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Social software encompasses a range of software systems that allow users to interact and share data. This computer-mediated communication has become very popular with social sites like MySpace, Facebook and Bebo, media sites like Flickr and YouTube as well as commercial sites like Amazon.com and eBay. Many of these applications share characteristics like open APIs, service-oriented design and the ability to upload data and media. The terms Web 2.0 and (for large-business applications) Enterprise 2.0 are also used to describe this style of software. The more specific terms collaborative software and groupware are usually applied narrowly to software that enables collaborative work. Distinctions among usage of the terms "social", "trusted" and "collaborative" are in the applications or uses, not the tools themselves, although some tools are used only rarely for collaborative work.
1 Kinds of tools for online communication 1.1 Instant Messaging 1.2 Text chat 1.3 Internet forums 1.4 Wikis 1.5 Blogs 1.6 Collaborative real-time editors 1.7 Prediction markets 1.8 Social network services 1.9 Social network search engines 1.10 Deliberative social networks 1.11 Commercial social networks 1.12 Social guides 1.13 Social bookmarking 1.14 Social viewing 1.15 Social cataloging 1.16 Social libraries 1.17 Social online storage 1.18 Virtual worlds 1.18.1 Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOGs) 1.18.2 Non-game worlds 1.18.3 Economies 1.19 Other specialized social applications 1.20 Social software vendor lists 1.21 Comparison of communication and interactive tools 2 Emerging technologies 2.1 Peer-to-peer social networks 2.2 Virtual presence 3 Debates or design choices 4 Theory
3 Downsides of ubiquitous social networking 6.3. MSN Messenger.1 Dale McCuaig 6 Criticism 6. Communication tools typically handle the capturing. you may type messages that everyone else in the room can read.2 Information overload and arbitrary filtering of communication 6.5 History 5. Instant messaging facilitates both one-toone (communication) and many-to-many interaction.3. Instant Messaging Main article: Instant messaging An instant messaging application or client allows one to communicate with another person over a network in real time. They focus on establishing and maintaining a connection among users. their name will typically be listed as available for chat. Once inside.2 Groupthink and Conformity 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links Kinds of tools for online communication Social software applications include communication tools and interactive tools. storing and presentation of communication. consumer-oriented clients include AOL Instant Messenger. you are generally free to invite others online to join you in that room. XMPP and Microsoft Messenger. Clicking on their name will activate a chat window with space to write to the other person. Text chat Main article: Text chat Internet Relay Chat (IRC) and other online chat technologies allow users to join chat rooms and communicate with many people at once. publicly.1 Exponential generation of resource consuming negative externalities 6. in relative privacy. If the person is online. Google Talk. Instant messaging software designed for use in business includes IBM Lotus Sametime. Internet forums . Meebo. as well as respond to messages from others. One can add friends to a contact or "buddy" list by entering the person's email address or messenger ID. Whether you are in another person's chat room or one you've created yourself. Skype and Yahoo! Messenger.1 Social Networking in a work environment 6. Pidgin (formerly Gaim). usually written but increasingly including audio and video as well. facilitating the mechanics of conversation and talk. Popular. as well as read their reply. Interactive tools handle mediated interactions between a pair or group of users. Often there is a steady stream of people entering and leaving. ICQ.1 Cyberbullying 6.1. Users may join a pre-existing chat room or create a new one about any topic.
Also as a service catches on. Pingback and trackback allow one blog to notify another blog. MeatballWiki. For more detail on free and commercially available wiki systems see Comparison of wiki software. Blogs Main article: Blog Blogs. Forums often grow in popularity until they can boast several thousand members posting replies to tens of thousands of topics continuously. including translation and spelling correction software. for example. In some industry areas. Other users can view the topic and post their own comments in a linear fashion. creating an inter-blog conversation. Blogs engage readers and can build a virtual community around a particular person or interest. LiveJournal. They also have blogrolls (i. Wikis Main article: Wikis A wikb page whose content can be edited by its visitors. allowing others to comment. the original Portland Pattern Repository wiki. Forums can contain many different categories in a hierarchy according to topics and subtopics. thereby creating a discussion forum. are like online journals for a particular person. ranging from "online journal" to "easily updated personal website.Main article: Internet forum Originally modeled after the real-world paradigm of electronic bulletin boards of the world before internet was born. . Most forums are public. Current successful services have combined new tools with the older newsgroup and mailing list paradigm to produce hybrids like Yahoo! Groups and Google Groups. it tends to adopt characteristics and tools of other services that compete. links to other blogs which the owner reads or admires) and indicate their social relationship to those other bloggers using the XFN social relationship standard. the bulletin board has its own commercially successful achievements: free and paid hardcopy magazines as well as professional and amateur sites. There are various standards and claimants for the market leaders of each software category. some blogs allow comments on the entries. Other features include the ability to post images or files or to quote another user's post with special formatting in one's own post. one after the other. Wiktionary. Topics often include the owner's daily life. wiki user pages have become social portals for individual users and may be used in place of other portal applications. views on politics or a particular subject important to them. The owner will post a message periodically. Over time. Beyond being a simple homepage or an online diary. depending on the expertise of the operators of the bulletin board. like the Something Awful Forums. internet forums allow users to post a "topic" for others to review. Blogs mean many things to different people. Blogging has also become fashionable in business settings by companies who use software such as IBM Lotus Connections. CommunityWiki and Wikisource. A few are private. short for web logs.e. Various add-ons may be available. allowing anybody to sign up at any time. gated communities where new members must pay a small fee to join. Examples include Wikipedia. they fail to capture the power of blogs as social software." While these definitions are technically correct. BlogSpot. Examples include Slashdot.
but other users will only see changes after saving. some sites provide dating services where users post personal profiles. SocialEngine. Jcow. the NewsTrove . that has been open sourced. in contrast to centralized social network services listed in the previous section. installable software like Elgg. XING and LinkedIn) and social event meetups (Meetup). SubEthaEdit.ps or rSitez or more flexible. ages. For example. Anyone can create their own social networking service using hosted offerings like Ning. locations. gender. Some large wikis have effectively become social network services by encouraging user pages and portals. Social network search engines Social network search engines are a class of search engines that use social networks to organize. Implicit social network search engines allow people to filter search results based upon classes of social networks they trust. thus forming a decentralized/distributed online social network. Social network services Main article: Social network service Social network services allow people to come together online around shared interests. Other services enable business networking (Ryze. BuddyPress. Google Docs & Spreadsheets and Zoho allow joint editing. etc. such as a shared political viewpoint. but is now practical on a global network. For example. phpFox. allows people to share their relationships on their own sites. hobbies or causes. There are two subclasses of social network search engines: those that use explicit social networks and those that use implicit social networks. Prediction markets Main article: Prediction market Many prediction market tools have become available (including some free software) that make it easy to predict and bet on future events. XHTML Friends Network. Lacking trustworthy explicit information about such viewpoints. Status.net or Concursive's ConcourseConnect. and are able to search for a partner. prioritize or filter search results. SynchroEdit. this type of social network search engine mines the web to infer the topology of online social networks. Explicit social network search engines allow people to find each other according to explicitly stated social relationships such as XFN social relationships. for example. ACE and Moonedit are examples of this type of social software.Collaborative real-time editors Main article: Collaborative real-time editor Simultaneous editing of a text or media file by different participants on a network was first demonstrated on research systems as early as the 1970s. Etherpad is a very promising platform. although it qualifies as a robust type of social software. grou. This a more formal version of social interaction. This was called an epistemic filter in the 1993 "State of the Future Report" from the American Committee for the United Nations University which predicted that this would become the dominant means of search for most users.
a book found in a library catalog and so on. Deliberative social networks Deliberative social networks are webs of discussion and debate for decision-making purposes. Social guides A social guide recommending places to visit or contains information about places in the real world such as coffee shops. shared only inside specific networks. This allows academics researching or interested in similar areas to connect and share resources. pods and feeds . restaurants and wifi hotspots.search engine infers social networks from content . typically within an organization. It allows the user to post a citation for an article found on the internet or a website. They are built for the purpose of establishing sustained relationships between individuals and their government. Enterprise bookmarking is a method of tagging and linking any information using an expanded set of tags to capture knowledge about data. Social libraries .0.  . IBM Dogear. It collects and indexes these tags in a web-infrastructure server residing behind the firewall. Social viewing Social viewing allows multiple users to aggregate from multiple sources and view online videos together in a synchronized viewing experience. service delivery and a better customer experience. Commercial social networks Commercial social networks are designed to support business transaction and to build a trust between an individual and a brand. online database like Academic Search Premier or LexisNexis Academic University. etc. Delicious. Social bookmarking Main article: Social bookmarking Main article: Enterprise bookmarking Some web sites allow users to post their list of bookmarks or favorites websites for others to search and view them. ideas to make the product better. An example of these networks is Dell IdeaStorm. These citations can be organized into predefined categories or a new category defined by the user through the use of tags. Jumper 2. Social cataloging In Social cataloging much like social bookmarking. Examples include digg. These sites can also be used to meet others sharing common interests. Users can share knowledge tags with specified people or groups. link relationships and grammatical features to infer social networks.sites. and furl.by examining. reddit. StumbleUpon. subject matter. One such application is wikitravel. which relies on opinion of product. among other things. blogs. Examples of this software are Knowledge Plaza. They rely upon informed opinion and advice that is given with a clear expectation of outcomes. and Connectbeam. enabling customers to participate with the brands in promoting development. this software is aimed towards academics.
winners and losers. Commercial MMOGs (or. Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOGs) Main article: Massively Multiplayer Online Games MMOGs are virtual worlds (also known as virtual environments) that add various sorts of point systems. competition and winners and losers to virtual world simulation. Users can share their collections. The Sims Online and There.g. Non-game worlds Another development are the worlds that are less game-like or not games at all.g. Other specialized social applications There are many other applications with social software characteristics that facilitate human connection . Games have points. Economies Very often a real economy emerges in these worlds. records and DVDs. levels. the in-world economy is one of the primary features of the world. Virtual worlds Main article: Virtual world Virtual Worlds are services where it is possible to meet and interact with other people in a virtual environment reminiscent of the real world. interacting with others using chat or voice chat. Experts can design dresses or hairstyles for characters. Some sites offer a buddy system. CCP Games with Eve Online) to monitor their ingame economic systems. more accurately. Such systems are social because they allow public file distribution and direct file sharing with friends.) include Everquest and World of Warcraft.This applications allows visitors to keep track of their collectibles. using statistical computation and network theory. and be paid in game money to do so. Typically. In the case of Second Life. the user manipulates an avatar through the world. Examples include Second Life. ActiveWorlds. Folksonomy or tagging is implemented on most of these sites. Thus the term virtual reality. books. Such systems can be built upon existing server infrastructure (e. massively multiplayer online role-playing games or MMORPGs. but with 3D simulation features. Wuala). Some MMOG companies even have economists employed full-time (for example. GDrive) or leverage idle resources by applying P2P technology (e. Recommendations can be generated based on user ratings. Files can either be edited online or from a local computer which has access to the storage system. extending the non-physical service economy within the world to service providers in the real world. as well as virtual "check outs" of items for borrowing among friends. go on routine missions for them and so on. This emergence has resulted in expanding social possibility and also in increased incentives to cheat. Social online storage Social online storage applications allow their users to collaboratively create file archives containing files of any type. Instead. some virtual worlds are more like social networking services like MySpace and Facebook.
Also. An interactive tool may want to present as much of a user's expression. More narrowly. Communication involve the content of talk.and collaboration in specific contexts. collaboration bias. such as voice. face and body language. Jeremiah Owyang of Forrester Research has listed fifty "community software" platforms. instant messaging technologies and peer-to-peer connectivity and file sharing. text chat). Virtual presence Widely viewed. SpinXpress. performance and presence as possible. files (especially photographs) and instant messages. virtual presence or telepresence means being present via intermediate technologies.  Comparison of communication and interactive tools Communication tools are generally asynchronous. speech or writing. a communication tool may want to make access and searching of text both simple and powerful. Project management and e-learning applications are among these. Groove. but with more of a work-based. WiredReach and Kerika have similar functionality. Research has demonstrated effects of online indicators . Some examples are imeem. video chat) or nearsynchronous (IM. telephone. interactive tools are generally synchronous.  Emerging technologies Emerging technological capabilities to more widely distribute hosting and support much higher bandwidth in real time are bypassing central content arbiters in some cases. usually radio. peer-to-peer social networks generally allow users to share blogs. allowing users to communicate in real time (phone. the term virtual presence denotes presence on World Wide Web locations which are identified by URLs.  Independent analyst firm CMS Watch has categorized what it calls "the 30 most significant" Social Software vendors. Wirehog and Soulseek. it can denote apparent physical appearance. By contrast. The organization of texts and providing access to archived contributions differs from the facilitation of interpersonal interactions between contributors enough to warrant the distinction in media. Collanos. whereas interaction involves the interest users establish in one another as individuals. Social software vendor lists Various analyst firms have attempted to list and categorize the major social software vendors in the marketplace. net phone. television or the internet. Virtual presence is a social software in the sense that people meet on the web by chance or intentionally. In other words. Peer-to-peer social networks A hybrid of web-based social networks. which it evaluates head-to-head. People who are browsing a web site are considered to be virtually present at web locations. In addition. Bouillon. The ubiquitous(in the web space) communication transfers behavior patterns from the real world and virtual worlds to the web.
you can choose not to receive any content from people you are not connected to. Methods and tools for the development of social software are sometimes summarized under the term Social Software Engineering. For instance. email and instant messaging). but I might not link to you . The system is classless and promotes those with abilities. reputations are earned by winning the trust of other members and the community’s missions and governance are defined by the members themselves  . Most definers of social software agree that they seem to facilitate "bottom-up" community development. as persistent as the identity those users choose. most users of this term restrict its meaning to more recent software genres such as blogs and wikis. in which users' roles are determined by an external authority and circumscribed by rigidly conceived software mechanisms (such as access rights). including everything from their mother tongue to their moral purchasing preferences. The ownership and control of these links . Others suggest that the term social software is best used not to refer to a single type of software. Also. By design. However. a permanent community can be formed out of a formerly epistemic community." In this view. Wikipedia user pages are a very good example and often contain extremely detailed information about the person who constructed them.Debates or design choices Social software may be better understood as a set of debates or design choices. this term is also used to describe lightweight and communityoriented development practices . However. All social software systems create links between users. The result is that Tiki can be used both by community groups who embrace the social paradigm of mediawiki and by groups who prefer to have more content control. Some groups schedule real life meetings and so become "real" communities of people that share physical lives. By contrast. Leidner and Jarvenpaa have theorized that the . . one-to-many (Web pages and blogs) and many-to-many (wikis) communication modes. the same type of software can produce radically different social outcomes. determine which groups can view. mediawiki avoids per-user controls.is in the hands of the user. edit or view the history. rather than any particular list of tools. to keep most pages editable by most users and puts more information about users currently editing in its recent changes pages. Communities formed by "bottom-up" processes are often contrasted to the less vibrant collectivities formed by "top-down" software. there are many older media such as mailing lists and Usenet fora that qualify as "social". not decorative . independent analyst firm CMS Watch argued that a scenario-based (use-case) approach to examining social software would provide a useful way to evaluate tools and align business and technology needs. Broadly conceived. these links are asymmetrical .you might link to me. Tiki Wiki CMS Groupware has a fine-grained permission system of detailed access control so the site administrator can.  . In late 2008. social software reflects the traits of social networks and is designed very consciously to let social network analysis work with a very compatible database. for example. Given small differences in policies. Thus. people form online communities by combining one-to-one (e. but rather to the use of two or more modes of computer-mediated communication that result in "community formation.g. Through these persistent links. Theory Constructivist learning theorists such as Vygotsky. these links are functional. on a page-by-page basis. Membership is voluntary.who is linked and who isn't .
html) Social technologies (or conversational technologies) is a term used by organizations (particularly network-centric organizations). Dale McCuaig presented the initial concept of a global information network in his series of memos entitled "On-Line Man Computer Communication. Debuting in 1968. The augmentation capabilities of social software were demonstrated in early internet applications for communication such as e-mail. become the source of relevant knowledge in the organization. Social Constructivism and the open source software movement are expected to be notable influences. virtual communities etc.  In the next phase. including learning.com/d/06/00/Hypertext/HPEK0. and collaborative filtering of content based on voting and rating. . Conversational knowledge management software fulfills this purpose because conversations.shtml#33811)  (http://edrexler." This points to a powerful dynamic that distinguishes social software from other group collaboration tools and as a component of Web 2. However. e." written in August 1962. In the current phase of Allen's lifecycle. Vannevar Bush described a hypertext-like device called the "memex" in his The Atlantic Monthly article As We May Think  . They have adopted the term "online communities" to describe the resulting social structures. these collaborative tools add a capability "that aggregates the actions of networked users. collaborative development. Groupware in the 1970s and 1980s. that users create actual communities. In 1962. (http://many. and how systems of this kind could support software for public critical discussion. Conversational technologies are also seen as tools to support both individual knowledge workers and work units. to Englebart’s "augmentation" (1960s) and Bush’s "Memex" (1940s).corante. academic experiments. he proposed using computers to augment training.  Many advocates of Social Software assume. this does not necessarily mean that social software is simply old wine in new bottles. Douglas Engelbart published his seminal work.com/20030501." In this paper. group commitment. groupware. questions and answers.0 technology. With his colleagues at the Stanford Research Institute. Dale McCuaig In 1945. Clay Shirky traces the origin of the term "social software" to Eric Drexler's 1987 discussion of "hypertext publishing systems" like the subsequent World Wide Web. Although he identifies a "lifecycle" to this terminology that appears to reemerge each decade in a different form.g. History Christopher Allen supported this definition and traced the core ideas of this concept back through Computer Supported Cooperative or Collaborative Work (CSCW) in the 1990s. "Augmenting Human Intellect: a conceptual framework. Capabilities for content and behavior aggregation and redistribution present some of the more important potentials of this media. and even actively argue.process of expressing knowledge aids its creation and that conversations benefit the refinement of knowledge. Engelbart started to develop a computer system to augment human abilities. the system was simply called the oNLine System (NLS). It describes the technology that allows the storage and creation of knowledge through collaborative writing.  In the same year. newsgroups.
the CAPA (Computer Assisted Personalized Approach) system was developed at Michigan State University. and powerful ideas" (New York: Basic Books). Adrian Scott founded Ryze. Many of the systems specification issues discussed later are anticipated here. Its use declined as the World Wide Web grew. In 2003. In 1992. The National Science Foundation re-funded the PLATO project and also funded MITRE's proposal to modify its TICCIT technology as a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) system to support English and algebra at community colleges. He based this work on 15 years of operational use of computer networks at the Open University and nine years of systematic R&D on CAL. particularly new entrepreneurs. Virginia cable television subscribers. Ivan Illich described computer-based "learning webs" in his book Deschooling Society  . viewdata/videotex. It was first used in a 92-student physics class in the fall of 1992. at an elementary school in Toronto. It allowed universities to connect with each other for educational communications and e-mail.  along with Leonard Kleinrock. Seymour Papert at MIT published "Mindstorms: children. "new information". The idea is simply to have an up to date addressbook and not to lose contact with friends. Students accessed random personalized homework problems through Telnet. then a young British engineer working at CERN in Switzerland. CSILE included text and graphical notes authored by different user levels (students. Jonathan Abrams created his profile on Friendster .org Addressbook started its service. Canada. the suvi. . Roberts of MIT. In 1989. In April 2002. during its peak. others) with attributes such as comments and thinking types which reflect the role of the note in the author's thinking. Tim Berners-Lee. Also during this year. In 2001. and XING were launched. a free social networking website designed to link business professionals. In 1991. Other people on the globe had the same idea.000 nodes. reflecting (in 1986!) on ways forward for e-learning. the first version of Computer Supported Intentional Learning Environments (CSILE) was installed in 1986 on a small network of Cemcorp ICON computers. Interactive television services included informational and educational demonstrations using a touch-tone telephone. it had over 500 organizations as members and over 3. Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf. BITNET was founded by a consortium of US and Canadian universities. computers. Friendster. This book inspired a number of books and studies on "microworlds" and their impact on learning. In February 2002. Faceboook and many other services were successors to this." After the proposal was grudgingly approved by his superiors. teachers. In 1986.Jenna Imrie began a year-long demonstration of the TICCIT system among Reston. Tony Bates published "The Role of Technology in Distance Education" . Though prototyped in 1983. In 1971. MySpace. he called the new system the World Wide Web." CSILE later evolved into Knowledge Forum. Thinking types included "my theory". Hi5. circulated a proposal for an in-house online document sharing system which he described as a "web of notes with links. In 1980. and "I need to understand. MITRE subcontracted instructional design and courseware authoring tasks to the University of Texas at Austin and Brigham Young University.the actual development of the internet must be credited to Lawrence G. It was the first service that connected people together. audiographic teleconferencing and computer conferencing. LinkedIn .
000 networks. Ning is part of what is called "white label social networking providers" and it is often compared to Kickapps.most importantly human time." Key technological factors underlying this difference in kind in the computer. weblog conversation discovery and standards-based aggregation) "build on older forms. Some examples : Bill sends an email or social message to 20 friends. Facebook was launched. and wanted by some but not all. content syndication strategies (RSS) and others. StudiVZ was launched in November 2005.sharing the response with multiple recipients. When a message is from a network of friends. Some have to read the message (for example if Bill is their boss or a senior person in the hierarchy). "the difference in scale. an online platform where users can create their own social websites and networks. Brightcove. Some may not want to read the message. Nevertheless. Additionally. but .at the message . Some of these 20 people will forward the message to their friends. Ning means "peace" in Chinese. Social Networking in a work environment Bill works for ACME company and sends out an email memo or network message to 20 coworkers. efficient and small electronics. 2000s) acknowledged that many of characteristics of social software (hyperlinks. Some may comment on it .". In 2004.In February 2004.even if they are uninterested. ubiquitous web/computing. the convergence of several major information technology systems for voice. cheap. Criticism Exponential generation of resource consuming negative externalities When a person or business sends a message to a network of people this generates an exponential process that can consume considerable amounts of resources . Of these 2 are very interested. The process repeats . Much of the time wasted will be due to a sense of social obligation to at least scan or check on the title of the message. others will just scan it . Marc Andreessen (after Netscape and Opsware) and Gina Bianchini co-founded Ning. the rest aren't interested but may read all or part of the message anyway. as explained by Gina Bianchini on the company blog  and is now running more than 275.particularly when it is from someone you know or consider to be a friend. It can also create in many a social obligation to look . this is a form of information pollution and is often known as spam. sec. data and video into a single system makes for expansive computing environments with far reaching effects. This can have a beneficial effect on those interested in the message. but in the interim it may circulate widely resulting in a potentially massive waste of resources. the process dies out. In October 2005. but can also consume time of people not interested in the message. 8 become interested. Eventually. simplicity and social incentives provided by web access turn a difference in degree to a difference in kind. rSitez and Flux  . when the expected number of people forwarding a message drops below 1. continuous internet connectivity. Levin (in Allen 2004. network and information technologies are: filtered hypertext. When a message is completely unwanted and unsolicited.which may distract them from other more productive tasks). spending their time.albeit briefly . standardization. it generates negative externalities in that it consumes valuable resources (time).resulting in an exponentially increasing consumption of time by those uninterested in the message (as well as an exponentially increasing consumption of time by people who are or become interested . others may forward it to others.
and responding to messages. commenting upon. Information overload and arbitrary filtering of communication As information supply increases.0 Tags the Enterprise" (http://www. Downsides of ubiquitous social networking Cyberbullying (See Cyberbullying). reading. Sometimes output benefits from everyone's input and ongoing consultation. but may produce exponentially growing time demands on others. These social work-obligations may crowd out more productive activities resulting in longer hours with less efficiency. 17 April 2009. This is a stub. much communication is summarily ignored .com/article_detail. See also Commons-based peer production Comparison of wiki software Customer engagement Enterprise bookmarking Folksonomy List of social software List of membership software Knowledge management Online identity Online deliberation Online web community Participatory media Pseudonymity Social bookmarking Social media Social software in education Social web The WELL Usenet Virtual community Wiki software Social hardware Notes 1. Groupthink and Conformity (See Groupthink and Conformity). This is a stub. employees may find more of their time devoted to social networking demands at work . ^ Forrester Report. ^ "Jumper 2. http://www. other times.cfm?articleid=869844) . forwarding.based on very arbitrary and rapid heuristics that will filter out the information for example by category. individual work without constant obligation to check in and gain consensus may be more productive. but other times major amounts of time are wasted.including scanning. social networking at work is similar to a large ongoing group meeting. 2. The outgoing process of sharing or forwarding takes very little time. Over time.amazines. In a sense. Eventually.amazines. Bad information crowds out the good much the way SPAM often crowds out potentially useful unsolicited communications.0 News. John Udell.com/article_detail. the average time spent evaluating individual content has to decrease. Sometimes excellent results occur.may feel obligated to read and respond. Web 2. The output of a "committee" is sometimes worse than that of an individual or small team.cfm?articleid=869844. "Vendor Product Catalog of Community Platforms For The Interactive Marketer " .
Frode. Representation and Reality Conference. Harper & Row ISBN 0-06-012139-4 ^ Bates.July 24. ^ Stowe Boyd. 15.com/message/2006/10/are_you_ready_f. http://www. "A Group is Its Own Worst Enemy" (http://www. 20. ^ Illich.acm.com/2004/10/tracing_the_evo. 2007 ^ TechCrunch: Nine Ways to Build Your Own Social Network . "Enterprise Social Software Vendor List" (http://www.shirky. "Are You Ready for Social Software?" (http://www. no.nytimes. Croom. 158-176.com/2007/04/the_story_behind_the_ning_name. Vol. 14. (2005).html) ^ Matt Webb. ^ Computer Assisted Learning or Communications: Which Way for Information Technology in Distance Education? (http://cade. Australian National University. "On Social Software" (http://interconnected.uow.pdf CSILE/Knowledge Forum Scardamalia.theatlantic. European Journal of Information Systems.thealarmclock.com/doc/194507/bush) . eds. A.ca/vol1.cmswatch.1/bates. 2007 (http://www. 196-207. 13.inf.invisiblerevolution. 4.edu/nae/awardscom. 21. (1984). The Role of Technology in Distance Education. "As We May Think" (http://www. Deschooling Society.athabascau.theatlantic.techcrunch. "Tracing the Evolution of Social Software" (http://www.com/2004/10/tracing_the_evo. vol.html. 11. 10.com/mt/archives/2004/08/linkedin_hq_mou.html) ^ http://www-personal. ^ Sheizaf Rafaeli and Noy. 15(2).web-strategist. Retrieved on 15 August 2006.edu. 24. Retrieved 2009-06-22.lifewithalacrity.org/10.lifewithalacrity. Fleur. (http://delivery. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 7.html) . http://www. .doc) . September 2002. "Emergent Conversational Technologies that are Democratizing Information Systems in Organizations: the case of the corporate Wiki" Proceedings of the Information Systems Foundations (ISF): Theory. "A Scenario-based Approach to Evaluating Social Software" (http://www. Definition of trust network (http://www.com/2006/10/15/business/yourmoney/15friend.invisiblerevolution. 23. pp. 25. A. 19. 11.pdf? key1=1228250&key2=6609899811&coll=GUIDE&dl=GUIDE&CFID=15151515&CFTOKEN=6184618) ^ Helen Hasan & Charmaine C Pfaff. Christopher (2004) (http://www. 6. communication and social facilitation: a simulation and experimental evidence. 22.nsf/weblinks/NAEW-4NHMN6?OpenDocument.html) ^ Clay Shirky. pp. ^ http://www. Online auctions. The Atlantic Monthly.ning. (http://www. "Adding Semantics to Social Software Engineering: (Re-)Using Ontologies in a Community-oriented Requirements Engineering Environment" (http://www. 8.html Linked-In profile ^ The Story Behind the Ning Name. Ning Blog. 2006.net) .net.com/2004/10/tracing_the_evo.com/Feature/187-Social-Software) ^ S. 3.umich.au/cgi/viewcontent.trustlet. EM-Electronic Markets.html?_r=2 Wallflower at the Web Party. "The Wiki: an environment to revolutionise employees’ interaction with corporate knowledge" ACM International Conference Proceeding Series.html) ^ Bush. M. April 11. 17. by Gina Bianchini (http://blog.rafaeli.es/slohmann/publications/SSE2010-lohmann.com/writings/group_enemy. Lohmann and T. 27-28 September 2006. 12. 9. 2006. ^ Hegland. Doug. http://www. ^ "Previous Recipients of the Draper Prize" (http://www. 18. Riechert.cmswatch. 206.com/blog/2008/08/04/forrester-report-vendor-product-catalog-of-communityplatforms-for-the-interactive-marketer/) ^ CMS Watch.com/2007/07/24/9-ways-to-build-your-own-social-network/) References Allen.net/publications/SocialPresenceEMRafaeliNoyPrePrint.377380. "The Invisible Revolution" (http://www.3.dei. (http://ro. http://www. NY Times ^ http://www.com/Social/Vendors/) ^ Sheizaf Rafaeli & Noy.nsf/weblinks/NAEW4NHMN6?OpenDocument) . Tony & Helm.org/home/2004/04/28/on_social_software) ^ Trustlet. Canberra.stoweboyd. 5.html) . National Academy of Engineering. "Social Presence: Influence on Bidders in Internet Auctions" (http://sheizaf. Klijnsma.uc3m. 16. Vannevar (July 1945). New York. messaging.pdf) ^ Helen Hasan & Charmaine C Pfaff.1145/1230000/1228250/p377-hasan. (2002). Christopher (13 October 2004).cgi? article=1297&context=commpapers) ^ Allen.org/wiki/Trust_network) ^ CMS Watch.nae.edu/~jaylemke/courses/ED750/CSILE_KF_illus.com/doc/194507/bush.nae.lifewithalacrity. Ivan (1971).edu/nae/awardscom. Engelbart.
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