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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Norma 5000 Power Analyzer Application Note

An important parameter for • Efficiency (= load losses) ⇒

transformer manufacturers is the Online or Offline

efficiency. This may seem simple • Turns ration test ⇒ Offline

to measure (i.e. Power In vs. • Temperature ⇒ Offline

Power Out), but other variables are • Winding resistance ⇒ Offline

involved. Although Core Losses, • Excitation current ⇒ Offline

Copper Losses, and Leakage • Impedance voltage ⇒ Offline

Reactance can have very small • Harmonic analyses ⇒ Online or

values, they affect the efficiency – Offline

and can also provide valuable

information to the manufacturer. Normally, all the transformer tests

(loss measurement tasks) take

The following transformer meas- place “offline” in the laboratory

urement tasks can be performed area.

with the Fluke Norma 5000

Power Analyzer:

circuit test) ⇒ Offline

• Copper Losses (short circuit

test) ⇒ Offline

The Fluke Norma 5000 Power Analyzer can

perform a huge number of measurement

tasks. One key task is transformer testing,

for making primary offline analyses for both

laboratory and field tests. The Norma 5000

has the great advantage of needing no

extra circuits to do this, requiring only a

few settings to be made. With its total

basic accuracy for power measurement

from 0.1% (reading and range), it is one of

the world’s most advanced units.

Fluke Norma 5000:

The Norma 5000 is available with several • Efficiency (load losses) of single- and three-phase systems

measurement channels. For transformer • Translation ratio of single- and three-phase systems

testing, the PP64 measurement channel • Harmonic analyses of single- and three-phase systems

provides a distinct advantage. When

working on transformers with very low

power factors, the PP51 channel adds a

higher sample rate (1MHz), which delivers

best results for power measurements.

1 Fluke Corporation Transformer testing examples for the Fluke Norma 5000 Power Analyzer

Transformer equivalent some of the important variables

circuit diagram that can be determined using the Load Current Rpri + (Rsec x n2) Xpri + (Xsec x n2)

IC (Core Loss Current)

circuit of a transformer including the unit. We will also discuss ZLoad x n2

losses and leakage reactance (this examples of other tests.

is what the power source actually LOAD

transformer). The parallel branch Transformer tests: IE (Excitation Current) IM (Magnetizing Current)

an inductor does not really exist, While transformers are ideally

Figure 1: Equivalent Circuit

but the core loss current and the very efficient, there are some

magnetizing current act as though small losses that need to be

it does. The resistance represents determined. These include Core

the Core Losses, while magnetizing Losses, which can be determined

the core requires the inductance. by an Open Circuit Test

(No-Load Test). The core loss is

The sources “see” a resistance proportional to the magnetic field,

which consists of the primary wire which is proportional to the applied

resistance plus the equivalent voltage. By applying the full volt-

secondary resistance. Since the age to the primary while leaving Shunt

“referred” to the primary, the the field in the core. The field is

source “sees” the secondary equal to the field that would be

Figure 2: Open Circuit Test

resistance times the turns ratio present if you loaded the second-

squared. The inductance (reactance) ary. So, the losses are the same

shown is the leakage inductance as they would be in a loaded

of the primary plus the “referred” transformer. Measurement execution

secondary leakage inductance. Connect the Norma 5000 into

Finally, there is the load, which is Using the connection in Figure 2, circuit as shown in Figure 2. Adjust

also “referred” to the primary and the Fluke Norma 5000 Power the signal source with nominal

is equal to the load impedance Analyzer can be used during this current (measured at channel I1);

times the turns ratio squared. test to determine I1, U1, P1, Pc1, the displayed power P1 is the

fU1, Phase Angle and Power value of the Core Losses (Plfe).

It is important to note that the factor (λ).

diagrams show single-phase Measurement equipment

transformers, but all tests can Pc1 is the corrected power, which (Accessories depending on power

also be performed on three- is needed when the input signal of transformer system) Single-

phase transformers! to the transformer is not sinusoidal. phase transformer: 1x Fluke

The Fluke Norma 5000 corrects Norma 5000 FLUKE-N5K 3PP64I

The following pages give some the measured power based on 3x measurement channel PP64

examples of typical tests performed the deviation of the form factor

by manufacturers to determine from the form factor of a sine

the values discussed above. Each wave. The actual formula is:

will give a brief explanation of

the test, a diagram for connecting

the Fluke Norma Power Analyzer,

2 Fluke Corporation Transformer testing examples for the Fluke Norma 5000 Power Analyzer

Transformer tests: transformers to achieve the required

short-circuit test accuracy. This method is also

Also of interest to transformer called loss separation. Small

manufacturers are Copper Losses, transformers can use direct

which are defined in simple terms efficiency determination by

as Power Losses that are produced measuring the input and output

by primary and secondary coil powers. Shunt

which remain constant with load, The connection in Figure 4 can

Copper Losses (resistances) and directly measure input power and

Figure 3: Short-Circuit Test

leakage reactance vary with the output power. From these varia-

load. To determine these variables, bles, it is possible to calculate

it is necessary to perform a the Efficiency and the Power

Short-Circuit Test. Losses using the formulae:

side is shorted. A variable voltage

is applied to the primary, starting Power Loss FPL [W] = P1 - P2

at zero and gradually increasing.

At approximately 5% of rated Measurement execution Shunt Shunt

LOAD

voltage, rated currents will flow Connect the Norma 5000 into circuit

in both primary a secondary coils. as shown in Figure 4. You can see

Since the voltage is at only 5% of the primary power (P1) and the

Figure 4: Direct Efficiency Measurement

rating, the core flux will also only secondary power (P2) on the

be 5% of rating, so the Core Losses instrument. The formula above

are insignificant. will give you the efficiency of the

tested system.

Using the connection in Figure 3,

the Fluke Norma 5000 Power Measurement equipment

Analyzer can be used during this Three-phase transformer:

test to determine the following 1x Fluke Norma 5000 FLUKE-N5K

variables: I1, U1, P1, Z (impedance), 6PP64I

Power factor and Phase Angle. 6x measurement channel PP64 Shunt Shunt

Connect the Norma 5000 into

Figure 5: Turn Radio test

circuit as shown in Figure 3. Adjust

the signal source with nominal Transformer tests:

voltage (measured at channel U1); turns ratio test

the displayed power P1 is the The voltage applied to the primary Using the connections in Figure 5

value of the Copper Losses (Plco).coil of the transformer divided by and the DFT display (numeric

the number of turns of the coil is function), the user can determine

Measurement equipment equal to the volts per turn. The the fundamental (H01) values of

Three-phase transformer: volts per turn of the secondary U1, U2, I1 and I2. From these

1x Fluke Norma 5000 FLUKE-N5K are equal to the volts per turn of values, the Turns Ratio can be

3PP64I the primary. The primary voltage determined using F1 = U1H01 /

3x measurement channel PP64 divided by the secondary voltage U2H01. This can also be done for

(Accessories depending on power is equal to the Voltage Ratio. This a three-phase transformer by

of transformer system) Voltage Ratio in no-load condition measuring all six fundamental

and the fundamental voltages voltages (F1 = U1H01 / U4H01).

compared correspond to the

Transformer tests: efficiency turns ratio. A similar relationship

determination (direct) exists between the primary and

The two previous tests are always secondary current, but these are

used on large high efficiency indirectly proportional.

3 Fluke Corporation Transformer testing examples for the Fluke Norma 5000 Power Analyzer

Measurement execution Measurement execution

Connect the Norma 5000 into cir- Connect the Norma 5000 into

cuit as shown in Figure 5. You can circuit as shown in Figure 6. You

see the primary voltage (U1H01) can see the harmonic distortion

and the secondary voltage (U1thd and I1thd) directly on the

(U2H01) on the instrument. The instrument. You can also use the

formula above will give the turns FFT function to analyze the com- Shunt Shunt

Figure 6: Harmonic Analyses

Three-phase transformer: 1x Fluke Three-phase transformer:

Norma 5000 FLUKE-N5K 6PP64I 1x Fluke Norma 5000 FLUKE-N5K

6x measurement channel PP64 6PP64I

(Accessories depending on power 6x measurement channel PP64

of transformer system) (Accessories depending on power

of transformer system)

Transformer tests:

harmonics analyses Additional information: effects

A manufacturer may also be of frequency on efficiency Shunt Shunt

transformer. It is necessary to the signal into a transformer can

Figure 7: Measuring Frequency Effects

investigate the influence of the affect the efficiency. From the

transformer on line supply and on equations XC = 1/2 πfc and XL =

other consumers of the power. 2πfL, it can be seen that the

This type of analysis is also frequency does affect the reactance

important because harmonic of the transformer, which can

distortion is directly related to affect the losses associated with

heating effects and disturbance these values. Users can measure

of other consumers. the power in vs. power out at

different frequencies to determine

Using the connections in Figure 6, the effect.

the Norma 5000 can measure the

individual harmonics up to the Using the connections in Figure 7,

40th order and calculate the Total it is possible to measure U1, U2, Fluke. K

eeping your world

Harmonic Distortion (THD) in I1, I2, P1, P2 and f. From this, you up and running.®

percent. Users can examine the can compare the efficiencies at

current, voltage, and power different frequencies.

Fluke Corporation

harmonics amplitude and their Measurement execution PO Box 9090, Everett, WA USA 98206

phase shift for the fundamental. Do the same as with the efficiency Fluke Europe B.V.

Additionally, the spectrum for all test, and compare the results at PO Box 1186, 5602 BD

primary values up to the 40th different frequencies. Eindhoven, The Netherlands

In the U.S.A. (800) 443-5853 or

neously. The output can be Measurement equipment Fax (425) 446-5116

selected numerically or graphically Three-phase transformer: 1x In Europe/M-East/Africa +31 (0) 40 2675 200 or

Fax +31 (0) 40 2675 222

for the display as well as the Fluke Norma 5000 FLUKE-N5K In Canada (800) 36-FLUKE or

printer. 6PP64I Fax (905) 890-6866

From other countries +1 (425) 446-5500 or

6x measurement channel PP64 Fax +1 (425) 446-5116

(Accessories depending on power www.fluke.eu

of transformer system)

Printed in the Netherlands 08/2008.

Data subject to alteration without notice.

4 Fluke Corporation Transformer testing examples for the Fluke Norma 5000 Power Analyzer

Pub_ID 11467-eng

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