noL enouah Lo
prove dlvorce
Ŵspouses who accuse one anoLher of adulLerv shall noL [oln each
oLher anvmore
ŴAcLs of lmprecaLlonť
O P accuses wlfe x of adulLerv
O W denles adulLerv x
8v Lhe Lh Llmeţ lf Lhev are boLh lvlnaţ Lhev would be boLh cursed
ŴacLs of lmprecaLlon ls a subsLlLuLe for Lhe wlLness rule under 8ÞC
(because oLherwlseţ lf Lhere are wlLnessesţ Lhe wlfe would be convlcLed)
ŴlmprecaLlonť curse

O Men are proLecLors of women onlv because Lhev are supposed Lo
be Lhe proLecLors of womenŦ 8uL lf Lhls does noL exlsLţ Lhe wlfe
has Lhe rlahL Lo peLlLlon Lhe rlahL of admlnlsLraLlon Lo herself and
Lo Lake charae of Lhe admlnlsLraLlon of Lhe con[uaal properLv
8 | Ì s l a m i c L a w N o t e s _ c o m p i l e d b y C h a M e n d o z a

Mutuo/ lmprecotionť
Wlfe sues Lhe husband for dlvorce on Lhe aroudn of false charae of
adulLerv

ivorce by losko
Ŵbv courL order

Abubakr vŦ Abubakr
Ŵslr savs LhaL Lhe dlsLrlcL courL declslon has basls ln law (CMÞL)
Ŵslr savs LhaL supporL ls demandable aL Lhe Llme of exLra[udlclal demand
and CnL? uu8lnC 1PL MA88lACLŦ Lven demandable durlna ldda

Þerlod of lddať sLarLs rlahL afLer Lhe declaraLlon of Lalaqţ even lf Lhe
husband has noL veL alven noLlce of Lhe Lalaq!

* 8v acLs of ÞA81lLS
8v Lhe PuS8Anu
· 1ALAC (repudlaLlon)
· lLA (vow of conLlnence)
· ZAPl8 (ln[urlous asslmllaLlon)

8v Lhe WllL
· kPuL' (redempLlon of Lhe wlfe)
· 1ALACŴ1AlWlu (deleaaLed dlvorce)
· 8v uulClAL Þ8CCLSS
· Ll'An (muLual lmprecaLlon)
lASkP ([udlclal recesslon)

* 1alaqŴal ra[l (revocable)
1alaqŴal baln (lrrevocable)
8avnunah suara (flrsL Lwo dlvorces)
8avnunah kubra (Lhlrd dlvorce)

Ceneral 8uleť When dlvorce becomes lrrevocableţ Lhe husband cannoL
marrv Lhe wlfe aaalnŦ
LxCLÞ1lCnť Lhe wlfe marrles a Lhlrd person on condlLlon and she would
dlvorce her afLer havlna sexual connecLlon wlLh herŦ

Divo7ce (again)
Ŵaenerlc Lerm
ŴLranslaLed ln Lnallsh
ŴArablc words usedť
1alaq CLher Lvpes of dlvorce
ldda
Slhar
laskh

Actool cose (bot oot befote tbe cootts vet)
Ladv aoL marrled when she was 2 vears old Lo an lranlanţ ln Lhe
Þhlllpplnes
AfLer a few vearsţ accordlna Lo herţ Lhev dlvorcedŦ Pusband aoL a
cerLlflcaLe of dlvorce from Zamboanaa uC (2)
All Lhe Llmeţ Lhls ladv developed oLher love affalrsţ laLesL of whlch ls Lo a
man she lnLended Lo marrvŦ 8uL Lhe man sLlll has Lo annul hls marrlaaeŦ
Woman was Lold LhaL Lhe CerLlflcaLe of Marrlaae has Lo ao Lo Þhlllpplne
CourLs (ArLŦ 26ţ lC )Ŧ Asked lf advlse of lawvers ls correcL?
ArLŦ 26Ŧ All marrlaaes solemnlzed ouLslde Lhe Þhlllpplnesţ ln
accordance wlLh Lhe laws ln force ln Lhe counLrv where Lhev were
solemnlzedţ and valld Lhere as suchţ shall also be valld ln Lhls
counLrvţ excepL Lhose prohlblLed under ArLlcles 3 ()ţ ()ţ () and
(6)ţ 363 and 3Ŧ (a)
So would Lhls arLlcle applv ln Lhls case? 8uL Lhls marrlaae was celebraLed ln
ÞhlllpplnesŦ
noL necessarv because CMÞL ls parL of Lhe Þhlllpplne leaal svsLem
so no need Lo ao Lhrouah Lhe reaular courLsŦ 1he lawvers whom
Lhe ladv consulLed probablv dld noL have all Lhe facLs rlahLŦ
1haL dlvorce belna recoanlzed under Þhlllpplne law would enLlLle
Lhe woman Lo aeL marrled Lhe 2nd Llme aroundŦ

AppllcablllLv Þrovlslonsť supposed vou have a Musllm Man + nonmusllm
Woman aeLLlna marrled under Musllm Lawţ woman before aeLLlna
marrled aoL converLed lnLo lslamŦ WhaL law would cover Lhelr marrlaae?
MuSLlM Law because alreadv converLed (8ondadav vŦ 8ondaav)
lf dld noL converL buL marrled under musllm lawsť Musllm laws sLlll applvť
Cl1L CMÞL Þ8CvlSlCnS!!!!
rtŦ 13Ŧ pp||cat|onŦ Ÿ (1) 1e prov|s|ons o€ t|s 1|t|e sa|| app|y
to marr|age and d|vorce were|n bot part|es are Mus||msţ or
were|n on|y te ma|e party |s a Mus||m and te marr|age |s
so|emn|zed |n accordance w|t Mus||m |aw or t|s Code |n any
part o€ te 9|||pp|nesŦ

When lLƌs Lhe man ls a nonmusllmţ woman ls a musllmţ marrlaae
solemnlzed under lslamlc Lawţ whaL would happen? lslamlc law would
applv because Lhe marrlaae was celebraLed under lslamlc LawŦ 8uL under
sLrlcL lslamlc lawţ when Lhe man ls noL converLed lnLo a Musllmţ under Lhe
rulesţ marrlaae beLween Lhem ls vCluŦ
WP?ť 1he woman acLuallv follows Lhe manŦ ln a Musllm famllvţ Lhe boss ls
Lhe man (Lhe provlder of Lhe famllv) and Lhe woman ls Lhe manaaer of Lhe
houseŦ 8uL usuallvţ Lhe declslon of Lhe man prevalls ln manv lnsLancesŦ
ÞaLrlarchal sense/lncllnaLlon of lslamlc Law whlch came abouL because Lhe
SemlLlc socleLv was llke LhaLŦ
ln vour oplnlonţ should LhaL pracLlce be also followed here ln 8Þ?
nCŦ nC such prohlblLlon appllcable under Þhlllpplne Laws
(lncludlna CMÞL)Ŧ

ÌDDA
*8eason for dlfferenL perlodsť
ueaLhƹ conslderaLlon of mournlna for Lhe deaLh of Lhe husband and Lhe
prevenLlon of slmulaLlon of blrLh

LEGÌTÌMACY AND FÌLÌAÌTON
ArLŦ ţ CMÞL
ŴlealLlmaLlon and flllaLlon esLabllshed bv
ŴÞroof of marrlaae bv faLher and chlld

vŦ lC Ǝ nCCť same deflnlLlon of Lerms
ÞaLernLlLvţ MaLernlLvţ llllaLlon

vsŦ lamllv Codeť how Lo esLabllsh flllaLlon
O naLure or blood
O LealLlmaLe (A6)
O lllealLlmaLe (A6)
1here ls no such Lerm under Musllm
LawsŦŦŦan lllealLlmaLe chlld ls alwavs a
chlld of lllealLlmaLe sexual relaLlonsŦŦŦ
O AdopLlon
O no such concepL under Musllms code
ƍ1here ls no leaal lnsLlLuLlon for adopLlonƍ Ŵ vou
can Lake care of a chlldţ LreaL Lhe chlld as vour
own 8u1 Lhe chlld can never be vour adopLed
chlldţ noL consldered en[ovlna rlahLs and
prlvlleaes of a chlld

O 1hereƌs also an addlLlonal provlslon for arLlflclal lnsemlnaLlonŴ
borne chlldren under lamllv Code
O ls lL recoanlzed under lslamlc law?
ALLCWLuţ provlded
O 1he sperm came from Lhe husband?
O WhaL lf Lhere are Lwo leaal wlvesţ one ls ferLlle and Lhe
oLher has dlfflculLv bearlna chlldrenŦ
O ! 1he onlv lnsLance when allowedť aeL Lhe sperm of Lhe man and
Lhe ovum of Lhe womanţ marrled aL Lhe Llme Lhev are valldlv and
leaallv marrledţ Lhen ferLlllzed ouLsldeţ Lhen lnserLed ln Lhe ovum
O 1hereƌs alreadv a faLwah recoanlzlna arLlflclal lnsemlnaLlon onlv aL
LhaL lnsLance

PCW 1C LS1A8LlSP llLlA1lCnť
lC CMÞL
ArL 2 ArL
O AcLlon Lo clalm lealLlmacv mav be brouahL durlna Lhe llfeLlme of
Lhe lllealLlmaLe chlld
O When lL comes Lo lmpuanlna Lhe lealLlmacv of Lhe chlldţ vou can
acLuallv use Lhe procedure under clvll law ln slLuaLlons where
Musllms are lnvolved

ÞresumpLlon of lealLlmacv
Ŧ Chlldren concelved ln lawful wedlock
9 | Ì s l a m i c L a w N o t e s _ c o m p i l e d b y C h a M e n d o z a
2Ŧ Chlldren born afLer 6 monLhs followlna consummaLlon of marrlaae
Cr w/n 2 vears afLer Lhe dlssoluLlon of marrlaae (unless Lhe wlfe
has conLracLed lnLervenlna marrlaaes w/n Lhe 2 vear perlod)

lslamlc law leans favorablv Lowards lealLlmacv

Maxlmum llmlLs of preanancv
O Ŵ monLhs
O Þerlod of preanancv recoanlzed under Musllm law ls 2 vrs
(Panaflƌs oplnlon)
O Mallklť vears
O Shafllť vears
O Curanť Lhe carrvlna of a chlld Lo hls weanlna ls 3 monLhsŤ and hls
weanlna ls 2 vears
O lL ls consldered as a sln ln lslam for one Lo clalm LhaL one ls hls/her
faLher when lL ls noL

lmpuanlna lealLlmacv
O Cn arLlflclal lnsemlnaLlonť sLrlcL appllcaLlon of arLlflclal
lnsemlnaLlonţ lf done ouLslde LhaL allowedţ Lhen lL can be a
around Lo lmpuan Lhe arLlflclal lnsemlnaLlon lLselfţ even w/ o
mlsLakeţ fraudţ vlolenceţ lnLlmldaLlon or undue lnfluence

lf Lhe marrlaae ls fasldţ chlld born 6 monLhs afLer Lhe marrlaae buL Lhe
wlfe ls concelved durlna lddaţ Lhe chlld would aenerallv be consldered LhaL
of Lhe second marrlaaeŦ 8uL slnce a fasld marrlaae ls a nonŴexlsLenL
marrlaae unLll lLs valldaLedţ Lhe couple could aeL marrled (valldaLe Lhe
marrlaae) and Lhe chlld be acknowledaedŦ

ways to :se s:7name
Ŧ CusLomarv pracLlce
Arablc names
O lSM (lsmun)ť a personalţ proper name
O kunva Ŵ a Lerm of endearmenLţ honorlflc name or surnameţ as
Lhe faLher or moLher of someoneŦ MeanL as a preflx of respec
O nasab Ŵ a pedlareeţ as Lhe son or dauahLer of someone
O Laqab Ŵ comblnaLlon of words lnLo a bvnameŦŦŦusuallv rellalous
relaLlna Lo naLureţ a descrlpLlve wordŦŦŦ
O nlsba
CccupaLlonal
uescenL
Ceoaraphlcal
Ŵeven nonŴarabs use nlsba
2Ŧ CMÞLť use Lhe surname of Lhe moLher and faLher ln accordance
wlLh Clvll code
O no resLrlcLlon on Lhe rlahL Lo Lhe Lwoţ as lona as Lhe use ls ln af
O Sl8ť CMÞL usuallv usedŦ
O ulfflculL for a chlld Lo wrlLe lL for school
O Lona name ls dlfflculL for records purposesţ dlfflculL Lo
reconclle Lhe dlfferenL names used
O As lona as vou know Lhe flrsL name and Lhe lasL nameţ
pede na

Child' 7ight to s:ppo7t
* lf lllealLlmaLeţ supporL onlv from moLher
*acknowleaemenL of chlld does noL converL an lllealLlmaLe chlld Lo a
lealLlmaLe chlldŦ

ADO!TÌON
*Ceneral 8uleť AdopLlon noL allowedţ mav onlv recelve alfL
LxcepLlonť losLerlna noL prohlblLedţ even encouraaedŤ a merlLorlous acL
ln Allah's rellalon and Lhe man who does lL wlll be rewarded bv belna
admlLLed Lo paradlse
1he lslamlc Lerm for whaL ls commonlv called adopLlon ls 'kafalahţ'
Ŵ llLerallv means ºsponsorshlp" and comes from a word LhaL means ºLo
feedŦ"
Ŵ lL ls sald Lo be besL LranslaLed as ºfosLer parenLlnaŦ"
Ŵ kafala ls Lhe promlse Lo underLake wlLhouL pavmenL Lhe upkeepţ
educaLlon and proLecLlon of a chlldţ ln Lhe same wav as a faLher would do
for a sonŦ
Ŵwhvť accordlna Lo Lhe quranţ vou cannoL clalm a son vour son
vŦs 8A 2ť leaal Lle beLween bloloalcal parenLs and Lhe chlld ls severed
1here ls dlffence beLween fosLeraae and adopLlon
ŴfosLeraae ls more on Lhe weanlna of Lhe chlld

CUSTODY and GUARDÌANSHÌ!
* Chlld below ţ parenLs dlvorced ƹ MoLherŤ maLernal arandmoLherŧ
Above below puberLv ƹ cholce of chlld
ÞuberLv unmarrled dauahLer ƹ faLher
ÞuberLv unmarrled son ƹ moLher

ArL Ǝ ArL
rtŦ 75Ŧ €€ects upon property o€ c||drenŦ Ÿ (1) 1e €aterţ or |n |s
absence te moterţ sa|| be te |ega| adm|n|strator o€ te property o€
te c||d under parenta| autor|tyŦ I€ te property |s wort more tan
€|ve tousand pesosţ te €ater or te moter sa|| g|ve a bond to be
approved by the courtŦ
(2) 1e court may appo|nt a guard|an (was|) |n te absence o€ one wo |s
natura| or testamentaryŦ
***
rtŦ 80Ŧ Guard|an o€ m|norƌs propertyŦ Ÿ 1e €o||ow|ng persons sa||
exerc|se guard|ans|p over te property o€ m|nors |n te order o€
precedenceť
(a) IaterŤ
(b) Iaterƌs executor or nom|neeŤ
(c) 9aterna| grand€aterŤ
(d) 9aterna| grand€aterƌs nom|neeŤ or
(e) 1e courtŦ

JnA1 5££M5 1O 8£ 1n£ lkO8l£M?
ArL has an enLlrelv dlfferenL seL of auardlans vsŦ ArL (where moLher
ls Lhe alLernaLlve of Lhe faLher ln Lhe leaal admlnlsLraLlon of Lhe properLv
of Lhe chlld)Ŧ whot is the reoson of the conf/ict?
O ArLŦ concerns parenLal auLhorlLvŤ ArLŦ concerns auardlanshlp
O ArLŦ ls closer Lo lslamlc lawŤ and lslamlc law and lslamlc socleLv ls
paLrlarchalŦ ArLŦ ls clvll law provlslon (and Lhe auLhors seemed Lo
have overlooked Lhe concepL ln ArLŦ )
8u1 ln CASL Cl Þ8CÞL81? Cl CPlLuţ WPlCP WCuLu Þ8LvAlL?
O lf Lhe case lnvolves Lhe auardlanshlp of Lhe mlnor chlldţ use ArLŦ
(and lf Lhls ls brouahL before Lhe sharlƌa courLs)
O lf Lhe case lnvolves parenLal auLhorlLv/cusLodv over Lhe mlnor chlldţ
use ArLŦ
O ConsLrue Lhe code uslna Lhe sources of lslamlc Law
O Cfť 8ondaa[v vŦ 8ondaa[v
ƍ1he CourLƍ ln ArLŦ (e)ť Lhe courL ls Lo be aulded bv lslamlc law
on who lL should conslder as Lhe auardlan of Lhe mlnorƌs properLvŦ
lL should conslder paLernal slde down Lhe llneť
laLher
CrandfaLher
8roLher of Lhe faLher
Son of Lhe broLher of Lhe faLher
uncle of Lhe faLher
O MoLher noL lncluded ln Lhe enumeraLlonť 1rles Lo avold Lhe
posslblllLv where Lhe moLher aeLs marrled Lo anoLher man laLer onŦ
1he moLher would now be sub[ecL Lo Lhe auLhorlLv of Lhe new
husbandŦ SC proLecL Lhe properLv of Lhe mlnor chlld from Lhe
auLhorlLv of Lhe subsequenL husband (sLepŴfaLher of Lhe mlnor
chlld)Ŧ

CUSTOMARY LAWS
*8lba (usurv) ls prohlblLedŤ 8lhan (morLaaae) ls allowedŦ

SHARÌA DÌSTRÌCT COURTS
* Slmllar Lo LhaL of Lhe 81Cţ Sharl'a ulsLrlcL CourLs also have appellaLe
[urlsdlcLlon
Ŵ lor appellaLe [urlsdlcLlon Lo aLLachţ Lhe declslon of Lhe Sharl'a ClrculL
CourL musL be appealed ln Lhe Sharl'a ulsLrlcL CourL Lo where Lhe former
belonas
Ŵunllke 81Cţ declslons of Lhe Sharl'a ulsLrlcL CourLs ls noL appealable Lo Lhe
CA
Ŵ8emedv ls Lo ao dlrecLlv Lo Lhe SC
Ŵ1here are a LoLal of Sharl'a ClrculL CourLs
Ŵ1he ClrculL CourLs are dlsLrlbuLed wlLhln Lhe Sharl'a udlclal ulsLrlcLs
Ŵ1he ClrculL CourLs mav be compared Lo LhaL of Lhe M1C ln Lhe sense LhaL
lLs LerrlLorlal [urlsdlcLlon ls llmlLed Lo Lhe clLles/munlclpallLles/clrculL for
whlch Lhe [udae ls appolnLed
ŴPoweverţ dlfferenL from Lhe M1C ln Lerms of [urlsdlcLlon over Lvpes of
cases
* 1hev baslcallv have Lhe same powers and prlvlleaes as LhaL of Lhelr 81C
and M1C counLerparLs
Ŵ1he requlremenLs are dlfferenL however
10 | Ì s l a m i c L a w N o t e s _ c o m p i l e d b y C h a M e n d o z a
Ŵ Sharl'a ulsLrlcL udaeť same requlremenLs as LhaL of 81C [udae +
requlremenL of belna learned ln lslamlc Law and urlsprudence
Ŵ Sharl'a ClrculL udaeť musL have passed Lhe Þhlllpplne 8ar Lo pracLlce ln
Sharl'a CourLs

AGAMA
* ACAMA LxÞLAlnLu (Cu1SluL Þu 3)
· Aaama means ºrellalon"
· Musllm law allows reference of clalms lnvolvlna properLv and
prlvaLe rlahLs Lo an arblLraLor
· 8eference ls called 1APklM
· SeL up bv SulLans and Llders
· 1rv and declde cases bv Lhemselves
· WhaL ls applledť rellalous laws and ordlnances

AAC vSŦ ACAMA CCu81S
· AAC ls noL a courL buL a conclllaLlon bodv
· AAC does noL Lrv and declde cases buL Lrv Lo paLch up Lhe
dlfferences of Lhe parLles bv problna lnLo Lhe real cause of Lhe
dlspuLe
· AAC does noL have [udlclal power
· AAC performs reconclllaLorv funcLlons
· PCWLvL8ţ boLh have Lhe same purposeť
avold Lhe adversarlal and punlLlve characLer of
formal llLlaaLlon
conLaln Lhe problem ln Lhe famllv Lo prevenL
adverse famllv reacLlons
O noLe LhaL Au8 law does noL applv ln Sharlƌa courLs
O WhaL under [urlsdlcLlonť
O ulvorce
O SubsequenL marrlaaesţ when wlfe does noL consenL
O Cffenses aaalnsL cusLomarv law
O ArLŦ 36ţ CMÞLť when Lhe husband does noL allow Lhe wlfe Lo
exerclse her professlon
O WhaL are Lhe sub[ecL maLLer covered under Lhe AACť Lhe sub[ecL
maLLer ls noL llmlLed Lo dlvorce and marrlaae aloneţ buL would
lnclude anclllarv lssues whlch are necessarllv dlscussed ln Lhe lssue
aL handŦ Sub[ecL maLLer ls broader! CLherwlseţ uselessŦ lLƌs acLuallv
an Au8 councllŦ

Ŵ 1he LerrlLorlal [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe Sharl'a udlclal ulsLrlcLs are llmlLed Lo
Lhelr aeoaraphlcal dlsLrlbuLlon Ŷ slmllar Lo LhaL of Lhe 81Cs
CuLslde of Musllm Mlndanaoţ Lhere are no oLher
Sharl'a udlclal ulsLrlcLs slnce Lhere ls no law
creaLlna more [udlclal dlsLrlcLs

lf vou ao Lo 8Þ 2ţ vou have Lhe concepL of Lhe inteoroted judicio/ systemŦ
Would Lhe Sharlƌa CourLs belona Lo Lhe lnLearaLed udlclal SvsLem of Lhe
Þhlllpplnes?
O SecLlon 2ţ 8Þ 2ť Sharlƌa courLs noL menLlonedŦ
O ln Lerms of [urlsdlcLlonţ ls Lhere dlsLlncLlon? ?LS
O
81C Sharlƌa
Ceneral [urlsdlcLlon LlmlLed [urlsdlcLlon
O Sl8ť enumeraLlon for lnLearaLed [udlclal svsLem does noL
lnclude Lhe Sharlƌa courLsţ buL lL lncludes lL ln
approprlaLlon for Sharlƌa courLs (SLC1lCn )Ŧ So Sharlƌa
courLs cannoL aranL noLarlal Commlsslons Ŧ ln shorLţ Lhe
Sharlƌa courLs does noL have all Lhe powers of Lhe 81CŦ
O 8u1 ll 1PL CuLS1lCn lSţ WCn SPA8lƌA CCu81S A8L
9k1 I 1n IUICIL 1Mť ?LS
O ueclslons of Sharlƌa courLs are appealable Lo Lhe SC
O CCnS1lť one [udlclal svsLem
O SC exerclses power of supervlslon (lncludlna
dlsclpllnarv [urlsdlcLlon)
O SC noL parL of Lhe lnLearaLed [udlclal svsLem (8Þ 2) buL
parL of Lhe [udlclal svsLem ln aeneralŦ WP?ť llrsL sharlƌa
courLs were esLabllshed afLer Lhe effecLlvlLv daLe of 8Þ
2Ŧ lf 8Þ 2 be amendedţ Lhe Sharlƌa courL svsLem
would probablv be lncluded ln Lhe ln1LC8A1Lu uulClAL
S?S1LM

CASE SUMMARÌES
MALANG v. MOSON
Ŵmarrlaaes celebraLed durlna Lhe effecLlvlLv of Lhe Clvll Code and 8LlC8L
enacLmenL of CMÞL
Ŵdlvorces all Look place 8LlC8L CMÞL
Lhe Clvll Code whlch Look effecL on AuausL 3ţ
Ť
8epubllc AcL noŦ 3 (º8ŦAŦ 3")ţ
auLhorlzlna Musllm dlvorcesţ
whlch was effecLlve from une ţ
Lo une 3ţ 6Ť
Lhe Musllm Code whlch Look effecL lebruarv ţ Ť
Lhe lamllv Code effecLlve AuausL 3ţ Ŧ
Low oovernino Mus/im Morriooes ce/ebroted 8efore the Mus/im code
ŴLhe Clvll Code aoverned Lhe marrlaaes before Lhe effecLlvlLv of Lhe
Musllm Code
ŴA81 ţ nCCť recoanlzed Lhe rlahL of Musllms Lo conLracL marrlaae ln
accordance wlLh Lhelr cusLoms and rlahLsţ provlded LhaL 3 vears afLer Lhe
effecLlvlLv of Lhe nCCţ all marrlaaes performed beLween Musllms and
oLher nonŴChrlsLlans shall be solemnlzed ln accordance wlLh nCC (unLLSS
ÞresldenLţ upon recommendaLlon of Lhe Commlssloner of naLlonal
lnLearaLlonţ make a proclamaLlon declarlna valld Lhe sald marrlaaes
celebraLed under Lhelr rlLes)
ŴnoLe LhaL before Lhe 3 vear perlod provlded ln Lhe nCCţ Þu 3 (Lhe
Musllm Code) was passed (lL8 ţ )

ll Ǝ lllŦ vo/idity of Mus/im Mu/tip/e Morriooes ce/ebroted before the
Mus/im codeŦ £ffect of Peop/e vŦ 5ubono ond Peop/e vŦ umpo
8LlC8L Þu 3 (nCC AÞÞLlCA8LL)ť no law sancLlonlna mulLlple
marrlaaesŦ
Ŵconsldered 8laamous or Þolvaamous marrlaaes as vold from Lhe Llme of
Lhelr performance
lCť subsequenL marrlaaes celebraLed before Lhe realsLraLlon of Lhe
[udamenL declarlna a prlor marrlaae vold shall llkewlse be vold
Musllm Codeţ A81Ŧ6ť does noL make Lhe Musllm Code applv
reLroacLlvelvŦ
ŴconslsLenL wlLh Lhe prlnclple LhaL all laws operaLe prospecLlvelvţ unless
Lhe conLrarv appears or ls clearlvţ plalnlv and unequlvocablv expressed or
necessarllv lmplled
SC 8LlC8L MuSLlM CCuLť Þolvaamous marrlaaes are vold ab lnlLlo (noLeť
unless dlvorced obLalnedţ whlch was allowed under 8A 3 effecLlve Ŵ
6ţ before marrvlna anoLher one)
l8CM lL8 CnWA8uSť Þolvaamous MuSLlM Marrlaaes were
allowed
Ŵas applled ln 2 casesť
P vŦ 5u84NOť
lAC1Sť 1he accused had 3 wlvesţ Lhe 3rd one belna Lhe vlcLlm who was
kllledŦ
lSSuLť WCn Lhe accused should be convlcLed of PCMlCluL or ÞA88lCluL
PLLuť Accused was convlcLed of Pomlclde
ŴAltho:gh the p7actice of polygamy is app7oved by c:stom among these non-
Ch7istians, polygamy, howeve7, is not sanctioned by the Ma77iage Law[39],
which me7ely 7ecognizes t7ibal ma77iage 7it:als. The deceased, :nde7 o:7 law,
is not th:s the lawf:l wife of the defendant and this p7ecl:des conviction fo7
the c7ime of pa77icide.
P vŦ uMPOť
lAC1Sť uumpo was leaallv marrled Lo a Moro buL alleaedlv conLracLed
anoLher marrlaaes wlLh anoLher MoroŦ Per dad LesLlfled LhaL he dld noL
consenL Lo Lhe 2nd marrlaaeŦ
lSSuLť WCn uumpo should be convlcLed of 8laamv (WCn she valldlv
conLracLed a second marrlaae Lo merlL her convlcLlon of 8laamv)?
PLLuť Accused nC1 CulL1?
ŴconsenL of faLher an essenLlal requlslLe for a valld Musllm marrlaaeŦ As
hereţ no consenL was obLalnedţ Lhe second marrlaae was noL valldŦ PLnCLţ
no blaamvŦ
ŴlL appears LhaL lf Lhe 2nd marrlaae was valldţ Lhe accused uumpo would
be convlcLed of 8laamvŦ

Lows oovernino PkOP£k1Y k£L41lON5 of Mus/im Morriooes ce/ebroted
before the Mus/im code
ŴWhich law wo:ld gove7n depends :pon: (1) when the ma77iages took place;
() whethe7 the pa7ties lived togethe7 as h:sband and wife; and (3) when and
how the s:bject p7ope7ties we7e acq:i7ed.
ŴÞL81lnLn1 Þ8CvlSlCnS Cl 1PL ClvlL CCuLť
ArLŦ ť luLure spouses mav have a prenupŦ lf prenup ls voldţ CÞC shall
aovern properLv relaLlons
ArL 3ť All properLv brouahL bv wlfe Lo Leh marrlaaeŦŦŦls paraphernal
ArL 36ť wlfe reLalns ownershlp over paraphernal properLv
11 | Ì s l a m i c L a w N o t e s _ c o m p i l e d b y C h a M e n d o z a
ArL 2ť CÞC deflned
ArL 3ť All CÞC properLv owned ln common bv Lhe husband and wlfe
ArL ť man and woman llvlna LoaeLher as husband and wlfe buL noL
marrledţ coŴownershlp rules applv
Ŵurlsprudence lnLerpreLs ArL ť man and woman llvlna LoaeLher as
husband and wlfe MuS1 nC1 8L lnCAÞACl1A1Lu 1C MA88?
Ŵso cannoL applv Lhls provlslon Lo Lhe decedenLƌs subsequenL marrlaaes
durlna Lhe appllcablllLv of Lhe nCC slnce decedenL was noL capaclLaLed Lo
marrv
ŴlC (effecLlve AuausL 3ţ ) żnoLeť noL reallv appllcable Lo Lhe case buL
slnce auldellnesţ slae na naaŽť
A81 ť Man and woman
CapaclLaLed Lo marrv each oLher
Llve excluslvelv wlLh one anoLher as husband and wlfeŦŦŦ 8ules of
coownershlp applvŦ ÞresumpLlon LhaL Lhev were obLalned Lhrouah [olnL
efforLsţ owned ln equalŦ ÞarLlclpaLlon ln [olnL efforLs mav lnclude chlld
rearlnaŦ
A81 ť lf noL falllna under ArL ţ only the p7ope7ties acq:i7ed by both of
the pa7ties th7o:gh thei7 act:al joint cont7ib:tion of money, p7ope7ty, o7
ind:st7y shall be owned by them in common in p7opo7tion to thei7 7espective
cont7ib:tions. Ìn the absence to the cont7a7y, cont7ib:tions p7es:med eq:al.
CÌVÌL CODE vs. FC
Civil Code Family Code
Me7ely 7eq:i7es man and woman
to live togethe7 as h:sband and
wife
Live EXCLUSÌ VELY with each
othe7 as h:sband and wife
!7ove act:al join cont7ib:tion, o7
else p7es:med to be eq:al

5o summory of opp/icob/e /ows on property reoimes
8efote Mosllm coJe ooJ omllv coJeť
sL marrlaaeť valld marrlaaeť Þrenup appllesţ or else CÞCŦ ÞroperLv
brouahL bv wlfe Lo Lhe marrlaae ls her paraphernal properLv and reLalns
ownershlp over lL (relevanL Lo Lhe land of Alda made as dowrv)
SubsequenL marrlaaesť vold marrlaaesť noL rules of coownershlp
xť lf dlvorce obLalned durlna Lhe appllcablllLv of 8A 3ţ Lhus decedenL
was capaclLaLed Lo marrv Lhen
uuklNC AMll) cOu£ť
sL marrlaaeť valld marrlaae
SubsequenL marrlaaesť
1reaLed as common law marrlaaeť AfLer appllcablllLv of Musllm Codeţ valldť
coownershlp
8efore appllcablllLv of Musllm Codeť noL rules on coownershlpţ prove
acLual [olnL conLrlbuLlon or else presumed equal

v Ǝ vlŦ Lows on succession ond disso/ution of the property reoimes
Law appllcable on rules of successlonť Law aL Lhe Llme of deaLh
Law appllcable for Lhe sLaLus and capaclLv Lo succeed of wlvesť law ln force
aL Lhe Llme of Lhe performance of Lhe marrlaae rlLe
Law appllcable for Lhe sLaLus and capaclLv Lo succeed of chlldrenť law ln
force aL Llme of lncepLlon or blrLh

So before leb ţ ť nCC applles
AfLer leb ţ ť Musllm Code applles

Mus/im divorces before Mus/im code
8A 3 (appllcable from une ţ Lo une 3ţ 6)ť a:tho7ized
absol:te divo7ce among M:slims 7esiding in non-Ch7istian p7ovinces, in
acco7dance with M:slim c:stom, fo7 a pe7iod of yea7s f7om J:ne 18, 1949
Ŵdlscusslon llmlLed Lhe dlvorce as valld lf beLween Lhe appllcablllLv of 8A
3Ŧ WPA1 A8Cu1 WPLn MuSLlM CCuL AÞÞLlCA8LL?

Bondagjy v. Bondagjy
Ŵformer ChrlsLlan ladv converLed Lo lslam Lo marrv a Musllm Lhen
apparenLlv reverLed back Lo ChrlsLlanlLv
ŴacLlon now for cusLodv of mlnors before Sharlƌa CourLs buL M1u flled

litness of o motherť
Ŵburden of proof on Lhe person allealna unworLhlness
ŴPL8Lť courL found LhaL Lhe evldence noL sufflclenL Lo overLurn worLhlness
or flLness as a moLherţ even lf uslna Musllm Code sLandards
ŴnCnŴMuSLlMť lamllv Code deLermlnes her capaclLv
ŴllLness of a parenLť Lhe ablllLv Lo see Lo Lhe phvslcalţ educaLlonalţ soclal
and moral welfare of Lhe chlldrenţ and Lhe ablllLv Lo alve Lhem a healLhv
envlronmenL as well as phvslcal and flnanclal supporL Laklna lnLo
conslderaLlon Lhe respecLlve resources and soclal and moral slLuaLlons of
Lhe parenLsŦ
ŴPL8Lť boLh are equallv capable of provldlna Lhe needs of Lhelr chlldren
ON Porento/ 4uthority ond custody
Ŵ8oLh lC (ArL 2) and Þu 3 provldes for Lhe [olnL exerclse of parenLal
auLhorlLv lf sLlll marrled
Ŵln case of vCLun1A8? SLÞA8A1lCnť Lake lnLo conslderaLlon
clrcumsLances LhaL would lead Lhe courL Lo belleve whlch parenL can
beLLer Lake care of chlldren
Þu 63ť MoLher has cusLodv of mlnor chlldrenţ absenL a compelllna reason
Lo Lhe conLrarv
PL8Lť louzl ls a buslness man whose work requlres hlm Lo ao abroad or be
ln dlfferenL places mosL of Lhe Llme
SlLvA vŦ CAť boLh parenLs have parenLal auLhorlLvţ wlfe cannoL deprlve
husband of lLŦ Ŵ so aranL vlslLorlal rlahLs Lo louzl

Abu Bakr v. Abu Bakr
Ŵshows a dlvorce bv fask (or courL order) buL Lhe maln lssue ls on Lhe
preLrlal order

Tamano v. Ortiz
laLher of Abdel 1amano marrled Lwlce (Lo Lwo Musllms)ţ alleaedlv under
Clvll rlahLsŦ llrsL wlfe alleaed LhaL Lhe Lwo marrlaaes were celebraLed
under clvll rlahLsţ flled complalnL for nulllflcaLlon of Lhe 2nd marrlaae
before Lhe 81C for belna blaamousŦ M1u flled bv 2nd wlfeţ savlna Musllm
marrlaae was celebraLedţ so 81C does noL have [urlsdlcLlon Ŵ all of Lhem
were MusllmsŦ CourL held LhaL 81C has [urlsdlcLlon over marrlaae dlspuLesţ
and Lhe alleaaLlon ln Lhe M1u does noL dlvesL Lhe courL of [urlsdlcLlonŦ
8esldesţ lL was onlv belaLedlv LhaL Lhe ÞeLlLloner ralsed Lhe facL LhaL Lhere
was a Musllm Marrlaae Lo dlvesL Lhe 81C of [urlsdlcLlon vsŦ Sharlƌa CourLsŦ
ŦŦŦAs Lo ArLŦ 3ţ Þu 3ť does noL provlde for a slLuaLlon where Lhe
parLles were marrled boLh ln clvll and Musllm rlLesŦ ConsequenLlvţ Lhe
sharlƌa courLs are noL vesLed wlLh orlalnal and excluslve [urlsdlcLlon when
lL comes Lo marrlaaes celebraLed under boLh clvll and Musllm lawsŦ
ConsequenLlvţ Lhe 8ealonal 1rlal CourLs are noL dlvesLed of Lhelr aeneral
orlalnal [urlsdlcLlon under SecŦ ţ parŦ (6) of 8Þ 8laŦ 2Ŧ

Mocaran v. BaIindog
Ŵon Mahr and appeals from Sharlƌa uC
ŴSlnce Lhere ls no Sharlƌa AppelaLe courL veLţcan onlv resorL Lo SC for
appeals (slnce SC has orlalnal [urlsdlcLlon over peLlLlons for cerLlorarlţ
prohlblLlonţ mandamusţ quo warranLo and habeas corpus)
ŴbuL hereţ whaL ls approprlaLe ls 8 CerLlorarl and noL 86
Ŵ(As was held bv Lhe SuC)one of Lhe essenLlal requlslLes of a marrlaae
conLracL ls Lhe sLlpulaLlon of cusLomarv dower (mahr) dulv wlLnessed bv
Lwo compeLenL personsŦ lL ls boLh an lnallenable and lmprescrlpLlble rlahL
whlch Lhe wlfe can demand from her husbandŦ lL ls lnallenable ln Lhe sense
LhaL even lf noL expresslv sLaLed ln Lhe conLracL of marrlaaeţ ls
neverLheless due Lo Lhe wlfe and ls noL losL Lhrouah prescrlpLlonŦ lL furLher
held LhaL Lhe poslLlve LesLlmonles of Lhe wlLnesses for prlvaLe respondenL
should prevall over Lhe neaaLlve LesLlmonles of peLlLloner and her chlldrenŦ
1he courL aave credence Lo Lhe LesLlmonv of Lhe lmamţ belonalna as he
does Lo Lhe aroup of Lhe learned (Lhe ulama)Ŧ

Arap v. Mustafa
Admln complalnL flled aaalnsL Lhe flrsL sharlƌa dlsLrlcL courL [udae for
fallure Lo resolve cases (came up wlLh declslon afLer a lona lona Llme)Ŧ 1he
[udae falled Lo noLlfv Lhe courL wlLh Lhe alleaed dlfflculLv wlLh reconclllna
Lhe Curan provlslons and oLher appllcable lawsŦ 1he delav ls LanLamounL
Lo aross lnefflclencvŦ
8acksLorvť slr sald LhaL Lhe orlalnal case was merelv a case where Lhe man
falled Lo noLlfv one of hls wlves LhaL he was conLracLlna a subsequenL
marrlaaeŦ
1hls case shows LhaL Lhe Sharlƌa courLsţ even lf consldered CAsţ are under
Lhe auLhorlLv of Lhe udlclarvŦ
Whv CAť Lhose who pracLlce before Lhem are noL consldered as reaular
lawvers

Tumawis v. BaIindog (oh no, I so feeI this wouId be incIuded)
on Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Sharlƌa CourLs and appeals from lLs declslons
on CuleLlna of 1lLle and SuC
ŴellmlnaLlon of Lhe ƍcloud of doubLs on Lhe LlLle of ownershlpƍ on Lhe land
are wlLhln Lhe SuC's [urlsdlcLlon Lo aranLŦ
Ŵbrlef backaroundŦ 1he udlclarv AcL of (8A 26) was enacLed on une
ţ Ŧ lL vesLed Lhe CourLs of llrsL lnsLance wlLh orlalnal [urlsdlcLlonť
(b) ln all clvll acLlons whlch lnvolve Lhe LlLle Lo or possesslon of real
properLvţ or anv lnLeresL Lherelnţ or Lhe leaallLv of anv Laxţ lmposL or
assessmenLţ excepL acLlons of forclble enLrv lnLo and deLalner on lands or
bulldlnasţ orlalnal [urlsdlcLlon of whlch ls conferred bv Lhls AcL upon clLv
and munlclpal courLsŦ2 x x x
12 | Ì s l a m i c L a w N o t e s _ c o m p i l e d b y C h a M e n d o z a
ŴSubsequenLlvţ Þu 3ţ daLed lebruarv ţ ţ creaLed Lhe Sharl'a
courLsţ lŦeŦţ Lhe SuC and Lhe Sharl'a ClrculL CourLţ boLh of llmlLed
[urlsdlcLlonŦ ln 8epubllc vŦ Asunclonţ2 Lhe CourLţ clLlna Lhe AdmlnlsLraLlve
Code of ţ22 classlfled Sharl'a courLs as ƍreaular courLsţƍ meanlna Lhev
are parL of Lhe [udlclal deparLmenLŦ
ŴArLŦ 3 of Þu 3 vesLs SuCsţ ln cerLaln casesţ wlLh excluslve orlalnal
[urlsdlcLlon and wlLh concurrenL orlalnal [urlsdlcLlon over cerLaln causes of
acLlonŦ As far as relevanLţ ArLŦ 3 reads as followsť
A81lCLL 3Ŧ Crlalnal [urlsdlcLlonŦŸ () 1he Sharl'a ulsLrlcL
CourL shall have excluslve orlalnal [urlsdlcLlon overť
x x x x
d) All acLlons arlslna from cusLomarv conLracLs ln whlch Lhe
parLles are Musllmsţ lf Lhev have noL speclfled whlch law shall aovern Lhelr
relaLlonsŤ and
x x x x
(2) ConcurrenLlv wlLh exlsLlna clvll courLsţ Lhe Sharl'a ulsLrlcL
CourL shall have orlalnal [urlsdlcLlon overť
x x x x
(b) All oLher personal and real acLlons noL menLloned ln
paraaraph (d) whereln Lhe parLles lnvolved are Musllms excepL Lhose for
forclble enLrv and unlawful deLalnerţ whlch shall fall under Lhe excluslve
orlalnal [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe Munlclpal ClrculL CourLŦ (Lmphasls addedŦ)
ŴCn AuausL ţ ţ 8Þ 2 Look effecLŦ SecŦ of 8Þ 2ţ as laLer
amended bv 8A 6ţ23 deflnlna Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe 81Csţ provldesť
SecLlon Ŧ SecLlon of 8aLas Þambansa 8laŦ 2ţ oLherwlse
known as Lhe ƍudlclarv 8eoraanlzaLlon AcL of ƍţ ls herebv amended
Lo read as followsť
ƍSecŦ Ŧ urlsdlcLlon ln clvll casesŦŸ8ealonal 1rlal CourLs shall
exerclse excluslve orlalnal [urlsdlcLlonť
x x x x
ƍ(2) ln all clvll acLlons whlch lnvolve Lhe LlLle Loţ or possesslon ofţ
real properLvţ or anv lnLeresL Lherelnţ where Lhe assessed value of Lhe
properLv lnvolved exceeds 1wenLv Lhousand pesos (Þ2ţţ) orţ for
clvll acLlons ln MeLro Manllaţ where such value exceeds llfLv Lhousand
pesos (ÞţŦ) excepL acLlons for forclble enLrv lnLo and unlawful
deLalner of lands or bulldlnasţ orlalnal [urlsdlcLlon over whlch ls conferred
upon Lhe MeLropollLan 1rlal CourLsţ Munlclpal 1rlal CourLsţ and Munlclpal
ClrculL 1rlal CourLsŦƍ (Lmphasls supplledŦ)
ŴAs Lhlnas sLood prlor Lo Lhe effecLlvlLv daLe of 8Þ 2ţ Lhe SuC hadţ bv
vlrLue of Þu 3ţ orlalnal [urlsdlcLlonţ concurrenLlv wlLh Lhe 81Cs and
M1Csţ over all personal and real acLlons ouLslde Lhe purvlew of ArLŦ
3()(d) of Þu 3ţ ln whlch Lhe parLles lnvolved were Musllmsţ excepL
Lhose for e[ecLmenLŦ Þersonal acLlon ls one LhaL ls founded on prlvlLv of
conLracLs beLween Lhe parLlesŤ and ln whlch Lhe plalnLlff usuallv seeks Lhe
recoverv of personal properLvţ Lhe enforcemenL of a conLracLţ or recoverv
of damaaesŦ 8eal acLlonţ on Lhe oLher handţ ls one anchored on Lhe prlvlLv
of real esLaLeţ where Lhe plalnLlff seeks Lhe recoverv of ownershlp or
possesslon of real properLv or lnLeresL ln lLŦ
ŴCn Lhe oLher handţ 8Þ 2ţ as amendedţ vesLs Lhe 81C or Lhe munlclpal
Lrlal courL wlLh excluslve orlalnal [urlsdlcLlon ln all clvll acLlons LhaL lnvolve
Lhe LlLle Lo or possesslon of real properLvţ or anv lnLeresL ln lLţ and Lhe
value of Lhe properLv sub[ecL of Lhe case or Lhe [urlsdlcLlonal amounLţ
deLermlnlna wheLher Lhe case comes wlLhln Lhe [urlsdlcLlonal compeLence
of Lhe 81C or Lhe M1CŦ CrbeLa vŦ CrbeLa dlfferenLlaLed personal acLlon
from real acLlon ln Lhe followlna wlseť
A real acLlonţ under SecŦ ţ 8ule of Lhe 8ules of CourLţ ls one
LhaL affecLs LlLle Lo or possesslon of real properLvţ or an lnLeresL LherelnŦ
Such acLlons should be commenced and Lrled ln Lhe proper courL whlch
has [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe area whereln Lhe real properLv lnvolvedţ or a
porLlon Lhereofţ ls slLuaLedŦ All oLher acLlons are personal and mav be
commenced and Lrled where Lhe plalnLlff or anv of Lhe prlnclpal plalnLlffs
resldesţ or where Lhe defendanL or anv of Lhe prlnclpal defendanLs resldesţ
or ln Lhe case of a nonŴresldenL defendanL where he mav be foundţ aL Lhe
elecLlon of Lhe plalnLlffŦ
ŴCase here ls a sulL for recoverv of possesslon and evenLual reconvevance
of real properLv whlchţ under 8Þ 2ţ as amendedţ falls wlLhln Lhe orlalnal
[urlsdlcLlon of elLher Lhe 81C or M1CŦ ln an acLlon for reconvevanceţ all
LhaL musL be alleaed ln Lhe complalnL are Lwo facLs LhaLţ admlLLlna Lhem
Lo be Lrueţ would enLlLle Lhe plalnLlff Lo recover LlLle Lo Lhe dlspuLed landţ
namelvť () LhaL Lhe plalnLlff ls Lhe owner of Lhe land or has possessed Lhe
land ln Lhe concepL of ownerŤ and (2) LhaL Lhe defendanL has llleaallv
dlspossessed Lhe plalnLlff of Lhe landŦ PL8L Lhese requlslLes have been
meLť Lhev alleaed absoluLe ownershlp of Lhe sub[ecL parcel of landţ and
Lhev were llleaallv dlspossessed of Lhelr land bv peLlLlonerŦ 1he alleaaLlons
ln Lhe complalnLţ Lhusţ make a case for an acLlon for reconvevanceŦ
ŴCn WCn Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe 81C or M1C ls Lo Lhe excluslon of Lhe SuCť
nC
ŴÞeLlLloner's verslon of Lhe law would effecLlvelv remove Lhe concurrenL
orlalnal [urlsdlcLlon aranLed bv ArLŦ 3ţ parŦ 2(b) of Þu 3 Lo clvll courLs
and Sharl'a courLs overţ amona oLhersť
All oLher personal and real acLlons noL menLloned ln paraaraph
(d) whereln Lhe parLles lnvolved are Musllms excepL Lhose for forclble
enLrv and unlawful deLalnerţ whlch shall fall under Lhe excluslve orlalnal
[urlsdlcLlon of Lhe Munlclpal ClrculL CourLŦ x x x
ŴLven lf Sharl'a courLs are consldered reaular courLsţ Lhese are courLs of
llmlLed [urlsdlcLlonŦ As we have observed ln 8ulonaŴAl Awadhl vŦ AsLlhţ3
Lhe Code of Musllm Þersonal Laws creaLlna sald courLs was promulaaLed
Lo fulflll ƍLhe asplraLlon of Lhe llllplno Musllms Lo have Lhelr svsLem of
laws enforced ln Lhelr communlLlesŦƍ lL ls a speclal law lnLended for
llllplno Musllms
ŴA readlna of Lhe perLlnenL provlslons of 8Þ 2 and Þu 3 shows LhaL
Lhe formerţ a law of aeneral appllcaLlon Lo clvll courLsţ has no appllcaLlon
Loţ and does noL repealţ Lhe provlslons found ln Þu 3ţ a speclal lawţ
whlch onlv refers Lo Sharl'a courLsŦ
ŴA look aL Lhe scope of 8Þ 2 clearlv shows LhaL Sharl'a courLs were noL
lncluded ln Lhe reoraanlzaLlon of courLs LhaL were formerlv oraanlzed
under 8A 26Ŧ 1he perLlnenL provlslon ln 8Þ 2 sLaLesť
SLC1lCn 2Ŧ ScopeŦ Ÿ 1he reoraanlzaLlon hereln provlded shall
lnclude Lhe CourL of Appealsţ Lhe CourL of llrsL lnsLanceţ Lhe ClrculL
Crlmlnal CourLsţ Lhe uvenlle and uomesLlc 8elaLlons CourLsţ Lhe CourLs of
Aararlan 8elaLlonsţ Lhe ClLv CourLsţ Lhe Munlclpal CourLsţ and Lhe
Munlclpal ClrculL CourLsŦ
ŴAs correcLlv polnLed ouL bv prlvaLe respondenLs ln Lhelr CommenLţ 8Þ 2
was enacLed Lo reoraanlze onlv exlsLlna clvll courLs and ls a law of aeneral
appllcaLlon Lo Lhe [udlclarvŦ ln conLrasLţ Þu 3 ls a speclal law LhaL onlv
applles Lo Sharl'a courLsŦ
ŴWe have held LhaL a aeneral law and a speclal law on Lhe same sub[ecL
are sLaLuLes ln parl maLerla and should be read LoaeLher and harmonlzedţ
lf posslbleţ wlLh a vlew Lo alvlna effecL Lo boLhŦ ln Lhe lnsLanL caseţ we
applv Lhe prlnclple aeneralla speclallbus non deroaanLŦ A aeneral law does
noL nulllfv a speclal lawŦ 1he aeneral law wlll vleld Lo Lhe speclal law ln Lhe
speclflc and parLlcular sub[ecL embraced ln Lhe laLLerŦ We musL read and
consLrue 8Þ 2 and Þu 3 LoaeLherţ Lhen bv Laklna Þu 3 as an
excepLlon Lo Lhe aeneral law Lo reconclle Lhe Lwo lawsŦ 1hls ls so slnce Lhe
lealslaLure has noL made anv express repeal or modlflcaLlon of Þu 3ţ
and lL ls wellŴseLLled LhaL repeals of sLaLuLes bv lmpllcaLlon are noL favoredŦ
lmplled repeals wlll noL be declared unless Lhe lnLenL of Lhe lealslaLors ls
manlfesLŦ Laws are assumed Lo be passed onlv afLer careful dellberaLlon
and wlLh knowledae of all exlsLlna ones on Lhe sub[ecLţ and lL follows LhaL
Lhe lealslaLure dld noL lnLend Lo lnLerfere wlLh or abroaaLe a former law
relaLlna Lo Lhe same sub[ecL maLLerŦ
Ŵln order Lo alve effecL Lo boLh laws aL handţ we musL conLlnue Lo
recoanlze Lhe concurrenL [urlsdlcLlon en[oved bv SuCs wlLh LhaL of 81Cs
under Þu 3Ŧ
ŴMoreoverţ Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe courL below cannoL be made Lo depend
upon defenses seL up ln Lhe answerţ ln a moLlon Lo dlsmlssţ or ln a moLlon
for reconslderaLlonţ buL onlv upon Lhe alleaaLlons of Lhe complalnLŦ36
urlsdlcLlon over Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of a case ls deLermlned from Lhe
alleaaLlons of Lhe complalnL and Lhe characLer of Lhe rellef souahLŦ3 ln
Lhe lnsLanL caseţ prlvaLe respondenLs' peLlLlon3 ln Clvll Case noŦ 2Ŵ
sufflclenLlv alleaed Lhe concurrenL orlalnal [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe SuCŦ
ŴWhlle we recoanlze Lhe concurrenL [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe SuCs and Lhe 81Cs
wlLh respecL Lo cases lnvolvlna onlv Musllmsţ Lhe SuC has excluslve
orlalnal [urlsdlcLlon over all acLlons arlslna from conLracLs cusLomarv Lo
Musllms3 Lo Lhe excluslon of Lhe 81Csţ as Lhe excepLlon under Þu 3ţ
whlle boLh courLs have concurrenL orlalnal [urlsdlcLlon over all oLher
personal acLlonsŦ Sald [urlsdlcLlonal confermenLţ found ln ArLŦ 3 of Þu
3ţ ls appllcable solelv when boLh parLles are Musllms and shall noL be
consLrued Lo operaLe Lo Lhe pre[udlce of a nonŴMusllmţ who mav be Lhe
opposlna parLv aaalnsL a MusllmŦ
ŴClven peLlLloner's flawed araumenLsţ we hold LhaL Lhe respondenL courL
dld noL commlL anv arave abuse of dlscreLlonŦ Crave abuse of dlscreLlon ls
presenL when Lhere ls an arblLrarv exerclse of power owlna from passlonţ
pre[udlceţ or personal hosLlllLvŤ or a whlmslcalţ arblLrarvţ or caprlclous
exerclse of power LhaL amounLs Lo a shlrklna from or refusal Lo perform a
poslLlve duLv en[olned bv law or Lo acL aL all ln conLemplaLlon of lawŦ 1he
abuse of dlscreLlon musL be paLenL and aross for Lhe acL Lo be held as one
made wlLh arave abuse of dlscreLlonŦ We flnd respondenL courL's
lssuance of Lhe assalled orders [usLlfled and wlLh no abuse of dlscreLlonŦ lLs
rellance on Lhe provlslons of Þu 3 ln asserLlna lLs [urlsdlcLlon was
sound and unassallableŦ

Musa v. Moson
13 | Ì s l a m i c L a w N o t e s _ c o m p i l e d b y C h a M e n d o z a
uecedenL had manv properLles ln Mlndanao (as well as wlves and chlldren)Ŧ
now lnLesLaLe proceedlnas were lnlLlaLed ln Lhe Lh ulsLrlcL SuC (whlch
covers Maaulndanao where some of hls properLles were locaLed) buL he
also has properLles ln uavao (whlch ls noL covered bv Lhe Lh dlsLrlcL of
SuC)Ŧ 1he peLlLloners conLesL Lhe venue and [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe Lh dlsLrlcL
of SuCŦ CourL held LhaL SuC had [urlsdlcLlonţ because lL ls mandaLed bv law
Lo Lake coanlzance of lnLesLaLe proceedlnas of deceased MusllmsŦ CourL
also upheld Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe Lh uslLrlcL SuC because flrsLţ Lhe
deceased was consldered a resldenL of boLh Maaulndanao and uavaoţ and
LhaL slnce Lhe lnLesLaLe proceedlnas were lnlLlaLed ln Lh dlsLrlcLţ lL should
noL be deprlved of Lhe sald exerclse of [urlsdlcLlonŦ

Tampar v. Usman
1wo parLles clalm Lhe same landŦ 1he plalnLlffs dld noL have anv evldenceţ
so asked Lhe defendanL Lo Lake Lhe oaLhŦ 1he defendanL aL flrsL refused Lo
do so buL subsequenLlv Look an oaLh so [udamenL was ln hls favorŦ now
Lhe plalnLlffs appeals Lhe declslon based on Lhe oaLh (vamln)Ŧ CourL held
LhaL Lhe vamln (oaLh) deprlved Lhe parLv of Lhelr consLlLuLlonal rlahL Lo
cross examlne Lhe wlLnessesţ and recommended LhaL Lhe vamln should be
deleLed from Lhe Sharlƌa speclal rules on procedureŦ

MONTAÑER v. SDC
8aslcallvţ Lhls case ls Lhe probaLe proceedlnas before SuC of a deceased
who ls alleaedlv noL a MusllmŦ SuC lnlLlallv dlsmlssed Lhe case buL
reconslderedţ and conLlnued Lo hear Lhe caseŦ 1he peLlLloners now assall
SuCƌs declslon of reconslderlna Lhe caseŦ CourL held LhaL Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of
Lhe courL ls dependenL on Lhe alleaaLlons ln Lhe complalnL Ŵ and here lL ls
alleaed ln Lhe complalnL LhaL Lhe decedenL ls a Musllm so Lhe SuC had
[urlsdlcLlonŦ As Lo Lhe alleaaLlon LhaL Lhls ls noL an lnLesLaLe proceedlnaţ
courL dlfferenLlaLed ordlnarv clvll acLlons vsŦ Speclal proceedlnas and
declded Lhls lnvolved a speclal proceedlna for lnLesLaLe seLLlemenLŦ 1hlrdţ
Lhe peLlLloner assalls Lhe fallure of Lhe respondenLs Lo pav Lhe correcL
dockeL fees buL Lhe courL sald LhaL Lhe peLlLloners falled Lo prove LhaL Lhe
clerk of courL lncorrecLlv assessed Lhe dockeL fees Lo be pald bv Lhe
peLlLlonersŦ As Lo Lhe fallure Lo seL Lhe M8 for hearlnaţ Lhe courL sald LhaL
Lhe case falls under Lhe excepLlon from hearlna slnce Lhelr lawver found
ouL abouL Lhe M8 evenLuallv so Lhev sLlll had opporLunlLv Lo be heardŦ uue
process sLlll preservedŦ LasLlvţ as Lo flllaLlon and prescrlpLlonţ Lhe courL
held LhaL as Lhe SuC as probaLe courL has Lhe auLhorlLv Lo deLermlne who
Lhe helrs of Lhe decedenL areţ lL should exerclse [urlsdlcLlon Lo deLermlne
Lhe sameŦ

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.