Resistivity

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Resistivity

© All Rights Reserved

- CHAPTER 3
- Physics Lab Resistivity
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- Rr411804 Semi Conductors and Magnetic Materials
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- Algorithm for Determining the Parameters of a Two Layer Soil Model
- IR drop.pdf
- ECE Materials and Components Section 2
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- EC for Metal Plate Eddy-four Probes
- cho_therm
- Current Electricity
- Direct Current Stds
- Electricity Summary
- Conductor
- Resistivity_3D_Imaging.pdf

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November 18, 2010

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insulators, and semiconductors.

resistivity.

measurements

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• is a basic material property

• defines how well the material will conduct an electric current

• is a common electrical measurement.

Ohm’s law relates the current (I) and the applied voltage (V) to the

material resistance (R) as follows:

V=IR

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rod of unit length and unit cross-sectional area:

A

R

L

Current Source ρ = resistivity (Ω-cm)

R = resistance: V/I (Ω)

Voltmeter

V A = cross-sectional area of

L

sample (cm2)

L = distance between two

A

leads of voltmeter (cm)

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Conductor

Metals Good electrical 10-6 Ω-cm

conductors

Insulators Low electrical 109 to 1020 Ω-cm

conductivity

Semiconductors Intermediate levels of 10-3 to 107 Ω-cm

conductivity

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Conduction Band

Energy

Energy Gap

Energy Gap

Valence Band

Valence Band

Valence Band

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Conductors:

Metals and Superconductors (very low resistance)

(low voltage and low power - use same techniques)

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V

1. Source current (I) through the

L

sample using one pair of leads.

w

known distance (L) apart.

Current Source

3. Calculate the resistivity (ρ) of

the sample using the cross-

V wt

sectional area (A=wt) and the cm

distance between the voltmeter I L

leads.

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• Thermoelectric Voltages

• Johnson Noise

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2-Wire Method 4-Wire Method

I I

V V

RLead RLead

RLead RLead

RSample

RSample

VM/I = RSample + 2RLead VM/I = RSample

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Thermoelectric Voltages

Voltmeter Voltmeter

Copper Test Leads

Copper Test Leads

Metal A V

Metal A V

T1 Metal B T2

and Metal B) in the circuit are at different temperatures (T1 and T2).

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to Eliminate Voltage Offsets (VEMF)

Measurement with Positive Polarity Measurement with Negative Polarity

VEMF VEMF

I+ VM+ I- VM-

R R

Voltage Measurement:

VM VM VEMF IR (VEMF IR )

VM IR

2 2

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and Noise

alternating the current source

polarity and using a moving

average of voltage readings to

calculate the resistance.

Averaging reduces the noise

bandwidth and therefore the noise.

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screens, or other electrical equipment

– Shielding and filtering

– Remove or turn-off the noise source

– When using DC instruments, integrate each measurement for an integer number of

power line cycles. The line cycle noise will “average out” when the integration time

is equal to an integration number of power line cycles.

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Johnson Noise

measurements.

particles. This charge movement results in Johnson noise.

rms 4kTRB

where k=Boltzmann’s constant, T= temp in K,

B=noise bandwidth in Hz, R=resistance of sample in ohms

• Reduce by:

1. reduce the measurement bandwidth –digital filtering (averaging

readings) or analog filtering

2. reduce temperature of the device

3. reduce the sample resistance (usually not practical)

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When measuring the resistances of conductors or other low power

materials, very small voltages are measured, typically in the microvolt and

nanovolt range.

To measure these very small voltage drops, use a sensitive voltmeter such

as a nanovoltmeter.

Verify the product specifications to

Model 2182A Nanovoltmeter make sure the measurement

resolution and accuracy will be

able to perform the sensitive

measurement of your application.

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the Resistivity of Conductors Voltmeter

measurement accuracy Sample

Current Source

eliminate voltage offsets and reduce noise:

Current Reversal Method or Delta Method

cycle integration.

Continued……

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measurement bandwidth, averaging Vrms 4kTRB

readings, and reducing the temperature

of the sample

Model 2182A

• Use a sensitive voltmeter, such as a Nanovoltmeter

nanovoltmeter, to measure the low

voltages

that can perform current reversals Model 6221 AC Model 6220 DC

+ DC Current Current Source

Source

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(high resistance)

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is measured by: Sample

I Resistance

sample for a specified R

time period Voltage

Source

V A Ammeter

current

V

R

3. Calculating the resistivity

using Ohm’s Law and

geometrical considerations

I

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LO

Volume Resistivity is a measure of the leakage

current directly through a material. A

HI

Test Procedure for Volume Resistivity:

1. Please sample between 2 electrodes of area (A). Electrode t

Sample

2. Apply potential difference (V) between the 2

HI

electrodes.

Voltage

Source

3. Wait specified time (60 seconds) and measure LO

current (I) using sensitive ammeter.

V A

4. Calculate resistivity based on the area of the

electrodes and thickness of the sample (t). Units

are Ω-cm. I t

22 © Copyright 2010 Keithley Instruments, Inc.

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I

Electrode

HI HI V w

L

Sample w A

LO

I L

LO

insulator.

1. Place two electrodes a known distance (L) apart on sample.

2. Apply potential difference (V) between electrodes.

3. Wait specified time and measure current (I) with ammeter.

4. Calculate resistivity using width (w) of material and distance (L) between the

electrodes. The units are ohms or ohms per square.

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• Electrification Time

• Test Voltage

• Background Currents

• Electrostatic Interference

• Humidity

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1E-9 and 1E-12 current range.

ammeter, such as an electrometer or picoammeter.

Voltage Source:

Sensitivity!

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•Apply 250V

•Wait 60s 250V Step Response of Antistatic Bag

•Measure Current

•Calculate Resistivity

At 5 s, current=

1.5x10-10

At 60 s, current=

2.5x10-12

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Test Voltage

applied voltage.

V

the resistivity decreases

• Sometimes the voltage may be varied intentionally to determine

the voltage dependence of an insulator.

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Background Currents

erroneous readings. Background may be due to:

•charge stored in the material

•static or triboelectric charge

•piezoelectric effects

Background currents can be equal or greater than the current stimulated by the

applied voltage.

current reading will be much higher than the true value.

cause a reverse polarity current reading. This can cause the calculated

resistance to be negative!

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Positive Voltage

Applied and

Exponential

Current Measured.

Negative Voltage

Applied and

Exponential

Current Measured.

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Electrodes

• Has good contact to the material: paint on electrodes or use flat metal

plates with conductive rubber

• Should be much lower resistance than the sample and should not

contaminate the sample

considerations

Where:

Aelectrode

ρ=Volume Resistivity

R A=area of electrode on sample

t t=thickness of sample

R=measured resistance V/I

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Fixtures

Electrodes

Top Electrode

Test

Sample

HI

HI Voltage

Ammeter A Source

LO

LO 0V Ring

Guard

current through the material, between the top

electrode and center bottom electrode. The Model 8009

outside ring electrode is guard.

Resistivity Test Chamber

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measured by placing two Electrodes

electrodes on the surface of the 0V Guard

test sample, applying a potential Test

difference between them, and Sample

measuring the resulting current. R

HI HI

Notice the surface resistivity (R) Ammeter A

is measured between the bottom

Center Electrode and the Ring LO LO

Electrode.

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8009

Resistivity

Test Fixture

6524

Software

6517B Electrometer/

Voltage Source

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Shield

HI

HI

Ammeter Voltage

Sample Source

LO

LO

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the Resistivity of Insulators

2. Use the same electrification time for each test to compare results

3. Use the same applied voltage for test comparisons Model 6517B

currents

Model 8009

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Semiconductors

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semiconductor materials are the

lead resistance and the contact resistance from affecting

measurement accuracy.

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Test Procedure:

HI LO

1. Place probes in center of wafer.

2. Source current from probes 1 to 4.

3. Measure voltage between probes 2 and 3.

4. Calculate resistivity: HI LO

V Measure

V

Voltage

Source Current

Between 2

tk From 1 To 4 And 3

ln 2 I

4-Point

Where: Collinear

ρ= volume resistivity (ohm-cm) 1 2 3 4

Probe

V=voltage measured between 2 and 3

I=source current (A)

t = sample thickness (cm) Wafer

k=correction factor

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3. Instrumentation

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Source Current

HI LO

RL=Lead Resistance

HI LO

V RC=Contact Resistance

RL1 RL2 RL3 RL4 RS=Semiconductor Resistance

1 2 3 4

RC1 RC2 RC3 RC4 Only the voltage drop due to RS2 is

V

measured by the voltmeter.

RS1 RS2 RS3

Measure Voltage

Between 2 And 3

40 © Copyright 2010 Keithley Instruments, Inc.

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(100mohm to <1Mohm)

force the current and a DMM to measure the voltage drop.

OR

Use a SourceMeter which can source the current and measure the voltage

drop.

ALSO

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42 © Copyright 2010 Keithley Instruments, Inc.

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the probes to avoid leakage current errors

• Use a current source with high output impedance (1E14) to avoid

loading errors

• Use a current source with a built-in guard to reduce the effects of

shunt capacitance

• Use voltmeters with high input impedance (1E14 ohms)

• Use shielding to avoid errors due to electrostatic interference

• Use differential electrometer method to avoid issues of common

mode current

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Current

Source

HI RC

AC

LO

Voltmeter Common

Mode

Current

V RV

i When the resistance of the

RIN

Contact AC sample, RS2, becomes on the

Resistance same order of magnitude as

HI LO

1 4

the isolation spec (input LO to

2 3

chassis) of the current source

RC1 RC2 RC3 RC4

and voltmeter, then common

RS1 RS2 RS3 mode current will flow

affecting the measurement

Sample Resistance accuracy.

44 © Copyright 2010 Keithley Instruments, Inc.

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(For Very High Resistances >1Mohm)

HI LO

Voltmeter

V

HI LO

X1 X1

Buffer Buffer

HI LO HI LO

1 2 3 4

RC1 RC2 RC3 RC4

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Force

technique that involves applying a current Current

and measuring a voltage using four small

contacts on a circumference of a flat,

1

arbitrarily shaped sample.

4 2

Test Procedure:

•Force Current (I) on adjacent terminals Measure

3 Voltage

adjacent terminals

•Calculate resistivity

46 © Copyright 2010 Keithley Instruments, Inc.

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• vdp configuration is

useful for measuring

Force

very small samples Current

1

B

• Easy to measure Hall

voltage using an 4 2

electromagnet to apply Measure

3 Voltage

the B field

V

on opposite terminals

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V5

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

V3 V7

4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3

V1

V6

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

V4 V8

4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3

V2

to compensate for offsets and are combined mathematically to compute the

resistivity.

48 © Copyright 2010 Keithley Instruments, Inc.

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1

Sample

automatically switch the current

3

source and voltmeter between all

four terminals of the sample.

1 2 3 4

Choose a switch system that will 1

not degrade the measurements. Current

Source

eliminate voltage offsets due to 3

the switch. V Voltmeter

Switch Matrix

measure the Hall voltage using

an electromagnet.

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Card Configuration

current source and

voltmeter to the 4 terminals

of the sample.

the card to avoid problems

with isolation or needing to

use an electrometer to

measure the voltage drops

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Model 4200-SCS with 4 SMUs and 4 preamps

– Input impedance >1016

– Accurate low current sourcing, pA SMU1 i SMU2

I Source

– No leakage errors due to V Measure

mechanical switches 1 2

– Includes software to automate V Difference

4 3

measurements and calculate

resistivity SMU4 SMU3

Common V Measure

Characterization System

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Samples

• Use electrostatic shielding to minimize electrical interference

– Shield the DUT and all sensitive circuitry

– Use shielded cabling

– Connect the shield to the low terminal of the system

– Guarded current source

– Guarded voltmeters

– Use triax cable instead of coax cable

– Source I and measure V as a function of time to determine appropriate

settling time

– A diamond sample can take several minutes for settling

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Wait at least

20 seconds

for a settled

measurement

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Summary

resistivity. The method will depend on if the material is

a conductor, insulator, or semiconductor.

measurement errors.

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Reference Materials

www.keithley.com

Edition

Pauw method, four-point collinear probe

method, insulator resistivity, low voltage

measurements, low current

measurements, etc.

reversal techniques, etc.

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Within the USA: 1-888-KEITHLEY Germany: (+49) 89 849 307 40

Outside the USA: +1-440-248-0400 Great Britain: (+44) 118 929 7500

Asia:

Email: applications@keithley.com China: (+86) 10-8447- 5556

Japan: (+81) 3-5733-7555

Additional offices: www.keithley.com Korea: (+82) 2-574-7778

Taiwan: (+886) 3-572-9077

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